British and European Macrolepidoptera

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%\N N V"^* ^S^V^" re^ n,^ IK J /- r r~ Ji r^ \ J pf i r r^"-^- f I'll'lO r'nii/ ,/ ' / / / \ Cf" ô BRITISH AND EUROPEAN BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS NEW YORK1 BRITISH AND EUROPEAN BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS fMACROLEPIDOPTERAj BY A W KAPPEL, F.L.S., F.E.S (assistant librarian, linnean society), AND W EGMONT KIRBY, L.S.A., AUTHORS OF "BEETLES, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, AND OTHER INSECTS." WITH THIRTY COLOURED PLATES H DEUCHERT AND S SLOCOMBE NEW YORK: LONDON: Ernest Nister E P Printed in Bavaria Dutton & Co 'oy "yUtf f^^ '^\-f^* i-' The Letterpress, Coloured Plates, and Binding by E Nister, Nuremberg, Bavaria hxxS'] PREFACE Though a new work with good fill appeared on and of reasonable ilkistrations of Macrolepidoptera price ma}' be still Europe, useful It is to readers Space has not pemiitted them to include of those the the want that the Authors have decided upon placing the present volume before this their have books several inhabiting British English Isles Central will names assigned be to Europe found all the European been dealt with, have described or figured All and the but most species, nearly British them, a feature which has been neglected in all those species of have many books of recent date The average expanse in the species, of the Index of Latin Names, so he can at once ascertain respecting structure, collecting, it etc., wings, that, by will if in inches, will be found the reader wishes to referring to that Index after know the names the size of a Necessary intomiation be found in the Introduction THE AUTHORS INTRODUCTION Insects are animals with a segmented body consisting of three principal parts: the There are three pairs of legs and usually a pair of antennae head, thorax, and abdomen or feelers Most insects come from eggs, but there are also some -which are born alive and others which the larvae pass into the pupa-state immediately, without feeding, as in some parasitic flies Some crawl from the egg with a form like that of the parent, except that the wings, and in some the legs and antennae, are wanting, whilst others appear with a worm-like shape, either footless and headless (maggots), or provided with a head and feet (caterpillars), and in maturity after passing through several metamorphoses In the former class the the imperfect to the perfect state is gradual; in the latter four stages may be from passage clearly distinguished, namely: the egg, the caterpillar or larva, the chrysalis or pupa, and the only reach imago, or perfect insect This is the life-history, as it The Lepidoptera form one takes place in Lepidoptera or Butterflies and Moths and a systematic study of of the seven orders of Insects, these animals involves a knowledge of all the stages of insect development A ANATOMY OF LEPIDOPTERA The bodies of butterflies and moths are compact and cj'lindrical, the head is small, and the wings broad, with a regular arrangement of nervures, and covered with fine scales On each side of the head is a large globular facetted eye, and between them is the vertex with the front or forehead before it, which is limited by the upper border of the mouth on the front is placed a smooth horny plate, the clypeus On the vertex two so-called simple eyes or ocelli, which are, however, wanting in many the front between the compound eyes are the antennae, or feelers Above this are situated the groups On The mouth-apparatus which are exuded from over-lapping clypeus It is intended for sucking up the honey from flowers or the juices or upper lip, is small and often hidden by the attached to the upper border of the mouth by a membranous is trees The labrum, and projects over the mouth On both sides of the mouth are rudimentary mandibles, the two parts of which can only be recognised in the larger species The maxillas, or lower jaws, are produced into a tubular tongue or proboscis consisting of two half cylinders, which lie in apposition and together form a complete tube This organ when not in use is kept coiled up in a spiral, and can be extended at the will of the insect The length of the proboscis varies much, being very long in some species, and very short or almost absent in others At the base of the proboscis and at its outer side are placed the maxillary palpi, which are generally small The labial palpi are very variable in size and are sometimes visible consist of three joints, the second of which is generally the longest and scarcely They most hairy, and the terminal ones are pointed and often very slender articulation, INDEX OF LATIN NAMES moniliata, W V nitidella, Hiibn (i in.), 56 182 (f in.), moitochroaria, Herr.-Schaff (J monocliroma, Esp monoglypha, Hufn 21S in.), niveata Scop, (i^-i^ no in.), (i:|- morpheus, (i.y-2 in.), 116 PI .\.\V' liy Noctuophalaenida;, 16S Nola, Leach, 43 Nonagria, Ochs., 126 notata, Linn, (i-ij in), 199 nothum, Hiibn (ij-ij in.), 179 134 in.), Pall (l^-lg in.), 27 muridaria, Hiibn (l-i^in.), 210 multangula, Hiibn (13-ii in.), 92 Notodonta, Ochs., 70 Notodontidas, 68 Haw (l-lj in.), 229 V (li-lj in.), 139 nubeculosus, Esp (l-l| Nudaria, Staph., 44 miiltistrif,'aiia, niunda, W mundana, Linn, niunitata, Hiibn (f-i 44 228 muralis, Forst (l-l^ muricata, Hufn (f nudella, Oclis (i in.), (l in.), nupta, Linn (3 85 182 i^l in.), in.), 95 o V (I5-1 j in.), 96 obehsca, obeliscata^ Hiibn (J-l in.) 226 obfuscaria, Hiibn (I3-1J in.), 210 obliterata, Hufn (f-i in.), 235 obotritica, Herr.-Schiiff (li in.), 98 obscuraria, Hi.ibn (ij-li in.), 209 in.), PI 173 W musccrda, Hufn (l-l^ in.), 45 musculosa, Hiibn (l| in.), 128 musiva, Hiibn (ij-ii in.), 97 myopaeformis, Borkh (j-f in.), 35 myricce, Guen (ij-li^ in.), 83 myrmidone, Esp (i^-l| in.), NymphaHdee, 10 55 myrtilli, Linn, (i in.), 165 153 56 nyctemera, Boisd (I3-2 NycteoUdse, 42 murina, Esp (1-I5 in.), 44 murinaria, W V (l-li in.), 214 murinata, Scop (| in.), 218 muscasformis, View, (f in.), 36 muscella, VV V in.), in.), Numeria, Dup., 191 in.), in.), 215 in.), Noctua2, 79 niontanata, W V (i-i^ in.), 230 morio, Linn, (f-i in.), 57 moi'pheus, Hufn (1I-I3 -sO X.XVH fi- obscurata, Stand (ig-l|^ obsoleta, Hiibn (ij^j-i^ Mythimna, Guen., 133 in.), in.), 232 130 Ramb (§ in.), 183 PI occulta, Linn (2-2^ in.), 113 obsoletaria, N Borkh (ij-iA ocellaris, ocellata, Linn, (i-lj in.), 226 ocellatus, Linn (25-3J in.), 31 Naclia, Boisd., 41 Ncenia, Steph., 124 nanata, Hiibn (J in.), 242 napcea, Hiibn., 14 napi, Linn, (ii-2 in.), PI H fig 4-41J ochrearia, Rossi (1-I5 PI- in.), 31- in.), XV fig 18 in.), 61 115 V (li-13 oleracea, Linn, (i^ W olivata, PI nictitans, Borkh (i^-ii in.), 125 (lA-lif in.), 108 W oleagina, XLX fig 5, a, nexa, Hiibn (i-i-j in.), 126 ni, Hiibn (ij-ii in.), 164 Haw 216 in.), in.), (5 in.), V (i-ij 103 in.), ononaria, Fuessl (i in.), ononis, W V (l in.), 166 XXVL fig opacella, Herr.-Schaff (f in.), 55 opararia, Hiibn {\\ in.), 210 Opigena, Boisd., 88 opima, Hiibn (i^ in.), 139 Nisoniades, Hiibn., 27 W V (i^-ij in.), 146 nitida, XXV 00, Linn, (ij-li in.), 141 PI nigrita, Boisd (l-l:^ in.), 165 15 PI 228 216 ophiogramma, Esp (ij-lj in.), 112 in.), nigricans, Hiibn (l-l^ in.), 127 nigricans, Linn (li in.), 97 niobe, Linn (1J-2 78 CEneis, Hiibn., 19 V (li-ijin.), 80 neurica, Hiibn (i-i| in.), 127 Neuronia, Hiibn., 100 nigra in.), Ophiusidse, 171 optilate, or, W Knoch V (l J (£-1 in.), 77 in.), in.), IIQ I r, fig 5, Odontopera, Staph., 195 oedipus, Fabr (ij-ii in.), 24 osme, Hiibn (ij-if in.), 18 W neustria, Linn (l^-li V (lA octogesima, Treit (ij-ii Odezia, Boisd., 219 Nemoria, Hiibn., 180 nervosa, fig XV P Ocneria, Herr.-SchafF., 60 nemoialis, Fabi" (i in.), 176 nemoraiia, Hiibn (l^- in.), 186 Linn (4J-43 W ochroleuca, Nemeobius, Steph., 10 Nemcophila, Steph., 48 nerine, Freyer (2-2| XX.X I'l V (i-ij in.), 93 ochracea Stand (2-2| in.), ochrata Scop (J in.), 182 nebulosa, Hufn (2-2^ in.), 102 neglecta, Hiibn (l| in.), 89 nerii, fi^ W ocellina, XXIV 149 in.), fig
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