Bridgewater treatises V4, Chalmers 1780-1847

384 8 0
  • Loading ...
1/384 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 23/11/2018, 23:24

THE BRIDGEWATER TREATISES ON THE POWER WISDOM AND GOODNESS OF GOD AS MANIFESTED IN THE CREATION TREATISE IV THE HAND ITS MECHANISM AND VITAL ENDOWMENTS AS EVINCING DESIGN BY SIR CHARLES BELL F R S L & E [FOURTH EDITION] K.G.H THE HAND ITS MECHANISM AND VITAL ENDOWMENTS AS EVINCING DESIGN BY SIR CHARLES BELL F.R.S L & K.G.H E PROFESSOR OF SURGERY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH ALDJ LONDON WILLIAM PICKERING 837 ' C WHITTINCHAM, TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY I.ANE NOTICE The which the present the under following circumstances published series of Treatises, of is one, is : The Right Honourable and Reverend Francis Henry, Earl of Bridgewater, died in the month of February, 1829 ; and by his last Will and Testament, bearing date the 25th of February, 1825, he directed certain Trustees therein named to invest in the public funds the sum this sum, with of Eight thousand pounds sterling be held at the disposal the accruing dividends thereon, to ; of the President, for the time being, of the Royal Society of London, to be paid to the person or persons nominated by him The Testator further directed, that the person or persons selected by the said President should be appointed to write, print, and publish one thousand copies of a work On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation ; illustrating such work by all reason- able arguments, as for instance the variety and formation of God's creatures in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms ; the effect of digestion, and thereby of conversion ; the construction of the hand of man, and an of other arguments; modern, in He as also arts, sciences, and by infinite variety discoveries the whole extent ancient of and literature desired, moreover, that the profits arising from the sale of the works so published should be paid to the authors of the works VI The Royal Society, Davies Gilbert, Esq requested the assistance of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury and of the Bishop of London, in determining late President of the upon the best mode of carrying into effect the intentions of Acting with their advice, and with the concurrence of a nobleman immediately connected with the the Testator deceased, Mr Davies Gilbert appointed the following eight gentlemen to write separate Treatises on the different branches of the subject as here stated : THE REV THOMAS CHALMERS, D.D PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH ON THE POWER, WISDOM, AND GOODNESS OF GOD AS MANIFESTED IN THE ADAPTATION OF EXTERNAL NATURE TO THE MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL CONSTITUTION OF MAN JOHN KIDD, M.D F.R.S REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD ON THE ADAPTATION OF EXTERNAL NATURE TO THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF MAN THE REV WILLIAM WHEW ELL, MA F.R.S FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE ASTRONOMY AND GENERAL PHYSICS CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO NATURAL THEOLOGY SIR CHARLES BELL, K.G.H F.R.S L.&E PROFESSOR OF SURGERY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH THE HAND : ITS MECHANISM AND VITAL ENDOWMENTS AS EVINCING DESIGN PETER MARK ROGET, FELLOW OF AND SECRETARY TO THE ROYAL M.D SOCIETY ON ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY Vll THE REV WILLIAM BUCKLAND, D.D F.R.S CANON OF CHRIST CHURCH, AND PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD ON GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY THE REV WILLIAM KIRBY, ON THE HISTORY, HABITS, M.A F.R.S AND INSTINCTS OF ANIMALS WILLIAM PROUT, M.D F.R.S CHEMISTRY, METEOROLOGY, AND THE FUNCTION OF DIGESTION, CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO NATURAL THEOLOGY His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, Presi- dent of the Royal Society, having desired that no unnecessary delay should take place in the publication of the above mentioned vals, as treatises, they will appear at short inter- they are ready for publication PREFACE When one has to maintain an argument, he will be listened to more willingly if he is known to be unbiassed, The natural sentiments and to express his reflections contained pages have not been suggested by the occasion of the Bridgewater Treatises, in these but long ago, in a course of study An anatomical to other objects arose, directed aware of the higher bearings of his science, can hardly neglect the opportunity which the demonstrations before him afford, of making an impression upon the minds of those young men who, for the most teacher, himself elements of their professional education from him and he is naturally led to part, receive the ; indulge in such trains of reflection as will be found in this essay So back as the year 1813, the late excellent vicar of Kensington, Mr Rennell, attended the author's lectures, and found him far maintaining the principles of the English school of Physiology, and in exposing the futility of the opinions of those engaged in French philosophers and physiologists, who represented life as the mere physical result PREFACE X of certain combinations and actions of parts by them termed Organization That gentleman thought the subject admitted of an argument which it became him to use, in his office of " Christian Advocate." * This will show the reader that the sentiments and the views, which a sense of duty to the young men about him induced the author to deliver, and which Mr Rennell heard only by accident, arose naturally out of those studies Lord Chancellor Brougham that the author wrote the essay on " Animal Mechanics ;" and it was probably It was at the desire of the from a belief that the author felt the importance of the subjects touched upon in that him the essay, that his lordship was led to further honour of asking him to join with " Natural in illustrating the Theology him ' of Dr Paley That request was especially important, as showing that the conclusions to which the author had arrived, were not the peculiar or accidental suggestions of professional feeling, nor of solitary study, which is so apt to lead but that the powerful and masculine mind of Lord Brougham was dito enthusiasm rected to the early life ; same objects: was distinguished An office in the University that he, who in for his successful of Cambridge, COMPARISON OF THE EYE 354 its sensibility This, then, is the first effect that we shall remark, as arising from the searching motion of the eye, and the variety in the sen- sibility of the nerve The refreshing colours of the natural landscape, are at no time so pleasing as, when reading on a journey, we turn the eye from the book then to the fields — deeper the and woods the shadows are and greens more soothing ; ; the whole colours are softened Reynolds ob- served to Sir George Beaumont that the pictures of Rubens appeared different to him, and less brilliant, on his second visit to the continent than and the reason of the difference, he discovered to be that, on the first visit, he had taken notes, and on the second he had not The on his first ; quite equal to the effect ; but I cannot help imagining that there is some incorrectness in the use of the term brilliant un- alleged reason is : less for warmth and depth of colouring is meant when the eye turns from the white paper ; and yellows must nebe If we look out from the cessarily deeper window, and then turn towards a picture, the whole effect will be gone the reflected rays from the picture will be too feeble to produce to the painting, the reds — we look upon a sheet of paper, and then upon a picture, the tone will be deeper, and the warm tints stronger, but the their impression lights ; and shades or if less distinct If we place an WITH THE HAND 355 painting, without the frame, upon a large sheet of paper, or against a white plastered wall, oil appear offensively yellow this is because the eye alternately, though insensibly, moves from the white paper or wall to the painting, which is of a deep tone, and consequently the it will : browns and yellows are rendered unnaturally We see the necessity of the gilt frame strong for such a picture, and the effect that it produces it : does not merely cut off surrounding it prepares the eye for the colours of objects, but — the painting it allows, if I may so express it, the painter to use his art more boldly, and to exaggerate the colours of nature Painters proceed by experiment and in painting a portrait, they know that they can represent the features by contrasts of lights and shadows, with very little colour but such a portrait is : ; never popular If they are to present the likeness without much contrast of light and shade, they must raise the features by contrasts of the hence the carnations are necessarily but all this is softened down, by exaggerated a throwing piece of drapery into the picture and the effect of this will be so striking, from its colours : ; ; colours preparing the eye properly for receiving those of the rest of the picture, that the features which, perhaps, before gave the idea of an in- flamed countenance, will appear natural The common resource of the painter is to throw in a 356 COMPARISON OF THE EYE crimson curtain, or to introduce some flower, or piece of dress, that shall lead the eye, by the succession of tints, towards it and by this : means, the eye will be prepared to receive the otherwise exaggerated colours of the portrait : surveying the red curtain, and then the countenance, the whole appears coloured with the modesty of nature first Those who hang pictures, not place an historical picture, painted after the manner of the Bolognese school, with distinct and abrupt co- loured draperies, by the side of a landscape ; for the colours of a landscape, to be at all consonant with nature, must be weak and reduced tone, corresponding with the effect the intervention of the atmosphere to a low produced by ; its colours, therefore, would be destroyed by too powerful a contrast It is because pictures are, for the most part, painted on different principles, that there is a difficulty of deciding which colours are best adapted for the walls of a gallery : but generally speaking, the dark subdued red, or morone, brings out the colours of paintings ; in other words, if we look on a wall of this hue, and then turn to the picture, the prevailing green and yellow tints will appear brighter The word " contrast" is used without an exact comprehension of what it implies illustrations that have been given, it From will the be seen that the effect resulting from the proper distri- WITH THE HAND 357 bution of colours placed together, is produced through the motion of the eye, combined with we have been adverting, of the the retina When we imagine that of sensibility we are comparing colours, we are really expethe law to which riencing the effect of the nerve being exhausted by dwelling on one colour, and becoming more In drapery, susceptible of the opposite colour for example, there is such a mixture of different tints reflected from it, that although one prevails, the impression may be greatly modified by what the eye has previously experienced If the colouring of the flesh be, as the painter terms it, too "warm," it may be made "cold' by renthe red and yellow dering the eye insensible to rays, and more than usually susceptible of the blue and purple rays Every coloured ray from transmitted to the eye but if the eye has moved from a yellow or crimson drapery, then the rays of that kind will be lost for the the flesh is ; moment, and the colour of the flesh will appear less warm, in consequence of the prevalence of the opposite rays of colour be unsatisfactory to the philosophical student, to make use of a term without knowing its full meaning yet much has been said about contrast and harmony, in paintIt ought to : from the arrangement of the colours the idea being that the colours placed together are seen at the same time, and that this ing, as resulting ; COMPARISON OF THE EYE '358 gives rise to the effect, of sible : whereas, it which we are all sen- from alternately looking results one colour and then at the other The but I subject might be pleasantly pursued at the ; mean only to vindicate the importance of the motions of the eye to our enjoyment of colours, whether they be those of nature or of art There is another subject of some interest, the effect produced upon the retina when namely, the eye is intently fixed upon an object, and is not permitted to wander from point to point This touches on the chiaroscuro of painting which is not merely the managing of the lights ; and shadows, but the preserving of the parts of a scene subordinate to the principal object There is something unpleasant least experienced eye in a picture, even to the — where every thing is the drapery of every figure, made or the carvings and ornaments, are all minutely represented for, in nature, things are never seen out — where : On such a way the other hand, a picture is truly effective, and felt to be natural, when the eye is led to dwell on the principal group, or in principal figure, with which it is the artist's intention to occupy the imagination With fine art, the painter heightens the colours of the chief parts in his picture, and subdues, by insensible degrees, those which are mastery of his removed from the centre the scene, as when we ; and thus he represents look intently at any WITH THE HAND 359 thing that is, by making the objects which are near the axis of the eye be seen distinctly the : — other objects retreating, as it were, or rising out and less distinctly, in proportion as they recede from the centre In the one instance, the less paints a panorama, where, on turning round, we have the several divisions of the circle artist presented before the eye, and the objects visible in each appearing equally distinct in the other, he paints a picture, which represents the objects, ; not as when the eye wanders from one to the where it is fixed with higher interest upon some central figure, or part of the scene, and the rest falls off subordinately Reverting to our main argument, the proofs of other, but beneficence in the capacities of the living frame, we look naturally to the pleasures received through this double property of the eye its — motion and sensibility ; and we perceive that, whilst the varieties of light and shade are necessary to vision, the coloured rays are also, by their variety, suited to the higher exercise of this sense jects ; They not nor are they equally illuminate obequally agreeable to the all all eye The yellow, pale green, or isabella colours, illuminate in the highest degree,* and are the * The Astronomer selects for his telescope a glass fracts the pale yellow light in the greatest proportion, illuminates in the highest degree and irritates the least which re- because it OF EXPRESSION IN THE EYE 360 most agreeable to the sense ; and we cannot but observe, when we look whether to the country, the sea, or the sky, that out on the face of nature, these are the prevailing colours The red ray illuminates the least, but it irritates the most ; and it variety in the influence of these the nerve, that continues its exercise, is this rays upon and adds so much to our enjoyment We have pleasure from the succession and contrast of colours, independently of that higher gratification which the mind enjoys through the influence of association OF EXPRESSION IN THE EYE In the conclusion of the volume, sion to I took occa- remark that natural philosophy some- mind of a weak person I a student who objected to the attitude times disturbed the recollect : and the direction of the eyes upwards in prayer " "For," said he, it is unmeaning; the globe on which we stand is round, and the inhabitants in : every degree, or division, of the sphere, have their eyes directed differently, diverging from the earth, and concentrated to nothing." This foolish observation may lead us once more to notice the relations between the mind and the body, and external nature The posture, and the expression of reverence, OF EXPRESSION IN THE EYE 301 have been universally the same in every period of life, in all stages of society, and in every clime On seems merely natural that, when pious thoughts prevail, man's countenance should be turned from things earthly, to first consideration, it But there is a link in the purer objects above this relation every way worthy of attention the ; eye is raised, whether the canopy over us be shrouded in darkness, or display all the splendour of noon The muscles which move the eye-ball are in certain conditions of the affected powerfully mind Independently altogether of the will, the eyes are rolled upwards during mental agony, and whilst strong emotions of reverence and This is a natural sign, piety prevail in the mind stamped upon the human countenance, and as man, as any thing which distinhim from the brute The posture of the guishes body follows necessarily, and forms one of those numerous traits of expression, which hold man- peculiar to kind in sympathy The same evidence that we brought forward on a somewhat similar question, regarding the expression of the hand, that is, the works of the great painters, who have made the sublimer passions of man the subjects of their art, might be adduced here for by the direction of the eyes, and the correspondence of feature and at; titude, in their paintings, they speak to all man- 362 kind OF EXPRESSION IN THE EYE Thus we must admit that the reverential posture, and the upward direction of the eyes are natural, whether in the darkened chamber, They result from mind and body, and or under the vault of heaven the very constitution of the are too powerful to be effaced or altered No sooner does pain or misfortune subdue a man, or move him to supplication, than the same univerexpression prevails Here is the correspondence of the mind, the frame, and external nature, by which man is directed to look for sal aid from above APPENDIX THE CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS IN EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS INCIDENTALLY USED IN THE VOLUME The Animal Kingdom Division is in four Divisions arranged Vertebral Animals: I sessing a vertebral column or spine Molluscous Animals: Division II which are of a soft structure, : so called from their pos- such as shell-fish, and without a skeleton Etym mollis, soft Division Articulated Animals: III like the worm or they are without a skeleton, but their skins or coverings are divided and jointed Etym Articulus, a joint insect : Zoophytes: animals believed to be composed Division IV very nearly of a homogeneous pulp, which is moveable and sensible, and resembles the form of a plant Etym '(wov, zoon, alive ; (pvrov, phyton, a plant DIVISION The division of vertebral animals is I composed of four Classes : Mammalia, animals which suckle their young Etym viz., mamma, a teat Aves Etym avis, a bird Reptilia, animals that crawl Etym from a part of the word repo, to creep The Pisces first Class, subdivided into Etym piscis, a fish Mammalia, is divided into Orders, Genera, and these are further divided which are into cies We present the principal Orders with familiar examples Bimana, man Etym bis, double; manus, hand Spe- 364 APPENDIX Etym quatuor, four manus, hand Monmakis or lemurs (Etym lemures, ghosts) The keys, Quadrumana ; gradior, to walk) tardigradus (tardus, slow; species of lemur loris Etym x ft i°> The Bats Cheiroptera wing Insectivora hog Etym shrew ; cheir, the hand insecta, insects ; ; is Trrzpov, jyteron, voro, to eat a a Hedge- mole ; Etym planta, the sole of the foot; gradior, Plantigrade to walk Bear; racoon Etym Digitigrade digitus, the toe, or finger Lion; wolf; dog; weasel Etym a^t, amphi, both Amphibia ; gradior, to walk Walrus; ; bios, /3ioc, life seal a pouch Etym marsupium, Marsupialia Kangaroo; opossum Rodentia Squirrel; beaver; rat; Etym rodo, to gnaw Etym edentatus, toothless hare Edentata Ai; unau : animals without the armadillo; ant-eater; tamandua; megatherium (/meya, mega, great Snpiov, therion, a wild beast); megalonyx (jieyag, megas, great; owl,, onyx, a front teeth ; ; ornithorhynchus (opvidog, ornithos, of a claw); bird; pvyxpg, rhynchos, a beak.) Pachydermata Etym TrayyQ,pachys, thick Septet, derma, skin Rhinoceros; elephant; mammoth; mastodon ; mastos, a nipple (yuaerroc, therium ; orW, odon, a unarmed, (m'07r\og, tooth.) Srjpioi') Anople- Paloeotherium ancient, Svpiov) tapir: solidungula (solida, ungula, the hoof) as the horse, couagga.* Camel ; Ruminantia Etym rumino, chew the cud (7ra\aiog, solid ; giraffe ; Cetacea deer ; Etym cow ; sheep whale Dolphin; whale; dugong a cetus, goat ; Second Class Accipitres Passeres low ; Aves, or Birds Etym accipiter, a hawk Etym passer, a sparrow crow ; wren Vulture ; eagle; owl Lark; thrush; swal- 365 APPENDIX Scansores Etym scando, to climb Parrot; wood-pecker; toucan Gallinse Peacock gallina, a hen Etym ; pheasant ; pi- geon Grallse Etym grallse, Ostrich stilts stork ; ; ibis mingo Palmipedes Etym palma, the palm of the hand; pes, Swan pelican ; Sauria fla- foot gull ; Third Class Chelonia ; Reptiles Etym xeXve, chelys, Etym aavpa, saura, a tortoise Tortoise; turtle a lizard Crocodile; alli- gator; chameleon; dragon; pterodactyle {icrepov,pteron, a wing; daKrvXug, dactylus, a finger); ichthyosaurus a lizard); plesio(t^-^e, ichthys, a fish; aavpa, saura, saurus {TrX-qoiov, plesion, megalasaurus (fxeyaXri, near to ; aavpa, saura, a lizard) megale, great; hylseosaurus (t>\?7, wood, aavpa) a serpent Boa; viper ophis, Etym ocptg, Ophidia Batrachia Etym Parpaxoc, batrachos, a frog Frog lizard) iguanadon ; salamander ; ; aavpa, saura, a ; ; proteus Fourth Class Fishes Etym xpvdpog, chondros, gristle; nrepv^, Ray; sturgeon; shark; lamprey; ammocete (afifiog, ammos, sand nr\Tog, cetos, a fish.) Plectognathi Etym 7r\e/cw, pleco, to join yvaBog, gnathos, Chondropterygii pteryx, a fin ; ; the jaw Sun-fish; trunk-fish Etym Xotyog, lophos, a crest; j^pay^ta, Lophobranchi the branchia, Pipe-fish pegasus gills Etym fiaXaicog, malakos, soft ; Trrepv^, Melacopterygii Salmon; trout; cod; herring; remora pteryx, a fin ; Acanthopterygii pteryx, a fin Etym afcaj^a, acantha, a thorn; Trrepvl, Perch; sword-fish; mackarel ; lophius a fisher); piscatorius (Xo
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Bridgewater treatises V4, Chalmers 1780-1847, Bridgewater treatises V4, Chalmers 1780-1847

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay