General History of birds V2, John Latham 1821-1824

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GENERAL HISTORY OF BIRDS BY JOHN LATHAM, M.D R.S r AcA C*:s Nat Cuhios Rr.c 'V.S AND L.S Holm, et Soc Nat Scrut Berolin Soc VOL Ac &e II WINCHESTER IN LONDON BV JACOB ANJ JOHNSON, FOR THE AUTHOR -SOLD JOHN WARREN, BOND-STREET, B, WHITTAKER, AVE-M ARIA-LANE WOOD, 428, strand; and j mawman, 39, lldgatb-street .UINTF.1) ,; vv nv AND W ; 1822 ORDER GENUS Cinereous Shrike A Gesner's Greater Sh B C White Sh Sli y Grey-backed Sli Loggerhead Sh Red-backed Sh; A 2 Tufted Sh 93 White-eared Sh 94 Black-topped Sh 95 Black-capped Sh 96 Spotted Sh 97 Pied Sh A Rousset Sh 110 Red Sh 111 Berbicean Sh 112 Chestnut-crowned Sh 113 Grey-headed Sh 114 White-shouldered Sh 115 Tyrant A B C 98 Lineated Sh 99 South American Sh 78 Bare-eyed Sh 79 Crowned Sh A no Var 100 Grey Sh 80 Brown-streaked Sh A St Sli Domingo Tyr Carolina Tyr Louisiane Tyr Magpie Sli 117 Black Sh: Var 118 Orange Sh SI Clouded Sh 101 Louisiane Sh 82 Solitary Sh 83 New-Piolland Sh 84 Glossy Sh 102 American Sh 103 Brazilian Sh 119 Northern Sh 120 Nootka Sh 104 Yellow-bellied Sh 121 Uniform Sh; 105 Cayenne Sh 122 Superb Sh Pacific Sh 8.5 80 Frontal Sh A A B Var A Var I Spotted Sh Ditto var IK HE characters of tlie Genus Shrike some called) are the following The bill strait at in general The (or Butclier-Bird, as it is by : the base, with the end more or less bent, and tip of the npper mandible.* a notch near the base not furnished with a cere Tongue jagged at the end Tail composed of twelve feathers, f The outer toe connected to the middle one as far as the mm first joint * In some few described from drawings, the notch does not appear have not ourselves met with any, when complete, having fewer than 12 feathers, and must rest on the authority of others, for those said to have only ten t We — SHRIKE we Before System fix the place Ornithology, o*' it wliieli these birds is should hold in the necessaiy that the reader shouhl be acquainted with the reason of alloting to them the present situation 3Ir Ray ranks the Shrike amongst his Short-winged Hawks, but takes in only the three sorts afterwards described in the British Zoology, with a fourth, which is most likely a variety Buflbn them after the Falcons, on account of their ferocity/^ 31 Brisson, on the contrary, puts them at the end of his fifth order, along with the Thrushes and Chatterers, Ijoth of them belonging to the Passerine Order of most systematists As to Linnaeus, he has varied in his opinions In the Fauna jtlaces ^VJ r ^ Suecica of 1746, he ranks the Shrike as a Chatterer, and in his last edition of this book, brings back the Chatterer to the Shrike, then first formed into a genus, and places it in the Accipitrine Order, taking in two species of Titmice f In both the 10th and 12th edi- Systema tions of the JV'atura', the author has added considerably to genus; in the former returning the Titmice to their proper place, and in the latter throwing the Chatterers into a separate genus, and this utmost propriety ; but notwithstanding the Lanius Genus is ranked by him among the Accipitrine Order, it is not without a particular note, confessing his sentiments to be wavering ; and it is most likely, that had he lived to utter another edition, we should have seen these birds placed among the Pies.$ Kramer is inclined to this with the have the Shrike Genus ranked with them,i| though in his work it is put with the Chatterers, in the Passerine Order but Scopoli§ places — * Yet he says, the Pie-grieches and Pie ought to be ranked together—" Je pense que tons pourroient n'en faire qu'un les Pies convenant en beaucoup de choses avec Hist.des Ois.'i p 309; les Pie-'-rieches." t The Long-tailed Titmouse, and the Bearded Titmouse X Lanii acceHjnt Accipitribus laniena, Picis moribus, Passeribug statura, adeoque inter hos medii Syst Nat Ed 12 134 Note II Nee meo judicio § Am Hist Nat erraret, qui i easdem Corvis annumeraret,— Jfrom p 23 B2 el 364 ^ it SHRIKE with the Pies without cereniuiiy, having no Mr Pennant, in his first edition of tlie tloiiht aJiout Genera of Birds, the matter suffers it I to stand in the Accipitrine Order, but remarks its affinity with the V\es/i and in his two last editions of tlie British Zoolo^tf, as well as Genera of Birds, begins the order of Pies with it This example we have already followed, and shall continue to so, being convinced that it is the most natural method, the reasons given by authors of a « ontrary opinion, not having sufficient weight with us M Temminck, however, seems to think otherwise, as he suffers it to make a part of his third order, viz.— Insectivores, in which tlie Thruslies, Chatterers, Manakins, Tody, Flycatcher, and many others, are' included J * Mr, Edwards mentioned the game in his History of Birds, Vol.ii p.56 f a :# SHRIKE 1— CINEREOUS Luniu.Excubitor,/«rf.Or«.i Scop Ann i No 18 Aram, p.364 A.npelU TVm (}7 £,,„ Brun No 21 135 i Id Ed li ii ii 141 /e/8vo.l97 l-l Liu -.m \ / ,/,ô ,, r ,W«u-' Zoo/, p S;j c Klein.M.o3.l Or /,/ p 18 f4 t ,, 282 vii ,.1 ;J7 142 Fulco congener, K/cin Stem t f „ h Lunius, seu CoUurio cinereus major, liaii, I Gm Faun Suec ^o.SO S,pp fog _>_' Boroicsk Nat iằ/aô rf'Orn p 58 SIIIUKE A [ 20 /V.W t.5 f.9 ffilL On,, p 53 :J t 00 Cm., t Vine 10 53 A/.n «: 4k pi f.5 I > Ferlotta berettinu, Zinmni TocOO 15 f.80 Castrica palombina, Oliii I c t p 41 II Falconetti, Cett Vc Sard p 54 Der ffrosse graue Wurirer, Bechst Dcutuch.W p 370 tuf Der Wachter, Naturf s GO Id xvili 232 /,/ xxv La Pie-Grlesche grise, Buf i 290 t 20 I.] lo! PI enl 445 '"rX"-^:Z;i :t.""'Griut Cinereous Shrike, GV».Sj,„.i Kio THE length of bird ^'- '" * 'ô"" Br Zoo^ No 71 pl.33 W ^ằ- /; ô*- ri , < 10 inches; breadth fonrteen; weiirht and ho„ke.l; pluu.age above pale ash-colour; beneath white through ; the ejes a black streak, growing broader behind; scapulars and base of the gre.nter quills wliite, the est black; t.iil cuneiform, the two middle feathers black, the outmost white, the intermediate ones black, with the ends more or less two ounces white ; i., Bill black, strong, legs black *"?'' ''"'"y whil'"marked ''T'; with white '" "'^ ""'''' I-"*' ^^'"^i' ôô ''"'^y transvei-se, semicircular brown lines Inhabits various parts of Europe, though not common in EngIS, ingeneml, first seen here about May, and disappears in land, ; SHRIKE Sf'ptcniber;*?' said to Ijieid in nest some of our mountains, and to of heath and moss, lined >vith wool and gossamer; tive or six, the si/e of those of a thrush, dull olive green, spotted at the larger end with Idack; in France more land ;t make a tlie e|U;gs common than in Eng- and small birds, which it seizes by the throat, and after strangling, fixes them on a sharp thoni,J for the more easily pidling them to pieces with the bill and if kept in a I'age will imitate this, by sticking the food against the wires of it; in Spring and Summer mocks the voice of other birds, by way of decoying them within reach; and if a trapfall be baited with a living bird, it feeds on insects ; the shrike itself may betaken; if kept in a cage, seems content, but no note or song whatever; lias in countries where most plentiful, tliese birds are valued, on the supposition of their destroying rats, mice, and other vermin; and birds;|| in Russia are often trained for catching small hence M Salerne supposed calls it a Lanner of the smallest sort;§ is to live five or six years.^ This species is not uncommon about Gibraltar, at all seasons, as of the Continent of Europe ;#* and not less frequent on the opposite shore of Algiers, as well as ou all the coast of Morocco with very little variation, in other parts of Africa, the ; is found, Cape of Good on the Coast of Coromandel, in India of which the two middle feathers are I have observed, too, a more striking black, and the others white difference, in one having the scapulars next the wing, the lower part of the rump, the belly, and vent pale rufous white ; thighs, and all Hope, and in various places diftering principally in the * Not always, as Col tail, Montagu instanced two males brought to him near the end of November, 1790; and Dr Lamb, of Newbury, a female, shot near Aldermaston, Jan 1795 He also mentioned two others, one killed in November, the other in the December ov the following year, and a third on January 10 t II Is called Edw * by some the French-Pie V.231 § Salem Orn p 28 % Edw Olina Uc p * well as in France, Italy, and Spain, and in the more northern parts v 233 Br Zool ** Rev Mr White ^j^l*i ; SHRIKE Ijeneath to the belly, white ; the two midille tail feathers black, tlie rest asli-colour Tt is hen Hudson's Bay, in America, where it breeds way up a pine or juniper tree, in April the tVeqiient also at makini>' the nest half sits fifteen days; ; is there called Wapaw M'hisky lohn, or White Whisky John Is found also as far south as Georoia, and known by the name of Big-headed Mocking Bird it there measm es 8^ inches ; in length, and 13 but is not very common Mr Abbot, Mho has observed these, seems to think that the male and female differ less from each other than in Europe, the femr.le being paler of the two, and the breast very obscurely undulated with dull brownish line.c.— Called Neuntodter (killer of nine), as it is said to kill nine hi breadth, grasshoppers in a day ; the blue-grey probably grows paler with A.— Lanlus cinereus Kleiner major, Bris.u 140 /,/ 8vo 198 JVil/ Orn 53 age.*:* Frisch t.-j!)
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