Memoirs of Bulletin of Museum of Comparative Zoology 28

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MEMOIRS OF THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY AT HARVARD COLLEGE VOL XXVIII ^CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 1903 University Press : John Wilson and Son, Cambridge, U S A CONTENTS REPORTS ON THE SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE EXPEDITION TO THE TROPICAL PACIFIC, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, by tlie U S Fish Commission Steamer Jefferson F "Albatross," Moser, U Tropical Pacific B3' S from August, 1899, to N., Commanding Alexander Agassiz IV March, pp xxxiii., 410 ary, 1903 One Volume Text 1900, Commander The Coral Reefs of the Three Volujies Plates 238 Plates Febru- Itmoirs of tbc Museum Compratitre ^oologn of AT HARVARD COLLEGE Vol XXVIII REPORTS ON THE SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE EXPEDITIOM THE TROPICAL PACIFIC, IN CHARGE OF ALEXANDER AGASSt0, BY TIHE U S FISH COMMISSION STEAMER " ALBATROSS," FROM AX^GUST, 1899, TO MARCH, 1900, COMMANDER JEFFERSON F MOSER, U S N., COMMANDING ii-Gi IV THE CORAL REEFS OF THE TEOPICAL PACIFIC By ALEXANDER AGASSIZ WITH TWO HUNDRED AND THIRTY-EIGHT PLATES TEXT [Published by permission of George M Bowers, U CAMBRIDGE, Prtntcti for tlje February, S U Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries.] S A : fHuseum 1903 ;; ; TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction XI Page The Marquesas, Fig Plates 2, 3, 200, and Page Marokau and Ravahere, Plates 70, figs 1, 2; 201, 203; 204, fig Hao, Plates 67, 201, 203; 205, fig The Paumotds, Plates 4-83, 201-207 The Paumotu Plateau, Plates Aki-Aki, Plates 68, 69, 201, 203 201, 234, and Figs 1-12 Nukutavake, Plates Rangiroa, Plates 4-19, 201, 202; 204, figs 3, 4; 205, fig and Figs ; fig- 118 206, ; 120 The Duke 2-4; 201, of Gloucester Islands 52 Nukutipipi, Plates 76, 77, 201, 203 54 Anu-Anuninga, Plates Makatea, Plates 21-32; 201, 202; and Figs 7, 205, fig 56 Anu-Anuraro, Plates 201, 203; 206, 64 202 ; 204, Matahiva, fig Plates 202; 204, fig 20, Niau, Plates 33-36, 201, 202 Apataki, Plates 37, 39 fig ; ; 40, 68 Tikei, Plates 40, 2^; figs 71 Kauehi, Plates 45, 201, 203 Fakarava, Plates 46-50; 51, fig ; 201, 203; 204, Anaa, Plates 51, fig fig Tahanea, Plates 54, 55, 201, 203 The Raveskoi Islands 56, 57 ; 58, fig Raroia, Plates 201, 203 ; 75, Hikueru, Plates 201, 203 ; 95, fig ; 140 fig 208-210 91 ; ; 156 210, ; 94, fig ; 202 ; 157 fig 90 90 Bora Bora, Plates 96, 91 Maupiti, Plates 104, 103, 202; 210, 98 202; 210, Motu 109 Iti, 110 fig 141 208, Raiatea and Tahaa, Plates 93; 94, figs 1-3; 96, fig 2; 210, fig 99 ' 202 fig- 85 131 135 fig fig fig ; The Cook fig 161 figs 3, ; 105, 164 figs 1, figs 2, 2; 202 165 3; 96, 202 166 Islands, Plates 106, 211; 212, 159 97- 3; Plates 104, Tetiaroa, Plates 95, 201, 203, 204 Tekokota, Plates 66, 201, 203 Mehetia, Plates 90, Huaheine, Plates 92 fig 130 Hereheretue, Pl.ates 79-83, 201, 203 The Society Islands, Plates 84-105, 84 94 Taenga, Plates 201, 203 Makemo, Plates 59-65 203 128 Murea, Plates 90, ; 201, 203, 205 78, 202, fig 76 90 Tepoto Tuanake, Plates 201, 203 125 Tahiti, Plates 84-89 202, 52, 53, 201, ; 203 Takume, Plates 74 2; 1,7 figs fig- 125 ; 201, 202, 208-210 41-44, 201, 203 fig 206, ; 201 202 68, 206, 201, 1; fig 113 116 3, Pinaki, Plates 72-75, 201, 203 33 figs 71, 201, 203 2, 3, Tikahau, Plates 20, 70, figs 111 figs 2, fig ; 1G8 CONTENTS Vlll Page Plates Aitutaki, 212, fig 106, 211; 212 fig 213 ; 171 The Tonga Archipelago, 3; 212, 180 Tongat ibii, Pl.ati's 115-118; 213-215 The Nomiika GroiiiJ, Plates 119, 214, 216 The Haapai Group, The The Ellice 212, 6-8; 222; 221, 204 flg 129, fig 210 8; 221 Funafuti, Plates 129, 137, 221, 222; 224,' 212, fig 223; figs 212 229 2-6; figs 226, 307 fig Arbno, Plates 180, figs fig 3, 4; figs 182, figs 1, 2; 225; 228, Namorik, Plates 225; 226, 3, 232 Islands, fig fig 10 225, 229- 333 figs 2-4; 225; 340 Ponapi, Plates 183, 342 188-190, figs ; fig Nama, Plate 232 The Royalist Islands, Plates 223 226, ; fig 237 Plates 138, 1-3; 223; 226, figs Maiana, flg Plates ; 223 Tarawa, Plates 140, 144; 145, fig fig figs figs 240 140, 245 2-4; 141- 4; 223; 224, Apaiaug, Plates 145, 224, 4; fig fig fig 247 252 Maraki, Plates 146-150, 223; 224, flg 253 Taritari, Plates fig 151-160, 223 ; 224, 258 The Marshall 182, figs 2; 225; 226, 4-10; 227, 228 Jaluit, Plates 161-166; 167, 225; 226, 1-3; 228, figs fig 4-10; fig 227, 351 352 Namonuito, Plates 232 233, fig The Laurones, Plates 194-199; 232; ; 233, figs 4, Guam, Plates fig 271 353 363 365 194-198; 232; 233, 366 fig 376 List of the Stations occupied by the "Albatross" San Francisco, Cal., Marquesas Islands Marquesas Islands to via 379 to Nukuhiva, 379 Tahiti, Society Northwestern Pau380 Stations in vicinity of the Marquesas Islands 2; 351 190, moUis figs 4; 231, 232 Islands, 161- Islands, Plates 1, 233, fig Rota, Plates 199, 232; 233, 1-3; 223; fig ; Truk, Plates 191-193, 231, 232 139, ; fig 139, 224, ; fig ; 350 236 1-3; 225, 230 Onoatoa, Plate 223 Apamama, 1-3; 342 Islands, Plates 182, fig 329 330 225, 229 fig 321 3; 184-187, fig Losap, Plates 232 figs 1-3 figs, 236 138, 182, Arorai, Plate 223 Plates 315 181; 225, 230 232 Tapeteuea, 2; 1, Plates 183-193, 4; 233, ; 227, 303 228, Andema figs 1-3 225; The Seniavina Islands Islands, Plates 138-160, 224, fig 3; 2, figs 174-177, Pingelap, Plates 183, 3; 2, 221 6; The Gilbert fig Nukufetau, Plates 129, 130- 4; fig 171, Kusaie, Plates 182, 212, ; 225; 296 Plates 172, 173, 225; 226, figs 210 170, The Caroline 224, fig Nurakita, Plates fig 4; 228, Islands, Plates 129-137; figs 227, 169, 225; 227, 206 227, 295 Plates 178-180, 225; fig fig 220 ; Wotje, Plates 197 126, 127, 220 293 fig 192 195 1; fig fig Likieb, Plates Fiji Islands, Plates 126-128, Kambara, Plates 171, 188 Plates 217, 218 Vavau, Plates 120-125, 219 168; Plates 167, Rongelab, 122, 4: 213, 214 fig 226, ; Kwajalong, 175 111-114; Plates Island, fig Plates 111- 213-219 125, 225 Namu, 3; 107-110; figs 2, Page Ailinglap, Plates 1G9 NiuK, Plates 106, Eua 211; 1; fig 380 Stations from the Marquesas to Ran- figs 279 Siroa 380 CONTENTS IX Page Rangiroa to Tikahau and to Mata- hiva Matahiva Hereheretue 381 to Makatea and 382 Islands, the 383 Island 383 Tahiti Island Through the Paumotu Archii^elago Tahiti to Makatea, via Tetiaroa Makatea to Apataki, via Niau Apataki to Tikei Ngarue Pass, Fakarava, to Takume, via Anaa and Talianea Takume to Makemo, via Raioia and Taenga Makemo to Hikueru, via Tekokota Hikueru to Hao, via Marokau and Ravahere Hao to Aki-Aki Aki-Aki to Piuaki, via Nukutavake Pinapi to Nukutipipi 383 383 383 385 385 From 388 Tahiti to the Leeward Society Islands 388 From Aitutaki to Niue From Niue to Eua (Touga) Vavau to Fiji Fiji 388 388 389 to Jaluit, Marshall Archipelago 385 Through the Marshall Archipelago Marshall Islands through the Caro- 387 lines to Guam, Ladroues, and Yokohama, Japan Through the Carolines Namouuito to Guam 389 390 Taritari to Jaluit 386 386 388 through Ellice and Gilbert Islands From Nukutipipi to Ilereheretue, via Anu Page 387 Cook Group, and Nine In Fiji Archipelago 386 Archipelago, via Leeward Society to Papiete, Anuruuga and Auu-Auuraro Mehetia Society Islands to Tongatabu, Tonga to Tahiti, via 390 to 391 391 392 INDEX 396 Eua iki, 191 Fofoa, 202 Euakafa Island, 201 Faaroa Bay, 159 Fongafale, 219 Fonuaika, 195 Fotuhaa, 195 Faatemu Bay, 161 Fualifeke, 221 Pafa, 189 Fualopa, 215 Fakarava, 76 Depth of Ngaruc Pass Fukave, 189 Funafara, 212 at, 77 Ecliiuouiius at, 80 Funafuti, 212 Lagoou sand beach at, 79 Lee side of lagoon of, 80 Modern beach rock at, 78 North pass 76 at, Nullipore knolls Alovonariaus Boulders on at, 78 Buttresses flats of, 2! 226 at, 214, Old ledge covered by beach rock, 80 Old ledge outcrops at, 77, 78 riatform lagoou at, 80 Rotoava anchorage at, 77 Charts Sea breaks in lagoou of, 77 Secondary lagoon at, 77 Shore platform of, 78 David, Prof., on, 215 Deuudation at, 221 Depth of bore at, 223 Sinks Dimensions 79 at, Trend of land rim at, 76 Width of western reef fiat, 76 Fala, 355 Falcon Island, 178 Lister on, 178 of, 226 Conglomerate Corals at, outliers at, 221 222 Crystalline limestone of, Easteru face Expansion of at, 179 Fanui Bay, 163 Hedley, Faone Pass, Heliopora reef Gardiner, J Height Farallon de Pajaros, 365 Faraulep, 364 Fare Harbor, 158 Farerea Pass, 157 Fareute Point, 154 Fata, 198 Fatato, 213 of, 222 S., on, 224, 226 on, 224 219 of, 218 at, Dr., on, 218 Nullipore boulders Pools at, at, at, 226 217 214 Position of bore at, 216 Range of corals at, 227 Reef flat platform of, 221 Royal Society borings at 223 Second bore at, 215 Secondary lagoon at, 217 Feletoa, 201 Feys, 341,362, 364 Section across, 219 204 Charts of, Shoals and banks 204 Coral reefs of, Erosion 205 of, Exidoratious 204 204 Rivers of, Soapstone Terraces Vegetation 204 at, of, Vegetation 205 204 of, Fitzroy, Capt., 74 of, 21 Sturdee, Capt., on, 223 Submarine cliffs off, 225 Temperatures at, 223 190 of, at, 219, SoUas, J W., on, 224 Southern horn of, grou]), 204 Reefs Foa, 196 Mayer, C, Old ledge Fautaua Valley, 149 Lau 220 227 223 Fanek Fanua 141, 145 at, Filling of lagoon of, 224 Faleu, 353 Island, 352 212, 220 reef, Former land rim Gaps at, 225 lai, 218 at, 212 of, Elevated breccia First bore Falefatu, 212 Fiji, 222 at, Beach rock slabs at, 220 Bottom of passes into, 225 279 of, 214, 225 Western face of, 222 Funamanu, 213 Funangongo, 213 Funuarua Island, 46 226 1 INDEX Haapai Bank, 196 Gabert, 340 Gaimard Depth Island, 355 Galapagos, absence of corals Gardiner, on J S., at, Elevated islands Island, 299 Hacq Sand dune Hakahe, Slope of reef 299 Gilbert Islands, 232 Northeast trades Soundings 233 at, Underlying platform of, Hall Islands, 331 Hamene Bay, 159 232 Gregoire Island, 354 Griinow, 279 Hanaiapa, Hansen, Dr., 201 Hao, 113 Guam, 366 Caverns of of, 372 Buttresses of, 366 Color of reef Disintegration East coast 368 cliffs at, Denudation Dimensions of, Depth 366 Elevated coralliferous limestone of, 372 Junction of volcanic outburst and elevated lime- No subsidence Ked 373 at, of northern part of, 369 Northwest point earth at, of, at, of, of, at, Vegetation 373 of, Volcanic agencies cliffs of, in at, 373 371 of, Volcanic slopes soil of, of, coast of, 369 at, 367 372 373 366 recent times at, 375 at, Volcanic negro-heads Lauding at, 373 Range Haano Island, 196 132 132 of corals at, 133 Hesi, 340 Heterocentrotus, 80 Hikueru, 110 Deep holes at, 111 Depth of lagoon, 1 at, Old ledge Haafeva, 137 at, Reef flats at, 133 Vegetation killed by sand Hernnsheim, 329 Nautilus Haaio Island, 161 at, 132 Old ledge flat at, 132, 133 Platform lagoon at, 132 Volcanic earth West 370 Nullipore knolls Volcanic bluffs Volcanic rocks Funafuti, 224 Island across lanil rim of, 367 Vertical limestone Volcanic 368 366, 367 Twisted strata 115 at, Hereheretue, 131 Dimension of, 131 Echinoderms at, 132 371 Southern volcanic massif Terraces 1 Henderson Island, • Sloughing of sea face of, of, 114 Vegetation of Ellice group, 279 Ridges and pinnacles of, 372 Road to Agafia in, 374 Southern part at, Old ledge On 369 376 371 14 Hat-shaped Islands, 209 Hatutu, Hedley, C, 224 stone, 374 Mesa at, Islauds on reef flat, 114 NuUipore knolls at, 116 Fossils of, 372 Limestone outliers 116 flat at, of lagoon of, 113 East face Gaps 373 at, 368, 375 of, 115 at, Coral shingle bars 369 of, Elevated coral reef Erosion Island, 352, 355 Hakau Tabu, 188 232 iu, 195 of, Hakaufussi, 201 Hakau Lahi, 197 Hakau Mamao, 189 299 fiat at, 196 Haapai Plateau, 175, 195 Haapape Promontory, 146 Haavini Valley, 145 Corals killed at, 299 at, of, Haapai Group, 195 224 Fiji, 204, 196 of, Islands On Funafuti, 224, 226 Gaudichaud Island, 355 Gegibu Island, 302 Gehh 39^ Shoals in, 110 at 111 1 Trend of, 110 Hiva Oa, at, 131 INDEX 398 Holanga, 201 Jaluit Fossils at, 201 — Continued Potholes 285 at, Holevai, 188 Kange Honga Hapai, 178 Honga Tonga, 178 Rolled coral blocks of corals at, 286 285 at, Sand bars encroaching on lagoon Sand blown into lagoon of, 280 Sand spits of, 291 Huaheine, 157 Compared to Bora Bora, 158 Dimensions of, 157 Sinks at, 283 Secondary lagoons Islands on barrier reef of, 158 Huaheine Iti, 157 Huaheine Nui, 157 Hunga, 197 Ship channels Slab beaches at, 283, 292 at, 280 at, Shoals in lagoon of, 280 281 yEoIiaii limestone of, 202 Slope of lagoon face Limestone strata of, Southeast passage into, 281 Vertical 202 202 282 of, Ifalik, 341, Southern horn of, 279 Southwest passage of, 289 Steep sea face of, 282 Illeginni, Sweep cliffs of, 364 302 Imrodj, 287 Boulder reef of, 281 of, at, 287 Western passage fiats of, 287 Wide Breadfruit trees 287 at, of, outer reef 290 of 288 flats of, Johnson, Lieut., Boring on Aratika, 10 Judd, J W., 223, 228 Section across, 287 Shingle bar of trades across lagoon of, 289 Vegetation Bench, height 288 Ine, 324 Kahalape, 350 Iriru Pass, 161 Kallau, 184 279 Beach rock conglomerate Kama, 364 Jaluit, Buttresses at, at, 283 Kambara, 206 Bottom 282 of basin of, 207 208 Conglomerate beach at, 282 Continuity of laud rim of, 286 Buttresses Corals of lagoon Gaps at, 206 Height of, 206 of, Currents in lagoon of, Depth of lagoon of, Dimension of, 279 Driftwood at, 290 Terraces of, at, at, 284 Gentle slope reef platform at, 282 Lagoon face of islands of, 289 Lagoon shore extension at, 284 Land rim swept by sea at, 289 Large blocks of corals at, 285 flats of, Narrow laud rim of, 279 Nnllipore knolls of, Low gaps at, 292 at, 284 at, 74 74 75 of, 74 Kiti Harbor, 343 of, 75 at, Poritcs flats 291 206, 207 Weather land rim Kaukura, Keuea Gap, 264 of, at, Secondary lagoon at, 282 Pools ou lagoon face of, 288 Porous laud rim 206 Karoni, 205 Kauehi, 74 Dana on huge boulders at, 75 Effect of prevailing winds at, 74 Entrance to, 75 Sand bars 291 Northeast face of lagoon Northern horn of, 292 208 207 of, Old ledge boulders islands of rim of, 280 Millepore of, Kapa, 198, 202 Kapenor, 309 285 Flats of lagoon face of, 292 Fresh-water lagoons at, Volcauic outburst 286 207 208 Volcanic cone 289 Flat outer platform Long at, Tokalau Gap at, Filling of lagoon of, 206, Slope of denudation 280, 286 281 Filling of gaps at, Central basin 286 Outliers of old reef rock at, 38 Kito, 195 of, 292 INDEX Irregular soundings along, 365 Nero Deep off, 366 Soundings of " Nero " in, Southern islands of, 377 Volcanic islamls of, 365 Wotje, 315 Kramer, Dr A., 234 Krusenstern, Capt., 297 Kuli Island, 357 Kusaie, 333 Belt of mangrove islands Coral patches Corals killed by of, 334, 337 337 at, silt 333 338 of, Lifuka, 196 Lagoon basins at, 335 Lagoon passages at, 334 Main lagoon cbannel of, 337 Main ridge of, 333 Outcrops of volcanic rocks Outline of, Likieb, 307 Bays Corals on lagoon Dead 338 Subniarine erosion 336 Volcanic sand beach at, at, Incorrect position 339 of, M.aten Pass at, 310 Melander, Capt., survey 338 Sand by Krusenstein, 297 High sea face of, 298 Lagoon reef flats wide of, in Secondary isl.ands at Section of beach of, Southern horn of, South Pass 297 Trades at, of, of, 301 297 297 ( In Mango, Lofanga, 197 Losap, 351 Lot's Wife, 365 Jose Delirunn on, 312 off, SC.r, Challenger Dec]) Lua motu, 212 off, 3(16 Coralliferous limestone isl.ands Deepest sounding off, 196 79 il:i 179 On Tanoa, 179 On Tonnmeia, 179 On volcanic and limestone Little Makin Island, 259 297 Ladrones, The, 365 Deep of island of, 311 On Eua, 186 On Haapai Bank, On Kelefesia 179 301 Lado, 311 Caroline 313 313 On Noniuka i>f, 366 307 Likintakai Island, 344 Lima Island, 196 Lister, 179 302 302 Western point of, 308 South Pa.ssof,-3U Stranded islets of, 312 298 Sand bars at, Width at, of, spits of, Sinks 296 lagoon 307 309 North point Nulliporc knolls of, Lagoon sand overwhelming outer platform Dunes at, 298, 300 Gaps on west face of, 301 size of, 314 Islands on east face of, 314 Kwaj along, 296 Great at, 313 Ilydrocorallida; at, 312 335 at .337 Wide bays of 338 Wide reef flat platform Kutua Point, 356 of, at, Grass on, 311 335 at, Volcanic rock outliers Chart 307 312 307 of, Floating sand Gap 338 at, 335 Volcanic boulders AVater lanes of, of, flats of, corals in s/(« at, East face Passes through reef platform of, 313 at, Coral patclies in lagoon of, 333 Vegetation Lauvergne Island, 355 Lele Island, 335 336 333 Ileislit of, Lagediak Pass 317 Lahi Passage, 189 Lalalolomei Bank, 201 Lamotrek, 331 Langa, 342 Lau Group, 204 Erosion and denudation at, 365 Late, 178 336 ,it, Driftwood on, 339 Frinjjing reefs — Cnntinucd Ladrones, The Kitu Island, 198 Koto Maka, 193 Kotu, 195 Kotzebue on Tikei, 71 Ou 309 of, 365 Lubu, 302 Luerssen, 279 islands, 179 of, IKDEX 400 Makemo — Continued Lukunor, 310 Luminan Islands as buttresses at, 107 Reef, 3G6 Land rim Liitke, Capt., 331, 332 102 of, Masses of boulders Northeast face Mackenzie Group, 364 Madagascar, Corals at, Old ledge outcrops Pass (i Kange Vegetation Shoals Surface hauls Terraces Mango reef platform at, 62 of 5?, Crevasses sink of, 61 60 Fossils of, 56 of, 8, 5!) Incrusting Nnlliporcs Landing places at, Lines of caverns at, point Outline of, of, of, of, of, 56, Vertical cliffs of, Slope 56 of, of, 255 of, 257 on 257 at, 254 West 57 257 of, face of, 256 Marambo, 205 57 Marau, 149 Maria Bay, 189 Makemo, 99 Accession to reef by corallines Beach rock conglomerate at, a(, 107 Blow holes at, 108 Bottom of lagoon of, 104 Conglomerate ledge of of 254, Underlying platform 56 face of, 58 Corals in pass 255 Size of, 253 59 Terraces West 256 at, Secondary lagoons of, 254 Secondarv line of islands at, 256 Section acro.ss, 255 Slope of southern face Southern face of, Color of Nullipores Dana on, 254- Nullipore knolls 58 56 of, Maroe Bay, 157 Marokau, 111 at, 06 flat of, lo;! 100, 107, 12 Wide reef Hat at, 112 Marquesas Archipelago, at, 10.3 Corals on shoals of lagoon 100 Dimension of, Sea face of, 112 102 Echinoderms on reef Gaps of laud rim of, 256 256 at, Closing of land rim Monument 58 at, of lagoon at, 254 Increase of laud rim Palh across, 60 Sea slope 68 228 192 Elevation 59 59 Lines of undercntting, 59 Norlliei']! 102, Iki, Bottom 56 62 at, Blocks of Nnllipores fossils of, 59 Erosion at, Maraki, 253 Absence of shore platform Beach rock of 254 at, 61 Eastern face 104 106 Mapuaura River, 145 Maraa Pass, 142 60 at, Central sink visit to, at, at, Mantapeti, 342 64 of, Buttresses of old ledge Dana's of, 105 of, Mann, 300 elevated limestone island, 56 Areas of drainage Bottom of sink, 62 in 07 Williams on, 168 Mango, 'Makatea, 56 Absence of Mangaia, 168 245 of, lagoon in Slope of lagoon 245, 247 at, at, of, 101 Sink of 108 Island, 169 Dall on 103 at, Shingle driven into vegetation Dimensions of, 245 Secondary lagoons of, 246 Slope of platform 106 of corals at, 100, 104, 105 Shingle beach Boat passage at, 245 Color of beach rock at, 245 Coliiring of Xiilli|)orcs at, 246 Coral shin^'le at, 246 Caverns at, 101, 102, Sand driven from lagoon Maiana, 245 An 105 102 into, Pudding-stone Mahaena Pass, 147 Mahea Island, 160 Maina at, of, 101 108 Absence of reefs from, Native hut at, Soundings at, 254 108 INDEX Mehetia, 140 Absence of shore platform Marshall Islands, 271 Areas of, 274 Atolls with small lagoons in, 27.3 Canoe of, 293 Deep basin south of, 279 Depths of lagoons of, 273, 300 Elevation Monotonous structure of, 274 Passes into atolls Ralick Chain Monu Shape in, 272 Small islets of, 328 Small islets of rim iu, 276 Soundings in, 27B Trades at, 275 Trend of Vegetation of, of, l.-laiids of, 271 Matahiva, 54 closing of, 54 of, at, 54 55 Mata Maka, 192 Matavai Bay, 146, 153, 155 Mount Santa Rosa, 365, 374 Mount Tinkio, 371 Mount Ton Azan, 360 Mount Zion, 190 Mateika, 212 Maten Island, 310 Matira Point, 162 Mauki, 168 Apatite beds at, Mua, 188 168 Muifuiva, 192 Maupiti, 138, 164 Bluffs of, Muitoulo, 198 105 Central island Murea, 156 of, 164 Erosion Dimension of, 1G4 Height of, 164 Shape of, 1C4 Mauritius, Corals Mayer, On at 165 Motu-uta, 154 Moungalafa, 198 Moungaone, 197 Mount Buache, 333 Mount Crozer, 333 Mount Diademe, 148 Mount Makana, 372 Bonnefiu on lagoon of, 54 Filling of lagoon of, 55 Vegetation of, Motu Mute, 163 Motu Tabu, 189 Motu Teheri, 146 Motu Tofari, 163 Mataea River, 145 of, IG5 Underlying rocks 279 Ridges of old ledge Iki, 192 Lake, 157 Water driven into lagoons by trades, 275 Weather side laud rim of, 275 Gaps 189 Motu Araara, 159 Motu Iti, 165 atolls of, 271 Underlying base 40 Mortlock Islands, 331 Moser Deep, 180 Motuloa, 212 Motungie, 212 of atolls of, 272, 277 of, afe, On Nomuka 314 Slope of lagoons of, Moore, 70 Heacli of trades at, 274 Rise of tides 140 Mokil Island, 341 271 at, 140 Island, 34 Old ledge 271 at, Ratack Chain of, at Gill on, 169 276 of, Crater Mohican of, 271 of loose material in, 27C Movement at, 4, 140, 141 Metis Shoal, 178 Mituro, 169 Extent of lagoons of, 274 Great nioisture at, 274 Insignificant hind rims Corals Melander, Capt., 307 Merizo Bay, 368 Metalanim, 344 277 at, 401 Outlines of, of, 157 156 Murray, Sir John, 225 Mutok Island, 344 Mutokaloj, 342 Dr., Eua, 186 Naiau, 206 On Nomuka, 193 On Talau, 202 Nama, 351 Coralliferniis limestone at, 351, 362 Medjado, 280 Namoluk, 341 Medjerrurik, 290 26 INDEX 402 Nine iNamonuito, 363 Eastern spit Low of Terraces, height 363 atoll of, 363 Kus-siaii survey of, Wo.^toni lioni of, 364 Williams on, 168 Niutao, 230 Nomuka, 192 Namu, 235 Vegetation Na Buttresses of, L>96 Pass, 160 Depth Island, 258, 269 Fertile 194 at, 192 of, Lagoon of, 193 Mangrove swiimp Mayer on, 193 20 r at, 198 to, Sand dune 199 of, Vegetation of, Nero Deep, 333 Ngarue Pass, 76 Nomuka Ngele Levu, 205 Niau, 64 Nomuka Iki, 176, Nomuka Plateau, Nua Papu, 198 Bank Corals on reef 65 flat at, water ])en.*ity of 65 of, in lagoon Diminutive marine shells Old ledge 67 sea, 23 192 192 175 Nui Aunotb Point, 188 Nui Nui, 33, 44 Nuku, 189 Black shingle 230 at, Dimension of, 229 Gaps at, 230 Islands on rim of, 230 at 65 Sand encroadiing on Shape of, 6+ old ledge at, 66 Slope of land rim 65 of, South shore of, 67 Submarine erosion at, Widtli of reef Lagoon sand beach Vegetation 67 65 of, of, 66 of corals at, Nukuhlva, Nukuleka, 188 Nuku Mbasanga, 205 Nukutavake, 118 66 Sand dunes Niniva, 197 Native canoe at, 119 No lagoon at, 18 Niuafou, 178 Niuatobutabu, 203 Old ledge at, 119 Secondary lagoon of, Connection with Tonga, 203 230 229 of, 64 flat of, land rim 193 Group, 192 Dei)th of lagoon of, 230 Poeillipores at, 65 Terraces at, 94 65 at, at, at, 66 192 at, Nukualofa, 190 Nukufetau, 229 Lagoon of closed, 65 Lagoon or sink of, 67 Lagoon sluit off from Nidlipores of, 194 194 at, Slopes of denudation Third terrace at 202 Vegetation at, 200 Bcacli of sea face of, Old ledge outcrop of corals at, 199 Keef platforms at, 18 at, 119 Section across, 118 Nukutipipi, 125 Niue, 171 Blow holes Canons at, at, 172 74 Color of wiiter Dimension of, at, 125 127 Cliffs of, 171 Extension of dunes Erosion Formation of Moss 193 of, Island of, 192 Entrance Wooded 192 194 soil of, Highest point 199 Cliff.sat, Range of, 193 it, Height of beaches Neiafu, 176 Kange of lagoon Fishes in lagoon Narpoli Island, 343 Nauru, 233 Navutuiloma, 204 Corals 193 at, Coralliferous limestone Potu, 204 Napuni at, 171 of, Terr.aces of, 171, 172, 173 Namorik, 329 Nao Nao — Continued Soil of, 173 3f).f at, 174 on, 174 Nullipore m,a.sses at, 172 Lagoon at, 127 i.slands at, of, filling, Nullipore knolls of, 127 128 126 inde;x Nukutipipi — Continued Platform lagoon Steep sea face slope Vegetation of Papiete 128 at, of, 128 Corals 125 to, 211 Dimensions of, 210 off, 152 a1, 152 at, l?ange of corals at, 151 Slope of reef Hat of 21 278 Birds Olimarao, 364 Onevai, 189 Canoe and native Onevao, 189 Onoatoa, 236 Absence of western rim Onoupe Island, 364 Crnstacea De])tli of 237 of, 119 of, 29 of, 31 lagoons Development of Dished of, of, 23 30 Nnllijjores at, 24 isliinds of Echinoderms Oosima, 365 Orahik, 364 30 Elevated coralliferous limestone islands Elevation of western islands of, 18 Klevatcri limestone at, 342 Klat-topped i.slands 3G4 of, Islands of accretion in, 23 of, in, 31 27 marine animals Pearl oysters, age Ellice Islands 277 of, at, 30 Pearl oysters, reproduction 277 Reef flat pudding-stone in, Secondary lagoons of, 22 Gilbert Islands, 277 277 Shells in Islands, 277 of, II of, 15, 21 Lines of upheaval P.aucity of Carolines, 277 20 in, 17 L.agoons shut off from sea Land rims of, 24 Formation of land rim of, 21 French Hydrographic Charts Orohena, 149 Orote Penin.sula, 370 Oto, 198 Otungake, 198 Oua, 195 Outline of, Paumotu 28 Deepe.st sounding in, 28 of Oniimak Island, 301 M.irsliall Islands, in, of, 31 Character of corals of, 29 in, from moderate depths Atolls rising Ohonua, 185 Narrowest land rim Absence of Alcvouarians Area of elevation of, 29 Ofolanga, 197 Fiji, at 151 Pari Bay, 159 Paumotu Archipelago, 211 of, Soundings 151 at, at, 151 Echinoderms Lagoon slope Seconilarv fringing reef Sink — Cmitivucd Corallines Nurakita, 210 Approaches 403 mud of, in, 30 21 of lagoons of, 63 Shoals, ledges, and islands in lagoons of, 22 Paanopa, 233 Pachiai, 350 Paea, 142 Pahia, 163 Small atolls of, 19, 23 Small size of Surface hauls Surveys of, Tridacnas in, Trend of Pakaka Entrance, 68 Vegetation Bottom of, 69 Pakin, 351 Panemur, 350 Pangai, 198 Paoi, 45 Papara reef flats, 147 Papawa Harbor, 153 Western islands of Western plateau of 14') Papiete, 150, 1E2 Algae at, 30 Transportation of cocoannts Paipai Pass, 159 Papenu River, of, 31 l.'il Barrier reef at, 150 151 " Challenger " ,at, 150 in, of, 7, 31 Wind follows trend Paumotu Plateau, 25 18 of islands in, 22 Soundings on, 25 Pau Point, 162 Pava, 221 Peacock Anchorage, 237 Periadik, 355 Permanence of Pacific Ocean, 228 Phaeton Harbor, 144, 147 Pikelot, 364 32 islands of, 27 INDEX 404 Ponapi Pinaki, 120 Alexander on, 121 Area beds at, 121 Bottom of lagoun :it, Coral shingle Depth of lagoon Islets in f)l
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