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BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA; OR, CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA EDITED BY F DUCANE GODMAN AND OSBERT SALVIN BOTANY VOL I BY W HON MEM NAT BOTTING HEMSLEY, A.L.S., ASSISTANT POR INDIA AT THE HERBARIUM OP THE ROIAL GARDENS, ; AUTHOR OF THE " BOTANY OP THE ' CHALLENGER ' EXPEDITION," &C HIST SOC MEX KEW ; AND A COMMENTARY ON THE INTRODUCTION AND APPENDIX BY Sir J D HOOKER, Late Director op the Royal Gardens, Kew LONDON: PUBLISHED EOK THE EDITORS BY R H PORTER, 10 CHANDOS STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, AND DULAU & CO., SOHO SQUARE, W 1879-1888 W., ^tJ ouess r QK ,/ XI s 13 (o I V, / ^.lUifUS FLAMMAM PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET PREFACE When work was commenced, a this little more than twelve years ago, the main object was the collection of the widely scattered data bearing upon the phyto- in view geography of the region, in order to ascertain to what extent the phenomena agreed Animal Kingdom, and with, or deviated from, those obtaining in the complete a synopsis of the and connections might be would Botany flora as possible, so that its general character, relationships, critically elaborated it was hoped that and as the work proceeded greater attention was bestowed upon of the subject, so that ultimately As down Nevertheless, it the same time prove a substantial and useful contribution to Systematic at ; also to supply as this great task it grew far this branch beyond the dimensions originally was undertaken by one person, it was necessary laid keep to it within limits as narrow as were consistent with the aim in view, to ensure a reasonable prospect of its material in the being completed Kew A critical determination of the vast amount of Herbarium alone was out of the supplemental collections in other establishments to draw the at Kew, line At the British basis for genera, first it yet was thought practicable Museum, and and largely ; Paris — the also for species, first question, to say nothing of the it was difficult to to include the decide where named forming a wide and trustworthy resulting from the labours of and Hooker, in connection with their now happily completed invaluable Plantarum arising ' ; materials Bentham ' Genera but this plan had to be abandoned in consequence of the risk of confusion from diverse determinations in the various herbaria ; attempt doing more than could be accomplished at Kew and it was decided not to This course has been adversely criticised, but having intentionally and purposely thus curtailed the scope of the work, such criticisms call for no further reply Considering that, for obvious a2 PREFACE iv reasons, anything very closely approaching completeness could not have been attained had there been half a dozen workers some small historical collections the fact that the Library, it work has been Notwithstanding of the very slightest importance Kew substantially restricted to the Herbarium and has been, as already mentioned, considerably extended in a direction not For the purposes originally contemplated rely on largely is in the field, instead of only one, the omission of the names as in view we found them it in the was thought that we might very Kew Herbarium, and describe only such very evident novelties as did not involve too great an expenditure of time In this manner the whole of the Polypetalse was written out, and in the hands of the Editors, when an offer was received from Drs Parry and Palmer set of a large collection of dried plants, chiefly the condition that To we named the whole of to present the first from the State of San Luis Potosi, on them and embodied them in the "Biologia." an enormous additional expenditure of time and money this properly involved Kew, spent yet the offer was accepted, and the writer, aided by his colleagues at nearly seven months on this collection, and the investigations it entailed, thereby greatly enhancing the value of the Enumeration; without considerably increasing its bulk This critical examination of a large portion of the Mexican plants led to synonymy and references volumes than is to the given in the first, existing literature and we are in the much fuller second and succeeding fully justified in saying that the quality of the work has improved in consequence Although an immense amount of time has been spent species not doubtless, have been overlooked every name literary referring to a completeness, affectation Kew represented in the it is ; but a few omissions are of Mexican plant been taken up, the true, yet nothing more upwards of a thousand nominal species are it is left little consequence result Moreover, to apologize for shortcomings of this kind in a because up published Herbarium by authenticated specimens, some, than a skeleton from the standpoint of a systematist tables, in looking work it would have been would be mere professedly little As explained Had in the more Appendix, out of consideration in the geographical believed that their retention would swell the proportion of the endemic element beyond what it really is V PEEFACE The Mr writer W H now has the great pleasure of recording his obligations and thanks to Fitch, the artist, and to his colleagues at Kew, whose unrivalled knowledge of flowering plants Oliver, Mr others J G Baker is is especially to Professor D always at the service of almost wholly responsible for the nomenclature and limitation of the species of vascular cryptogams ; but this matter is more fully explained in the remarks under the various orders The writer also feels that he would very much like to be permitted to mention that he has experienced the most liberal treatment from the Editors, a much larger sum of possibly see returned money (to say who have expended nothing of time) on the work than they can Under other circumstances much more might be written on this point i The coloured Plates were taken from sketches made from the fresh plants by Mrs Salvin in Central America in 1873-74 WILLIAM BOTTING HEMSLEY Chiswick October 1888 CONTENTS OF VOLUME I Page Preface iii Introduction ix Commentary on the Introduction and Appendix Enumeration of the Polypeta!^, with Descriptions of lxii New Species 1-576 INTRODUCTION As stated in the Preface, this phical Botany and discussed The ; work was undertaken mainly in the interests of Geogra- and the distribution of the plants enumerated therein has been tabulated in considerable detail in the " Appendix " contained in the fourth volume completion, or approaching completion, of several important works on systematic botany, dealing with the vegetation of large areas, such as Boissier's Hooker's ' Flora of British India,' Gray's ' ' Flora Orientalis,' Synoptical Flora of North America,' and monographs of large Natural Orders, together with recent botanical explorations in China, Madagascar, the mountains of Tropical Africa, and elsewhere, affords materials for a wider survey of the distribution of plants than has hitherto been attempted, and a closer comparison of the primary botanical and zoological regions of the world this exhaustively would, of course, occupy much time and fill a large book ; To therefore only an exposition and rapid review of the principal facts will be attempted here *, and the inquiry will be limited to flowering plants Before approaching the examination of the botanical regions themselves desirable to produce some further it seems and then endeavour to estimate their statistics relative value t- ' Throughout this work the classification and generic limits of Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum have been followed, and all comparisons are made on the same, or ' practically the same, basis Since the appearance of the first part of the 'Genera Plantarum' in 1862, very numerous new plants have been discovered, including some extremely singular and anomalous ones, though none probably to which the authors would have assigned the rank of a new natural and order been largely augmented species has, however, been given of the subsequent additions to the The number Composite, but into similar details respecting all the natural orders comparison, it will mations arrived at in the Genera Plantarum' it is unnecessary to enter Nevertheless, for purposes of be convenient to give here some of the ' of distinct genera Elsewhere J some particulars have statistics and rough approxi- § * The questions discussed in the following pages might more appropriately have been incorporated in the " Appendix ;" but this is a further development of the subject suggested by Sir Joseph Hooker after perusing the analysis of the Flora of Mexico t Following the most approved nomenclature, the primary geographical divisions of the vegetation of the world are designated "regions" and the secondary divisions " subregions." t Vol IV § From a p 24& summary by N E Brown in the ' Gardener's Chronicle,' n biol CBNTK.-AMBR., Bot Vol I., October 1888 s xix p 733 b INTRODUCTION Statistics of the Phanerogamic Flora of the World Orders Genera Species 165 6052 77311 44 415 34 1489 17894 202* 7585 95620 Dicotyledones Gymnospermeae Monocotyledones Totals At Kew it is the practice to post up all proposed new genera as they are published, and from a cursory examination of their claims to this rank (in Bentham and Hooker's now known is about 8000 and, allowing a proportionate increment of new species, the total may be placed at 100,000 Judging from the exceedingly large number of new forms in the latest collections from the sense) the number of distinct genera Malayan Peninsula, Borneo, New ; Guinea, and Central China, future explorations will Absolutely nothing doubtless considerably increase these totals of immense tracts of the interior of Africa countries as new Mexico and Central America ; is known botanically whilst such comparatively well-explored still continue to yield as much as ten per made out of the beaten tracks, and in a NorthMexican collection of about 270 species made by C G Pringle in 1887, 20 per cent, are indicated as new in a catalogue by A Gray and S Watson The general distribution of the natural orders is given in our fourth volume, cent, of species in collections Below are enumerated those natural orders of plants estimated by Bentham and Hooker to contain 1000 species and upwards pages 201 to 207 : 562 ITMBELLIFEE^L Eryngium phyteumatos, 23 Delar Eryng Hist p 51, Hb Kew South Mexico, in humid pastures (Hartweg, 296) 24 Eryngium proteaBflorum, Delar Eryng Hist South Mexico, Volcan de Jorullo, 3480 feet {Humboldt p 62, 30 t & Bonpland), peak of Orizaba, Mexico (Bourgeau, 1052), at 12,000 feet (Galeotti, 2763), Desierto Viejo, valley of Hb Kew Llanos of Perote (Schiede) 25 21 t Eryngium ranunculoides, Benth PI Hartw p 38 Hb Kew South Mexico, in mountain-pastures, Anganguio (Hartweg, 294) 26 Eryngium SCapoSUm, South Mexico, Oaxaca, 27 at 9000 Turcz in Bull Soc Nat Mosc xx p 171 feet (ex Turczaninow) Eryngium SChiedeanum, Schl et Ch in Linnsea, South Mexico, in grassy places near Jalapa (Schiede Hb Kew Perhaps the same as E serratum & 206 v p Beppe), valley of Mexico (Bourgeau, 478) tendal states that 28 DeCandolle Eryngium serratum, Cav Ic vi p 36, 158; Bourgeau, 478), without exact Eryngium Mexico 30 " New 31 Eryngium & Bonpland), valley of Mexico (Schaffner, Eryngium p 55, t 25 vi p 37, t 556 fig tenue, Hook, et Arn Bot Beech Voy p 293 Jalisco (Beechey) Eryngium wrightii, A Gray, ( Eryngium, Eryngium, Eryngium, PI Wright, Wright) p 78, ii p 65 & Palmer, 286), Hb Kew sp (Coulter, 102) Hb Kew (Coulter, 103) Hb Kew sp sp South Mexico, Beal del Monte (Coulter, 106, 1152) Eryngium, i Mexico, region of San Luis Potosi (Parry South Mexico, Zimapan 36 Hb Kew localities (Eeerl, Aschenborn) subacaule, Cav Ic South Mexico, Zimapan 35 & Palmer, 284) Spain." mountains of Sonora 34 554 Stellatum, Mutis; Delar Eryng Hist New Mexico —Nokth 33 but Schlech- ; Hb Dombey." South Mexico, 32 t of San Luis Potosi, 6000 to 8000 feet (Parry South Mexico, Bio Sarco, 5880 feet (Humboldt " E Hcenkei it is different North Mexico, region 29 refers it to sp (aff Hb Kew E pectinato) South Mexico, Desierto Viejo, near Mexico (Bourgeau, 1177) Hb Kew XTMBELLIFEE^l Eryngium, 37 sp (E microcephalum, Willd South Mexico, woods on the 563 X) Pacific coast of Oaxaca, at 7000 feet (Galeotti, 2767) Hb Kew SANICULA Sanicula, Linn Gen Plant, n 326; Benth et Hook Gen Plant, About ten herbaceous species, one of which the temperate regions of Africa, another Islands ; all is i p 880 widely dispersed in Europe, Asia, and is Azorean, and a third inhabits the Sandwich the rest are American, ranging from the north, through the Andes, to Chili Sanicula llberta, Ch South Mexico, 283) in shady et Schl in Linnsea, i p 253, et & woods on the Cerro Colorado, near Jalapa (Schiede Costa Eica, in wet meadows near Herran {PolakowsJcy) ; 208 v p Sanicula mexicana, DC Prodr South Mexico, Jalapa {Galeotti, 2746 2293), Orizaba (Botteri, 872), Eeal del ; iv p Paris 84 Linden, 58), valley of Cordova (Bourgeau, Monte (Berlandier, 403) de Fuego, ridge above Calderas, 8300 feet (Salvin) Tribe Hb Deppe, —Southward Guatemala, Volcan ; to Chili Hb Kew AMMINE^ Nearly half the genera and species of the family belong here ; they are generally diffused Tauschia, Schl in Linnsea, Two or ix p more herbaceous Tauschia TAUSCHIA 607; Benth et Hook Gen Plant, species, all occurring in COulteri, A Gray, PI Lindh i p 882 Mexico ii p 211, in adnot South Mexico, Eeal del Monte (Coulter, 121), Cordillera of Oaxaca, woods Hb Kew to 9000 feet (Galeotti, 2760) Tauschia nudicaulis, Schl in Linnsea, ix p 608 South Mexico, between La Joya and San Salvador (Galeotti), peak at 7000 of Toluca, 10,500 feet (Galeotti, 2733), Jalapa (Coulter, 120).—Also in Ecuador (Spruce, 6065) Hb Kew Tauschia, sp South Mexico, near Oaxaca (Ghiesbreghf) Hb Kew AEEACACIA Arracacia, Bancr in Trans Agr.-Hort Soc Jam., ex Linnsea, Hook Gen Plant, As iv Litteraturb p 13 ; Benth et p 884 Bentham and Hooker, a dozen or more herbaceous and Mexico to the Andes of South America limited by from California i species, 4c2 extending UMBELLLFEB^ 564 Arracacia acuminata, Benth Pi Hartw p 187 South Mexico, region of Orizaba {Bourgeau, 2837) Guatemala, Volcan de Fuego, Colombia to Pebu Hb Kew ridge above Calderas, 8300 feet {Salvin) ; — Arracacia atropurpurea, Benth Pentacrypta atropurpurea, Lehm in Linnsea, North Mexico, v p et Hook Gen 380, PI i p 885 t fig region of San Luis Potosi, 6000 to 8000 feet {Parry & Palmer, 290); South Mexico, Toluca (Andrieux, 353), Orizaba, Alpatlabua, on the eastern declivity, 6500 feet {Heller), Desierto Viejo, valley of Mexico {Bourgeau, 780), Pueblo de los at Angeles {Aschenborn), without Arracacia decumbens, Benth Velcea decumbens, Benth PI Hb Kew localities {Parkinson, Bates) Hartw et Hook Gen PI i p 885 p 38 South Mexico, Zimapan {Coulter, 114), woods at 7000 to 8000 feet in the Cordillera of Oaxaca {Galeotti, 2750), Morelia {Hartweg), plain of Topetougo and at Tlalpuxahua {Graham) Hb Kew Arracacia glaucescens, Benth Pi Hartw South Mexico, about Toluca {Andrieux, 351) Colombia p —The 187 % typical plant was collected in Hb Kew Arracacia tolucensis, Hemsley IAgusticwm toluccense, H B K Nov Gen et Sp Velaa toluccensis, DC Prodr iv p 231 v p 19, t South Mexico, between Toluca and Islahuaca, Arracacia, at 422 8280 feet {Humboldt & Bowpland) sp North Mexico, Sierra Madre {Seemann, 2134) Hb Kew Eeferred ,by Seemann (Bot Voy Herald ') to Velcea toluccensis, DC, from which ' it differs Arracacia, sp South Mexico, peak of Orizaba, at 9500 feet {Linden, 560, 2737) Arracacia, sp South Mexico, peak of Orizaba, at 9500 feet {Linden, 563) Hb Kew Arracacia, On Mount San 10 869) sp Felipe, near Arracacia, South Mexico, Oaxaca {Andrieux, 352) pine-forests of Arracacia, Hb Kew sp Pueblo Nuevo, Chiapas {Linden, 586), Orizaba {Botteri, Hb.Kew 11 Hb Kew sp South Mexico {Jurgensen, 256) Hb Kew TTMBELLIFERE Arracacia, 12 sp Guatemala, top of Volcan de Agua {Salvin DC Four herbaceous Prodr species 248 iv p —one in Arkansas, one in Texas, peucedanoides, North Mexico, p 885 and the following Benth et Hook Gen PI DC Prodr iv p i : p 885 v p 15 161 region of San Luis Potosi, 6000 to 8000 feet (Parry South Mexico, region of Orizaba 293); i ?lineare, Benth PI Hartw p 83 Cnidium peucedanoides, H B K Nov Gen et Sp Silaus Hb Kew Godman) Benth et Hook Gen Plant, ; Eulophus peucedanoides, Smyrnium & EULOPHUS 10 Eulophus, Nutt., ex 565 (Botteri, & Palmer, 292, 871; Bourgeau, 2676), Mirador (Linden, 1277), savannas at 3000 feet in the Cordillera of Vera Cruz (Galeotti, 2741) Guatemala, in fields, Tejar and Chimaltenango (Hartweg, 578), Camino del Zapote Hb Kew (Bernoulli, 299) Eulophus, sp % North Mexico, Zacatecas Hb Kew (Coulter, 115) 11 SMYKNIUM Smyrnium, Linn Gen Plant, n 363 Bentham and Hooker (Gen species, Plant, i 885) limit this genus to the Old-World p but not mention the following plant Smyrnium may be a species of Eulophus aegopodioides, H B K Nov Gen et Sp South Mexico, near Moran, Berlandier's It at 8050 feet (Humboldt & v p 16 Bonpland) Cordillera of Guchilope, bears this number 1042, from the name in hb Paris APIUM 12 Apium, Linn Gen Plant, n 367; Benth et Hook Gen Plant, Apium echinatum, Leptocaulis echinatus, Nutt ; Benth et Hook Gen Plant, DC Prodr iv p [2 Apium Mem Omb p 888 10 to graveolens," Linn Sp Pi The Celery has a Old World, and 107, et i North Mexico, mountains near Lake Santa Sonora (Parry), Lower Eio Grande (Schott) Hb Kew Sou jiern States of North America Maria, Chihuahua (Bigelow), p 888 species, dispersed nearly all over the world About fourteen herbaceous i p 379 very wide area of distribution in the northern hemisphere in the it is also naturalized in many countries, Cordillera of Oaxaca, 5000 feet (Galeotti, 2756).J as in South Mexico, Tehuacan, UMBELLIFEE^: 566 Apium leptophyllum, Helosciadivm leptophyllum, DC Prodr F Mull, in Benth Fl Australiensis, Hi p 372 105 iv p ; Rchb Fl Germ 1860 Southern States of North America —North Mexico, region of San Luis Potosi, 6000 to 8000 feet (Parry (Galeotti, 2739, and 2183), & Palmer, 294) 2755; Botteri, South Mexico, Ciudad Keal (Linden, 588), Orizaba 866 Muller, 1858), valley of Cordova (Bourgeau, 317 ; ; Mexico (Schaffner, 169); Guatemala, Llanos (Bernoulli,, 261) Common in South America also in Tropical Africa and in Eastern Australia Hb valley of ; Kew Apium ?, sp South Mexico, Chiapas (Ghiesbreght, 687) Hb Kew 13 S1TJM Slum, Linn Gen Plant, n 348 ; Benth et Hook Gen Plant, Four species, widely spread in the i p 893 northern hemisphere, and one of them also growing in South Africa Sium angUStifolium, Linn Sp PI p 1672 ; DC Prodr iv p 125 Berula angustifolia, Koch Widely spread in the (Schott), region of United States of North America to San Luis Potosi, 6000 8000 (Parry North Mexico, Sonora & Palmer, 289) South Mexico, region of Orizaba (Bourgeau, 2527), Cordillera of Oaxaca, at 7500 feet (Galeotti, 2757) —Also common in About Gen Plant, n feet Europe and "Western Asia 14 Cicuta, Linn to 354 ; Benth et to India ; Hb Kew CICUTA Hook Gen Plant, i p 889 six herbaceous species, widely dispersed in the northern hemisphere Cicuta maculata, Linn Sp PI p 367; Bigel Med Bot t 12 From Saskatchewan and New England southward South Mexico, near Vera Cruz, 1000 feet (Galeotti,, 21i1 Linden, 566), near Jalapa (Schiede & Beppe) Hb Kew ; 15 Carum, Linn Gen Plant, A n 365 ; CAEUM Benth et Hook Gen Plant, i p 890 large genus, generally dispersed in temperate and subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere and South Africa Carum, sp ? South Mexico, around Oaxaca (Andriem, 355) Hb Kew UMBELLIFER^: OSMOKKHIZA 16 Osmorrhiza, Rafin., ex DC Prodr Four herbaceous iv p 567 232; Benth Hook Gen Plant, et p i 897 from the Andes of South America, through North America, to China, Japan, and the mountains of India species, ranging Osmorrhiza brevistylis, DC Prodr iv p 232 Hook FL Bor.-Am t 97 In North America from the Arctic Circle southward South Mexico, forest of the ; Desierto Viejo (Bourgeau, 781), valley of Mexico (Schaffner, 164), Cordillera of Oaxaca, at 9000 feet (Galeotti, 2751) and Japan —Also Mr C B Clarke (Hooker's DC, in the mountains of North India, and in China Hb Kew Fl Brit Ind p ii 690) unites this with longistylis, under the name of claytoni 17 OEEOMYEEHIS Oreomyrrhis, Endl Gen Plant, p 787; Benth et Hook Gen Plant, p i 897 Besides the two doubtful species described below, there are four or five well-known species, one of which ranges through the Andes of South America and the mountains of Australia and New Zealand New the others are exclusively confined to ; Oreomyrrhis andina, Myrrhis andina, H B K Nov Gen Endl Gen PI p 787 et Sp v t % 419? Hb Kew South Mexico, peak of Orizaba, near the snow-line (Linden, 1276) This is Zealand probably andina, the species having the wide range indicated above Oreomyrrhis? gracilipes, Hemsley, XXXIII et XXXIV figg 6-8.) foliis petiolatis Scaposa, glabra, bipinnatipartitis Diag PI Nov pars 1, p 16 (vel fere pinnatis), petiolo (Tabb omnino vaginante, umbellis simplicibus, pedicellis filiformibus, floribus polygamo-monoicis (vel dioicis?), petalis acutis apice inflexis Herba (annua, Galeotti) scaposa, glabra 3-pollicaria segmenta ; denticulatis, acutis 20-pollicaris ; ; Folia petiolata, pinnatim dissecta vel subpinnata, ad alte pinnatifida, basi angustissima, vix articulata, Scapus omnino vaginans petiolus gracilis, 6-12 lin longa, lobis nudus, vix striatus, usque umbellse simplices, multiflorae, pedicellis gracillimis, ad pollicaribus ; involucri bractese lineari-subulatse, lin longse calycis dentes conspicui, acuti carpiis siibteretibus ; Mores (lutei, Galeotti) Fructus maturus a nobis South Mexico, slopes of the Pacific without locality (SallS) Hb Kew non ; (vel dioici?), ovarium evittatum ?, meri- visus side of the Cordillera of EXPLANATION OF A plant, polygamo-monoici petala acuta, apice leviter infiexa Oaxaca (Galeotti, 2753), TAB XXXIII or portion of a plant, natural size stamens removed; 3, cross section of very fig 1, a flower; 2, the same, "with the petals and fruit all enlarged : young UMBELLLFEE^ 568 EXPLANATION OF TAB XXXIV Two umbels Figg of male flowers, natural
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