Journal of the proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 04

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JOURNAL THE PROCEEDINGS THE LINNEAN SOCIETY ZOOLOGY VOL II LONDON: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, LONGMANS & ROBERTS, AND WILLIAMS AND NORGATE 1858 PRINTED BY TAYEOR AND FRANCIS, RED WON COURT; FLEET STREET LIST OF PAPERS Page Cobbold, Spencer, M.D., F.L.S Description of a New Form of Naked- Eyed Medusa (ThaumanT 38 tias achroa), with brief histological details Couch, Jonathan, F.L.S &c Note on the Occurrence of Pkyllosoma commune on the Coast of 146 Cornwall Forster, Thomas, M.D On the Irregularity in the Return of Swallows and other Vernal 40 Migratory Birds in the Season 1857 Guy, W A., M.B Note on a singular case of Colouring of the Human Owen, Professor, F.R.S., V.P.L.S &c On the Characters, Principles of Division and the Class Hair 41 Primary Groups of Mammalia Sclater, Philip Lutley, M.A., F.L.S &c On On the general Geographical Distribution of the Class Aves the Zoology of Smith, Frederick, British Museum New Guinea 130 149 Assistant in the Zoological Department in the Catalogue of the Hymenopterous Insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo ; Mount Ophir, Malacca A R Wallace Index ; and at Singapore, by 42 171 — JOURNAL OF THE PROCEEDINGS LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON On the Characters, Principles of Division, and Primary Groups of the Class Mammalia By Professor Owen, F.B.S., P.L.S., Superintendent of the Natural History Departments in the British Museum [Bead February 17th and April The class Mammalia, 21st, 1857.] the most highly organized of the animal we ourselves belong, appears to have been the last class of animals introduced on this planet, and not to have attained plenary development until the tertiary division kingdom and that to which of geological time Mammals are distinguished, outwardly, by an entire or partial covering of hair, and (with two exceptions) by teats or mammae Mammals possess mammary whence the name of the class* All glands, and suckle their young the embryo or : in the womb foetus is developed Their leading anatomical character is to have composed of a highly vascular and minutely cellular structure throughout, and suspended freely in a thoracic cavity separated by a muscular and tendinous septum or diaphragm from the abdomen lungs, * From mamma, The Platypus and Echidna are the only known The Mare is an apparent one, from the pudendal posiThe foetal Cetacea show tufts of hair on the muzzle a pap exceptions to this rule tion of the nipples LINN PROC ZOOLOGY ; PROFESSOR OWEN ON THE CHARACTERS, ETC Mammals, have a heart composed of two ventricles and have warm blood they breathe quickly but inspiration is performed chiefly by the agency of the diaphragm and the inspired air acts only on the capillaries of the pulmonary and two like Birds, auricles, : ; circidation The blood-discs are smaller than in Reptiles, and, save in the The Camel-tribe, are circular right auriculo-ventricular valve membranous, at least never entirely fleshy over the never over the right, bronchial tube left, branches of the aorta are given off not immediately little distance from, its origin, and there order of their origin than in Birds : is and the aorta bends ; is less The primary after, but at a constancy in the the phrenic arteries, the coeliac and the superior mesenteric artery are always branches of the abdominal aorta, which terminates by dividing beyond the kidneys into the iliac arteries, from which spring both the femoral and ischiadic branches the caudal or sacro-median artery, which in some long-tailed Mammals assumes the character of the conaxis, : tinued trunk of the aorta, never distributes arteries to the kidneys or the legs, as in Birds The kidneys are nourished, and derive the material of their secretion, exclusively from the arterial system Their veins are simple, commencing by minute capillaries in the parenchyma and terminating generally by a single trunk on each side in the abdominal vena cava : they never anastomose with the mesenteric veins The kidneys and present a more compact their parenchyma is and medullary portion, and the secreting are relatively smaller figure than in the other vertebrate classes divided into a cortical ; tubuli terminate in a dilatation of the excretory duct, called the pelvis The liver is generally divided into a greater number of lobes than in Birds The portal system is formed by veins derived The cystic exclusively from the spleen and chylopoietic viscera duct, when it exists, always joins the hepatic, and does not enter the duodenum separately The pancreatic duct is commonly single The mouth the upper is closed by soft flexible muscular lips composed of palatine, maxillary and premaxillary bones, and the lower jaw consists of two rami, which are simple or is fixed formed by one bony piece, and are articulated by a convex or flat condyle to the base of the zygomatic process, and not to the tymthe base of the coronoid panic element of the temporal bone process generally extends along the space between the condyloid jaw : is ; ; OP TIIE CLASS and the alveolar processes MAMMALIA The jaws of d Mammals with few ex- ceptions are provided with teeth, which are arranged in a single row; they are always lodged in sockets, and never anchylosed with the snhstance of the jaw The tongue is fleshy, well-developed, with the apex more or The posterior nares are less free protected by a soft palate, and the larynx by an epiglottis the rings of the trachea are generally cartilaginous and incomplete : there is no inferior larynx The oesophagus is continued without partial dilatations to the stomach, which varies in its behind : structure according to the nature of the food, or the quantity of nutriment to be extracted therefrom The true vertebrae of Mammalia have their bodies ossified three centres, and present for a longer or shorter period of They are discoid epiphysis at each extremity concentric ligaments with interposed glairy fluid are called the intervertebral substances ; from life a by forming what articulated the articulating surfaces are generally flattened, but sometimes, as in the neck of certain Ruminants, they are concave behind and convex in front such may be distinguished from a vertebra of : a vertebra, however, a Reptile, with a similar ball-and-socket structure of the articular when found in a fossil state, and when the test of the medium cannot be applied, by the complete anchylosis surfaces, even articulating or confluence of the annular with the central part or body, and by the large cervical relative size of the canal for the spinal chord vertebrae, The with one or two exceptions, are seven in number, neither more nor less the Monotremes, which are the instances commonly opposed to other generalizations, form no The lumbar vertebrae are more constant exception to this rule and usually more numerous than in other classes of vertebrate The atlas is articulated by concave articular processes animals to two convex condyles, which are developed from the ex-occipital elements of the last cranial vertebra The tympanic element of : the temporal bone is restricted in function to the service of the organ of hearing, and never enters into the articulation of the lower jaw The olfactory nerves escape from the cranial cavity through numerous foramina of a cribriform plate The optic foramina are always distinct from one another The scapula is generally an expanded plate of bone the coracoid, with two (monotrematous) exceptions, appears as a small ; process of the scapula The sternum usually simple series of bones : consists of a narrow and the sternal portions of the ribs are generally cartilaginous and fixed to the vertebral portions without 1* — PROFESSOR OWEN ON THE CHARACTERS, ETC the interposition of a distinct articulation bony abdominal : abdominal sternum ribs or there are no gristly or The pubic and ischial arches are generally complete, and united together by bony confluence on the sternal aspect, so that the interspace of the pelvic arches two converted into two holes, called foramina obtura- is toria or thyroidea The sclerotic coat of the eye is a fibrous membrane, and never contains bony plates In the quantity of aqueous humour and the convexity of the lens Mammals are generally intermediate between Birds and Fishes The organ of hearing is characterized by the full development of the cochlea with a lamina tympanum nally ; the spiralis the ; there are three distinct ossicles in the : membrana tympani is generally concave exter- meatus auditorius externus often commences with a complicated external ear, having a distinct cartilaginous basis The external apertures of the organ of smell are provided with moveable cartilages and muscles, and the extent of the internal organ is increased by accessory cavities or sinuses which communicate with the passages including the turbinated bones There are few characters of the osseous system common, and at the same time peculiar, to the class Mammalia may be cited Each half or ramus of the mandible piece developed from a single centre flat, never concave determination of The following : : consists of one the condyle bony convex or is This has proved a valuable character in the fossils The second or distal bone, called " squamosal," in the bar con- tinued backwards from the maxillary arch, is not only expanded, but is applied to the side-wall of the cranium, and developes the articular surface for the mandible, which surface is either concave or flat* The presphenoid is developed from a centre distinct from that of the basisphenoid In no other class of vertebrate animals are these osteological characters present The cancellous texture of mammalian bone is of a finer and more delicate structure than in Reptiles, and forms a closer network than in Birds The microscopic radiating cells are relatively smaller and approach more nearly to the spheroid form but both ; these histological characters are liable to mislead, if unsupported by more obvious and constant ones, in the interpretation of a fossil * The Wombat is, perhaps, the sole exception to this rule OF THE CLASS MAMMALIA Dental characters —The Mammalia, like Reptilia and Pisces, include a few genera and species that are devoid of teeth ; the true ant-eaters {Myrmecophaga), the scaly ant-eaters or pangolins (Ifanis), and the spiny monotrematous ant-eater (Echidna), are examples of strictly edentulous Mammals The Ornithorhynchus has horny teeth, and the whales (Balcena and Halienopterd) have by whalebone subupper jaw The female Narwhal seems to be edentulous, but has the germs of two tusks in the substance of the upper jaw-bones one of these becomes developed into a large and conspicuous weapon in the male Narwhal, whence the name of its genus Monodon transitory embryonic calcified teeth, succeeded stitutes in the ; The examples of excessive number of teeth are presented, in the order Bruta, by the priodont Armadillo, which has ninety-eight and in the Cetaceous order by the Cachalot, which has upwards of sixty teeth, though most of them are confined to the lower jaw by the common Porpoise, which has between eighty and ninety teeth by the Gangetic Dolphin, which has one hundred and twenty teeth; and by the true Dolphins (Delphinus), which have from one hundred to one hundred and ninety teeth, yielding the maximum number in the class Mammalia "When the teeth are in excessive number, as in the Armadillos and Dolphins above cited, they are small, equal, or sub-equal, and teeth : ; : usually of a simple conical form In most other mammals particular teeth have special forms for thus, the front teeth, from being commonly adapted to effect the first coarse division of the food, have been called cutters or incisors and the back teeth, which complete its comspecial uses ; ; minution, grinders or molars large conical pointed teeth situated ; behind the incisors, and adapted, by being nearer the insertion of the bitiug muscles, to act with greater force, are called holders, tearers, laniaries, or developed in the more commonly Dog and It is peculiar to the class from being well Mammalia to have teeth implanted in more fangs but this can only happen to teeth limited growth, and generally characterizes the molars and pre- sockets by two or of canines, other Carnivora molars : ; perpetually growing teeth require the base to be kept simple and widely excavated for the persistent pulp In no mam- miferous animal does anchylosis of the tooth with the jaw constitute a normal mode of attachment Each tooth has its peculiar socket, to which it by the close co-adaptation of and by the firm adhesion of the alveolar firmly adheres their opposed surfaces, PROEESSOK OWEN ON THE CHAKACTEKS, ETC periosteum to the organized cement which invests the fang or fangs of the tooth True teeth implanted class, to in sockets are confined, in the Mammalian the maxillary, premaxillary, and mandibular or lower max- illary bones, They may and form a single row in each only from the premaxillary bones, as in the Narwhal ; project or only from or be limited to the supeand not present in the premaxillaries, as in the true Euminantia and most Bruta (Sloths, Armadillos, Orycteropes) In most Mammals teeth are situated in all the the lower maxillary bone, as in Ziphius rior and ; inferior mamillaries bones above mentioned The teeth of the Mammalia usually consist of hard unvascular by an investment of enamel, and everywhere surrounded by a coat of cement The coronal cement is of extreme tenuity in Man, Quadrumana and the terrestrial Carnivora it is thicker in the Herbivora, espedentine, defended at the crown ; complex grinders of the Elephant Vertical folds of enamel and cement penetrate the crown of the tooth in the ruminating and many other Ungulata, and in most Rodents, characterizing by their various forms the genera of those cially in the orders No Mammal has more than two sets of teeth In some species the tooth-matrix does not develope the germ of a second tooth, destined to succeed one into which the matrix has been converted ; such a tooth, therefore, when completed and worn down, is not The Sperm Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises are limited replaced In the Armadillos and to this simple provision of teeth the want of generative power, as it may be called, in Sloths, the matrix is compensated by the persistence of the matrix, and by the uninterrupted growtli of the teeth In most other Mammalia, the matrix of the first-developed tooth gives origin to the germ of a second tooth, which sometimes displaces the first, from which it sometimes takes its place by the side of the tooth has originated All those teeth which r.re displaced by their progeny are called the mode and direction in which they are displaced and succeeded, viz from above downwards in the upper, from below upwards in the lower, jaw, in both jaws vertically— are the same as in the Crocodile but the process is never repeated more than once in any mammalian animal A conthe siderable proportion of the dental series is thus changed second or permanent teeth having a size and form as suitable ' temporary,' deciduous, or milk-teeth ; ; ; ' ' NEW SCLATER ON THE ZOOLOGY OF Charmosyna papuana, Scop., 106 Somi Voy Nonv Guin Gm Less Voy Coq (Less.) Mus 630 p i 165 sp 111 pi GUINEA Psitt Papua, Scop Psitt Papuensis, Mull Verh Ethn 107 ; Havre-Dorey Lugd Paris, et 10/ Lorius domicella, Linn Less Voy Coq Havre-Dorey p 62/ i Mus (Less.) Paris, et Lugd 108 Lorius tricolor, Stephens Enl 168 PI (Less.) 109 Mus Lory, Less Voy Coq Psitt Eos squamata, Bodd., PL Enl 684 Voy Coq i p 628 i Havre-Dorey Paris ; p unde sp squamatus, Bodd Psitt Havre-Dorey 628 et Psitt Guebiensis, Less Guebe (Less.) Mus Paris, et Lugd Chalcopsitta atra, Scop., sp 110 Sonn Voy Nouv Guin 110; unde Mus Lugd pi Guinea, Gm., Bp P Z, S 111 Chalcopsitta scintillans, PL Col 569 Temm., Psitt ater, Scop.; Psitt Novce sp Mull Verh Ethn p 22 ; Lobo (Mull.) Mus Lugd et Paris The specimens of this bird in the Paris Museum were obtained Aru Isl by MM Hombron and Jacquinot at the 112 Eclectus cardinalis, Bodd., sp PL Enl 518 ; unde Psitt cardinalis, Bodd., et Psitt puniceus, Eclectus puniceus, Bodd, Pr Z S 1849, p 143 Eclectus grandis, Mull Verh Ethn ; Less Voy Coq Havre-Dorey (Less.) p 22 Gm p 627 i ; Lobo (Mull.) 113 Polychlorus grandis, Gm., sp Sonn Voy Nouv Guin Psitt grandis, Gm pi 08 2)olychloros, Mull Verb Ethn p 22 1857, p 226 Lobo ; unde (Mull.) ; Psitt polychloros, Scop., et Voy Coq p 627 Eclectus Gen Polyclilorus, Sclater in P Z S Psitt Sinensis, Less Havre-Dorey (Less.) i Mus Paris, et Lugd 114 Psittacodis Stavorini, Less., sp Wagler, Mon p 628 115 I Psitt p 574, pi 33 Waigiou Psitt Stavorini, Less Voy Coq i (Less.) Geoffroius personatus, Shaw, sp Psitt batavensis, ibid p 107 Lobo Gm ; Mull Verh Ethn p 22, et Psitt Geoffroyi, (Mull.) 116 Geoffroius Pucherani, Bp Pionus fuscicapillus, Puch Voy au P S Zool pi West coast of N G (H # J.) Mus Paris fig 3, p Ill, pi 25 bis, ;; 166 SCLA.TER ON THE ZOOLOGY OF NEW GUINEA 117 Cyclopsitta Desmaresti, Garn., sp Voy Coq Lobo i p 600, pi 35 Mus Par et (Mull.) Lugd H 118 Cyclopsitta diophthalma, Ann et Zool d Sc iii Nat ser p 107 ii., xvi p S coast Psitt pygmcBus, & Q & J., sp 313 ; Voy au P S pi 25* fig G., sp G Voy Astrol Micropsitta p 232, pi 21 i pygmaa, Less Tr d'Orn p 646 Mull Verh Ethn pp 23 et Dorey (Q 8f G.) ; r Oetanata (Mull) ; 120 Cacatua Triton, Coup d'ceil, s Mull Verh p 21 (Mull) Mus Lugd vol v p 1) 121 Cacatua (equator ialis, Coup p 625 d'ceil Havre-Dorey Less Voy Coq i B Austr suppl pt Paris, et p 625 i seems to consider iii p Mr as hardly different C sulphurea, Less Voy Coq 405 Gm., i sp Psitt Goliath, Mull.Verh Havre-Dorey pi it Mus Lugd (Less.) et Waigiou Ethn (Less.) ; p 22 ; Gould, Lobo (Mull) Lugd 123 Microglossa Alecto, Bp Consp P galeritus, Less Voy Coq i p 405 Havre-Dorey (Less.); west coast of N G iii Temm Poss Ned s 122 Microglossa aterrima, Mus Havre- very nearly allied to the C galerita of Australia is Gould (B Austr 107 Temm Poss Ned p 624, et This species et Mus Par of N G & pygmaa, Q 119 Nasiterna Havre-Dorey {Gam.) MUll Verh p 22 ; i p 7- Temm Mus Lugd Cttcttlid^: 124 Centropus Menebeki, Garn Voy Coq Lobo 125 i p 600, pi 3; Mull Verh Ethn p 22 Eudynamys rufiventris, Less., sp Cuculus rufiventer, Less Voy Coq Mus Havre-Dorey (Less.); (Mull.) i 623 pi Havre-Dorey (Less.) Paris 126 Hierococcyx leucolophus, Mull Verh Ethn pp 22 et 233 127 Chrysococcyx lucidus, Mull Verh p 21; Lobo (Mull) & Schl Lobo (Mull) Mus Lugd Gm Bp Consp p 106; Gould, B Austr iv pi 39 SCLATER ON THE ZOOLOGY OF NEW GUINEA 167 COLUMBID^ 128 Goura coronata, Linn Bp Consp Lngd et Brit 129 96; Mull Verb Ethn p ii Goura Victoria, Bp Consp (Mull.) Mus Fraser G Steursii, 96 p ii Lobo p 22 Temm Mus Lngd et Brit 130 Calcenas nicobarica, Linn., sp Bp Consp 95 p ii Less Voy Coq ; p 145 ii 131 Ptilonopus viridis, Linn., sp Bp Consp ii p 24 Knip, Pig ; 17 pi Mull Verh Ethn p 22 ; Lobo Mus Lugd (Mull) 132 Ptilonopus Lechlancheri, Bp., sp Trerolcema Lechlancheri, Bp Compt Rend xli p Mus 247 Paris, et Brit 133 Ptilonopus cyanovirens, Less., sp Bp Consp p ii Mus (Less.) 23 Less Voy Coq ; Havre-Dorey p 713 pi 42 i Paris 134 Ptilonopus perlatus, Temrn., sp PI Col (Mull.) 559; Bp Consp Mus Lugd 135 Ptilonopus naina, PI Col (Mull.) Temm., Bp Consp 565 Mus Lugd ; 136 Ptilonopus pulchellus, PI Col 564 137- Ptilonopus superbus, Bp Consp 138 Lobo ii p Mull Verh Ethn p 22 Lobo ; » sp 22 p ii ; Mull Verh Ethn p 22 Lobo Temm., 31 ; ; Guinea (Belcher) Verh Ethn pi 102 ; unde C rnyri- (Scop.) unde C Mus Brit pi 103 (Sonn.) Carpophaga luctuosa, Temm., 247 Miill bicolor, Scop., sp New Guinea PI Col 57; v pi Sonn Voy Nouv Guin New Guinea Carpophaga sp rnyristicivora, Scop., sp p Sonn Voy N Guin 142 25 sp ii Mus Lugd (Miill.) sticivora, Scop p 36 Lobo Gould, B Austr 18; p ii Carpophaga Bp Consp 139 Mull Verb Ethn p 22 Mus Lugd (Miill.) p 22 40; Temm., Bp Consp ; p ii Gould, B Austr Mus Brit bicolor, Scop.; Bp Consp ii sp v pi 60; Bp Consp ii p 36 New SCLATEE ON THE ZOOLOGY OF NEW GUINEA 168 143 Carpophaga Mulleri, PI Col 566 Temm., & 144 Carpophaga Pinon, Q & Col Pinon, Q I Rawak (Q sp Mull Verb Ethn p 23 R Oetanata {Mull.) Mus Lugd ; G., Mus G.) 8f G., sp Voy Uranie, pi 28 p 118 Bp Consp ; ii p 37 Paris Carpophaga Zoea, Less., sp Voy Coq pi 39 Dorey (Less.) Mus Paris 145 Col Zoea, Less 146 Carpophaga rufigastra, Q Voy Astrol pi 27, Mus Paris p 245 & 705 p Bp Consp ii p 38 Havre- G., sp Bp Consp ; ; ii Havre-Dorey (Q p 38 «$• G.) 147 Carpophaga puella, Less., sp Man d'Orn Col.puella, Less 148 p 72 R Oetanata {Mull.) Ethn p 22 ; Bp Consp Mus Lugd ii p 40 ; Mull Verb et Brit Macropygia Doreya, Bp Mus Paris ii p 57- Consp 149 Geopelia humeralis, PI Col 191 Mus Lugd {Mull.) 150 sp v pi 72; Bp Consp ii p 93 Lobo et Brit Chalcophaps Stephani, Puch Voy au P West Temm., Gould, B Austr ; 2; Zool S pi 28 fig coast of N G (H fy J.) Lobo ; iii p 119; Bp Consp (Mull.) Mus Paris, et ii p 93 Lugd 151 Eutrygon terrestris, Puch., sp Trugon Puch Voy au P terrestris, S Zool iii p 123 pi 28, fig ; Mus Paris coast of N G (H fy J.) I have slightly modified the generic name of this peculiar type, Trugon, Bp Consp ii correctly written division West p 86 Trygon (rpvycou), having been previously used for another by Prof Reichenbach STRUTHIONHLffi 152 Casuarius Emeu, Lath., Less Voy Coq (Less.); i S.W coast p sp 717; Midi Verh Ethn p 109 (Milll.) MEGAPODIDjE 153 Tuhgallu Cuvieri, Less Voy Coq i p 715, pi 38 Havre-Dorey (Less.) Havre-Dorey SCLATEE ON THE ZOOLOGY OF NEW GUINEA 10 J ( Megapodius rubripes, Teram 154 PI Col 411 ; Mull Verb Ethn p 23 R Oetanata (Mull) Mus Lugd & 155 Megapodius Freycineti, Q Voy Uranie, Ois G 125 pi 32 p Isl $ Waigiou and Guebe (H J.) Megapodius Duperreii, Less Voy Coq i p 700 pi 36 Havre-Dorey (Less.) 156 In There appears to be much confusion among the true Megapodii the Leyden Museum there are specimens of four distinct species Freycineti, ex Termite (Forster) ; rubripes, : — M ex Nov Guinea et Celebes ; tumulus, ex Australia; and an undescribed species from Ceram Chaeadeid^e 157- Esacus magnirostris, G Temm PI Col S Hilaire, sp 387; Gould, B Austr R Oetanata {Mull.) vi pi Mus Lugd 158 Hiaticula inornata, Gould B Austr Oomaga pi 19 vi Is., Torres Straits (Lieut Ince) ; coast ofN G {Gould) 159 Glareola Isabella, Vieill G grallaria, Temm ; Gould, B Austr vi pi 22 ; Mull Verh Ethn Mus Lugd R Oetanata {Mull.) p 23 160 Hcematojms longirostris, Vieill Gould, B Austr H vi pi 7- ostralegus, Mull Verh Ethn p 21 ? Coasts of N G {Mull.) 161 Strepsilas iriterpres, Linn., sp Raines Islets, Torres Straits (Gould) Aedeilve 162 Herodias Novce Guinea, Grn., sp Bp Consp ii Mus p 121 Paris 163 Botaurus heliosylus, Less Voy Coq Zool i Mus Paris p 722 pi 44 ; Bp Consp ii 136 Havre-Dorey (Less.) SCOLOPACID^! 164 Himantopus leucocephalus, Gould B Austr vi pi LINN PEOC ; Mull Verh Ethn p 21 — ZOOLOGY Coasts of N G (Mull.) 12 SCLATEB ON 170 165 TIIE ZOOLOGY OF NEW GUINEA Numenius uropygialis, Gould N phceopus, Mull Verh Ethn vi pi 43 B Austr N G p 22 ? Coasts of (M»ZZ.) 166 Schceniclus albescens, Gould B Austr vi pi Tringa pusilla, Mull Verh Ethn p 23 31 R Oe- tanata {Mull.) 167 Tringoides empusa, Gould, sp T hypoleuous, Mull Verh Actitis empusa, Gould, B Austr vi pi 35 Ethn p 22 Coasts of N G (Mull.) Eallid^; 168 Parr a gallinacea, Temm 427 ; Gould, B Austr PI Col vi pi 25 Laeidje Temm 169 Sterna melanauchen, 427 ; Gould, B Austr Coast of N G (Mull.) PI Col 170 St erna velox, Riipp Miill Verh Ethn vii pi 28 ; Mull Verh Ethn p 125 ? p 125 West coast of N G (Mull.) EEEATA Page 58, line 3, for Foemica ieeitans read Foemica hostilis The species Hymenoptera of Celebes, 101, erase under PELorosTis Javanus, the habitat Borneo from Borneo is described in the paper on the and named Pelopceus benigrms INDEX PAGE l'AG-E Accentor 137 127 Agathis, Latr planipcnnis, Bridle Agcnia (Subgen.), Schiodte Atalanta, Sm iEgina, Sm blanda, Guer (sp.) 127 Sm Sm MelampuSj Sm flavopicta, Sm Hippolyte, Sm Celreno, Sm Daphne, Laverna, Alcedmidse Alcedo Alcyone Ampelis Ampulex, Jurine hospes, Sm comprcssa, Sm smaragdina, Sm insularis, Sm Andrenidse, Leach Andrenoides Antliophora, Latr zonata, Lima, (sp.) insularis, Sm Apis, Linn dorsata, Fair indica, Fair Perrottetii, Guer Andreniforrnis, Sm Sm thoracica, Sm testacea, — — nitidiventris, Sm Sm apicalis, Sm canifrons, Sm collina, Sm fhnbriata, Sm loeviceps, Aprosmictus Arachnothera Nova3 Guinea', Archencephala Ardeidae Arses Artamus Artiodactyla Asti'apia Atta, Latr 15 95 95 96 96 96 155 156 156 134 98 98 99 99 99 42 44 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 163 cingulata, 1, 157 20 169 160 159 27 164 155 77 Sm Sm Belidea Bembex, Fair Bembicidse, Westw melancholica, Sm Botaurus Brachypteryx murinus Bracoii, Fair aculeator, Fair quadriceps, Sm suspiciosus, Sm —— —— 158 Sm cephalotes, Sm perplexus, Sm vagatus, Sm inquietus, Sm rugifrons, Sm florabs, Sm vultuosus, Sm foveatus, Sm laboriosus, Sm crassipes, Sm Westw Braconidse, Bruta Bucconidae Buceros Bucerotidse Cacatua Caarebidas Caloenas Calornis Campephaga CampephagidaB Caprimulgidoa Garnivora Sm Sm insularis, borridus, Stn Sm antennatus, Sm Centropus Cerapacbys, Sm oculatus, Oeratina, 122 122 122 123 123 123 124 124 124 125 125 125 126 126 126 122 23 133 156 156 166 133 167 164 160 159 155 31 Carpopbaga Casuarius Cataidacus, 77 67 154 105 105 105 169 insignis, reticulatus, Less, (sp.) Astur 94 94 91 94 95 Atta penetrans, Sm Latr hieroglyphic;), S,n flavopicta, Cerceris, Latr sepidcralis, Sm Sm 12* 167 168 80 80 81 81 166 74 74 74 47 47 47 107 107 172 INDEX PAGE 134 26 Certhia Cetacea Walker Chalcididffi, Chalcopsitta Characbiidffi Charniosyna Chrysididse, Leach Chrysis, Linn Sm rnalachitica, Sm vestigator, Chrysococcyx Cicinnurus Coliidffi Columbidse Coracias Coraciidse Corvidse Corvus Cotingidse Cotyle Crabro, Fair Sm familiaris, rugosus, Sm Crabronidse, Leach Craoidse Cracticus Crematogaster, Lund antbi'aciiius, brunneus, , Sm cephalotes, Sm Sm inflatus, Sm difformis, Sm obscurus, Cryptoceriche (Subfam.) Cryptus, Fair Sm Sm Sm croceipes, elegans, lepidus, Ctenoplectra, Smith cbalybea, Sm Cuculidse Cuscus Cyanorharnphus Cyclopsitta Cynipidse, Westto Cyuips insignis, Sm Cypselidse Dacelo Dasygastra? (Subfam.) Dendrocolaptidse Dendrolagus Dicasum Dicrurus Didelphes Didelpbys Diphyllodes Dorcopsis (sp.) Echinopla, Sm 161 Sm 168 165 169 165 23 128 128 128 128 166 163 133 167 155 155 162 162 133 134 106 106 106 105 133 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 79 118 118 118 119 44 45 166 21, 154 164 166 117 117 155 155 45 133 154 157 160 10 21 163 154 79 Sm Sm pallipes, 127 Chalcophaps Cheiroptera PAGE Echinopla melanaretos, Sm striata, Eclcctus Edoliisoma Entomophila Eos Epimachidse Epimachus Epistenia, Westw imperiahs,
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