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JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 46 BIGELOW'S "AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY [vol 55 9? GiJNTHER BUCHHEIM American medical botany by Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879) is a three- volume work in which 60 species of American medicinal plants are described and illustrated Its publication dates are usually given as ^'18171820,'' These are the inclusive title-page dates of the volumes: vol is dated 1817, vol 2: 1818, vol 3: 1820 However^ this work was originally published in six parts, and not in volumes: two parts forming each volume With the exception of volume part 1, the other five parts are provided with part titles, each being an integral part of the first gathering of each part These part titles are in the form of a half title and are undated, thus they are of no value in elucidating the dates of publication The copy of this work in the Duke University, Medical Center Library, Trent Collection, at Durham, North CaroHna (NcD-MC) was loaned to the Hunt Botanical Library for this study through the kindness of Dr G S T Cavanagh, hbrarian This copy is distinctive in that the SIX parts are preserved in their original green boards, and with the paper untrimmed; features that proved to be of high bibliographical importance, especially for determination of dates, collation, and paper size The outside front covers give the title as AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY WITH COLOURED ENGRAVINGS BY JACOB BIGELOW, M.D Member of the American Academy of Arts | | | and Sciences; of the American Philosophical Society, &c Rumford Professor and Lecturer on Materia Medica and Botany in Harvard University [ | After the volume and part number, there follows enumeration of the plants described in each part (10 species), together with the plate numbers The place of publication, and name of publisher and printer, is the same as on the title-pages Significantly, the dates imprinted on each cover differ from those on the title-pages Although Graesse, Tresor de livres tares et precieux 1: 424 1950 [reprint], Jackson, Guide to the lit- botany p 360 1881, and Savage (Comp.), Catalogue of the printed books and pamphlets in the library of the Linnean Society of London ed 2, p 67 1925, list the correct inclusive dates (1817-1821) no reference is known which gives the correct publication dates of all the parts The dates recorded on the front boards are: Vol I Part I: 1817- Vol erattire of L Part II: 1818; Vol II Part I: 1819; Vol IL Part II:" 1819;' Vol III, Part I: 1820; Vol ITT Part \l: 1821 In conclusion, volume 'l was published in 1817-1818 (title-page dated 1817), volume in 1819 (titlepage dated 1818), and volume in 1820-21 (title-page dated 1820) Additionally, a printed text belonging to volumes and on the outside back covers of the parts That on volume 1, part is an announce- is : BUCHHEIM "AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY" 1974] 47 ment by the publisher that part of the same volume will shortly be published, followed by an advertisement of books, none of them botanical Volume 1, part represents a prospectus of the present work It is May dated lished." 1818 and states that "Two half volumes are already pubVolume 2, part bears advertisements of books either pub- Hshed by Cummings and Hilliard, or which are in the press The first item mentioned is AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY, Nos 1, 2, & That for Volume 2, part 2, reports an error on the front cover of Volume 2, part 1, where the plate numbers are reported as "I, II" etc instead of "XXI, XXII" etc It reports further that a work titled Outlines of Botany by John Locke is in press [this work was published in 1819] and lists additional nonbotanical titles Using these data, and considering the contents and bibliographical characteristics of both the NcD-MC and HBL copies, the following formal treatment has been prepared: American medical botany vols Boston, ISl AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY, 7-1820 [1817-1821] BEING A COLLECTION OF THE NATIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES, CONTAINING THEIR BOTANICAL HISTORY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, AND PROPERTIES AND USES IN MEDICINE, DIET AND THE ARTS, WITH COLOURED ENGRAVINGS [very short thick-thin double rule] BY JACOB BIGELOW, M.D RUMFORD PROFESSOR AND LECTURER ON MATERIA MEDICA AND BOTAN\ IN MAR| | I | | | I YARD UNIVERSITY [very short thin-thick double rule | ] | VOL I LS BOSTON PUBLISHED BY CUMMINGS AND HILLIARD, ^ AT THE BOSTON BOOKSTORE, NO 1, CORNHILL UNIVERSITY PRESS HILLIARD AND METCALF 1817 dots in line] I 3(C t [Vol II]: « HILL ?p « VOL * 3|C II « BOSTON BOOKSTORE, NO • CORN- 1818 MEDICINE, DIET, AND THE ARTS, WITH COLOURED ENGRAVINGS, [short double rule] BY JACOB BIGELOW, M.D RUMFORD PROFESSOR, AND PROFESSOR OF MATERIA MEDICA IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY [short double rule] VOL III [short thick-thin double rule] BOSTON: PUBLISHED BY CUMMINGS AND HILLIARD, AT THE BOSTON BOOKSTORE, NO CORNHILL [very short double rule] UNIV PRESS HILLIARD AND METCALF Ill]: [Vol * | | ] | | | | 1820 Collation: 8° in 4's: Vol 1: 1' 2" 3-14* (—14*) 15* 16-25*; i-v vi-xi xii 17 18-32 23 34-38 39 40-51 52 53-59 60 61-65 66 67-74 75 76-83 84 85-89 90 91-95 96 97-110 111-113 114-124 125 126-132 133 134-141 142 143-148 149 150-154 155 156-160 161 162-168 169 170-176 177 178-186 187 188-191 192 193-197 198 Vol 2: i* 2-13* 14* 15-25*; i-v vi-vii viii-ix x-xiii xiv (in NcD-MC copy as "xvi") 15 16-26 27 28-33 34 35-40 41 42-50 51 52-58 59 60-66 67 68-72 73 74-81 82 83-96 97 98-104 105-107 108-114 115 116-120 121 122-136 137 138-141 142 143-147 148 149-153 154 155-159 160 161-165 166 167-170 171 172-187 188 189-199 200 Vol 3: 1* 2-12* 13^ (— Bs) 14* 15-25* 26^; t-v vi-x 11 12-18 19 20-31 32 33^2 43 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 48 [vol 55 44-48 49 50-54 SS 56-60 61 62-75 76 77-81 82 83-91 92 93-98 99-101 102-106 107 108-118 119 120-128 129 130-133 134 135-140 141 142-146 147 148-150 151 152155 J5(5 157-162 163 164-173 174-175 176-177 178-179 180-187 188-189 190 iPi 192-193 194-195 196-197 iP5 Contents: Vol Ir l^r title, iiV registration certification for vol dated 18 October 1817 l^r dedication to Reverend John Thornton Kirkland (1770-1840), president of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., dated ''Boston^ October^ 1817," iav n l^-IzT preface 22V D 3i-143 text: description of species and their medical uses, including botanical of the figures depicted on each plate and medical references and explanation 15^r part title for vol part 2, 15xV D i5a-25ir continuation of the text 25iV-254r notes Vol part 2: iir part certification for vol author Q i^iV D vol 1^7 2, 2^-2^ preface 14.r-2^-2X 254V contents of vol iiv Q i^r title^ l^y registration dated 28 October 1818 l^-lj: advertisement by the for vol title 1, 24-13^ text continuation of the text 14^r part title for vol part 24aV-254r notes 2, 254V contents of Vol 3: l^x part 22-1 3i text the text title for vol part 14^x part 232V D ^iV 1, D for vol part title I2X title, 14^w U l^y D preface 1^-2:, M^-li^r continuation of 233-234r notes 234V D 24i-25ir appendix 25iV Q 252rv systematic index 253-254r index of Latin names 254V D 26x-26or index of Enghsh names 262V contents of vol Running vary with the plants described, the Latin binomial being used on the versos, the English name on the rectos Language used: English titles Plates; 60 colored (colorprinted and handcolored) or partly colored, mixed intaglio plates (engraving, aquatint, engraving) of medicinal plants, numbered I-LX (XIX as ^'XI"), titled binomially at foot; 207 X 136 mm (pi 2); plates facing descriptions; indexed by Stapf, Index londmensis (pi 14, Spigelia marilandica, erroneously stated to be in black and white) Illustrators Artist: work stipple : the author, Jacob Bigelow itself (Vol 1, p xi; Vol 2, p All plates vi) it is unsigned However, the in clearly stated that the figures have been prepared from original drawings made by the author himself, *'with the exception of two or three presented by his friends" (Vol 2: p vi) Engravers: Annin, W B (dates unknown): plates, and additionally 2i (or 21) plates in collaboration with Smith; Smith, (dates unknown): 23 (or 21) plates, all in collaboration with W B Annin 35 (or 37) plates without indication of engraver (pis 2-6, 8-28, 30, 41, 43-49; also pis 31 and 58 in NcD- MC copy) Paper: Half sheets; size of half sheet 358 white, wove Plates: white, wove X 530 mm [NcD-MC, untrimmed]; firm bridge, Mass Publisher; Cummings and Hilliard, Boston booksellers Dates of Publication: The work was published in parts Vol 1, part 1, pp BUCHHEIM, "AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY" 1974] 49 part Vol 2, October) 1, in late or (November 1817 I-X: pis i-xii, 17-110, pis 15-104, i-xiv, part Vol pp 1, (May) 2, pp ill-198,'pls XI-XX: 1818 XXI-XXX: 1819 105-200, pis XXXI-XL, Vol 1820 XLI-L: 11-98 pis i-x, pp (JanuarjO2 no (early in the year, 1819 pp 3, than March) later Vol part 2, (before December) Vol 3, part 1, part 2, pp 99-198, pis LI-LX 1821 (Baltimore) Portico in announcements Prepublication Supporting evidence: A) Misc J Rev Amer N in and press") ("in 4(1/2): 131 1817 [July/ Aug.] certificaRegistration B) published") be 5(15): 434 1817 [Sept.] ("about to 1818) Oct Oct 1817; 28 and (18 vols of title-pages tion on the verso of the year part vol of cover 2; 1, back outside C) Prospectus dated May 1818 on Publication D) copy) (NcD-MC part vol of 2, date 1819 on front cover [Nov 1817] 1818 145-146 Misc J 6(16): Rev Amer announcements in N 388 Rev Crit 4(50): Mag Monthly Amer issued"); "just (Vol part 293-295 IV(97): 1819 Zeitung Med.-Chir part 1); 1818 [Mar 1819] (Vol 2, 1821 230-231 Misc 12(30): Rev J Amer N 1819 [6 Dec] (Vol 2, part 2); in pubhsh-d and part for vol announcement 3, [Jan.] (Vol 3, part 2) No part this for seen earliest the author; present the 1820 has been yet found by 1821 [Jan.] is in N Amer Rev Misc J 12(30): 230-231 — Med England J iVew 1818 [Jan.] Reviews: Analectic Mag 11(1): Rev Amer TV [Apr.] 1821 157-166 Surg 7(1): 61-70 1818 [Jan.]; 10(2): £c? [June] 23-26 1819 [Mar.]; 9(24): Misc J 6(18): 344-368 1818 1611818.IV(89): Zeitung Med.-Chir Re per t S (4): 48/-497 1818 [Oct] 1819.IV(97): July]; 140-143 1819 [29 1819.111(60): 163 1818 [5 Nov.]; 1433-1444 1819.111(144/145): Anz Gel Gott 293-295 1819 [6 Dec.].— 11211823.11(113): 1820 July] 1111-1112 [10 1819 [9 Sept.]; 1820.11(111): iV 1820 386-393 1: Pflanzenk Neue Entdeck 1126 1823 [17 ]u\y'\ 47(277): Phys J Med London 1821 Amer Rev 13(32): 100-134 U^\y'] 1822.IV(36): Leipzig) {Halle Lit.-Zeitung 242-244 1822 [Mar.]— ^//g [Sept.].— 1824 59 Geol Nat 3([9]): Sci 5«// 281-284 1322 [Mar.] Surg J Med 5o5/o» [Sept.] 1824 69-75 Bull Sci Med (Paris) 3([9]): 1-9 — — — ; — — — & — — 20(26): 412 1839 [7 Aug.] in the only differing known, are Variants- Two states of leaf 2, pagination] [correct xiv and xiv] for [misprint pagination of the verso: xvi corrected the copy, the in occurs The original incorrect pagination of volume NcD-MC version e.g in the HBL copy BMNH, BM, AzU, known: Copies Studied: HBL, NcD-MC; GOETFU, G, E-UL, DLNM, DLC, CtHT, CaBVaU, CSfA, CSmH, CSt, KyLxT, K, InNd, In, lEN-M, laAS, laDaM, ICF, ICJ, other copies UB GRO-UB, MBHo, MBC, MBAt, MB, LNT-M, KyU LE (vol 2, part only), Linn., MH-M, Libr.), Herb (Harv MH-A MeBat, MEM MdBM, MdBP, NBMS, NBLiHi, NB, MWiW, MWCH, MWA, MiEM MiU, MnS, MSaP, NRU, NNS, NNNAM, NNA, NN, NjP, NcAS NcD NcU, Nh, NhM, ' PPF, PPC, PPAP, PPA, 00, OKU, NYBG OC, OCTGC, ViU, ViRMC, TNV, ScU, ScCMu, RPM, PPHor, PPL-R, rU, RPB, to NUC according holdings library US (vol only), WIS-R VtU and Shaw and 283 1969, 57: imprints) National Union Catalog Pre-1956 OrU, W — 1963 44 1817: Bibliography) (American maker PPH, ViW, (The Shoe- JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 50 [vol 55 Notes; The continuous sequence of reman and arabic page numbers is worth being mentioned The gap in pagination in volume (pp xiii-xvi are lacking) proves that the preliminaries were printed later than the text proper and that the original estimate of 16 preliminary pages was not realistic Leaves both blank, are present in the NcDcopy The pagination, however, indicates that these blank leaves were intended to be cut out, as was done in the HBL copy 14^ of vol and Ua of volume 3, MC The wrong the following irregular arrangement: In volumes at the volume in the Uh h; folding of gathering of wrong and of the HBL 1^ copy results iii~iv i-ii vii viii copy the part titles for part v in vi are inserted places: Vol 2: Iz-U 2i-23 ix 2ii iii-v vi-vii viii-ix x-xiv Vol 3: 72-^4 2i ii 22-2^; iii-v vi-x This work botany It NcD-MC considered ir-ii i-ii 15 16 11 12-16 most important contribution to medical is outstanding for the mixed intaglio processes used for the preparation of the copper plates, being a combination of engraving and aquatint and sometimes stipple engraving Of the 60 species figured, four are illustrated here for the is Bigelow's time (Gentiana catesbaei Walt., Solidago odora Ait., Statice caroli7iia?ia Walt [= Limonium caroliniannm (Walt.) Britton] and Poly gala rubella Willd [= /* polygama Walt.]) Hunt first Institute For Botanical Documentation Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (SC/ V AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY "7 BEUfG A COUiECTION ?n f OF THB NATIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS or THE UNITED STATES, C03«TAIS^ISG THEIR BOTANICAL HISTORY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, AND PROPERTIES AND USES IN MEDICINE, DIET AND THE ARTS, "WITH > COLOURED ENGRAVINGS, BY JACOB BIGELOW, nXJ.MTOKD M D, mOrKSSOn AWD lecturer on >tATEnTA XEDICA IN HARTAUD USIVUBSITT VOL Aa^D BOTAWT I B i BOSTON: 'i PUBLISHED BY CUMMINGS AND HILLIARD, AT THE BOSTON BOOKSTORE, NO 1, CORNIIILL, VNITERSITI PRESS „HlLUAnD ASI) r.IETCAT.F 1817 Mo Bot Gai'dea, -5 803 y : ^ V District of Massachusetts, to wit District ClerVe Be office remembered, that on the eighteenth day of October, A D 1817, and in the forty second year of the independence of the United States of America, Jacob Bigelow, M D of tlie said district, has deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as author, in the words followIt ing-, viz, " Anicrican Medical Botany, being* a collection of the native medicinal pbnts of the United States, containing their botanical history and chemical analysis, and properties and uses in medicine, diet and the arts, with coloured engravings ^^ Jacob Bigelow, M D Rumford Professor and Lecturer on Materia Medica and Botany in Harvard University Vol 1," In conformity to the act of the congress of the United States, entitled *• An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned ;" and also to ah act, entitled, *' An act supplementary to an act, entitled, An act for tlie encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.** JNO W DAVIS, Clerk of the district of Massachusetts TO THE KIRKLAND THORNTON REV JOHN D.D L.L y D PRESIDENT OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY IN CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS DEAR SIR^ The present flourisliing of the Institution, over state more any to ascribed he which you preside, cannot cient cause, than to the zeal and have watched over ability, with which you its interests from derive measure any in who Those, theii- effi- opportunities of being useful, may this Institution with justice direct ^ their first Being acknowledgments to you of promotion the for confident, that no attempt useful knowledge cnce, I am happy will be regarded by you with in offering to ume, a testimony of my indiffor- you, in the present vol- respect and esteem J Boston, Octoberf 1817 B PREFACE Having long meditated the commencement work on the medicinal vegetables of the of a United States, and feeling myself obligated for its completion, by the instructions from the University in ship ; which I have the honor it may be proper to to hold a professor- make at the outset some general statements of the motives and objects of such a publication The Materia Medica, comprising the great body of medicinal agents now in use in the hands of physicians, cannot be said to need an increase in the number of its articles It is already in- cumbered with many superfluous drugs even its active substances are more numerous than can be ; of use to anv one physician, so that as susceptible of benefit it seems quite from reduction augmentation in the number of its as from materials Under these circumstances, the introduction of new medicines can only be authorized, where PREFACE VX from the peculiarity of their powers, or the facili- ty of their acquisition, they are calculated to take the place of others previously in use Of our present stock of medicinal agents, col- lected from various parts of the glohe, a few ap- pear to he unique in their powers, and could not in the present state of our knowledge, be super- seded by other substances A number more pos- sess active properties, yet of a kind, for might be found among the native produc- stitutes tions of almost every country into which they are There are others which possess imported activity or value, are which sub- little but which, from a sort of fashion, commerce and consumption In the management of diseases, the physician still articles of requires instruments of determinate power, on the operation of which, he tations Many such may build definite expec- are already in his hands Yet when we consider how small a portion of the vegetable kingdom has been medically examined, there can be little of active substances, cacy, In doubt that a vast number many perhaps of specific remain for future inquirers this respect, every successive acquisitions ilized But effi- to discover age is making a century or two ago, the civ- world were unacquainted with the proper- ties of ipecacuanha, of jalap, and the Peruvian — 185 INDIAN TOBACCO m persuaded, largelj' tried no affords it by different practitioners in a where of fatal cases, having seen benefit, it ing nausea, without, in it number only produced a distress- any degree, facilitating the piration, or relieving the disc The readiare Lobelia the of active properties The tinc- alcohol and water by both ly extracted ture however is most easily kept, and is the most disEssex The convenient form for exhibition formua recommended have trict medical society la for this ounces two dhects which composition, diof pint a in digested be to plant dried of the givteaspoonful a tincture, this Of alcohol luted and nausea, produce generally will adult, en to an howinstances certain In vomiting sometimes without given, been have doses larger much ever, of flow a than effect producing any other saliva B0TAT>*ICAL REFERENCES Lobelia inflata, GRONOvirs, Virg 142 ^Ftjesii, ii Lin Sp pL—Act Upsal 1741, p 23, t 1.- u 946.-Michalx, 134.-Willd Sp.pUi 448 MEDICAL REFERENCES i Mad Amer Mem, Cutler, Disp Thacher, 56.— 56, Col xd, vi 484.-Sch(epf, 128.-Bart m, -Massachusetts Rqxnis, LOBELIA INFLATA 186 PLATE Fig Lobelia inflata XIX , Fig Corolla with the stamens projecUngfrom the tipper side Fig Cdpsule cut across cleft in the i I I * % I } I r f J8 t^^^ffr/rrrjo^ /> ,/> /*/^ I, ^ SOLID AGO ODOR A .t Sweet scented Golden rod TUITE XX J\ o part of vegetation in the United States is months, autumnal in the gaudj and conspicuous so and at the same time furnishes to the botanist so difficult a task of discrimination, as the multitu- dinous and Protean genera Solidago and Aster Each of these genera contains species, sufficiently many marked by well defined tlieir external characters, sensible qualities, habits and places of But between them, growth is a gi-eat multitude of subspecies, liable to vai-iation from external circumstances, changing their appearance with their places of growth, so many points of resemblance, that yet remaining species which wluch and running together by ai'e for botanists to it is a labour separate are in nature distinct, those from those varieties only * K 188 SOLIDAGO ODORA The genus Solidago characterized hy a na- is ked receptacle, the down simple, rays of the corolla about Jive, scales of the calyx imbricated and close It a very natural genus, easily distinguished at is hy sight its crowded compound flower of tufts J which are almost always of a deep golden yellow.* The leaves species odora has linear-lanceolate, its stem nearly smooth, entire, smooth, with rough margin, and covered with pellucid Racemes panicled, one Class Syngenesiq and —Order Superflua,—N^atural The among root Stem Corymbiferw, Juss throughout the United States, and flow- fields is j scented Golden rod grows in woods ers in Septemher and dots sided orders Composit(K^m The sweet a is smooth appearance, the smaller species of woody, slender, It has a its much branched and from two family creep to three feet high, smooth I or slightly pubescent below, pubescent at top The leaves are broad linear-lanceolate, closely sessile, at ha? e, entire, acute, distinct, rough at the with only the midrib margin but otherwise smooth, and covered with pellucid dots, like Hy- pericum perforatum The flowers grow in a com- pound, panicled raceme, with each of its branches • The onlv whose ray is exception which I white now recollect is Solidago hicolot SWEET sce:nted goluex rod supported by a small These branches or leaf peduncles are very slender and off a 189 each giving rigid, row of ascending, downy pedicels, with small, linear bractes at their bases Scales of the cal^^ oblong, acute, smooth, or slightly pubescent, the lower ones shorter and closely imbricating the Florets of the ray few, with oblong, obtuse, rest Those of the ligules disc funnel shaped, with Down acute segments simple to the naked eye, feathery under the microscope This plant is Seeds oblong the Solidago odora of Muhlen- and with the ""^ aa^rees character of Alton "O The Solidago odora of Michaux is possibly a differ- berc:, &5 Willdenow's plant was undoubtedly ent species different tutes The folia piincticulosa, which consti- so distinct a mark in this species, I have V not seen noticed by any botanist The leaves of the Solida^-o odoi-a have a delin-ht- fully fragrant odour, partaking of that of anise sassafras, but different from and >Vhen sub- either -L jected to taste possessing the distillation, a volatile oil, and ai'oma of the plant in a high degree, lects in the receiver This residence in the transparent oil col- apparently has cells, which tute the dotting of the leaves, for the root its consti- is whol- destitute of the peculiar fragrance of the herb, and has ratlicr a nauseous taste This is contra- r SOLIDAGO ODORA 190 ly to the remark of Willdenow, the root of As that fragrant part possessing the scent is tlie Geum who mforms us urhanum the volatile appears to possess oil the all medicinal value of this plant, I have not prosecut- ed its chemical investigation any farther The ticle claims of the Solidago to stand as an ai*- of the Materia Medica are of a humble, but We not despicable kind import and consume many foreign drugs which possess no vu-tue be- yond that of being aromatic, pleasant to the taste, gently stimulant, and carmmative diaphoretic All these properties the Golden rod seems fully to An possess essence made by sential oil in proof spirit, is states as a remedy dissolving the es- used in the eastern in complaints, arising from flat- ulence, and as a vehicle for unpleasant medicines of various kinds I have employed it to allay vomiting, and to relieve spasmodic pains in the J stomach of the milder kind, with satisfactory success From its pleasant flavour, the taste of laudanum, castor v.iioi-vri , it oil, Uii, serves to cover and other med- icines,5 whose „*xwov, disagreeable «xo«^ taste be rejected by delicate and irritable Mr Pursh informs dried, is causes them to stomachs us, that this plant when used in some parts of the United States as an agreeable substitute for tea He further states, — GOLDEN ROD that it 191 has for some time been an article of ex- r where portation to China, it fetches a high price BOTANICAL REFERENCES Solidago odora, Aitotv, Hort Kew iii 214 ^Pursh, ii 539 -Virga Aurea Americana, Tarraconis facie et sapore, panicula speciosissiina ? Plukenet, t^^TO 389> U 116,/ PLATE XX Fig Solida odora Fig Jljlower magnified, Fig AJloret of the ray Fig Ajlorct of the disc^ ^5 jf NOTES JVlosT European writers seem tlie " That editor says, sti^a- In Miller's Dictionary by nionium as a native of America, Martyn, Datura to consider the a native of America, it is we have the most undoubted proofs, for in earth brought with we plants from various parts of that extensive country, to have the Tliorn apple about all come the villages, and that Oup worst weeds there up tliis Kalm says, that are sure it grows and the Phytolacca are the old writei's call it Thorny Apples of Peru.'' This evidence however is by no means The sufficient plant appears in earth and hallast, carried from cither continent alike The name Apple of Peru has been applied to Datura metcl, also a plant of Africa and the East Indies Xole B In the Catalogue of plants in the Botanic garden at Calcutta, published in 1814, a species is inserted by the name of Datura Tatula, said to be a native of the Cape of probably different from the Datum Mte « The Jamestown weed, Peru, and I take it to is C (which resembles the thorny apples of be the plant so called,) was gathered very young is supposed to be This being an early for a boiled sallad, the soldiers sent thither to quell the rebellion of some of them This Tatula of Linnwus one of the greatest coolers in the world plant, Good Hope ate plentifully of it, by some of Bacon the effect of which ; and was a very 193 NOTES pleasant comedy, for they turned natural fools upon One would blow up a days dart straws at it it for several feather in the air, another with much fury ; would another stark naked was ting up in a corner like a monkey, grinning, and sit- making mows them ; a fourth would fondly kiss and paw his companions, and sneer in tlicir faces with a countenance more antic, than any at Dutch in a In this frantic condition they were droll A they should destroy themselves lest, in theii^ folly, thousand simple tricks tliey played, and after eleven days returned to themselves again, not remembering any thing that had passed." Beverlifs History of Virginia^ p 121 % JSToteD " De Cuechyliztomatl, seu TomatI sonalis scd simile, viribus forma et Toncliichi Solani est Genus foliis paulispcr undulatis, et Hernandcx, dente, &c.'* ii friictii acinoso raceraatimciue depeu- 12 IV JS'ote of success the of instances more heJtr glad to heartily « I am the in the cure of cancer Poke weed mankind for the communication .lit E a loss to know You But it is pretty fully." its it to you Phytolacca I I thought Lelterfrom Dr Franklin I apprehend that our poke-weed is it is what they In one of their late pa- places of growth, &c per, or would send skin Boston they are publicly requested that a perfect decription en of the plant, « I find in the right plant, some asserting call Mcchoacan, others other things pers will deserve highly of to is may have mislaid the pa- you had described black, but it it Dr Colden, what botanists term This plant bears berries as large as peas contains a crimson be giv- juice The It is this juice It employed was which sun tiiickened by evaporation in the been have to said were persons caused great pain, but some cured I am not quite certain of the facts j all that I know is i94 NOTES that Dr Colden had a good opinion of the remedy." fratn Br* Franklin to M Letter Jhibmirg ^ Linnseus, in his Flora Laponica, Collu pahtstris, although acrid {ignis firme instar^J are us that the roots of tells and caustic in the highest made into a kind of degrecj^ hread in high esti- i This mation, called Missehrmd is performed hy drying and grinding the roots, afterwards boiling and macerating them unthey arc deprived of acrimony, when they are baked like other til farinaceous substances into bread The iccent juice of the Jatropha manihot^ or Cassava tree of I West the ple however resides heat The Indies, is highly poisonous which in a volatile portion, The remaining deleterious princi- substance of the root is is dissipated by used by the in- habitants for bread, as a material for a kind of soup, and as the basis of a fermented liquor JVote G ^ F The iiitates following is Ksempfer's description taken from his Amoe- Exolicse, p 791 His accompanying figure resembles the American Rhus vernix, except, bud arc larger
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