AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY V2

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i AMERICAN T MEDICAL BOTAKY, m KBING A COLLECTION OF THE NATIA E MEDICINAL PLANTS or THE UNITED STATES, CONTAINING THtlR BOTANICAL HISTORY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, AND PHOPERTIES AND USES IX MEDICINE, DIET AND THE ARTS, WITH COl.OURED EXORAVINGS BY JACOB BIGELOW, M D nU3XFO«D PROFESSOU ANH LECTUHER ON MATERIA MEHICA AND BOTANY IN HAUVAIID USIVEUSITr VOL, H BOSTON: rtJBLISIIED BOSTON BOOKSTOUE, NO, COUYIIILL TTNITERSITlt FR£SS niLLIABD AND 1818 Mo Bot Garden, "1 893 ^lETCALF , J ^ • '7 ^W J : C /jyr/ DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS, TO WIT; «^ BE District Clerk's Office, It remembered, that on the twenty eighth day of October, A D 1318, and in the forty third year of the Independence of the United States of America, Jaooh Big:e?ow, M D of the said dis *•!, ^^-i-, „ _ Iritt, has dcjjosited in this oflice the title of r ^'^-^' book t— -:~v.* i vcrds following, viz, vhich we have detailed; their medicinal properties might be inferred, with that which now at least as great certainty, as attends most inferences in the conjectural science of medicine In regard to the botanical affinities of plants, I as affording evidence of their medicinal powers, much has been said and written man, Linnaeus, Hasselquist, and Petiver, Hoff- recently learned Professor Decandolle have bestowed the much XU PREFACE * r investigation on tins subject desideratum by all, and as It is regarded as a the consummation of botanical science by many, that plants should be so arranged, as that their assemblages should agree, not only in external forms, but in internal and operative powers Certain general agreements of this kind evidently prevail throughqucdities out nature so many ; yet they are so varied, and subject to exceptions, that them by general it is difficult to establish scientific descriptions, and when they are rendered too minute they seem to lose much to of their importance know the It is perhaps as easy properties of plants from their exter- nal habit, as to understand the characters of kind from their physiognomy rers man- Accurate obser- know more than they can communicate the means of knowing rate are liable to to others, yet the be mistaken most accu- Many vegetables of the closest affinity and resemblance, even species of the same genus, differ wholly from each other in Cucumis, Witness the species of Convolvulus, and Solanum, some of which are salutary, ous tlieir effects and others highly Nevertlieless there ai-e deleteri- many general truths, or at least general probabilities, one would be influenced, by which every and which have so much importance, that they will never be forgotten PHEFACE No even botanist, if Xiii in danger of starving in a wilderness, would indulge his hunger on a root op taken from an unknown plant of the natural order Luridce, of the Multisiliquw, or the umfruit On belliferous aqiiatica the contrary, be would not feel a moment's hesitation in regard to any of the Gramina, the fruit of the Fomacew, and several other natural families of plants, which are known —L to be uniformly innocent in their effects r The sensible properties of plants afford another human clue to their influence on the is true, It that observations derived from this source will not serve tions system They us in forming very minute distincare, however, almost always adequate in vegetable productions, to enable us to distin- guish what is is innocent and salubrious, from what noxious and virulent The pend wholly upon the powers their food, them and of sense in selecting this reliance does not often betray In regard to happens, that what ic, brute creation de- mankind is it almost uniformly sweet, delicious, or aromat- proves nutritive or salutary ; while on the oth- w er hand, vegetable poisons are nauseous, acrid, and disgusting It has would have been a have made sal it it sort of treachery in nature to otherwise dissemination been observed, that Considering the univer- of poisonous plants, and tlic NICOTIANA TABACUM 186 Tobacco has been employed with some suecess warm and the locked jaw, both of ill cold Mr Duncan, surgeon of Grenada, has climates F published in the Edinburgh Journal the account of a yevy distressing case of tliis kind, by enemas relieved and finally cured principally These of Tobacco smoke which was applications generally produced syncope and deathlike sickness in the patient, but by prudent management of them, the fa disease was entirely overcome, and recovery took Dr Holmes of Worcester county, Mass place exhibited the infusion of Tobacco, to a patient under violent tetanus, after the remedies had been fully The spasms were tried more common without effect completely removed and the patient recovered This powerful medicine has been also employed with some palliative effect in hydrophobia and certain other spasmodic diseases ternal use however requires great caution, since patients have in various instances by improper quantities been destroyed administered hands of the unskilful or unwary ing the Its in- common of Tobacco in by the Notwithstand- use and extensive consumption its various forms, it must unques- -F among class The tionably be ranked narcotic the most active great prostration of poisons of ' —— 187 TOBACCO fainting, giddiness, Strength, excessive lent of the affections and vio- alimentary canal, which use, internal its attend often make proper that it medito hy resorted he should so potent a drug occaon and doses restricted cal men, only in sions of magcnitude o BOTANICAL REFERENCES f Nicotlana tabacum, Lin WooDVLLLE, Med — ^41, ^NUTTAIX, Bot, i t, 77 sp Blackwell, 132 Kew, ijL—AiTOJf, t i 241 ^ 146 Pursh, i „^ ' REFERENCES OTHER AND MEDICAL MuKiiAY, Jjjparafns, riott, Voyage to i 681.—Wafek, Travels, 102—Har- Virgimn.-JlxKi^vYT, 75.-Everarii, de her EocerataMagnenus, 1583.-Chrysostom panacea, ^c 1616— London, Works, L James Tahaco.—KmG de Hones 14, Tahacoh^ ^c.-Bientema, Tobacco, Discourses on Tea, Short, f Jence Tahacologia, Hahj?, 1690.— in sia Edinburgh 1S09.Cimme, de Jlnnales 360.-VAiiquELiN, PUints Medicine, de Journal granges, xl 327.-Des Med Comment, lolacco, on Repm-ts Med J»fef!.-roAVLER, Mat 1791 -CuLLEN, ToftacCommerce and of Culture the on xTiiAM, %vo, 'Lond.-T Journal, Fhys and U00.-3[ed Lond 1^ Renr in Vol 24, 25, et J»fed 1814.-Ferriar, X Engl Journal for ^c ^Watterston, Hist Memoir passim 1817 Washington, plant, on the Tobacco PLATE XL JVjco? Fig Capsule opemn secti(m Transrverse Fig NOTES J^ote A A memoir J A MoUer, may Vol viii p paper It be found in Tilloch's Philesopliical Magazine, Its chief uses 149 was found were for beds, feet, and were suffi- a bed, coverlet and two pillows.—The shortness of the fibre prevented it from being spun and woven alone ever was mixed with tage and cloth, hats that from eight to nine pounds of the silk occupied a space of from five to six cubic cient for by Syraica, Asdepias of use and cultivation the on flax, Hats made with stalks aflforded A plantation wool, &c in certain stuffs to advan- were very light and it The soft paper in every respect resembling that obtained The from rags how- It plant is easily propagated by seeds or slips containing thirty thousand plants yeilded from six hundred to eight hundred pounds of silk JVote B Tobacco was discovered ly three centuries ago, in the Cuba Florida and Mexico, near- and was soon continent into Europe CTiltivated in Whether ov not any its The it extent of country throughout which origines of this continent, renders previous to its species of it East hefore the discovery of America, point of no consequence in regard to been cultivated from after introduced in various parts of discovery it American America for it was is a nativity was used by probable that this the ab- must liave many centuries 189 NOTES The mode of following account of the present cultivating _ ^ _ ^ Historical By Commerce of Tobacco William Tathara Lontlon, 1800 afprepa preparing the Tobacco ground new and : the one is applicable to the preparation of uncultivated lands, such as are in a state of nature, and productions other and timber heavy the of i-equire to be cleared method other the and them stocked has Frovidence which with ', and which in and, cultivated, heretofore been have some measure, evaporation and agriculture of calls the exhausted by the in early begins as lands new preparing « process of The wUl crop antecedent the managing and winter as the housing felling mattock a with growth ; under pennit, by grubbing the lopping off the tops, and cutting the poll-axe a with timber the eleven about of lengths into bodies ; worm or pannel ftsnce which is about the cus- fence rail, in what American an of length tomary During feet, is called a this part of the process the ne-' piling in employed are labourers, weaker n-ro women, boys, and heaps into wood, small and roots, "brush-wood, the throwing or are as selected arc stocks or logs such after and ; burned be to answer for or clap-boaids, make rails, be mailed into suitable to ^ S occasions ^m -^-^ -^^^u v^^ ^ hut the _ rolled Pennsylvania and German farmers, who are more con- of much save Virginians, the than powers versant with animal a or sledge, half a with horses of pair a of use the by labour this pair of truck wheels wood The burning after constitution, African the to peculiar are revels as Jiightly tl»is NOTES 190 part of the labour proves often a very late employment, which r many affords "When scenes of rustic mirth has cleared the land of this process its various natu- (t the plough is an implement which is rarely used in wiien they are either designed for tobacco or ** I There are three kinds of tillage the first : is what new lands meadow the hoe which are applied to this termed the sprouting hoe, which is a is smaller species of mattock that serves to break up any particular hard part of the ground, to giub up which may have mattock or grubbing hoe tlie fimall stones and other partial impediments ^^The narrow or sprouting hoc hilling who is to use it; the blade is thin, and driven into the eye of smitli is not termed,) that In few instances where the American black- employed is fit it is angle with the helve, at pleasure less this respect there are it is can be set more or less digging (as on a greater or before to the next process hoe follows the operation of the by means of a moveable wedge which it remove in the length of the blade, according to the strength of the person is, omitted, to generally from six to eight inches wide, It is and ten or twelve the hoe, any smaller sized grubs to alter tlie for use j eye of an English-mviile hoe the industrious and truly useful mer- chants of Glasgow^ have paid more minute attention to this cir- cumstance "The into shape use of this hoe ; which is is to break up the ground and throw it done by chopping the clods until they are + sufficiently fine, and then drawing the earth round the foot until it forms a heap round the projected leg of the labourer like a mole hill, and nearly as high as flattens the top of the hill and advances forward ttie knee ; he then draws out his foot, by a dab with the to the next hill in the flat part of the hoe, same manner, until \ the whole piece of ground is prepared The centre of these 191 NOTES are in this manner guessed by the eye ; and in most instant hills ces they approach near to lines of four feet one feet the other w ay, and three Tlie planter always endeavours to time this operation so as to tally with the growth of plants, so that he may be certain by " The this means to pitch his crop witbin season third kind of hoc is the broad or weeding hoe This L is made use of during the cultivation of the crop, to keep clean from the weeds It is inches to a foot, or more ,• wide upon the edge, say from ten of thinner substance than the hilling hoe, not near so deep in the blade, and the eye bent and shelving than the latter, so that more it it is formed more can be set upon a acute angle upon the helve at pleasure, by removing the wedge Of the Season « The f( term, season for planting, signifies a shower of rain of sufficient quantity to which may render it wet the earth safe to draw the to a degree of moisture young plants from tlie prepared arc which hills the into them transplant plant bed, and them in the for field, these seasons generally as described under the last headj commence in April, and and terminate with (t poi-tunity which seize to necessitated himself finds the planter crop bis of pitching the for eagerness ^ith ; a term which com- afford will spring the which prehends the ultimate opportunity him collecthe of capacity the to equal for planting a quantity tive power of his labourers « By the time which when applied in cidtiration has so nature approach, seasons these gen CI & c his selecting in attentive be always to which a planter should the bear to strength sufficient in plant patch) to shoot forward vicissitude of transplantation SOTES 192 « They are supposed to T)e equal to meet tlie imposition of dollar and genera that times four or three about course some will be of dimension medium , pethis at happens season or « Thus, when a good shower for ready equally are plants and field riod of the year, and the disrebed, plant the to hurries planter the intended union, the skin, his wet to doomed is which element, garding the teeming r drawn carefully having and harvest, bountiful a fi-om the view of operation next the proceeds to he plants, the largest sizeable V Of « The more office of planting the tobacco persons, in the following manner is performed by two or The : suspended upon one arm, a large basket full fii-st person bears, of the plants which the to bed plant the from brought have been just drawn and alshower, the of intermission for an field, without waiting though should rain ever so heavily it indeed, instead of being shunned, such an opportunity j eagerly souglit after, and is is be the sure and certain means of laying a good considered to return bounteous of a the hope cherishes which foundation, from rows by thus proceeds basket the bears who person The hill to hill plants hill its J and upon each Those who follow hill he takes care to drop one of his make a hole in the centre of each with their fingers, and having adjusted the tobacco plant in natural position, they knead the earth round the root with their hands, until is of plant against a sufficient consistency to sustain the wind and weather In this condition they leave r field for a few days until the plants shall have formed their radifications and where any of them shall have casually per- the ished, the ; ground is ings, until the crop followed over again by successive replant- is rendered complete f ; 193 NOTES '§ the Of Crop «TIie operation of hoeing comprehends two tions, viz that of hilling, and that of weeding moreover two stages of hilling The ; distinct func- and there are first hilling commences, to previous field of the preparation the in described, as heretofore planting the crop, and means of ond tlie hilling it is performed, as before explained, by peculiar implement called a hilling hoe; the sec- is performed after the crop is planted, to succour and support the plant as it with a view may happen to walit to foundation permanent and a firm giving strengthening, by root and ; it may be effected according to the demand its of the with stroke the clianging in dexterity respective plants by a more the to recur to necessity the weeding hoe, without any appropriate utensil with commences hoe weeding " The more direct use of the never and transplantation, after tobacco the of growth the fii-st as by, laid he to ready and until the plant is neaily ripe, ceases would who he for hoe; the with weeding last the term they sparing be not must maize, of a good crop of tobacco, or have of his durstirring constantly ground labour, but must keep the crop the of growth whole the ing And it is a rare instance it be the unless assistant, an as to see the plough introduced wheat of sowing a introducing for the purpose of fiook plongK is growing crop present the while even for the following year, someand maize, fields of in practised frequently and this is times in the amongst ranked be may which fields of tobacco, and clean perfectly ground the crops, as it leaves best fallow remain to nor vegetable, weed, grass, neither permitting naked, occupied has it which space tlie standing in 25 NOTES 194? ii n Of Tliis fhmb nail^ the leading stem or sprout of the plant, which r would, if left alone, the more run up to flower substantial formation of tlie and seed leaf but ; which, from by the help of the nu- of parts lower the to afforded thereby are tritive juices, which the of fibres and ducts the through absorbed the plant, and thus r leaf, is rendered more weighty, thick, and fit ^^^ The for market qualiried sense of this terra is applicable to certain legal restric- tions founded upon long experience, and calculated to compel an in the culture of this staple of the Virginia trade, so amendment ^ F that it shall at all times excel in foreign \j merit a superior reputation I markets, and thus just- not exactly recollect the present limitation by law, whicli has changed, I believe, with but the custom the progress of experience; to nine, seven, or five leaves, as the quality most likelv «» Of its The to top the plant and soil may seem to bear IMJ *^ is sucker # i **• the Sucker^ and Snckering a superfluous sprout which is is wont to make appearance and shoot forth from the stem or stalk, near to the junction of the leave;S witli the stem, and about the root of the plant; and jurfe the of its if these suckers are permitted to grow, they in- marketable quality of the tobacco by compelling a division nutriment during the act of maturation Tlie planter therefore careful to destroy these intrudci's Avith the as in the act of topping, and this process is thumb is nail, termed suckering I ; and the policy of sup- of the Virginia produce has dictated the * Virginians let the thumb nail grow long, and harden it in the candle, for this purpose : not for the use of gouging out people's cjeSj as souie have thought tit to insinuate*" of tlie 195 NOTES F M wisdom of penal laws maintain her good upon strangers who trade with tion in to former ages to rear an her faith against imposi- has heen customary It inferior plant from the sucker which plant; early an of cutting the after root projects from the and same field thus a secmZ the from obtained often been has crop J r by one and the same course of culture ; and although is of a sufficient quality for smoking, and might in the weaker kinds of snuff, it tins scion become preferred has been (I think very properly) of imposirisk a to law, prohibitory a thought eligible to prefer tion by means of 3m< similitude « The practice of """^ cultivating suckers is on these accounts constables the but fraudulent, as discountenanced not only strictly enjoined ex ploy the poss^ officio to make diligent search, and ; yet some is few instances have occurred, within em- a lavT comitatus in destroying such crops; there Virginians, the of credit the to which, indeed for occasion to ai-e seldom my day, exeinto it carried honourably very w here the constables have public of productive and exemplary, truly cution in a manner good ^ Of the Worm grub tobacco; of culture the to injurious nus, which prove some of but that root most the creates consequently and which is most destructive, worm tobacco green large or employment, is the horn worm, which that with species same the be to me to appears This HisNatural his of volume second the in described Catesbv has erwco maxima comuta • caterpillar horned great the belong, inches four about ** 'This caterpillar,' says he, *is a of rings, or joints, ten consists of sides the head and yellow colour ; tail ; it which head, the on is black, grow four pair of NOTES 196 and of a reddish brown towards the bottom, jagged liorns, smootli or bearded, and black towards the top; on each of the rings arise sbort, jagged, black horns, one standing on the back, each side below which ; is a trachcea on each side and two on likewise the ; * horn of the back of the a bright bay colour IS Oi « There the flap of the tail last ring is longest: It hath eight and six feet, are, besides this kind, others without them of a green pajyillc^.^ horns And colour, so far as I recollect of all ; this, in + this tobacco Catesby*s description, differs in respect to colour; worm or horn worm, as the planters being of a pale delicate green ceeds from the colour of The bacco plants worming its ; an food call it it feeds upon act of destroying these the tobacco, which is particularly, apprehend which pro- effect I when more growing worms to- termed is a very nauseous occupation, and i takes up much labour It is performed by picking every thing of this kind off the respective leaves with the hand, ing it with the foot 't« and destroy- t »/ it il- Of the Term *?* " During very vourable This is soil, '^Firing raiiny seasons, 39 and in some kinds of unfa- the plant is subject to a malady called firings a kind of blight occasioned by the moist state of the atmosphere, and the too moist condition of the plant recollect : I not whether the opposite extreme does not produce an efF feet something similar planter, as ishes, it This injury spots the leaf with a hard and becomes so far a loss much dreaded by the is brown is, subject to this evil effect: the first is whilst ing, appre- I I in the field, know of no working the ground while the seed and careful drying by the use of per- in a certain degree, growing the latter when hanging in the tobacco house cotistant w hich upon the commodity hend there are two stages when the plant remedy than spot, fire in the is other grow- tobacco house 197 NOTES Of the Hrpening ^' Much practice is of the Crop form a judicious discernment requisite to concerning the state and progress of the ripening leaf; yet care must be used to cut up the plant as soon as to promise a good curable condition, siilRciently ripe it is approach of lest the frost J should tread upon the lieels of the crop-niaster for in this case, ; i tobacco will be an^ong the first plants that feel the loss to be apprehended in this instance, is its influence, not a mere and partial • L- damage' by nippling, but a consumption by the destruc- total tion of every plant " I find ripening of i tlie difficult to leaf: it is idea of the give to strangers a full a point on which would not trust I crop-master in able some consulting without experience o\yn my > it the neighbourhood precaution convey an among ; and I believe those who which I find idea, plant it an uncustomary this is not it So far as I sufficiently by the change of able to easier to understand than to ex- leaf by the of ripening the of judge press, I should ; am its colour to a its thickening more yellowish the web of protusion and appearance, mellow green ; by a certain of contraction a by occasioned be to of the leaf, which I suppose the fibres ; and by such other appearances as I might conceive functions vegetative the of suspension to indicate an ultimate Of « AVhcn the crop is adjudged sufficiently ripe to best the to assigned is operation cutting, this hands°who are employed in the culture j proceed to and most judicious and these being prorespec tive rows of the field ripe, be to appear as plants such to select off near sliced are cut are which those leaving others to ripen j are stems or stalks thick have as plants such and to the ground, sliced and down free more a admit to order in stem the of middle the process the during parts the of air through eriual circulation NOTES ^ 98 as tendency have a might as moisture partial retention of ment, auil upon the jecting damage hill all the staple The to fer- plants are then laid down proleaves of the points the with grew, where they so that possihle, as nearly as way, same the sun has had sufficient effect to render them when pliable, they the may gatherthe by turns into gathered more easily and uniformly be ers who follow the cutting GatJiering the Crop in Of « For the better comprehending the method of gathering the which must preparation the understand to crop, it is necessary be previously made « for facilitating this part of the process tobacco of crop the gathering for preparing In tomary it is cus- tobacco the of places various scaffold in kind of erect a to may ground which happen to offer a convenient situation This log any upon poles strong several of end is done by lodging one of end other the resting and convenient, or fence which may be about at forks, by supported pole transverse a such poles upon scaffold whole the erecting by or ground j five feet from the upon forks if circumstances require it this part of the scaffold in the « In forming manner of joists, cencentre to from asunder feet four about placed the poles are tre, so that when prepared they little the sticks may fill which sustain the tobacco plants are the space advantageously by leaving but spare room upon the scaffold "Timber is then split in the manner of laths, into pieces of four feet in length, and about an inch and a half diameter* are termed the tobacco sticks ; and their use is to hang w upon stick this of ends lodging the by upon, both the tobacco in prepared previously been have which the scaffold of poles the the field, in order to render it sufficiently tion to carry into the tobacco-house, to pliable which it and is in condi- now coavey- i 199 NOTES ed by such means as the planter has in his power pending it in the pass through it same way who Instead of this partic- prefer to so, lay bulk upon poles, logs, kc in the field, it a short while iu before they convey irn- it ' '*" der cover." sus- may in the house, so that the air in the process of curing ular method, those and by ; -'iM I til l*i * I ^«i f f O rt f r T »rtf* iittf Ul ?*** \- ^^9^ ' I ^*s .a -« e^ V J nv » » u «jf »* I- -f** ^ i
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