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  THE LAW OF GLOBAL GRAVITY   THE LAW OF GLOBAL GRAVITY Force of gravity, energy and movement Gravitation Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Law of Equivalence Gravitational field Principle of conservation of matter Global Gravity Law Energy Concept and definition of energy Types of energy Kinetic energy Gravitational potential energy Mechanical energy Energy science experiments GigaChron experiment Natural phenomena Gravitational waves Gravitational lensing Mercury's orbit perihelion Gravitational red shift PAG 15 21 21 29 29 37 43 55 55 61 69 75 79 83 85 91 91 99 107 119 Law of Global Gravity   I FORCE OF GRAVITY, ENERGY AND MOVEMENT At present, the Theory of Global Equivalence is the name given to the selection of seven books on Global Physics which form the new theory of everything They cover from the physical medium of the gravitational and electromagnetic energies, motion of elementary particles, mass of ordinary matter, black holes and stars, to several proposals about the origin of the universe gathered in Cosmology The development of the new gravity physics theory has implied changes in numerous principles and laws of physics, configuring a theory of unification and what in Physics is called a theory of everything We can divide the modified physics principles of the new paradigm in two large groups:  In the first group, the affected physics principles will define matter in the general sense (Globus) and its various states of aggregation such as gravity (globine), mass and wavine In the second one, the physics principles will be related to Euclidean space and absolute time and all the implications concerning other magnitudes such as movement, force, gravity force and energy While the Theory of Global Equivalence studies the first group of physical principles in a book called Global Mechanics and, to some degree, in Global astrophysics, the second group, in which gravitational energy and motion are examined, is included in Global Dynamics, in The Law of Global Gravity and, in some extent, in the hereinabove mentioned Global Astrophysics Distinction between the physical principles affected by the new theory of everything is made in order to simplify the explanation of a complex and extensive subject Besides, it is 15 Law of Global Gravity connected to the matters laid down in Quantum Mechanics and in Einstein’s General Relativity, sprang from Newton’s Laws of Dynamics or causes of motion This book about The Law of Global Gravity means a deep and penetrating analysis on gravitational energy and on the causes and mechanisms of motion as it includes the reticular structure of the globine or the physical medium, both of the gravity field and the electromagnetic energy, as well as the one of elementary particles and mass The new Theory of Global Moon shadows in Jupiter Equivalence has scientific NASA (Public domain image) character despite it being an alternative theory to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and, to a large extent, to the curious interpretations of Quantum Mechanics on gravity and motion on a subatomic scale; it then presents and proposes possible physical experiments to confirm its assertions   It is also necessary to point out that the contribution of new concepts of physical reality with a greater degree of precision as motion and the properties of reticular structure of matter supporting the gravitational energy, gravity in a strict sense, electromagnetic energy and mass, requires the use of additional names or terms to achieve the essential terminological clarity and ease of assimilation Specifically, chapter II of the book describes the connections between Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, the changes proposed by Einstein’s Relativity and the view of Quantum 16 Law of Global Gravity Mechanics about motion and how it is affected by gravitational energy, both by gravity as a force and by the very existence of the gravitational field caused by the mass Under the new perspective of the Theory of Global Equivalence, in the above mentioned chapter II, the effects of the gravitational energy on motion areshown through the mechanisms of the components of the atractis causa Chapter III shows the new approach on gravitational energy and motion, so a higher precision on the energy concept is required, especially when talking about mechanical, potential and kinetic energy Likewise, the unification of forces and energies proposed by the previously presented theory of everything, leads us to make a brief descriptions of the different types of energy The fundamental equation of the new physics theory of unification and theory of everything relies on the direct relation between acceleration due to gravitational energy on any point of the gravitational field and the four most notable physics constants plus a normalization variable *n*, that curiously equals *1* in Earth superficies Gravitational Law of Equivalence g = [ c² * h * R / G ] * n The Global Gravity Law deserves special mention for implying a different explanation, which is consistent with common sense, about the decisive predictions of the General Theory of Relativity of Einstein by means of a small adjustment of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation The three great natural phenomena of General Relativity of Einstein are also discussed and explained with the Merlin 17 Law of Global Gravity effect and its mathematical integration in the Law of Global Gravity within the new paradigm or theory of everything and, of course, within common sense; I am referring to the effect of the gravitational lens, the gravitational red shift of light and the precession of the perihelion of Mercury Chapter IV includes the Global Gravity Law mathematical calculations explaining thelight curve, the perihelion precession of Mercury’s orbit and the red shift under the mathematical application of the Theory of Global Equivalence; being consistent with the new underlying physical principles about gravitational energy and motion   The related links appear in all of the pages where the free online books are included, in which the new theory of unification, theory of everything or, even better, Global Physics is exposed This division is due to numerous reasons such as: metaphysical or scientific experimental character, mathematical difficulty, the subject dealt with and presentation on the Internet Finally, the Equation of Love online book includes a section with a complete summary of all the science online books related to Global Physics (Glóbica or Globics) and its theory of everything or Theory of Global Equivalence.      *** 18 Law of Global Gravity   19 Law of Global Gravity     20 Law of Global Gravity   GRAVITATION 2.a) Newton’s law of universal gravitation Newton integrated the force of gravity on Earth with the force that governs planetary orbits through his mathematical Law of Universal Gravitation; but no physical reasoning was given of the mechanical causes to support it Newton himself commented that he did not like forces at a distance Subsequently, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity added a slight distortion of space in order to fit the planetary orbits to astronomic observations If Newton’s Law of Universal gravitation was a purely mathematic law, the Theory of Relativity uses mathematical equations so complex that not only the physical interpretation is elusive but that the mathematical interpretation is itself, in the majority of cases, imaginary A friend from Mensa, the herbivore, upholds Einstein’s theories and has also always had a vivid imagination In principle, it seems that two different causes would have to exist in the theory of gravitation One that would justify the classic gravitational force or Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation and, the other, the distortion of the anomalous precession of Mercury’s orbit explained by Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Mathematically, the problem is more or less resolved by the combination of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, given that is known the quantification of energy exchanges, due to the gravitational forces, between kinetic and potential gravitational energy and the maintenance of mechanical energy Gravitational interaction is responsible for the variations between kinetic and potential elastic energy associated with mass in the reticular structure of the matter or globine with radial 21 Law of Global Gravity Precession of the planets of the Solar system According to the Global Dynamics Average radius Planets 10 km 57,90 Mercury 108,20 Venus 149,60 Earth 227,90 Mars 778,30 Jupiter 1427,00 Saturn 2869,60 Uranus 4496,60 Neptune 5900,00 Pluto Radians Precession arc second Revolutions Total 100 years radians Observed RG TEG 5,03415E2,08886E414,93780 07 04 2,69387E4,38028E162,60160 07 05 1,94838E1,94838E100,00000 07 05 1,27897E6,80303E53,19150 07 06 3,74505E3,15771E8,43170 08 07   2,04259E6,93336E3,39440 08 08   1,01574E1,20904E1,19030 08 08   6,48217E3,93338E0,60680 09 09   4,94029E1,99193E0,40320 09 09   43.10 42,9195 43,08581 8.65 8,6186 9,03498 3,85 3,8345 4,01882 1,36 1,3502 1,40323 0,0623 0,06513 0,0137 0,01430 0,0024 0,00249 0,0008 0,00081 0,0004 0,00041 Although there is no doubt that both theories are two correct approaches or two forms of observing the same in relation to the orbit of the planet Mercury, it must be made clear that both are mutually incompatible, since it would doubly explain the same angular deviation Moreover, they are based on different and contradictory principles; which will make it unnecessary to resort to the Occam razor, since there are other natural phenomena or physics experiments that will help to definitely tip the balance… With the Laws of Global Gravity, we have verified that it is accurately explained the whole perihelion precession of Mercury's orbit obtained as a result of the Merlin effect or second component of the atractis cause in the interaction of the globine and bodies with mass 115 Law of Global Gravity In other words, the principle of equivalence between gravitational mass and inertial mass established by Newton and upheld by Einstein is correct, although if it would no longer be a principle, given that the behavior of physical mass in its interaction with globine is the same, whether studied with or without gravitational field However, in the case of Global Dynamics it is not necessary to stretch time and space to explain the elliptical orbits of the planets In the section on Newton’s Second Law or the Law of Force from the online book of Global Dynamics the differences between the ideas of Newton, Einstein and Global Dynamics itself, due to intrinsic changes in mass and in the active forces, are given in more detail In conclusion, I want to point out than not once has the noncurved geometry of the Euclidean space been abandoned despite the curvature of the planet Mercury’s orbit, and that the equation used is supported by a physics model consistent with absolute time 116 Law of Global Gravity       When Einsother finished the Web page, he happily went to tell it to Prinspick, who said: – Very good And what did you after that? – Einsother, hesitating a pit, dit: – I started to play with marbles thinking about number Then, a pish girl appeared, she threw herself at my pheet, and opened her pleegs staring at my piballs – And Prinspick exclaimed: – That’s picorny! – 117 Law of Global Gravity     118 Law of Global Gravity   4.b.4 Gravitational red shift The gravitational red shift, the Doppler effect of light and the cosmological red shift due to the expansion of the universe make up the group of the three different red shifts, which are, however, often confused because they cause similar changes in the frequency of the electromagnetic waves As we have seen before, the Law of Global Gravity incorporates in a mathematical formula the Merlin effect or second component of the atractis causa on both mass motion and electromagnetic energy movement, explaining, respectively, the anomalous precession of the orbits of the planets and the light curve due to gravitational lenses We also know that the Law of Global Gravity is not only applied to the planet’s orbits but also to the movement of bodies with mass in vertical free fall towards the gravitational attraction center Likewise, it will be applied to light when it goes directly towards a planet Nevertheless, there is a problem here, the speed of light is settled on by its peculiar characteristics (as mentioned in the online book Global Mechanics), and the gravitational energy transfer will imply an increase in the electromagnetic energy or light frequency instead of a rise in kinetic energy We must take into account that the Law of Global Gravity reflects a particular approach of the fundamental law of the Theory of Global Equivalence or Gravitational Law of Equivalence In the gravitational lensing effect, by means of the Law of Global Gravity, the light curve is resolved; although that does not mean that a little increase in electromagnetic energy cannot take place Einstein propounded this natural phenomenon within his Theory of General Relativity The physical experiment which proved more clearly the gravitational red shift was Pound and 119 Law of Global Gravity Rebka’s in 1960 They measured the red and blue shift in a proportion of 2.46 * 10-15 of a gamma radiation emitted from the ground or the highest part of a tower (h = height = 22.6 meters) and observed from the highest part or the ground, respectively Let see now how the gravitational red or blue shift can be easily explained without expanding time or bending space and not only with an alternative theory to Einstein’s relativity but with even more options Be reminded that the Theory of Global Equivalence accepts as correct the mass increase due to velocity and the constancy of the speed of light in its natural reference system, which is globine or support medium of light Even though the speed of light can be affected by variations in the intensity of the field of gravity, it will have very little effect on it The calculation of the gravitational red shift does not take into consideration several secondary quantitative effects in order to not affect the basic explication of Pound and Rebka’s physical experiment The influence of speed and therefore of gravitational acceleration on mass and energy was already known by the first humans since they knew that when something fell over them it hurt, and greater the height and the speed, higher the pain was The Principle of Energy Conservation states that the energy difference must be compensated Accordingly, the Principle of Global Conservation just explicitly extends the idea to gravity as it proposes the mass-energy-gravity equivalence or conservation of energy matter in a broad sense Therefore, the energy gained by the photon when it moves from the highest part of the tower to the ground must be equal to the one provided by the gravitational field 120 Law of Global Gravity The proportional change in the energy of the electromagnetic waves can be calculated in several ways Besides, as we know that the energy of the electromagnetic waves is equal to Plank constant multiplied by the frequency (E = h v), this will give us the necessary percentage change in frequency in order to absorb the energy gained in the fall However, by taking into consideration that the speed of light (electromagnetic energy) is equal to frequency multiplied by wavelength (c = v), we will obtain the wavelength and verify if it coincides with the obtained records In the table, known and any other necessary data (equivalent mass) to make the pertinent calculations are shown As we will see below, the gravitational red shift can be explained in several ways, however, that does not mean that all of them are correct from an epistemological point of view 121 Law of Global Gravity For example, the way by which c is increased to calculate the total rise in the wavelength and, by means of its percentage increase, to achieve the correct result does not prove that a speed higher than c exists Likewise, the fact that the energy increase can be mathematically explained according to the proportion of the velocity increment, resulting in an energy increase relation regarding the initial energy similar to the previous one, does not guarantee that the aforementioned increase in the speed of light can be produced The three explanations that, from my point of view, reveal the process that takes place in the real world are the ones expressing the energy transfer that is produced and which means an increase in the light frequency, due to its nature, with its corresponding gravitational blue shift when it moves towards the center of the gravitational field and a decrease in its frequency with gravitational red shift of the wavelength when it moves away from it This physical effect is exactly the same as the one of the light curve or gravitational lensing effect of the stars, the only difference between them is the spatial orientation of the movement of light If the movement of light goes towards the star or planet, is called blue shift, or red shift when it moves away And, if it is tangential, it is called light curve The fact that the natural phenomena of the precession of Mercury’s orbit, the light curve and the red and blue shifts can also be explained by temporal expansions and space curvatures does not imply that they necessarily occur; especially, because, seeing the graphs of the Merlin effect, it 122 Law of Global Gravity seems a little arbitrary than a temporal expansion, in one case, and a space curvature, in the other, may occur in Einstein’s Relativistic Mechanics If it is accepted that the speed of light remains constant in its natural reference system and the definition of time is change in order to separate it from frequency or energy of the cesium atom, what will be, in fact, relative, or, in other words, variable, is the energy Nevertheless, there will be also a change in the speed of light due to the modification of the conditions defining the medium by which it is displaced This is, if the medium changes, speed of light will vary too All in all, the gravitational red shift is due to a very typical gravity process of transmission of forces and energies; in other words, there is no need to stretch or expand time or space 123 Law of Global Gravity   124 Law of Global Gravity   4.b.5 Other gravitational processes  Doppler effect in light Doppler effect of light is also called relativistic Doppler effect so as to distinguish it from the normal or mechanical waves, such as the sound ones, Doppler effect With Global Mechanics and Global Dynamics, it should change its name into Global Doppler effect and will have a mechanical nature again by ceasing the relativity of time and space Due to the current relativistic paradigm, the Doppler effect of light calculations need the relativity of time for representing the impact velocity of a photon against a moving body to be higher than *c*  or, otherwise, lower Doppler effect of light, as the rest of gravitational processes, should maintain the energy equivalence of the electromagnetic waves when they are emitted, during their motion (at constant speed in certain conditions) and at the time of their final reception Likewise, the argument is the same one than with the gravitational red shift even though specific details are different and, maybe, more complex because in the relativistic Doppler effect intervene more than an energy effect Not only there may be changes in velocity but also in the medium by which it is displaced, globine or reticular structure of gravity There is an essential difference between the relativistic Doppler effect and the one of the Theory of Global Equivalence: for the second one, an energy effect will be produced on the moving body, not regarding any observer but with regard to the natural reference system The same thing will happen as for the receiver body of the wave 125 Law of Global Gravity If the emitting body is in motion, its velocity implies a frequency of the corresponding atomic orbital of a higher emission that if it is at rest Therefore, the wave will have a higher frequency due to this energy effect, independently of the sending direction which will have its own effect With regard to motion or real velocity of emission and impact similar to the Doppler effect of sound (that is why it adopts the same name), the previously mentioned problem of the Theory of Relativity is that it is impossible to accept speeds of light different from *c*, even for this obvious cases The case of the Doppler effect of light when the one in motion is the receiver does not imply that the wave has a higher frequency, the wave maintains its frequency independently from the receiver The possible effect that may occur is that the impact energy is higher if the Galilean relative velocity is bigger than *c* and lower otherwise I would say that the same thing happens in a normal impact when someone is running down the street As previously seen in the section about gravitational red shift, the quantification of these processes can be done in many ways, some are more real and others are more imaginary and artificial I also admit that I am not clear about said processes because of a variety of reasons: for lack of time and because it is possible that the measurements of scientists are a little corrupted by the theories behind them, as in many other cases in which sui generis interpretations are presented to us like proven facts The third reason is that the purpose of this online book is not to be a mathematical treatise of the Theory of Global Equivalence 126 Law of Global Gravity   127 Law of Global Gravity   128 Law of Global Gravity     Cosmological red shift  The three gravitational processes regarding the red shift usually take place in the motion or total trajectory of electromagnetic waves Firstly, the relativistic Doppler effect of light, because the emitting star is usually in motion; secondly, the gravitational red shift when it leaves or moves away from the gravitational field of said star On the other hand, when receiving the wave, the opposite effects will take place: blue shift as it approaches the Earth and red or blue shift according to the Earth’s movement The third gravitational process, which seems that is not yet fully explained, is a different red shift as it cannot be explained with the two previous ones and is therefore called cosmological shift I not know the reasons for it or if it really takes place Maybe it has something to with the longitudinal tension of the reticular structure of gravity, which is not the same as the longitudinal tension curve which causes the force of gravity     *** 129 ... definition of energy Types of energy Kinetic energy Gravitational potential energy Mechanical energy Energy science experiments GigaChron experiment Natural phenomena Gravitational waves Gravitational... gravity, energy and movement Gravitation Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Law of Equivalence Gravitational field Principle of conservation of matter Global Gravity Law Energy. .. Universal Gravitation and Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, given that is known the quantification of energy exchanges, due to the gravitational forces, between kinetic and potential gravitational energy
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