The Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 13

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JO THE JOURNAL THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, ZOOLOaY VOL XYIII i 292281 LONDON! SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S APARTMENTS, BURLINGTON HOUSE, AND BY LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, AND WILLIAMS AND NORGATE 1885, .Dates of Publication of the several No 104 105 Numbers included in this Volume, J PP- l-20i, published August 13, 1884 „ 106, „ 205-291, ,, „ 107, „ 291-345, „ December March 19, 1884 31, 1885 FEINTED BY TA.YLOE AND FEANCIS, r.ED LION COURT, FLEET STREET OF PAPERS LISl^ Page Henry Walter, Bates, F.R.S., F.L.S., Assist Secretary, Royal Geograpliical Society Additions, chiefly from the later Longicorn Beetles of Japan Collections of Mr George nymy, Distribution, Species (Plates ; and Notes on the Syno- and Habits of the previously known & I Lewis 205 H.) Brook, George, F.L.S Preliminary Account of the Development of the Lesser Weever- Fish {Trachinus vipem) On some 274 (Plates TH.-VI.) Points in the Development of Motellu mustela, Linn (Plates Vin.-X.) 298 Davis, Tames William, F.L.S., F.G.S On Heterolepidotus grandis, a Fossil (Plate Fish from the Lias VH.) 293 Day, Francis, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Knight of the Crown of Italy, late Inspector-General of Fisheries of India Relationship of the Indian and African Freshwater Fish- Faunas 308 Duncan, Professor Peter Martin, M.B Lond., F.R.S., F.G.S., Vice-President Linnean Society A Revision of the Families and Genera of the Sclerodermic Zoantharia, Ed & H., or Madreporaria (M rugosa excepted) Chapters I.-YI GxjNN, Thomas Edward, Ornithological Notes F.L.S , 328 IV Page Hanley, Sylvanus, F.L.S On a new Variety (?) of Chama, allied to the C arcinella of Linnaeus PIartog, Hifetorj, Maecus 292 M., D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Natural Queen's College, Cork The Morphology of Cyclops, and the Relations of the Copepoda (Abstract.) 832 Hunt, Arthur Roopb, M.A., On F.L.S., F.G.S the Influence of Wave-Currents on the Fauna inhabiting Shallow Seas Roth, HEiVBY 262 Ling-, Esq Notes on the Habits of some Australian Hymenoptera Aculeata (with Descriptions of (With four woodcuts.) new Species by William F Kirby) 318 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES PiATE I "1 II J III IV V VI VII VIII IX X Illustrations of new Longicorn Beetles from Japan, accompanying Mr Bates's paper Early germinal thereon.- stages "| Ditto and embrj'onal development Further development of embryo The embryo after hatching Heterolepidotus grandis, To desci'ibed Changes in young fish a few days old Mr Brooks's obser- stages of the Lesser / Weever- Fish i Egg-phenumena Newly-hatched embryos illustrate rations on the eggs and young [ by Mr -i J W Davis Sketches accompanying Mr I Brook's paper on Develop- J ment of Mofella ^mtstela ERRATA Page 125, lines ISaticl 16 from bottom, /or " Cormophyllu" read Oomopiitllu THE JOUENAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY A Eeyision of the Families and Grenera of the Sclerodermic Zoantharia, Ed cepted) Dtj]S"ca]S", & H., or Madreporaria (M Eugosa ex- — Chapters By I.-YI F.E.S., E.G.S., Viee-Pres [Eead April 3, Professor P Maetin Linneau Society 1884.] CHAPTEE I Introduction The necessity for a revision of the gi:eat groups, families, and genera of the Madreporaria, Ed & H The changes necessitated by the discoveries of late years, especially those of H N Moseley The classification of Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime The proposed alterations The sections of the Sclerodermic Zoantharia, the Madreporaria Eugosa excepted The new Families The section Madreporaria Aporosa The Families Family Turbiuolidse, its subfamilies, alliances, and genera Lists Introduction —The state of confusiou of the classification of the Sclerodermic Zoantharia, or the Stony Corals (the Madreporaria of Edwards and Haime), has become very intense during the last few years, and a revision of the great groups, families, and genera No work is really required dealing with the classification of this important Sub- order, as a whole, has appeared since the 'Histoire Naturelle des by Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, in 1860 That Dana on the Zoophytes of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition (1846), formed an epoch in the zoology of the Corals, It was a work of vast labour, and its LINN JOURN ZOOLOGY, VOL XVIII Coralliaires ' great work, following that of — PROr p MARTIN DUNCAN EEYISION OP THE merits have been recognized by every competent critic It revised the genera up to the date of 1857-1860, and contained descriptions of every species and its synonymy Since the publication of this standard work M de Fromentel has brought out a book* which relates to fossil forms only; but all the other additions to the knowledge of the suborder have appeared in reports, monographs, and multitudes of essays, which are scattered amongst the scientific publications of Europe, America, India, and Australia The number of new genera and and although those relating to species recorded has been great the deep-sea and reef-building faunas have been numerous, they have been surpassed by the forms from nearly every geological ; formation in every quarter of the globe Careful morphological investigations have increased the know- and Dana, Haime, L Agassiz, Yerrill, Lacaze-Duthiers, and especially H N Moseley, have so enlightened the views of naturalists, that very considerable changes have already been made in the primary classificatory groups of the Corals Palseontologists and naturalists have endeavoured to assist classification by examining the solid structures and the researches of Pourtales, E Pratz, Lindstrom, Klunzinger, and Koch have necessitated serious revision of old ledge of the minute structures of the Madreporaria ; J ; conceptions It is evident, however, that the purely classifi- catory work has too often been attempted by some palseontologists who have not studied the ralists who have not had recent faunas, and occasionally by natu- experience in the details of the extinct forms It is proposed in this revision to omit all reference to the group of Corals called the Eugosa by Edwards and Haime As the synonymy of the genera which had been described up to 1860 was given by Edwards and Haime in their great work, up from that date Only the principal sections, families, and genera are con- this revision will only take it sidered in this revision ; species are not included A few sub- genera are admitted in the classification, and the plan of linking genera under alliances has been adopted A certain number of alliances will be found in each subfamily or family, and usually they are fairly natural, and rarely too artificial in their nature It will be found that some of the great groups of the Madreporaria * ' Introduction a I'etucTe des Polypiers fossiles,' Paris, 1858-61 FAMILIES AND GENERA OF THE MADEEPOEARIA disappear, and that a very considerable number of genera are abolished The reasons for altering or abolishing generic diagnoses are Some liberty has been taken with many generic they have been rewritten, rearranged in details, and often shortened * usually stated descriptions ; The word colony has been used to describe compound a corallum An explanation of the morphological and structural terminology placed at the close of the revision is The Suborder ZOANTHAEIA SCLERODERMATA, Ed & H The Sclerodermic Zoantharia of Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime f are a suborder of the class Anthozoa, type Coelenterata According to the authors just mentioned, there are five sections The Madrepoeaeia Apoeosa, Peefoeata, of the suborder TuBiTLOSA, Tabulata, and Eugosa : It — must be admitted that there of these sections, w^ith certain is no new difficulty in accepting two limits to them, namely the Madreporaria Aporosa and the Madreporaria Perforata The section Tubulosa no longer exists, and the section Tabulata has been eliminated by H, N Moseley The section " Eugosa " is not considered in this memoir Section Madreporaria Aporosa^ Ed ^ H In typical forms of are solid also and the greater part or There cavities of this section the walls of the corallites is all no communication of the septal laminae between the visceral neighbouring corallites through the theca or wall Section Madreporaria Perforata In typical forms of this section the walls and sometimes the septa are perforate^ and the soft parts of one corallite * Genera date from their time of description, not from that of simple ation Hypothetical genera are not recorded t 'Histoire naturelle des Coralliaires' (Paris, 1857-1860), vol i 1* deline- PROF communicate P MABTIIS" DUNCAn's REYISIOK OF THE those of their neighbours witli through the wall or with the outside medium The arrangement tions is of the soft parts of both of these sec- not very different, and it presents a very close resem- blance in most instances Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime the great is intermediate between the two sections mentioned above, and it was classified with the Aporosa Here the difiiculty of the classification of the great group begins, and According to family Eungidse (Dana) make the family Fungidse into a section Eungida Dana's beautiful illustrations * and Moseley's investigations t show that the soft parts of the Eungidae difi'er from those of the I Aporosa and Perforata ; and many years since L Agassiz stated that a genus of the Astrseidse, according to Edwards and Haime, and one of the Aporosa had the soft structures of a Eungid and This genus Siderastrcea has tentacles part of the hard ones also unlike normal Astrseidse and endothecal dissepiments in addition to synapticula, and in this last respect only does it link the Aporosa and the Eungida proper together, Palseontology has shown that the genus TTiaonnastrcea and others must be linked with Siderastrcea Hence a group of old Aporosa is placed with the section Eungida Moreover, a genus of the recent Perforata, Coscinaria, has been shown to have synapticula, and many fossil forms require to be dissociated from the Perforata and placed in a group amongst the Eungida Hence the former family Eungid se of Edwards and Haime becomes a section Eungida, and has associated with it two transitional families — one Plesiofungidse, and the Siderastrsean group, or the family the other the group, the family Plesioporitidse paved the way largely for Section The and Microsolena and E Pratz § have Cyclolites Zittel J this suggested classification Madreporaria Tubulosa^ M.-Edw ^ Haime third section of the Madreporaria, according to Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, is that of the Madrepo- * Dana, Zoophytes, Exploring Expedition, 1846 t Prof H N Moseley, F.R.S., Report on the Corals, 'Challenger Expedition ' \ Zittel, § ' Handbuch E Pratz, ' PalEeontoL' Palseontographica,' 1882 Linn, Soc Joukn Zool A/ol.XV1II PI ZMBPCfOLOG-Y OF TRACHINUS VIPERA ICr.teno Bros.imp LlNM G-.Erook c ?i"L ct-.s SOC JOUKNT ZOOL.VOL X\'I1T P1.6 27 rn-X) h P9 f ' > ^ ^ O 29 30 28 E Carter sc Tl p EMBRYOLOGY' OF TRACHINUS VIPERA IfmteraBros.iiDp .H'S ^ j^ f ' TUS „' WDavie HySykos dol " LiMisr Soc JoTjRisr G Brook ZooL.A/aL.XVIlIFi t si -C Carter sc DEVELOPMEISJT OP MOTELLA MUSTELA TfeiteniHros ^ G-, n Lnxm Soc Jouicw ZoolVolXVDI H, BtooIl /l^-^^>t— E -Csrter sc DEVELOPMENT OF MOTELIA IIUSTELA TVIiTitenxBros la^i Ijw G BtooIc, Soc Jourar ZoclVoI XVET-PllO, // E Carter ; DEVELOPMENT OF MOTEliA MUSTEIA Mintem Btos: imp Maech Pnce 31 3s THE JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY Vol XVIII ZOOLOGY No 107 CONTENTS I Ou II Oa a jieila III uew Variety ot LmvLSdus Page of Ghama, allied to the C arciBy -jjTiiYANUS Haitlet, F.L.S 292 (?) Heterolepidotus grandis, a Eossil Fish from the (Plate Lias By James W Davis, F.L.S., F.a.S VII.) " 293 On some tela, Points in the Development of Motella miisLion By Geosge BrooKj F.L.S (Plates 298 VIII.-X.) IV Eelationship of the Indian and African Freshwater Fish-Faunas By Fbancis Day, F.L.S 308 V Notes on the Habits of some Australian Hymenoptera Aculeata By Hekbt Lik» Eoth by Sir Johk Lubbock, (With woodcuts) VI Ornithological Notes F.L.S Bart., (Communicated Pres Linn Soc.) 318 By Thomas Edwabd Gunts", 328 VII The Morphology of Cyclops and the Relations of the Copepoda By Maecus M Habtog, D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S., Prof Nat Hist Queen's College, Cork 83* (Abstract.) Index, Titlepage, and Contents to Vol XVIII LONDON: SOLD AT THE SOCIETrS APAETMENTS, EUELINGTON HOUSE, PICCADILLY, W., AND BY LONGMANS, GEEEN, EEADEE, AND DYEE, AND WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE 1885 ... MABTIIS" DUNCAn's REYISIOK OF THE those of their neighbours witli through the wall or with the outside medium The arrangement tions is of the soft parts of both of these sec- not very different,... part raria Aporosa, of the may consist of the theca or wall a common colonial wall, of septa, Madrepo- of the corallite, pali, costse, of a sometimes of columella, of endotheca or dissepiments,... t and H N Moseley, during the voyage of the Challenger,' and in the publication of the Report on the Corals in 1876' ; 1879, completely revolutionized the zoology of the remainder His researches
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