Bulletin of Museum of Comparative Zoology 96

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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY AT HARVARD COLLEGE, IN CAMBRIDGE VOL 96 CAMBRIDGE, MASS., ^' 1945 - 1946 U S A /^ The Cosmos Pkess., Inc Cambkidge, Mass., U S A CONTENTS PAGE No —A No —First No —The No —Studies Study of the Snake, Tachymenis peruviana Wiegmann AND ITS Allies By Warren F Walker, Jr (5 plates.) November, 1945 Supplement to Typical Reptiles and Amphibians By Thomas Barbour and Arthur Loveridge February, 1946 57 — Genera of Fossil Conchostraca an Order of Bivalved Crustacea By Percy E Raymond (6 plates.) June, 1946 By 215 of South American Psammocharidae Nathan Banks (3 plates.) Deremlier, 1946 Part x\ I .309 Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology AT HARVARD COLLEGE No Vol 96 A STUDY OF THE SNAKE, TACHY MEN IS PERUVIANA WIEGMANN AND By Warren F ITS ALLIES Walker, Jr With Five Plates CAMBRIDGE, MASS U S A PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM November, 1945 PUBLICATIONS OF THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY AT HARVARD COLLEGE The Bulletin and Memoirs investigations iahsts by the are devoted to the publication of Staff of the upon the Museum Museum or of reports by spec- collections or explorations Of the Bulletin, Vols to 95, and and of the Memoirs, Vols to 55 Vol 96, No 1, have appeared These publications are issued in numbers at irregular intervals of the Bulletin and of the Memoirs is sold separately Each number A price list Museum will be sent upon apMuseum of Comparative Zoology, of the publications of the plication to the Director of the Cambridge, Massachusetts Publication of Memoirs ceased with Vol 55 Museum of Comparative AT HARVARD COLLEGE Bulletin of the Vol.96 No Zoology A STUDY OF THE SNAKE, TAC HYMEN IS PERUVIANA WIEGMANN AND By Warren F ITS ALLIES Walker, Jr With Five Plates CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U S A PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM November, 1945 No — A Study of the Snake, Tachymenis peruviana Wiegmann and Its Allies CONTENTS Page Introduction Historical Geographic Conditions Composition of peruviana 14 Localities Acknowledgments The peruviana Complex 14 Tachymenis peruviana Wiegmann Tachymenis tarmensis spec, nov Tachymenis affinis Boulenger The attenuata Complex Tachymenis attenuata attenuata spec, et subsp nov Tachymenis attenuata boliviana subsp nov The chilensis Complex Tachymenis Tachymenis Tachymenis chilensis chilensis (Schlegel) chilensis assimilis (Jan) chilensis melanura subsp nov Discussion Relationship of the Described Forms Outlying Species Redefinition of Tachymenis Notes on the Habits of the Various Forms to Tachymenis peruviana and Allies Relationship of Tachymenis to other Boiginae Key 14 21 22 24 24 26 28 28 32 35 38 38 43 44 47 52 53 Bibliography 54 Plates 56 bulletin: museum of COMPARAtlVE ZOOLOGY INTRODUCTION Historical by Wiegmann in 1835 on the basis of a The type was named peruviana Although Wiegmann's characterization was adequate, many species from all Tachymenis was specimen from Peru established parts of the world were subsequently referred to the genus, which naturally caused it to have very little real meaning By the time of Boulenger's Catalogue (1893-1896) Boettger, Boulenger, and Cope had simplified the situation by placing the Old World forms in either Tarbophis or Amplorhinus, and most of the New World ones in Erythrolamprus, as follows: Tachymenis dromiciformis Peters 1863 = Erythrolamprus dromiciformis (Peters) 1863 Tachymenis vivax Giinther 1864 Tachymenis fissidens Peters 1869 = Tarbophis savignyi (Savigny) 1829 = Erythrolamprus imperialis (Baird Tachymenis melanocephala Peters 1869 = Erythrolamprus and Girard) 1859 lateritius (Cope) piceivittis (Cope) piceivittis (Cope) 1861 Tachymenis taeniata Peters 1869 = Erythrolamprus 1869 Tachymenis piceivittis Giinther 1872 = Erythrolamprus 1869 Tachymenis nototaenia Peters 1882 = Amplorhinus nototaenia (Giinther) 1864 Tachymenis bipunctata Garman 1883 = Erythrolamprus bipunctata (Giin- ther) 1858 Tachymenis fissidens Garman 1883 = Erythrolamprus fissidens (Giinther) 1858 Tachymenis imperialis Garman 1883 = Erythrolamprus imperialis (Baird and Girard) 1859 Tachymenis lateritia Garman 1895 = Erythrolamprus lateritius (Cope) 1863 Tachymenis dicipiens Giinther 1895 = Erythrolamprus Tachymenis grammophrys Giinther 1895 = Erythrolamprus grammophrys dicipiens (Giin- ther) 1895 (Duges) 1888 Boulenger completed the job in his Catalogue, and redefined Tachymenis to include only peruviana, which he believed to range from central Peru through Bolivia to southern Chile, and affinis of central Peru The latter was a new species which he described He included Coronella banks: south American psammocharidae 523 Face shining, without hair except a few near eyes above, and no the lower part of clypeus, its lower margin truncate; face slightly wider in middle than on vertex; ocelli large and in a low triangle, laterals not diameter from anterior ocellus, and much nearer to each other than to eyes, back and outward from each lateral ocellus is a depressed area; antennae short, second plus third joint not nearly equal to vertex-width; pronotum deeply angulate behind, with only minute hairs above; a few long hairs on scutellum; propodeum without on posterior slope and above, those on anterior part of upper surface not extend to outer sides, a more or less distinct median groove; mesosternal tubercle more prominent hair, rather strongly ridged th^n in other species two segments above with much segment with apical half covered with long hairs, and a fairly broad area on posterior part of other ventral segments hairy; abdomen finely punctate above, also below in the hairy areas Abdomen slightly flattened, last hair, last ventral Legs moderately slender, the spines or bristles mostly short; the hind tibia has an inner row of sharp teeth and an outer row of short spines, and some bristles, inner spur about two-fifths of basitarsus, outer not so long and curved near tip In fore wings the marginal cell is plainly less than twice as long as space beyond to wing-tip; the second submarginal cell is more than twice as long below as broad, base very oblique, narrowing the cell above almost a third, end-vein not oblique, receiving the first recurrent at beginning of outer third; the third submarginal hardly longer below than second but somewhat longer above, outer side strongly bent near middle, upper part very oblique, appendix not reaching one-third way to outer margin; in hind wings the anal vein ends plainly beyond forking of cubitus but hardly one-half as far as in A rosasi Length of fore wing 20 mm One from Nova Teutonia, Santa Catharina, Brazil, 26 May (Plaumann) Type M C Z no 26624 A paratype from Mafra, St Catharina, Brazil, April (A Mailer) in Amer Mus Nat Hist, has the last three joints of antennae paler Anacyphonyx metallica spec nov (Fig 26) Black on body, legs, and wings, antennae rufous including basal joints, wings rather strongly iridescent bluish, abdomen with blue sheen above Male bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 524 Clypeus rather large and long, densely punctate, lower edge trunwithout hair; face very much broadened above, so vertex width is nearly equal to length; ocelli in a low triangle, laterals twice as far from eyes as from each other; antennae rather short, some segments, from side, convex below, last joint much narrowed at tip; vertexwidth about one-half length entire antennae; a few hairs on front, moderately long ones on vertex, a little shorter on pronotum above, latter angulate behind; scutellum and post-scutellum hairy above; propodeum only very finely striate, hairy on sides and behind, posterior cate, slope steep Abdomen with short hair on basal segment above, longer on sides, much hair on each segment; all femora with a few short venter with coxae densely long-haired, other coxae less hairy, hind above with a row of short spines, some at tip of a long low tooth, inner spur about one-half of basitarsus, outer one much shorter In fore wings marginal cell much longer than space from tip to tip of wing; second submarginal about twice as long below as broad, base oblique, about one-fourth narrowed above, tip not oblique, hairs, front tibia receiving the first recurrent before the apical third; third submarginal cell shorter than second below, and slightly above, being much shorter than in other species, outer side oblique and curved, receiving the second recurrent (nearly straight) before middle, appendix reaching more than half-way to margin; in hind wings the anal vein ends about as far beyond forking of cubitus as width of anal cell The female is very similar, colors same, but wings not as metallic; tip of abdomen densely hairy; clypeus not so long, truncate below, vertex not so broad so that the lateral ocelli not so far from eyes as in male, but fully one and one-half as far On hind tibia there is a row of small, rather low but long teeth, and shorter spines In the fore cell wing the base of second submarginal much narrowed above is not so oblique and the not so Length of fore wing 15 mm From Villa Rica, Paraguay, December M C Z no 26625 Anacyphonyx DUBI08A (Cornell Univ.) Paratype spec nov Male Body black; clypeus and labrum yellow, the clypeus with a dark spot in middle, base of mandibles and lower side of first antennal joint yellowish, also each side on mentum and three joints of maxillary palpi, a broad yellow streak on inner orbits and an elongate spot banks: south American psammocharidae 525 behind eyes; an interrupted yellow band on hind border of pronotum, a yellow spot on postscutellum, a yellow band across tip of propodeum extending forward, narrowly in middle and more broadly on sides Antennae and legs black, front legs with yellow mark on coxae, tip of femora above, most of tibiae and basitarsi yellowish Wings dark brown, tip of fore wing faintly paler The clypeus is about twice as broad as long,' almost five-sided, the corners rounded, labrum projecting about one-half length of clypeus; face not narrowed above, from in front vertex slightly evenly convex with curve of eyes, a faint transverse impression behind the ocelli and before crest of vertex; ocelli in a broad triangle, hind ones almost as near eyes as to each other; front minutely, transversely striate, well covered with erect black hair, and scarcely longer on vertex; antennae evenly thick, almost as long as front legs Pronotum short, strongly angulate behind, as hairy as head; postscutellum with erect hair The propodeum viewed obliquely from above appears constricted just behind the spiracles, the area each side behind being e^'enly swollen, from side-view, however, the basal part is straight and twice as long as posterior slope, which is not at all concave, the entire surface closely and minutely striate; upper surface with little hair, but more on sides; spiracles scarcely their length from base of propodeum Abdomen slender, sides nearly parallel, basal part of first segment hairy above; the lateral apical margin of fourth and fifth ventral segments with a dense rather broad, but not high tuft of black hair, the rest of venter devoid of hair; the subgenital plate flat, nearly square, with a little The mesosternal long hair on each side tubercle is distinct, but hardly projecting The hind tibae, inner spur with a few long hairs; legs are fairly slender, only minute hairs on more than one-half of basi tarsus, front coxae claws strongly bent In fore wings the venation fidelis, is very similar to both apicipennis and but the second and third submarginal cells shorter in proportion to width Length of fore wings 15 mm One male from Corupa (Hansa Humboldt), St Catharina, Brazil, Amer Mus Nat Hist, through Frank Johnson The marks on head similar to many species of Notocyphus, the tufts near tip of abdomen remind one of Pepsis It may be the male of fidelis, but pale tip of fore wing more like apicipennis August (A Mailer coll.) PLATE Banks —South American Psammocharidae PLATE Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Pepsis optimatis, subgenital plate claw enlarged Pepsis amalthea, tip of hind tarsus, and Pepsis cleanthes, tip of hind tarsus Pepsis sumptuosa, subgenital plate Pepsis speciosissima, subgenital plate Pepsis aurozonata, subgenital plate Pepsis petiti, genitalia, from above Fig below from side Pepsis atrata, subgenital plate, and Fig Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 cell Pepsis vinipennis, third submarginal normal Pepsis euterpe, subgenital plate, Pepsis euterpe, subgenital plate, variation ventral Pepsis euterpe, male, hairs on fourth Pepsis pretiosa, subgenital plate Pepsis egregria, subgenital plate Fig 16 Pepsis tolteca, subgenital plate side Pepsis petiti, subgenital plate from Fig 17 Pepsis defecta, subgenital plate Fig 15 BULL MUS COMP ZOOL Banks South American Psammocharidae Plate PLATE Bakks —South American Psammocharidae PLATE Fig 18 Phanochilus nobilitatus, genital plates Fig 19 Fig 20 Phanochilus gloriosus, genital plates Phanochilus ornatus, genital plates Phanochilus ornatus, subgenital plate Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Phanochilus fuscomarginatus, subgenital plate Phanochilus gloriosus, subgenital plate Phanochilus nobilitatus, subgenital plate Fig 25 Fig 26 Anacyphonyx Anacyphonyx Fig 27 Fig 28 Phanochilus fuscomarginatus, genital plates Lissagenia insignis, clypeus, male Fig 29 above, Priophanes, hind tibia below, Ameragenia, hind tibia Fig 30 Fig 31 Priophanes faceta, fore wing of genotype Priocnemella eurytheme, clypeus of male Fig 32 Fig 33 Pulvillus of Fig 34 Fig 35 Pulvillus of Pulvillus of clypeus, and hind claw metallica, front claw fidelis, Pulvillus of Calicurgus nubilus, C orejones, andicolus, rufigaster, loranthe, australis, Fig 36 ' CaHcurgus pretiosa and C machetes Calicurgus quitus and C huitaca Calicurgus marginatus and C jocaste and fratellus Marginal and submarginal cells of Abripepsis inca < BULL MUS COMP ZOOL Banks South American Psammocharidae Plate PLATE Banks Fig — South American Psammocharidae BULL MUS COMP ZOOL Banks South American Psammocharidae Plate3 ... of the Bulletin and of the Memoirs is sold separately Each number A price list Museum will be sent upon apMuseum of Comparative Zoology, of the publications of the plication to the Director of. .. material of the American Museum of Natural History, the Chicago Museum of Natural History, the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and the United States National Museum, enough specimens from all parts of. .. the Cambridge, Massachusetts Publication of Memoirs ceased with Vol 55 Museum of Comparative AT HARVARD COLLEGE Bulletin of the Vol .96 No Zoology A STUDY OF THE SNAKE, TAC HYMEN IS PERUVIANA WIEGMANN
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