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/I .,UL uL AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY, BEING A COLtECTION as THE NATIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS I or THE UNITED STATES, COSTAINIiTG TH£IB BOTANICAL HISTORY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, AND PROPERTIES AND USES IN MEDICINE, DIET, AND THE ARTS, vriTH COLOURED ENGRAVINGS BY JACOB BIGELOW, M D JlUMFOBD PROFKSS^R, A^n PROFESSbR OF MATEHIA MEDICA I^ HARVARD PNIVEHSITV VOL, I BOSTON: PUBLISHED BY CUMMINGS AND MILLIARD, AT THE BOSTON BOOKSTORE, NO CORNHILL i;if£V« PRESS HILLIARD AWD JTETCAXF* 18^0 Mo Bot Garden, \j ^^ ^ PREFACE TO THE THIRD VOLUME The subjects of the present work, for reasons which prevail in many publications of the kind, have been inserted without reference to any par- Those plants ticular arrangement or system the observations eceived the earliest and ed, arliest were which pectin^ 41 completed first were which of drawings some to m objected been has plan this though foreia-n criticisms, it is the one pursued in several yfbrkfi botanical useful and extensive most of the with plates accompanied are which day, ; of the those which or publications, periodical in and appear in successive numbers, one decided advantage figures to it has more than It gives time for all the be completed at leisure, from perfect specimens, in proper and convenient seasons the same time that it ; at does not necessitate prema- ture and imperfect descriptions of their subjects, which must adoptarrangement an were place take PREFACE VI ed, which might require the first insertion for plants not yet obtained or imperfectly examined, A systematic method which may he adhered to in a work furnished for the press at once, but must is occasion dehiy and imperfection in a periodical one As the American Medical Botany ed by the completion of opportunity is now its is terminat- third volume, the afforded for taking a methodi- cal view of its contents Considered in a medici- nal point of view, the subjects will be best classed systems of Materia Medica, by a reference as in to their leading properties or most striking modes on the human system.^ of operating may he aiTanged as light they follows JS'hrcotics Tonics Datura Stramoniunij Menyanthes Conium maculatum, Hamulus Lupulus, r Cicuta maculata, In Eupatorlum trifoliata) pevfoliatuni, Hjoscyamus niger, Coptis trifoHa, Nicotiana tabacum, Cornus Solanum dulcamara, Gentiana Catesbsei, Kalinialatifolia? Aletris farinoJ?a, florida, - Polygala rubella, Astringents* Sabbatia angularis, r' Geranium maculatum, Prinos verticillatus, Statice Caroliniana, Llriodendron tullpifera, Arbutus Uva Magnolia glauca Rubus ursi, villosus •Acrid stimulants Rhododendron maximum, Arum Nymphsea Ictodes foetidus Myrica odorata, cerifera - triphyllum, Ranunculus bulbosus this PREFACE Lobelia Vll Emetics* Solidago odora, inflata, Gaultheria procumbens, -I Phytolacca decandra, Laurus Gillenia trifoliata, Illicium Floridanum Veratrum sassafras, viride, Sanguinaria Canadensis, Diuretics^ Iris, versicolor, Juniperus communis, Apocynum androssemifolium, Pyrola Umbellata Dirca palustris Euphorbia ipecacuanha Euphorbia Expectorants, Polygala senega, corollata I Erythronlum Americanum Asclepias tuberosa* Demulcents Cathartics Panax quinqefolium Podophyllum peltatum^ Juglans cinerea, Triosteum perforatum Jlnthelmintics Cassia marilandica Spigelia marilandica External stimulants, Diaphoretics Aristolochia serpentaria, Juniperus Virginiana, Asarum Canadense, Rhus Vernix, Xanthoxylum fraxineum, Rhus "We radicans of classification in the avail ourselves Materia Medica founded on the kind of operation which medicines exert on the human body, beE cause there are seemingly no better characteristics by which method is to arrange them defective, because But even few medicines this ai*e simple in their operation, and of course most of them have claims class As to stand more than one examples Tobacco, Henbane, Fox- • i » Vm PREFACE, jlove, and Opium are all of them properly placed by authors under the head of Narcotics these Tobacco But of an emetic, Henbane a cathartic, is H Foxglove a diuretic, and Opium, while all other excretions, under its different is itself sudorific checks Mercury, forms and modes of ad minis- tration, is capable of fulfilling half a The ent intentions it classifier of dozen differ- medicines tben can no more than to arrange them by their most obvious and well known properties, whatever these may be, leaving it understood that the r name of a class is of the character of by no means its contents.* In forming a selection of represented in this work, to choose fully descriptive it sixty plants to be has been endeavoured which are among the most botanists, at the same time that those interesting to they possess claims upon the attention of medi- men cal It is by no means to be asserted that « * all these possess so decided an efficacy as to enti- tle them to the rank of standard medicines, or to V make it advisable that pharmacopoeias should be swelled by their introduction A part of them no doubt are eminently entitled to this distinction Others are efficacious only in a second degree, For a botanical arrangement of the plants, see the systematic index at the end of the volume * ^ PRErACE but ai^ still in use, and often advantngeously so, T lie re in the hands of country practitioners, some of yet are IX inferior efficacy, which, having formerly enjoyed a certain degree of medicinal notoriety, are inserted here with a view of defin- ing their true character The progress of botanical students is by the possession of correct drawings facilitated and dissections of a variety of dissimilar In American It is plants country botanical figures, especially of this a small much plants, are scarce, number hoped of those and accessible who pursue that the present this work may, to but study in a cer- tain degree, supply the deficiency, at least until among the extension of natural science the increased call forth A number us, and of botanical students, shall and support works of greater magnitude part of the plants contained in this work have never been figured in any botanical work Others have been represented a great number of times ; yet their importance, in a medical point of view, required their admission ; and the figure being always made from an American specimen, it may, on this account, be not destitute of in- teres t Having arrived at the termination American Medical Botany, the author N of tlie feels it ^ X PREFACE cumLent on had cause liim to state, that he has dertaking of a work to regret the which has furnished a most interesting employ- ment for his leisure hours ; and which has been honored with a patronage, greatly exceeding his anticipations -fc e I i % ///rr /f?//r /v /r ; AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY GILLENIA TRIFOLIATA Common Gillenia PLATE XLL rfoTWiTHSTANDiNG the principle avowed by nature by formetl are genera that Linnffius, ; the species in consanguinity generic determination of occasions in many instances one of the greatest perplexities of the botanist What difference in or flower of either form structure and external fruit, is plants of families separate sufficient to from each other and is ; is a point often difficult to decide rest at set frequently perhaps as d by arbitrary decision, as by conve- it is by any nature in designated unexceptionable boundaries exceedare order vegetable When the species of a ingly numerous, and the whole ; pervades similarity close a botanists, by multiplied genera arc that the discrimination of species may be facilitat- i2 GILLENIA TRIFOIilATA ed is On the other hand, where a group of species not unwieldy from its size, or deficient in disV tinctive marks, the genera are made as compre- The hensive, as natural affinity will permit which veraity of structure, exists in the flowers of Gentiana, or the fruit of Bunias^ would he ample f jundation di- for constructing half a deemed dozen ge- nera among the umbelliferous, leguminous, or But gramineous orders as the species of the genera above have a strong agreement in one part of their fructification, as well as in general habit, and as no great obscurity or inconvenience results from keeping them together, thought worth while to has not been multiply nomenclature by arranging them under separate The it titles separation of Gillenia from Spirsea of those cases, upon which the botanist tate long, without finding reasons to influence his decision which they belong is The fruit of Spirsea, hesi- strong enough remarkable for having for the separation, arising The may one natural order to genera well defined, so that there tinctness is is its no necessity from confusion or indis- fruit of Gillenia is exactly the and the habit of the herb not very foreign from that of the other in one is There is nevertheless something in the irregular corolla, taken in conjunction with the campanulate calyx ^ APPENDIX 18S expiring life, some of a The " from having eaten and swallowed of which I send you a sample root, history of the circumstances of the case, was as accurately as I could ohtain them, as follows : —^Between nine and ten o'clock A M of that day, two or three of the children of the family were ohscrved to he eating certain roots which they had found and house, the in which a ploughed field supposed they near to be ground nuts, artichokes, or something that was The boy innoxious first pain in his bowels, and complained that he had felt as if he had a call to a dejection, and was directed to go to stool ; but very soon returned and said he could nothing + In few seconds he puked, and brought up, as a who was an intelligent woman, a teacup full of what she recently masticated root particularly first upon the impression present, told believes Upon to me, be the questioning her me point, she told made upon her mind that the after seeing the boy puke was, that the vomiting was occa- sioned by the root that he had eaten ately after puking, he fell Immedi- back in convulsions, which, with various remissions and exacerbations, continued called, till he died A physician who, believing the convulsions to the poisonous quality of the root fJ was directly to be owing which he had / 18 APPENDIX eaten, endeavoured to excite vomiting, istering what I supposed tartrite of to antimony in water by admin- be a solution of I was told tbat the physician took his leave about one o'clock, having been unable to excite vomiting, and expressing an opinion, that the boy would continue but a few moments I found the boy in a profuse The sweat, and in constant convulsions sive consisted of tremors ae and tractions relaxations imperfect system ; distortions, with of the : convul- violent alteimate whole and muscular astonishing mobility of the eyeballs and eyelashes, with widely dilated pupils ; stridor den- tium ; trismus ; frothing at the w,outh and nose, and occasionally, violent and micced with blood ; genuine epilepsy of which he had two paroxysms after I arrived, before he ; which was only about half an hour expired Tbe convulsive agitations could not that I incessant, and powerful were so constancy to sufficient with pulse examine his ascertain its character Very soon after dissolu- warmth natural the before sometime and tion, remarkbecame limbs the extinct, had become ably rigid stomach, tbe empty to view With a I attempted to get down Pulv Ipecac in warm tolerably succeeded although I water, in which, vomiting, excite possibly not could well, yet I -^ 184 APPENDIX, even with the addition of frequent and active of the internal fauces with a goose titillation quill " The next daj (Saturday ) at o'clock, P more than twenty four hours rather solution, I examined the body were more flexile tlian The after dis- extremities Upon usual after deaths turning the body on the M a quantity of left side, greenish coloured fluid issued from the mouth The viscera of the thorax and abdomen being exposed, nothing remarkable appeared, except common of distention from a greater degree than The stomach was flatus distended to the capacity of at least three pints, from flatus, and about three gills of a rauciform, greenish fluid, had flowed from the mouth; on the surface of which was plaitdy distinguished some of such as the masticated root On present spoke with confidence this point the no appearances of inflammation to ascertain whether could find none The there There '• assumed were worms, but liquid found in the stomach hour in a a dark green Highly interested to know what which had caused the boy's death after were I endeavoured after exposure to the air for half an vessel, persons he died went to the ; the root was immediately ploughed ground 185 APPENDIX whence he procured same it, and soon found one of the kind, entire, and of the It potatoe is, I broke off one of the knobs or buds, by which tained to be of the it was unequivocally ascer- same kind of that of which he and of which a piece was preserved my planted the root which found in and perceive that its appear above ground the ensuing character middling I helieve, what botanists call a 'tuberous root.' ate a portion, size of a seasons garden ; sprouts already begin to so that I flatter myself ; develop will The specimen which its botanical I send you, is a knob broken off from the main body of the root which I planted in my garden ; and perhaps, at once, be recognised by you will, If it should not, I hope ere long to exhibit the vegetable in its perfect state, and thereby obtain from your kindness its botanical name and character." KALMIA LATIFOLIA I effect ensues fr quantity moderate a where this shrub in any case me, informs Danvers Dr Osgood of is taken that having chewed and swallowed large leaves at once, he was five or six affected with head- APPENDIX 18(5 ach and yomiting in consequence J A was owing this effect to a peculiar quality of the leaves, or merely resinous substance taken into the once, admits of Whether to the large some doubt plant be of a deleterious requisite to produce amount of a crude, stomach At any rate, if nature, the consequences ill than any person will probably be in at the quantity is greater much dan- of ger "^ taking at a time ^««.».jj5 fc>'"* ' ? PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM Dr BuRGON, in the Medical Record g the following account of the medical operation of "The powdered this plant, extensively employed as complaints, and I success as am a cathartic in persuaded with as bilious much I have often prescribed jalap combined with root," says he, « is calomel in the proportion it, of twenty grains of the former to eight or ten of the latter, and have uniformly been pleased with its my on effects In patients tremely prompt and this efficacious dose My it is ex- experience ^ enables jalap, me and catharsis, to state, that of more course it is more occasions drastic than more severe griping, and active makes a y iS7 APPENDIX, more permanent impression on the system Its operation, in all cases in which I have admin- istered slower than thatof jalap, but is it, it leaves the bowels longer in a lax and soluble condition M, I once took twenty grains at four o'clock P which gave when me no disturbance continual motions next morning, commenced and produced operation its till that day and part of the all next night together with severe tornhia; was the dose of Podophyllum I had ever first administered and ; its effects have since prescribed and most other giving it alone stomach than it is Like results rendered milder with calomel, and hence, in most combination this it in a multitude of cases, drastic cathartics by combining cases, it being so decided, I most part with similar for the tliis It is is to be more disagreeable common oftener occasion emesis to preferred purgatives, In bilious to the and will affections it emetic an of necessity the usually supercedes pre rinns to a cfithartic eff cts are and hence two desirable produced by one agent I was employed one afternoon in a close the by which, podophylli, powdering the Rad inflamviolent most occasioned a next morning, mation of my right eye and eyelid ; it yielded, eight in i-egimen however, to the antiphlogistic or ten days 6t J SYSTEMATIC INDEX BT TH£ LtNN^AN METHOD TRlANDRIA Iris versicolor^ TETRANDRIA Cornus florida Ictodes fcetidusii PENTANDRIA Datura stramonium Conium maculatum, Hjoscjamus Cicuta maculata» niger Nicotiana tabacum Gentiana Catesbsei Solanum dulcamara Asclepias tuberosa, Menjanthes Apocynum trifoliata*' androseemifolium Sabbatia angularis Rhus vernix Spigelia Marilandica Rhus radicans Triosteum perfoliatum Panax quinquefolium Lobelia Statice Caroliniana* inflata HEXANDRIA Aletris farinosa* Prinos verticillatus* Erjthronium Amerlcanum OCTANDRIA Dirca palustrls ENNEANDRIA Laurus sassafras DECANDRIA Ralmia latifolia Pjrola umbellata Rhododendron maximum Cassia Marilandica Arbutus Uva Phytolacca decandra ursl Gaultheria procmnbena SYSTEMATIC INDEX 190 DODECANDRIA Asarum Canadense ICOSANDRIA Rubus tjillenia trifoliata villosus .^^ POLYANDRIA Sanguinaria Canadensis, Liriodendron Podophyllum peltatum Magnolia glauca tulipifera* -I Nymph aea Coptis Illicium floridanum odorata* Ranunculus trifolia bulbosusii MONADELPHIA Geranium maculatum f T* DIADELPHIA Polygala rubella, Polygala senega J' I SYNGYNESIA Eupatorium perfoliatum Solidago odora ^' ^ GYNANDRIA Aristolocliia serpentaria Arum m MONCECIA V triphyllum ¥ Juglans cinerea DICECIA * Xanthoxylum fraxineum Mjrica Hamulus Junlperus communis lupulus cerifera ^ Euphorbia Ipecacuanha Juniperus Virginiana Euphorbia corollata* POLYGAMIA Veratrum viride < • , ^ - LATIN INDEX Plate Vol, Page Aletrls farinosaj L III Apocjnum androsaBmifolium, Arbutus Uva ursi, XXXVL II 149 VI I 66 Aristolochia seq)entaria, XLIX Ill, Arum IV I 52 Asarum Canadense, XV I 149 Asclepias tuberosa XXVI II Cassia Marilandica, XXXIX IL XII I 125 Conium maculatum, XL I 113 Coptis V, I 60 XXVIII II 73 Datura stramoniun^j I I 17 Dirca palustris XXXVII, II 154 151 triphjllum, Chimaphila corymbosa I Chironia angularis til Vide Pjrola umbellata Vide Sabbatia angularis .^ Cicuta maculata, Cornus 59 t trifolia, florida^ Dracontium faetidum Vide Ictodea fcetidus Erythronium Americanum, LVIII III Eupatorium perfoliatum, II I Euphorbia coroUata, LIII, in 119 Euphorbia ipecacuanha^ LII m 107 Gaultheria procumbens, XXII II 27 Gentiana Catesbaei, XXXIV* II 137 Geranium maculatum, VIII I Gillenia trifoliata XLI 33 r Helleborus trifolius Vide Coptis trifoHa 84 11 I LATIN INDEX 192 •- Helonias viridis Humulus lupulus, Vide Veratrum viiide LX III 16S Hyoscyatnus niger, XVII L 161 Ictodes fcetidus, XXIV IL 41 Illicium Floridanunij XLVIII IlL 76 ^ Iris versicolor, XVI Juglans cinerea, I 155 XXXII II 115 Juniperus communis, XLIV IIL 43 Juniperus Virgiuianaj XLV IIL 49 K&Imia latifolia, XIII I 133 Laurus sassafras, XXXV ii 142 XXXI IL 107 ^ t Lifiodendron tulipifera> XIX J Magnolia glauca, XXVII IL 67 Menyantlies XL VI, IIL 55 XLIII IIL 32 Nicotiana tabaciim, XL IL 171 Nympheea LV IIL 134 Panax quinquefolium, XXIX IL 82 Phytolacca dec&ndra III L 39 Podophyllum XXIII IL 34 Polygala rubella, LIV IIL 129 Polygala senega, XXX IL 97 Prinos verticillatus, LVI IIL Pyrola umbellata XXI IL 15 Ranunculus bulbosus, XLVII IIL 61 LL IIL 101 IIL 19 L 96 Lobelia Mjrica inflata**^ trifoliata, ceriferai odorata, pfiltatum, • f 178 141 r Rhododendron maximum, r r Rhus radicans, Rhus vernix^ XLIL \ X • Sanguinaria Canadensis, XXXVIII LVI I Solanum dulcamara, XVIII feolidago odora, XX Spigelia Marllandica, XIV Rubus villosus, Sabbatia angularis, IL 160 IIL 147 L L L L 169 187 142 / LATIN INDEX Spiraea trifoliata Symplocarpus Vide Gillenia trifoliata Vide Ictodes fcetidus 1U3 foetidus Triosteum perfoliatum IX I Veratrum XXXIII II 121 LIX III 156 viride, Xanthoxylum fraxineum, Zanthoxylum Vide Xanthoxylum fraxineum fraxinifolium i # i ¥ 90 y t I -r- r i^ •^ ? S f M W ^ f* III ,**»; ,7 ' f f*#T# All IM } ằ'' f fl ' i Ơ ô* ' "-i ^ V kif 4- L t * y * * # i!»*»^ J^' ^»^ * t- ENGLISH INDEX Plate Vol, Page American Centaury, LVII in 147 American Hellebore, XXXIII IL 121 American Hemlock, XII I 125 American Rosebay, LI IIL 101 American Senna, XXXIX IL 162 Bearberry, VI L Bitter Polygala, LIV III Bitter sweet, XVIII I Black Alder, LVI Ill, VII I 75 XVI L 155 XXXIV, IL 137 Buck Bean, XL VI IIL 55 Bulbous Crowfoot, XLVII IIL 61 See Thorn Apple Apple Peru See Bajberry Blazing Star Blood Blue Wax Mjrtle root flag, set Buttercup 129 141 See Star Grass Blue Gentian, Bone 66 See Thorough wort See Bulbous Crowfoot, /XVL Butterfly weed, XXXII Butternut, Callico bush Canada Snake 59 IL 115 I 142 See Mountain Laurel root Candle berry See Carolina Pink root, See Wild Ginger Wax Myrtle XIV Chequer berry See Partridge berry ENGLISH INDEX 196 Cocum See Poke ft Coiiimon Erjthronium, LVIIt III 151 Common Common Gillenia, XLI III 11 Juniper, XLIV III 43 VIII I 84 XXXVI II 148 11 7^ IV I, 52 IX, L 90 II 82 Crane's bill, Bog's bane, ^ _ Dogwood, — - AXVIII Dragon Fever root, root, Garo-et See Poke AXIX Ginseng, Golden rod, XX I 187 Gold Thread, V I 60 Hemlock, XI I 11 Henbane, XVII I I6l Hop, LX III 16 XIX I 178 LII IIL Indian Physic See Common Gillenia Indian Tobacco, See Dragon Indian Turnip root Ipecacuanha spurge, 107 See Poison Ivj Ivj Jamestown weed Lamb See Thorn Apple See Mountain Laurel kill Large flowering spurge, LIII III 119 Leatherwood, XXXVIL IL Marsli Rosemary, V Marsh May trefoil 54 II 51 II 34 See Buck Bean^ Apple, /I^XIII Mountain Laurel, XIII L 133 IL IL £7 Night shade See Bitter sweet Oilnut See Butternut Partridge berry, Pink root See Carolina Pink Pipsissewa See ^ root Winter green r Pleurisy root See Butterfly weed 107 ENGLISH INDEX See Poison Sumach Poison Dogwood Poison Ivy, XLIL III 19 Poison Sumach, X L 96 Poke, III I 3D Poke See American Hellebore root See Tulip Poplar tree Pricklj ash, LIX HI 156 Red Cedar, XLV HI 49 XXXV IL X, II 97 II 41 H- 67 Red root See Blood root Sassafras, 14 See Red Cedar Savin Seneca Snake root, See Mountain Laurel Sheep poison IV- Skunk Cabbage, Swamp Sumach See Poison Sumach Small Magnolia, ;rXVir, Snake weed See American Hemlock Spoon wood See Mountain Laurel * I^- I'*- ^^ -Starry Anise, XLIII UL 76 Tall Blackberry, XXXVIII H Thorn Apple, L !• 17" Thoroughwort, II L S3 Tobacco, XL IL 171 Tulip Tree, XXXI II 107 Virginia Snake root, HI t>2 Water XLIX, LV III 134 Wax Myrtle, XLIII HI 32 Wild XY I- Star Grass, < Ginger, 160 149 Wild Lemon See May Apple Winter Green, X^^- ^^* ^^ CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME Gillenia trifoliata, Common Rhus Radicans, Poison Ivy, 19 Myrica Wax 32 cerifera, Gillenia, page 11 Myrtle, Juniperus communis^ Common Juniperus Virginiana, Red Cedar, 49 Menyanthes Buck Bean, 55 Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulbous Crowfoot, 61 lllicium Jloridanum, Starry Anise, 76 Jlristolochia serpentaria, Virginia Snakeroot, 82 ^letris farinosa^ Star Grass, 92 Rhododendron maji^imunij American Rosebay, 101 Euphorbia Ipecacuafiha, Ipecacuanha Spurge, 107 Euphorbia Large flowering Spurge, 119 Polygala rubella, Bitter Polygala, 129 ^ymphcea Sweet scented Water Lily, 134 Black Alder, 141 Sabbatia angularis, American Centaury, 147 Erythronium Jtmericanum, Common 151 Xanthoxylum fraxineum, Prickly Ash, 156 Uumulus Common Hop, 163 Frinos trifoliataj corollata, odorata, verticillatus, lupulus, Juniper, Erythronium, 45 JSTotes, 175 Appendix, 179 ... the press at once, but must is occasion dehiy and imperfection in a periodical one As the American Medical Botany ed by the completion of opportunity is now its is terminat- third volume, the afforded... may, on this account, be not destitute of in- teres t Having arrived at the termination American Medical Botany, the author N of tlie feels it ^ X PREFACE cumLent on had cause liim to state, that... with a patronage, greatly exceeding his anticipations -fc e I i % ///rr /f?//r /v /r ; AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY GILLENIA TRIFOLIATA Common Gillenia PLATE XLL rfoTWiTHSTANDiNG the principle avowed
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