The tailless batrachians of Europe V2, Boulenger

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THE TAILLESS BATRACHIANS OF EUROPE BY G A BOULENGER, PART F.R.S II, LONDON: PRINTED EOR THE RAY SOCIETY MDCCCXCVIII PRINTED BY ADLARD AND SON, IURTHOLOIV1EW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20 HANOVER SQUARE, W 11 211 Family 3.— BUFONIDJE diaVertebrae proccelous, without autogenous ribs pophyses of sacral vertebra dilated Teeth absent ; This large family, comprising nine genera, is distributed over the whole world except Madagascar, Papuasia, and the islands of the Pacific Only one genus is represented in the Palasarctic region A Himalayan geous, Cophophryne, Blgr., founded on a small toad with vertical pupil, and with the sacral vertebra provided with very strongly dilated diapophyses and a single condyle for articulation with the urostyle, effects the passage from the preceding family, from which the true toads differ in the total absence of teeth Bufo Laurenti, Syn Rept., p 25 (1768) — Parfcim Pupil horizontal Vomerine teeth none Tongue or pyriform, entire and free behind Tympanum distinct or hidden Fingers free, toes more or less webbed outer metatarsals bound together Diapophyses of sacral vertebra moderately dilated two condyles for articulation with urostyle Omosternum absent sternum a cartilaginous plate elliptical ; ; ; Fig 78 Open mouth of Bufo calamita The genus Bufo, of which some 100 species are known, has representatives in most parts of the world, with the exception of Madagascar, Papuasia, Australia, [At page 211 DISTRIBUTION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF BUFO 212 BUFONIDiE Only three species of the Pacific are found in Europe Bivfo vulgaris has most of the subarticular tubercles under the toes in pairs, no tarsal fold, the interorbital space at least as broad as the upper eyelid, and no B viridis has the subarticular tubercles vocal sac of the toes single, a tarsal fold, the interorbital space usually distinctly narrower than the upper eyelid, and the male is provided with a vocal sac B calamita differs from both by its shorter limbs, which preclude the subarticular tubercles of the it from leaping; toes are in pairs as in B vulgaris, but a tarsal fold is usually present, and the interorbital space is narrow; the males have a vocal sac, which is larger than in B viridis, and, when blown, bears great resemblance to that of the common tree-frog The buccal opening to the sac is a single slit, either on the right side or on the left, as shown on fig 78, p 211 Owing to the fact that B viridis and calamita are much more nearly related to each other than to B vulgaris, Fatio and other authors have instituted two different sections or sub-genera, that including the two former species being designated Bubeta, the other Phryne An examination of all the species of the genus shows such a division to be untenable Still less would one feel inclined to follow the view of Cope, who, whilst uniting B vulgaris and B viridis in the genus Bufo, isolated B calamita as Ejndalea, the latter genus being founded solely on the large size of the fronto-parietal fontanelle The annexed map shows the interesting distribution over the Palaearctic region of the three species under consideration Bufo vulgaris extending through nearly the whole region, whilst the two closely allied representative species, B viridis and B calamita, occupy the former the East, the latter the West, their respective ranges overlapping on a considerable portion of Central Europe and the islands ; is NT s S LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES RAY SOCIETY FROM THEIR COMMENCEMENT, IN JUNE, 1898 1844 TO OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES ISSUED LIST BY THE RAY SOCIETY For the First Year, 1844 I a Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany lated by Trans- H E Strickland, Jim., M.A., F.R.S., E Lan- M.D., F.R.S., and W B Macdonald, B.A kester, 8vo Oil Memorials of John Ray: consisting of the Life of John Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by Baron Cuvier and M Dupetit Thouars, Universelle; raries of Ray, with Yarrell S III A in the Life of Ray, by Sir J E Smith ' c Biographie the Itine- : Babington and Notes, by Messrs Edited by E Lankester, M.D., F.R.S Monograph of the 8vo British Nndibranchiate Mollusca By Messrs Alder and Hancock Part Ten I Plates Imp 4to For the Second Year, 1845 SI Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations from the German, by George Busk, F.R.S Translated Three Plates 8vo S II- A Monograph By Messrs Plates Imp of the British Alder and 4tu Nndibranchiate Mollusca Hancock Part II Thirteen ; 20 *0 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations III from the German Translated by W B Macdonald, B.A G Busk, F.R.S.; A Henfrey, F.R.S.; and B.M Seven Plates J Hudson, 8vo For the Third Year, 1846 I Meyen's Geography of Plants Translated from the by Miss Margaret Johnston C Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites II German 8vo Translated from the German, and edited by Professors T Bell and E Forbes S A III Six Plates Monograph By Messrs Plates Alder and Imp Imp 4to of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca Hancock Part Eleven III 4to For the Fourth Year, 1847 S I German by the o Alfred Tulk 8vo Reports on the Progress of Zoology II German by Messrs Geo Busk, A Tulk S Translated from Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy III Translated from the II Haliday, and A 8vo A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae By Professor E Forbes, F.R.S Thirteen Plates Imp 4to For the Fifth Yeau, 1848 Q I Bibliographia Zoologia) et Geologise Vol I Svo By Professor Agassiz ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY SU Letters of John Ray Two F.R.S £ III by E Lankester, M.D., Edited 8vo Plates A Monograph By Messrs Alder and Hancock of 21 the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca Part IV Twelve Plates Imp 4to For the Sixth Year, 1849 -> I Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical Geography Three Plates Edited by A Henfrey, F.R.S 8vo 5> II A Monograph By W of the British Entomostracous Crustacea Baird, M.D., F.R.S Thirty-six Plates 8vo For the Seventh Year, 1850 £ I S II By Bibliographia Zoologize et Geologise Vol II A 8vo Monograph By of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca Messrs Alder and Hancock Imp Professor Agassiz Part V Fifteen Plates 4to For the Eighth Year, 1851 ^ I A Monograph Rev ^ II A W of the British Angiocarpous Lichens A Leighton, M.A Monograph M.A., F.R.S Thirty Plates of the Family Cirripedia Vol I Ten Plates 8vo By By the 8vo C Darwin, 22 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES For the Ninth Year, 1852 £ I Bibliographic Zoologise et Geologise Vol III II A Monograph By Messrs Imp Plates By Professor Agassiz 8vo of the British Alder and Nudibranchiate Mollusea Hancock VI Part Twelve 4to For the Tenth Year, 1853 °2 I A Monograph M.A., F.R.S II A Volume By of the Family Cirripedia Thirty Plates Vol II C Darwin, 8vo of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature Six Plates 8vo For the Eleventh Year, 1854 J Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise By Professor Agassiz (Completing the work.) 8vo Vol IV For the Twelfth Year, 1855 A Monograph of the British Nudihranchiate Mollusea Messrs Alder and Hancock Imp 4to Part VII Nine By Plates (Completing the work.) For the Thirteenth Year, 185G A Monograph fessor of the British Allman, F.R.S Fresh-water Polyzoa Eleven Plates Imp 4to By Pro- ISSUED BY THE EAY SOCIETY 23 For the Fourteenth Year, 1857 A Monograph By of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain Seven Plates Imp 4to Professor Williamson, F.R.S For the Fifteenth Year, 1858 r The Oceanic Hydrozoa Plates By Twelve Professor Huxley, F.R.S Imp 4to For the Sixteenth Year, 1859 S A By History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland John Blackwall, F.L.S Part I Twelve Plates Imp 4to For the Seventeenth Year, 1860 £ An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera By W Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by Parker, Twenty- F.R.S., and T Rupert Jones, F.G.S two Plates Imp B W K 4to For the Eighteenth Year, 1861 ^ On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the Higher Cryptogamia, and on Coniferse Frederick Plates the Fructification By Dr Wilhclm Hofmcister Currey, 8vo M.A., F.R.S., Sec of the Translated by L.S Sixty-five 24 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES For the Nineteenth Year, 1862 A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland John Imp Part F.L.S Blackwall, Seventeen II By Plates (Completing the work.) 4to For the Twentieth Year, 1863 The Reptiles By Albeit of British India M.D., F.R.S Twenty-six Plates C L G GUnther, Imp 4to For the Twenty-first Year 1864 S A Monograph of the British Spongiadse LL.D., F.R.S Vol By Bowerbank, J S Thirty-seven Plates I 8vo For the Twenty-second Year, 1865 I The British Hemiptera Hcteroptera Douglas and John Scott I II A Monograph By of the British Spongiadse bank, LL.D., F.ll.S Messrs Twenty-one Plates Vol II By J W 8vo J S Bower- 8vo For the Twenty-third Year, 1866 , I The Miscellaneous D.C.L., F.R.S Botanical Vol and Structural, and J J Bennett, F.R.S I, Works of Robert Brown containing Geographico- botanical, Physiological Memoirs 8vo Edited by 25 ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY /yytll Recent F.R.S By Memoirs on the Cetacea Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg Six Plates Imp Pterylography, III Nitzch's Professors Eschricht, W H Edited by Flower, 4to translated Ten Edited by P L Sclater, F.R.S from German the Plates Imp 4to For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867 I A Monograph on Shoulder-girdle the Structure and By W K Development of the Parker, F.R.S Thirty Plates Imp 4to § II The Miscellaneous Botanical Works D.C.L., F.R.S Vol II of Robert Brown, 8vo For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868 S I Vegetable Teratology By M T Masters, M.D., F.L.S 8vo g II The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, D.C.L., F.R.S Vol III Thirty-eight Plates Imp 4to (Completing the work.) For the Twenty-sixth Year, A Monograph By J Imp 1869 of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids Allman, M.D., F.R.S Part I Twelve Plates 4to For the Twenty- seventh Year, 1870 A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Ilvdroids By J Allman, M.D., F.R.S Part II Eleven Plates Imp 4to (Completing the work.) 26 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES For the Twenty-eighth Year, A Monograph 1871 By of the Collembola and Thysanura Lubbock, M.P., F.R.S Bart., Sir J Seventy-eight Plates 8vo For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872 A Monograph of the British Annelids M.D., F.R.S.E Part Ten I By W C Mcintosh, Imp 4to Plates For the Thirtieth Year, 1873 A Monograph M.D., Imp of the British Annelids F.R.S.E Part I By W C Mcintosh, Thirteen continued Plates 4to For the Thirty-first Year, 1874 A Monograph of the British Spongiadse LL.D., F.R.S Vol III By Bowerbank, J S Ninety-two Plates 8vo For the Thirty-second Year, 1875 A Monograph F.R S of the Vol I British Aphides By G Forty-two Plates 8vo B Buckton, For the Thirty-third Year, 187G A Monograph of M.D., F.L.S the British Vol Copcpoda By G Thirty-six Plates, S 8vo Brady, 27 ISSUED BY THE EAY SOCIETY For the Thirty-fourth Year, A Monograph F.R.S By G of the British Aphides B Buckton 8vo Fifty Plates Vol II 1877 For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878 A Monograph the of M.D., F.L.S By G British Copepoda Vol.11 Forty- nine Plates Brady S 8vo For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879 I A Monograph M.D., By G of the British Copepoda F.L.S Vol III Eleven Plates S 8vo Brady, (Com- pleting the work.) II A Monograph J of the British 8vo the late Edited, with additions, by Rev A M Norman, M.A., F.L.S teen Plates By Spongiadae S Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S Vol IV Seven- (Completing the work.) For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880 A Monograph F.R.S of the British Aphides Vol III By Twenty-eight Plates For the Thirty-eighth Year, A Monograph By P of the British Cameron, F.E.S G B Buckton 8vo 1881 Phytophagous Hymenoptera Vol.1 Twenty-one Plates 8vo 28 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES For the Thirty- ninth Year, A Monograph of the British Aphides Twenty-seven Vol IV F.R.S 188.2 By G Plates B Buck ton, (Com- 8vo pleting the Work.) For the Fortieth Year, 1883 British Oribatidse By Thirtv-one Plates A D Michael, F.L.S Vol I, 8vo For the Forty-fikst Year, 1884 A Monograph P of the British Cameron, F.E.S By Phytophagous Hymenoptera Vol II Tvventv-seven Plates 8vo For the Forty-second Year, 1885 The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths By AY Buckler, edited by H T Stainton, F.R.S The Butterflies Seventeen Plates W II Plates Svo By T Stainton, F.R.S The Hawk-Moths and part I 1880 of the British Butterflies and Moths Buckler, edited by Vol 8vo For the Forty-third Year, The Larvae the late of the Bombyces the late Vol II Eighteen 29 ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887 British Oribatidae By A D Michael, F.L.S Thirty-one Plates 8vo W of the British Butterflies aud Moths of the Bombyces By the late Vol III Eighteen 8vo Plates For the Forty-sixth A Monograph of P 1888 Buckler, edited by H T Stainton, F.R.S The concluding portion II (Completing the Work.) For the Forty-fifth Year, The Larvae Vol the British Cameron, F.E.S Y'ear, 1889 Phytophagous Hymenoptera Vol III Seventeen Plates By 8vo For the Forty-seventh Year, 1890 The Larvae of the W The British Butterflies and Moths Buckler, edited by H T Stainton, F.R.S first portion of the Noctuae By the late Vol IV Sixteen Plates 8vo For the Forty-eighth Year, 1891 The Larvae of the W British Butterflies and Buckler, edited F.R.S Vol V Seventeen Plates (in part) by the Moths late By the late H T Stainton, The second portion of the Noctuae 8vo ANNUAL VOLUMES LIST OF 30 For the Forty-ninth Year, 1892 A Monograph P of the British Cameron, F.E.S By Phytophagous Hymenoptera Nineteen Plates Vol IV 8vo (Completing the Work.) For the Fiftieth Year, 1893 The Larvae W of the British Butterflies and third portion of the Noctuae By Moths the late Vol VI Buckler, edited by G T Porritt, F.L.S Nineteen Plates The 8vo For the Fifty-first Year, 1894 The Larvae of the W British Butterflies and Moths Buckler, edited by G T Porritt, F.L.S The first By Twenty-two portion of the Geometrae the late Vol VII Plates 8vo For the Fifty-second Year, The Larvae W of the British Butterflies 1895 and Moths Buckler, edited by G T Porritt, F.L.S By the late Vol VIII The second and concluding portion of the Geometrae Twenty Plates 8vo For the Fifty-third Year, The Tailless Batrachians Boulenger, P.R.S of Ten Europe Plates 1896 Part 8vo I By G A ISSUED BY THE KAY SOCIETY 31 For the Fifty- fourth Year, 1897 The Tailless Batrachians of Europe Boulenger, F.R.S Fourteen Plates Part II 8vo By G A (Completing the Work.) fiiUsTED UAliTllOLOJUEW CLObE, li\ E.G., ADLAHD AMD SUA, AND 20, 1IAKOVEU aQUAKE, W ... than the diameter of the orbit nostrils ; ; equally distant from the eyes and the tip of the snout, or somewhat nearer the latter ; eyes equally distant from the tip of the snout and the angles of. .. rounded in the middle, and the other smaller and oval at the base of the inner digit Hind limb moderately elongate the tarsometatarsal articulation reaches the tympanum or the eye in the male, the shoulder... suture with the prootic, its zygomatic process very short Of the three branches of the pterygoid, the anterior is the longest and the broadest, and joins the maxillary and the palatine the inner
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