Manual of British Grasses, Gordon 1907

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3^ 67W MANUAL OF ^•British Grasses BY W J GORDON, AUTHOR OF "OUR COUNTRY'S FLOWERS," ETC WITH A COLOURED ILLUSTRATION OF EVERY SPECIES AND MANY ORIGINAL DIAGRAMS BY J T GORDON ^THSONMaT FEB 1988 LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., Ltd PREFACE r "HE word I -* grasses is used in this book in its strictest forage plants, nor in as in the Bible original its meaning Graminese The order, in which common herbage of and consequently several ; the true grasses are grouped, all contains about 3,600 species, and of these hundred or so said to be native to our islands we deal with the for the usual reason Some may that the dates of their introduction are unknown arrived the during historic period, some may originated here, but none are confined to our area there is popularly grasses, not belong to the so called, not appear herein as they have sense and not as a farmer would use it as including the clovers and other ; in have which nothing remarkable considering the ease and frequency with which grass seeds are distributed For its food plants no botanical order is of greater interest nor has any been more written about, some of the books being really wonderful many, for verification illustrated the labour they involved for instance, to of the which materials I of by actual specimens Among have been indebted this is Hanham's, which of the plants, naively apologises for the delay in its his collection ! the is and the author production on account of the difficulty in selecting 60,000 suitable examples mass of in the from the Only those who have had to deal with PREFACE vi a collection of their set himself own can adequately And snch collectors realise the task are increasing in he number, owing to the economic importance of the subject, helped by the grasses remaining as flowers plentiful become scarcer every That the species may be as year quickly distinguished, a somewhat similar plan has been adopted to that in " the name of the plant being could be devised group alone description —though ever while other wild Our Country's Flowers," found by the shortest method that may it —the identification hold good for the British being confirmed by the detailed Hence more attention than usual is given to the vegetative and other external characters The by illustrations have all been specially drawn for the work my son They include a complete series of a hundred and one coloured figures of the plants, and over eighty diagrams of the structure of their flowers W J G CONTENTS CHAPTER I II PAGE Introductory i List of British Grasses , n III Customary Names 20 IV British Cereals 26 V The Order and VI VII VIII IX its Tribes 37 The Tribes and their Genera The Genera and their Species Tabular View of British Grasses The Seeds of the Grasses 43 65 139 152 X Index to Species 161 XL Index to Genera 172 Index to Customary Names 174 XII COLOURED PLATES FIGURES! PLATES I II Cut Grass i Millet Finger Grasses 3, 6, Rough Bristle Grass III IV Bristle Grasses Cockspur Holy Grass Vernal Grass Canary Grass Reed Grass 10 11 12 V Timothy 13 Alpine Cat's-tail VI VII VIII 14 Cat's-tail Grasses Foxtail Grasses Knappia 18, 19, 20, 21 23 Beard Grasses IX Bent Grasses 24, 25 26, 27, 28, Nit Grass 29 30 Marram XI 22 Hare's-tail X 15, 16, 17 : Smallreeds 31 32, 33, 34, 35 XIII Hair Grasses Hair Grasses 38, 39, XIV Oat Grasses 41, 42, 43 XII 36, 37 viii 40 COLOURED PLATES PLATES XV ix FIGURES False Oat Grass Soft Grasses XVI XVII XVIII XIX 45, 46 Dog's Tooth 47 Cord Grass 48 Hard Grass Mat Grass Lyme Grass 49 50 51 ; Barley Grasses Couch Grass 52, 53, 54, 55 56 Wheat Grass Rye Grass 58, 59 False Brome Grasses 60, 61 XX Brome Grasses Brome Grasses XXI XXII Fescue Grasses XXIII Fescue Grasses XXIV 44 57 62, 63, 64, 65 66, 67, 68 69, Cock's-foot 74 Dog's-tail Grasses XXV Quake Grasses XXVI Meadow Grasses XXVII Meadow Grasses Meadow Grasses XXIX Meadow Grasses XXX Meadow Grasses XXXI Whorl Grass XXVIII Flying Bent XXXII Melic Grasses Heath Grasses XXXIII Koeleria Blue Moor Grass Reed 70 71, 72, 73 75> 76 77,78 79, 80, 81 82, 83, 84 85, 86, 87 88, 89, 90 91 92, 93 , 94 95 96,97 98 99 100 101 ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT PAGE Panicle - Spike Diagrammatic Spikelet Agropyrum repens, 60 Spikelet 65 „ „ Floret Agrostis alba, Floret 46 Spikelet ,, ,, • Aira caryophyllea, Floret Spikelet „ ,, Alopecurus agrestis, „ ,, 44 Spikelet 73 Floret 63 Spikelet 76 „ Arrhenatherum avenaceum, „ ,, Arundo phragmites, Avena Spikelet ,, ,, Briza minor, Floret Bromus giganteus, ,, ,, 78 Floret Spikelet Spikelet ,, ,, 77 Brachypodium sylvaticum, ,, 49 Spikelet 52 Spikelet pratensis, Floret ,, Floret Floret ,, ,, 72 Floret Anthoxanthum odoratum, ,, 67 48 Floret 49 80 58 81 54 83 57 Spikelet 88 ILLUSTRATION'S Calamagrgstis EPIGBIOS, Floret Spikelet Catabrosa aouatica Florer Spikelet Cyxodox DACTYix x Floret Spikelet Cyxosurus CRI5TATU5 Floret Spikelet Dactvlis glomerata Floret „ Spikelet ,, DlGRAPHIS ARUXDIXACEA, Floret Spikelet ,, Elymus arenarius, Floret Spikelet , Festuca ovixa Fl< Spikelet Gastridium lexdigerv „ ret Spikelet ,, Hierochloe borealis, Floret „ „ Spikelet , Holcus LANATUS, Floret Spikelet ,, Hordeum marixum, „ ,, Floret Spikelet KOELERIA CRISTATA, Floret „ „ La gurus o vat us, „ Spikelet Floret Spikelet ,, Leersia oryzoides, Floret „ Spikelet „ Lepturus incurvatus „ „ Floret Spikelet IN TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT Lolium perenne, Floret Spikelet „ „ Melica uniflora, Floret „ Spikelet 99 Mibora verna, Floret Spikelet „ ,, Milium effusum, Floret Spikelet „ ,, Molinia c^erulea, Floret ,, Spikelet ,, Nardus stricta, ,, „ Ovary and Stigma Spikelet Panicum viride, Floret Spikelet „ ,, Phalaris canariensis, Floret Spikelet „ „ Phleum pra tense, Spikelet „ ,, Poa pratensis, ,, "Floret Floret Spikelet ,, POLYPOGON LITTORALIS, Floret ,, Spikelet „ ,, PSAMMA ARENARIA, Floret Sesleria C/erulea, Floret „ Spikelet „ ,, Spikelet Spartina stricta, Floret ,, ,, Spikelet Triodia decumbens, Floret ? , ,, Spikelet ^CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY WE will begin by taking a grass in name as quickly as we can is not a grass but a sedge, and The stem difficulty at once generally triangular and never ; we may The its as well get over that of a sedge that of a grass three-sided bloom and arriving at Perhaps, however, our specimen is is always solid and generally hollow, rounded, leaves of a sedge are in three ranks those of a grass are alternate in two ranks ; In both, the leaves em- brace the stem with sheaths, but in grasses the sheaths are nearly always while in sedges they are not split, leaf -blade joins the is more or known less further, where the sheath in grasses the inner side of the sheath prolonged into a sort of membranous edging as the ligule, whereas a sedge has no ligule There are other distinctions we may deal with later on, but we have enough to make sure that we have a grass and not a sedge for the stem is round and hollow, the leaves are alternate in two series, the sheath is split and there is an un; mistakable ligule How about the inflorescence, that is the arrangement of the flowers on the stem ? Is it a spike, that is having the flowers attached to the axis without a pedicel or stalk to each ; is it a raceme in which the pedicels are the primary branches or is it ; a panicle in which the flowers grow on the secondary or remoter For our present purpose we need not trouble ourand we can assume that what looks like a spike is really a spike, though closer inspection may show it not to be strictly within the definition Dealing with them in this oil-hand way, wc shall find that there is no difficulty in branches ? selves regarding the raceme, 166 INDEX TO SPECIES Lanceolata, Calamagrostis, 32, $3 Laxa, Poa, 91 Lendigerum, Gastridium, 30 Lendigerum, Milium, 30 Linearis, Agrostis, 47 Littorale, Triticum, 56 Littoralis, Agrostis, 25 Littoralis, Polypogon, 25 Lobelii, Melica, 97 Loliacea, Poa, &$ Loliacea, Sclerochloa, 8$ Loliaceum, Catapodium, 85 Loliaceum, Triticum, 85 Madritensis, Bromus, 66 Madritensis, Festuca, 66 Marmum, Hordeum, 55 Maritima, Glyceria, 81 Maritima, Poa, 81 Maritima, Sclerochloa, 81 Maritimum, Hordeum, 55 Maximus, Bromus, 65 Media, Briza, yy Membranacea, Stipa, y^ Membranacea, Vulpia, y^ Minima, Agrostis, 22 Minima, Sturmia, 22 Minor, Briza, 78 Minor, Poa, 91 Mollis, Bromus, 67 Mollis, Holcus, 46 Mollis, Serrafalcus, 67 Monspeliensis, Alopecurus, 24 Monspeliensis, Polypogon, 24 Montana, Aira, ^y Montana, Melica, 96 Montanus, Bromus, 63 Multiflorus, Bromus, by INDEX TO SPECIES Muralis, Bromus, 66 Murinum, Hordcum, 54 Mutabilis, Agrostis, 26, 28 Myosuroides, Alopecurus, 18 Myurus, Festuca, 72 Myurus, Vulpia 72 Nanus, Bromus, 67 Neglecta, Arundo, 34 Neglecta, Deyeuxia, 34 Nemoralis, Bromus, 6^ Nemoralis, Poa, 90 Nemorosus, Bromus, 6^ Nemorum, Festuca, 69 Nodosum, Hordeum, 53 Nodosum, Phleum, 13 Nutans, Melica, 96, 97 Nutans, Poa, 96 Odorata, Hierochloe, Odoratum, Anthoxanthum, 10 Odoratus, Holcus, Oryzoides, Leersia, Ovatus, Alopecurus, 21 Ovatus, Lagurus, 23 Ovina, Festuca, 69 Palustris, Agrostis, 26 Palustris, Arundo, 10 Panicea, Agrostis, 24 Paniceus, Alopecurus, 20 Paniceus, Cynosurus, 24 Paniculata, Phalaris, 16 Paniculatum, Phleum, 16 Parnelli, Poa, 90 Perenne, Lolium, 58 Perennis, Bromus, 62 Phalaroides, Phleum, 15 Phleoides, Phalaris, 15 Phragmites, Arundo, 101 167 68 INDEX TO SPECIES Pinnata, Festuca, 61 Pinna turn, Brachy podium, 61 Pinnatum, Triticum, 61 Pinnatus, Bromus, 61 Planicularis, Avena, 42 Polymorpha, Agrostis, 27 Polymorphus, Bromus, 67 Polynoda, Poa, 87 Praecox, Aira, 39 Praecox, Avena, 39 Pra tense, Hordeum, 53 Pratense, Phleum, 13 Pratense, Trisetum, 42 Pratensis, Alopecurus, 19 Pratensis, Avena, 42 Pratensis, Poa, 88, 90 Procumbens, Procumbens, Procumbens, Procumbens, Festuca, s Glyceria, 83 Poa, 8^ Sclerochloa, 8^ Pubescens, Avena, 42 Pubescens, Trisetum, 42 Pumila, Agrostis, 26, 27 Racemosus, Bromus, 67 Racemosus, Serrafalcus, 67 Ramosus, Bromus, 67 Repens, Agropyrum, 56 Repens, Triticum, 56 Retrofiexa, Poa, 82 Rigida, Festuca, 84 Rigida, Glyceria, 84 Rigida, Poa, 84 Rigida, Sclerochloa, 84 Rigidum, Hordeum, 55 Rigidus, Bromus, 66 Rubra, Agrostis, 30 Rubra, Festuca, 69 INDEX TO SPECIES Rubrum Lolium, 58 Rupestris, Poa, 83 Sabulicola, Festuca, 60 Salina, Poa, 82 Sanguinale, Digitaria, Sanguinale, Panicum, 3 Scabra, Poa, 80 Sciuroides, Festuca, 72 Secalinum, Hordeum, 53 Secalinus, Bromus, 67 Secalinus, Serrafalcus, 67 Sesquitertia, Avena, 42 Setacea, Agrostis, 28 Setacea, Aira, 37 Setacea, Poa, 89 Setaceum, Trichodium, 28 Spica-venti, Agrostis, 29 Spica-venti, Anemagrostis, 29 Spica-venti, Apera, 29 Bromus, 64 Bromus, 64 Spiculiternata, Sterilis, Stolonifera, Agrostis, 26 Stolonifera, Digitaria, 47 Stricta, Agrostis, 27 Stricta, Arundo, 34 Stricta, Calamagrostis, 34 Stricta, Dactylis, 48 Stricta, Nardus, 50 Stricta, Spartina, 48 Strigosa, Avena, 41 Strigosa, Calamagrostis, 35 Subcaerulea, Poa, 88 Subcompressa, Poa, 87 Sylvatica, Agrostis, 26 Sylvatica, Festuca, 60, Sylvatica, Poa, 71 Sylvaticum Brachypodium, 60 , t^o 170 INDEX TO SPECIES Sylvaticum, Hordeum, 52 Sylvaticum; Triticum; 60 Sylvaticus, Bromus, 60 Sylvaticus, Schedonosus, 71 Temuientum, Lolium, 59 Tenue, Lolium, 58 Tenuifolia, Agrostis, 27 Tenuifolia, Festuca, 69 Tenuis, Agrostis, 27} Thalassia, Festuca, 81 Townsendii, Spartina, 48 Triaristata, Agrostis, 24 Triflora, Bromus, 68 Triflora, Festuca, 68 Trinervata, Poa, Trivialis, Poa, 89 Uliginosa, Aira, 37 Umbellata, Fibichia, 47 Uniflora, Melica, 97 Uniglumis, Festuca, 73 Uniglumis, Mygalurus, 73 Uniglumis, Vulpia, 7$ Unilaterale, Triticum, 85 Vallatoria, Arundo, 10 Velutinus, Bromus, 67 Ventricosa, Agrostis, 30 Ventricosus, Alopecurus, 30 Verna, Mibora, 22 Versicolor, Bromus, 67 Verticillata, Setaria, Verticillatum, Panicum, Verticillatum, Pennisetum, Verticillatus, Bromus, 67 Verum, Lolium, 59 Vinealis, Agrostis, 27 Viride, Viride, Panicum, Phleum, 16 INDEX TO SPFXIES Viridis, Setaria, Vitiosus, Bromus, 67 Vivipara, Festuca, 69 Vulgare, Panicum, Vulgare, Syntherisma, Vulgaris, Agrostis, 26, 27 Vulgaris, Arundo, 101 Vulpina, Agrostis, 28 171 CHAPTER XI INDEX TO GENERA =, In addition to the names of the genera adopted in this book, this includes a few of those under which the plant will be found in list other works Achnodon, 17 Aegilops, 49 Chrysurus, 76 Corynephorus, ^7 Agragulus, 27 Cynodon, 47 Agropyrum, Cynosurus, 24, 75, 76, 100 Dactylus, 48, 74 56, 57 Agrostis, 22, 24-29, 47 Aira, 36-40, 94, 95, 99 Danthonia, 98 Deschampsia, ^,6, 37 Deyeuxia, 34 Airochloa, 99 Alopecurus, 13, 18-21, 24 Ammophila, 31 Anthoxanthum, 10 Digit aria, Arrhenatherum, 44 Echinochloa, Arundo, Elymus, 51, 57 Enodium, 95 12, 31-35, 101 Baldingera, 12 Brachyp odium, 60, 61 47 Festuca, 60, 61, 6S, 73-84, 98 Gastridium, 30 Briza, 77, 78 Bromus, 60-68, Bucetum, 70 3, 4, Digraphis, 12 Glyceria, 79-84 70, 74 Hierochloa, Holcus, 44-46 Calamagrostis, 32-35 Homalocenchrus, Campella, 36 Capri ola, 47 Catabrosa, 94 Hordeum, 52-55 Catapodium, 85 Hydrochloa, 79 Knappia, 22 Chamagrostis, 22 Koeleria, 99 Lagurus, 23 Chilochloa, 17 172 t IXDEX TO GENERA Leersia, i *73 Polypogon, 24, 25 Lepturus, 49 Lolium, 58, 59, 73 Melica, 95-98 Psamma, Mibora, 22 Sclerochloa, 81-85 31 Rottboellia, 49 Schenodorus, 70, 71 Milium, Serrafalcus, 67 Molinia, 95 Sesleria, 100 Mygalurus, 72, 73 Nardus, 50 Setaria, 5-7 Ophiurus, 49 Oplismenus, Spartina, 48 Sturmia, 22 Panicum, yS, 47 Pennisetum, Trichodium, 27, 28 Phalaris, 11, 12, 15-17 Triodia, 98 Phalona, 76 Phragmites, 101 Trisetum, 42, 43 Triticum, 56, 57, 60, 85 Vulpia, 72, 73 Poa, 71-79, 94, 96, 98, 99 Weingaertneria, 38 Phleum, 13-17, 24 Sieglingia, 98 Syntherisma, CHAPTER XII INDEX TO CUSTOMARY NAMES Aira, Early, 39 Bent, 27 Bent, Brome, 27 Bent, Early, 39 Aira, Grey, 38 Bent, Fine, 26 Aira, Tufted, 36 Bent, Flying, 95 Bent, Grey, 38 Agrostis, Bristle, 28 Agrostis, Silky, 29 Aira, Wavy, 37 Beard Grass, 24 Annual Annual Meadow Grass, 86 Annual Poa, 86 Bent, Marsh, 26 Bent, Purple, 26 Bent, Sea, 31 Bent, Silky, 29 Alpine Cat's-tail, 14 Alpine Foxtail, 21 Alpine Meadow Bent, Tufted, 36 Bent, Wavy, 37 Grass, 92 Alpine Poa, 92 Bermuda Andes Grass, 44 Bird Grass, 89 Black Couch, 26 Asperella, Grass, 47 Black Grass, 18 Barley, Mouse, 54 Barley, Sea, 55 Black Squitch, 26 Blue Grass, 88 Blue Moor Grass, 100 Barley, Wall, 54 Barley, Wood, 52 Boehmer's Phleum, Bog Hair Grass, ^j Barren Brome, 64 Bearded Darnel, 59 Bearded Rye, 59 Bride's Laces, Bearded Wheat Grass, 57 Beard Grass, Annual, 24 Beard Grass, Perennial, 25 Bristle Grass, Glaucous, Barley, Meadow, 53 15 Bristle Agrostis, 28 Bristle Bent, 28 Bristle Grass, Green, Bristle Grass, Reflex, J 74 INDEX TO CUSTOMARY NAMES Bristle Grass, Brome, Brome, Brome, Brome, Brome, Brome, Brome, Rough, Barren, 64 Compact, 66 False, 60, 6r Field, 6y Great, 65 Hairy, 63 Tall, 68 Brome, Upright, 62 Brome, Bent, 27 Bulbous Meadow Grass, 93 Bulbous Poa, 93 Creeping Sea 175 Meadow Grass, 81 Creeping Soft Grass, 46 Crested Dog's-tail, 75 Crested Hair Grass, 99 Crested Koeleria, 99 Curved Lepturus, 49 Cut Grass, Cynodon, Creeping, 47 Darnel, 59 Darnel Meadow Grass, 85 Daniel Poa, 85 Canary Grass, r Catabrose, 94 Darnel, Perennial, 58 Darnel, Red, 58 Cat's-tail, 13 Deer's-foot Grass, 28 Cat's-tail, Alpine, 14 Devon Eaver, Cat's-tail, Purple-stalked, Dog's-tail, Crested, 75 Dog's-tail, 15 58 Rough, 76 Tough, j6 Cat's-tail, Rough, 16 Dog's-tail, Cat's-tail, Sand, 17 Dog's-tooth, 47 Cat's-tail, Sea, 16 Cat's-tail, Seaside, 17 Cheat, 59 Close Reed, Small, 32 Dog's Wheat, 57 Drank, 64 Dwarf Wheat Meadow Grass, 85 Club Grass, 38 Cock's-foot, 74 Cockspur, Compact Brome, 66 Cord Grass, 48 Couch, Black, 26 Early Aira, 39 Early Hair Grass, 39 Evergreen Grass, 70 Evergreen Meadow Grass, 90 Evergreen Rye Grass, 58 Couch Grass, 56 Couch, Onion, 44 Couch, Wood, 57 Cow Quakes, jy Crab Grass, Creeping Cynodon, 47 False Brome, Heath, 61 False Brome, Slender, 60 False Oat, 44 Fescue, Meadow, 70 Fescue, Rat's-tail, 72 INDEX TO CUSTOMARY NAMES 176 Fescue, Red, 69 Fescue, Reed, 71 Fescue, Sheep's, 69 Fescue, Single-glumed, 77, Fescue, Spiked, 70 Fibrous Wheat Grass, 57 Field Brome, 67 File Cat's-tail, 16 Fine Bent, 26 Fingered Panic, Finger Grass, 3 Finger Grass, Glabrous, Fiorin, 26 Flat Meadow Flat - Grass, 87 stemmed Grass, Meadow 87 Flattened Meadow Grass, Flattened Poa, 87 Floating Foxtail, 20 Floating Meadow Grass, 80 Floating Poa, 80 Floating Sweet Grass, 80 Flying Bent, 95 Fog, Winter, 27 Fog, Yorkshire, 45 Fowl Grass, 89 Foxtail, Alpine, 21 Foxtail, Floating, 20 Foxtail, Marsh, 20 Foxtail, Meadow, Glabrous Finger Grass, Glabrous Panic, Glaucous Bristle Grass, Glaucous Panic, Great Brome, 65 Green Bristle Grass, Green Panic, Grey Aira, 38 Grey Hair Grass, 38 Hair Grass, 40 Hair Grass, Crested, 99 Hair Grass, Early, 39 Hair Grass, Grey, 38 Hair Grass, Tufted, 36 Hair Grass, Turfy, 36 Hair Grass, Water, 94 Hair Grass, Wavy, 37 Hairy Brome, 63 Hairy Wood Brome, 63 Hard Grass, 49 Hard Meadow Grass, 84 Hard Poa, 84 Hare's-tail, 23 Hassock, 36 Havers, 41 Heath False Brome, 61 Heath Grass, 98 Heath Hair Grass, 37 Helme, 31 Herd Grass, 19 Foxtail, Orange-spiked, 20 Foxtail, Slender, tS French Rye, 44 Fromental, 44 13 Holcus, Soft, 46 Holcus, Woolly, 45 Holy Grass, Northern, Hooded Grass, 67 Kentucky Blue Grass, 88 Gardeners* Garters, 12 Knappia, 22 INDEX TO CUSTOMARY NAMES Kneed Water Grass, 20 Meadow 177 Grass, Procumbent, Koeleria, Crested, 99 Lady's Hair, 77 Lead, White, 79 Lepturus, Curved, 49 Lesser Quake Grass, 78 Lob Grass, Meadow Meadow Meadow Grass, Rough-stalk, Grass, Sea, 81 Smooth- Grass, Grass, Wavy, Grass, W ood, 90 Poa, 88 Melic, Purple, 95 Melic, Wood, 97 Mibora, 22 Grass, 50 Matweed, Sea, 31 Matweed, Small, 50 Millet, Panic, 30 Meadow Barley, 53 Meadow Fescue, 70 Meadow Foxtail, 19 Meadow Grass, 88 Meadow Grass, Alpine, 92 Meadow Grass, Annual, 86 Meadow Grass, Bulbous, 93 Meadow Grass, Darnel, 85 Meadow Grass, Dwarf Molinia, Purple, 95 Moor Grass, Blue, 100 Millet, Spreading, Wheat, 85 Meadow Meadow Flat- stemmed, 87 Meadow Moor Mat Grass, 50 Mountain Melic, 96 Mouse Barley, 54 Mousetail, 18 Murran, 31 Narrow-leaved Perennial Oat, 42 Grass, Flat, 87 Grass, Narrow Smallreed, 34 Neele, 59 Nit Grass, 30 Grass, Flattened, Northern Holy Grass, Grass, Floating, 80 Oat Grass, Upright, 62 Grass, Hard, 84 Oat, False, 44 S7 Meadow Meadow 91 T Meagre Smallreed, 35 Melic, Mountain, 96 Grass, 80 Marram, 31 Marsh Bent, 26 Marsh Foxtail, 20 Mat Grass, Roughish, 89 stalked, 88 Maiden's Hair, 77 Manna-croup, 80 Manna Grass, Reed, 79 Grass, Reflexed, 82 89 Meadow Meadow Grass, 67 Loose Panic, Lyme Meadow Meadow Meadow Meadow i INDEX TO CUSTOMARY NAMES 78 Oat, Perennial, 42 Oat, Tall, 44 Oat, Wild, 41 Oat, Yellow, 43 One-glumed Fescue, y^ Onion Couch, 44 Orange-spiked Foxtail, 20 Poa, Reflcxed, 82 Poa, Roughish, 89 Poa, Sea, 81 Poa, Wavy, 91 Poa, Wood, 90 Procumbent Meadow Grass 83 Orchard Grass, 74 Orcheston Grass, 89 Procumbent Poa, Ss Procumbent Sea Meadow Painted Lady Grass, n, 12 Purple Bent, 26 Panic, Cockspur, Purple Melic, 95 Purple Molinia, 95 Grass, 8^ Panic, Fingered, Panic, Glabrous, Panic, Glaucous, Panic, Green, Panic, Loose, Purple Smallreed, ^3 Purple- stalked Cat's-tail, 15 Panic, Millet, 30 Quake Quake Panic, Rough, Quakers, yy Grass, yy Grass, Lesser, yS Perennial Beard Grass, 25 Quaking Grass, yy Perennial Oat, 42 Quitch Grass, 56 Perennial Phleum, Phleum, Phleum, Phleum, Phleum, Rye Grass, 58 Alpine, 14 Boehmer's, 15 Meadow, 13 Rough, 16 Sand, 17 Poa, Alpine, 92 Poa, Annual, 86 Rabbit Grass, 28 Randall Grass, 70 Rat's-tail Fescue, 72 Rattle Grass, yy Ray Grass, 58 Red Darnel, 58 Reed, 10 Reed, Close Small, ^2 Poa, Bulbous, 93 Poa, Darnel, 85 Reed Fescue, Poa, Flattened, Sy /Reed Grass, 12 Poa, Floating, 80 Reed Meadow Grass, 79 Reed Poa, 79 Reed Sweet Grass, 79 Reed, Wood, 32 Poa, Hard, 84 Poa, Meadow, &ti Poa, Procumbent, 83 Poa, Reed, 79 Reflex Bristle Grass, INDEX TO CUSTOMARY NAMES Meadow 1/9 Reflexcd Poa, 82 Smallrced, Narrow, 34 Smallreed, Purple, Riband Grass, Smallrced, Reflexed Rice Grass, Rough Rough Rough Rough Grass, 82 n 12 Smooth Cocksfoot, 74 Bristle Grass, Meadow stalked ^ Soft Grass, 46 Dog's-tail, 76 Roughish Meadow Grass, 89 Rough Panic, Rough Phleum, 16 Rough-stalk Meadow - Grass, Cat's-tail, 16 Wood, 32 Soft Grass, Creeping, 40 Soft Grass, Woolly, 45 Soft Holcus, 46 Spear Grass, 56 Spiked Fescue, 70 Grass, Spire, 31 Spreading Millet, 39 Rye, Bearded, 59 Rye, French, 44 Spring Grass, 10 Rye Squirrel-tail Fescue, 72 Grass, 58 Squirrel-tail, 55 Squitch, Black, 26 Sand Cat's-tail, 17 Sand Phleum, 17 Starr, 51 Sea Barley, 55 Sea Bent, 31 Sweet Grass, Sea Tall Brome, 68 Cat's-tail, 16 Sea Matweed, 31 Sea Meadow Grass, 81 Sea Meadow Grass, Procumbent, S3 Suffolk Grass, 86 79, 80 Tall Oat, 44 Taper Field Brome, 6j Timothy, 13 Tor Grass, 60 Sea Poa, 81 Totter Grass, 77 Sea Reed, 31 Tough Sheep's Fescue, 69 Dog's-tail, 76 Tufted Aira, 36 Tufted Hair Grass, 36 Silky Agrostis, 29 Turfy Hair Grass, 26 Silky Bent, 29 Tussock, 36 Twin-spiked Cord Grass, 48 Seaside Cat's-tail, 17 Single-glumed Fescue, 71 Slender False Brome, 60 Twitch, 56 Slender Foxtail, 18 Small Close Reed, 34 Smallreed, Meagre, 35 Upright Brome, 62 Upright Oat Grass, 62 INDEX TO CUSTOMARY NAMES iSo Vernal Grass, 10 Whorl Wag want, Wick, 46 Wild Oat, 41 jy Wind Wall Barley, 54 Water Grass, Kneed, 20 Water Hair Grass, 94 Water Whorl Way Bennet, Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Grass, 29 Winter Fog, 27 Witch Grass, 56 Wood Barley, 52 Wood Brome, Hairy, 6$ Wood Couch, 57 Wood Meadow Grass, 90 Wood Melic, 97 Wood Poa, 90 Wood Reed, 32 Wood Smallreed, 32 Grass, 94 Wavy Aira, $7 Wavy Hair Grass, u Wavy Meadow Grass, Wavy Poa, 91 Grass, 94 91 54 Grass, Bearded, 57 Grass, Creeping, 56 W oolly Holcus, 45 T Grass, Fibrous, 57 Meadow Grass, Woolly Soft Grass, 45 Dwarf, 85 Yellow Oat, 43 Yorkshire Fog, 45 Whickens, 56 White Lead, 79 THE fiOTOLPM PRINTING WORKS, 8, GATE STREET, KINGSWAY, W.C ... complete series of a hundred and one coloured figures of the plants, and over eighty diagrams of the structure of their flowers W J G CONTENTS CHAPTER I II PAGE Introductory i List of British Grasses... Customary Names 20 IV British Cereals 26 V The Order and VI VII VIII IX its Tribes 37 The Tribes and their Genera The Genera and their Species Tabular View of British Grasses The Seeds of the Grasses... that of a sedge that of a grass three-sided bloom and arriving at Perhaps, however, our specimen is is always solid and generally hollow, rounded, leaves of a sedge are in three ranks those of
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