Illustrations zoology of south Africa

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[Price No Ill] INVERTEBRATE ILLUSTRATIONS \100L0GY ZOOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICA; CONSISTING CHIEFLY OF FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE OBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY COLLliCTED DURING AN EXPEDITION INTO THE INTERIOR OF SOUTH AFRICA, THE YEARS 1834, 1835, AND 1836; IN FITTED OUT BY " THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE ASSOCIATION FOR EXPLORING CENTRAL AFRICA TOGP.THER WITH , A SUMMARY OF AFRICAN ZOOLOGY, AND AN INQUIRY INTO THE GEOGRAPHICAL RANGES OF SPECIES IN THAT QUARTER OF THE GLOBE BY ANDREW SMITH, M.D., SURGEON TO THE FORCES, AND DIRECTOR OF THE EXPEDITION ^ublisIjtU uitBer ti)e auti)oiiti) of tl)c ILorTJd Commt^sliontrfi of ffitr iBajeitv'i Wvtaimv ANNULOSA BY W S MACLEAY, ESQ HIS LATE majesty's COMMISSIONER SMITH, ELDER M.A., F.L.S., AND JUDGE IN THE MIXED COURT OF JUSTICE k^^Hf HAVANA AND CO CORNHILL MDCCCXXXVIII LONDON ; PRINTED BY STEWART AND MURRAY, OLD BAILEY :' ]tis • i B R a i T ILLUSTRATIONS ANNULOSA OF SOUTH AFRICA nail iTMiil—ajijM BEING A PORTION OF THE OBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY CHIEFLY COLLECTED DCRIXG AN EXPEDITION INTO THE INTERIOR OF SOUTH AFRICA, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF IS DR ANDREW SMITH, THE YEARS 1834, 1835, and 1836; FITTED OUT BY THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE ASSOCIATION FOR EXPLORING CENTRAL BY W S MACLEAY, ESQ M.A HIS LATE majesty's COMMISSIONER AND JCDGE IN AFRICA.' F.L.S THE MIXED COURT OF JUSTICE ESTABLISHED AT THE HAVANA 33ublisl;cl3 uiiDcv tlje autljoritu o£ tljc itoiHij £ommi£lStonn-£i of ^.tx IflajcStu'S CrcaSiirp LONDON: SMITH, ELDER AND CO CORNHILL MDCCCXXXVIII : LOy DON FEIXTiD 3T slKWAaX ASD SfUBSiT, OLD BALLET ,^A^^ TO ZOOLOGISTS At the request of my friend Dr Smith, I have undertaken to lay before the him public such Annulose forms collected by most worthy of notice lately acquired, It mav be well that I South Africa, as appear to be should mention here mv havinoin by purchase, the very extensive by M Verreaux during collection of Anmdosa made and also his manuscript notes on the species collected Perhaps therefore no naturalist is better provided than I am with those materials which are necessary to enable us to form accurate notions of South African entomology Upon this subject also, my his long residence at the Cape, personal acquaintance with the habits of degree be brought to a certain many exotic senera, may to bear In his descriptions of the vertebrated animals of the Cape, Dr Smith has adopted a plan of publication, which for his readers ralists, once convenient for himself and The subjects which he brings under the notice of natu- by reason of are their at is size and importance in the economv of nature, sufficiently interesting to entitle each species to a distinct plate and a long description He that convenience, reserving for the conclusion his seneral best suits his can, therefore, publish each animal in the order arrangement, when his readers can either adopt it or bind up the work according to that system which may most please their fancv I need scarcely say that the expense which would inevitably result from the adoption of any such mode of publication in the description of insects, renders impossible for it me to follow plate devoted to a single species of annulose animal, inconvenient this work one plate A whole would be obviously Dr Smiths example all parties, and to none more than to the purchasers of becomes therefore necessary to place several figures in the only valid objection to which plan is the difficulty of for It : finally arranging the plates according to system, since each of them must necessarily contain figures of species that belong to very difierent groupes This evil, however, I shall endeavour B to avoid, by describing as far as TO ZOOLOGISTS convenient, as much my species in small natural groupes, and by confining each plate as possible to the representation of species that are nearly allied Such a mode of proceeding, like that of Dr Smith, will allow of the work, when concluded, being bound up according to that system of arrangement which may appear to the reader most advisable to follow I could wish that it had been in my power to describe these insects according to the general plan commenced in the Ammlosa Javanica Several circumstances, however, prevent such a scheme being followed, among which is the necessity in a work of this kind of each number possessing considerable variety But although I am about to describe the Annulosa of South Africa in a miscellaneous order, I trust no one Mill detect symptoms of my being tormented by that morbid thirst for naming new species which makes so many modern works in entomology, rather magazines of undigested and insulated facts than harmonious histories of nature It is to each other really distressing to see the philosophy of our science lost sight of in a made puling passion for that miserable immortality which is the invention of some barbarous technical names We to depend on cannot even say that the best entomologists are free from it, when we find the laborious author of the " Genera Curculionidmn," whose fame has arisen from his The preshewing utter contempt of its laws duty much to name as to not so the is a servation of the earliest name the science yet M Schonherr has in 1833, attempted to alter the names of many genera published in 1825 in the appendix to Captain King's voyage but as far as my humble I shall not follow so mischievous an example means will allow, I shall endeavour to be rigorously observant of that leading principle of nomenclature which is the right of priority This right, in my opinion, is so necessary to be sustained, if we have any regard for the interests of natural history, that I shall never for one moment Avait to consider whether the first namer of a species be an author of reputation study of nomenclature, ; ; or not W S ML ; I._ON THE CETONIIDiE OF SOUTH AFRICA In 1819 I name distinguished a family of Petalocerous insects, under the of CetoniidcB, that Scopoli, as consisting of " Scarahai Anthophili." I marked out by the characterized and families, shewed their affinity and analogies to the other Petalocerous groupe by that membranaceous texture of the labrum and mandibles, which proves that these had been originally on vegetable juices insects in their perfect state are intended to live known general construction being to exist in the family I many groupes belonging to the CetoniidcB, but since that time characterized, particulariy by MM Lepelletier very few exceptions to this ; also described and Audinet de two or three new others have been named and 10th volume Serville, in the Mr Kirby of the Entomological part of the Encyclopidie, which was published in 1825 of the Zoonumber in a and also, in a paper read before the Linnean Society, in 1824 logical Journal, published in 1827, has given to the worid some valuable remarks on certain ; groupes of the family But the work, which above all others, claims our present attention, is the " Monographie des Cetoines," commenced by MM Gory and Percheron, in 1833, and now, I work a complete as These gentlemen had the admirable intention of giving us believe, concluded description, with figures, of all the species of Cetoniida circumscribed it in the Hora carelessness in the descriptions, in dates, was necessary for their undertaking and me, they not seem to be acquainted with nay, not even with that erroneous and somewhat 1834 was printed in Paris, under the are entirely ignorant of his labours of his name, it is ; title this own now and although they often any of the Monographie des Ciloines book, with all its faults, which has a right Although con- my from I have wntten works, which in As for Mr Kirby, they like manner make mention French monograph in on the Cetoniidw which are only on his instructive papers consists in the figures, when we in the course of publication in country by Mr Curtis is to have scarcely ever any thing piratical extract a level with those of Olivier, and unaccountably bad, entomological plates monograph of Annulosa Javanica clear that they never read Another great defect of me but these authors appear to ; is, Considerable reading and research names in —that defect of their work than Count Dejean's Catalogue consulted any other entomological stantly referring to The grand Entomologica in this of the family call to mind the beautiful France by M Guerin, and in our In short, the most praiseworthy circumstance connected with is the intention of a most useful work to be called a monograph; its authors This It is truly the first as it is it is which makes the entomological publication not either a local catalogue, or the catalogue of one or two collections of a countiy, but professes to contain descriptions of all ON THE CETONIIDjE OF SOUTH AFRICA the species which the authors could procure a sight continent If reoret the way it was a happy thought to whether in England, or on the of, undertake a catalogue of such extent, we the more In which the undertaking has been executed in fact, MM Gory and Percheron had eveiy thing in their favor, except the acquirements necessary for the task The subjects of their monograph are large, handsome, and easily preserved They were The therefore more likely to be brought from abroad than perhaps any other insects Buprestidce are also handsome insects, but as the of this family often are very species minute, and always very active, so complete a collection of them is of more difficult Indeed, we may fairly say, that with the exception perhaps of Central Africa, the attainment world contains of Cetoniidcc few species unknown, at least in comparison with those which are known MM Gory and Percheron appear never to have seen the noble collection made by my father ; and if their work had been more ably executed, absence from England at the time they were studying- the museums Nothing, however, affords me my should have deeply regretted I of our Metropolis a better conception of the extent of their labours, than to see so few generic forms, and even species in my collection, which not find their portraits, such as they are, in the 3Ionographie des Cetoines It will be easily understood, the CetoniidcB of South Africa of all why therefore, It is countries in the species of this beautiful session of the 3Ionographie des Cetoines in which, may, I trust, power of studying to a certain degree, have the and analogies which analytically the affinities manner now commence with the description of Good Hope is the richest family, but because every person who is in posI not only because the Cape of I am about to explain, and of observing the the whole of organized nature will one day be wrought out have also another object in commencing with the Cetoniida, which is, that having been long sensible of the great confusion existing between the words genera, sub-genera, I sections, sidi-sections, kc I I shall in future use am naturally anxious to explain the meaning of these words, as them Every one knows that sometimes sub-genera, and at other times even sub-sections of Too often we find every oenera, are in the most unphilosophical manner published as genera thing a genus which some gnathoclast, with Scapula in hand, has thought proper, in his good pleasure, to call so Some persons again decide that this groupe such clearness of vision is I there are, who on a a sub-genus, and that another groupe can lay no claim ; yet I first is inspection can oracularly of " full cannot help thinking that there discovering the true subordination of these several kinds of groupes — nay, I is mode a am botanist, described sufficient which says, " Omnis the number of following up that aphorism of a distinguished sectio naturalis circulum, per se clausum, exhibet." Geodephaga of the Annulosa Javanica, number of the species, of sure this discovery will ever be the result of calm patience, of keeping before our view a great of the species of any family, and finally To generic value." I which was necessary to When I had not that knowledge of a enable me to work out my sub- know wliich were If any one, for instance, were to publish genera, and which were sub-genera monograph of the Linnean genera Carabus and Cicindela, after the manner which a complete ordinate groupes, and therefore and Percheron have adopted I could only state that I did not exactly for the Fabrician genus Cetonia, it MM might be possible Gory for the entomologist to distinguish the genera, sub-genera, sections, and sub-sections of Geodephaga, as well as to shew their reciprocal relations of affinity and analogy most tends to prevent young naturalists from taking this, That, however, which the most honourable path of ON THE CETONIID^ OF SOUTH AFRICA entomological science, of affinities, of new impatience is which makes them and species, impatience which makes them dislike the study It is tiiis branch of natural history, indeed, no royal road is In To it insulated descriptions exist in the creation, because, forsooth, harmony does not idly fancy that they cannot immediately and intuitively perceive there making deliglit in the grovelling task of order to genera, and sub-genera, I cannot better than following words of an author: genera, but which "These consider of I to have is, what was the had some vague standard writer's particular standard mind, his in by the word genus any signification which deemed is universally a latent disposition of the is himself, or 3IammaUa ought to be established certainly seems But ? Nay, has fear in all such cases any one definite human mind ? to erect I else an arbitrary standard, Thus one person says that the founded on the supposed value of some point of structure genera of first He ? is, question that he talks of "full generic value." for has this value ever been accurately defined, either of assertion, there and the ; raised to sub- the dispute obviously Here, &c whether a certain groupe be a family, a genus, or a sub-genus presents itself to the mind late periodicals, the from one of our cite — families, expressions the which M Wesm'ael has since families generic value," full about hangs vagueness which the exhibit on the difierences in their system of dentition ; and yet there are some genera of Mammalia where almost every species varies in the number and form of its teeth so that to adopt the rule, we must consider every species of such genera ; to be a genus itself Another person Linneus, that there are as will tell us, like as aogregations of different species present similar constructions of some many genera, arbitrarily selected organs, such as those of fructification in phaenogamous plants, or the teeth in 3Iammalia this sense it is evident that a genus may be made to signify any groupe whatever; as In its The black and yellow Cetonice of and so South Africa will even form a genus, according to the Linnean definition of the word Cuvier's definition of a genus is, that it is a certain number also will all vertebrated animals extent will depend on the nature of the structure selected ; of beings so nearly allied, that they differ from each other only in the least important points of their conformation — that is, specifically smallest natural groupe of species prevails in the A we can minds of most naturahsts can discover a character, immediately genus find We is, in fact, according to this naturalist, the Such indeed see every dubbed a genus little ; is the idea of a genus which groupe of species for the absurdity of which which they is, that we often find these very same persons again sub-dividing their " genera," although, according to their own definition, the groupes were already in rank only immediately above species Cuvier himself calls Sus a genus, or, in of beings that only specifically differ from proceeds to name and Even other words, according to his definition, a collection each other characterize a part of Sus under the Yet, name inconsistently of Dicotyle, as a enough, he still smaller groupe of species, and repeatedly makes mention of sub-genera me to giving the name of genera to The word genus may be applied as by Linneus to mark out all Petalocerous insects, or as by M Dejean to designate only the Dorysceles of Madagascar To either proceeding I have not the slightest objection; if we Let be understood on this head I not object sub-genera, nor that of sub-genera to sub-sections only understand each other, and that the word genus It is is to have a similar value in all cases not to be defined the smallest possible groupe of species here, and in another place considered as a groupe which contains correct mode of using the word ; many although it other groupes of species This cannot be a may, from our ignorance of created species, ON THE CETONIID^ OF SOUTH AFRICA appear sometimes to be consonant with what we observe in nature we If divide all animals into sub-kingdoms, classes, orders, tribes, stirpes, families, genera, sub-genera, sections, sub- any other names, we must not confound sections, &c &c or all these groupes together, but during our investigations, preserve each of them in that proper subordination which may But here some one may observe that all groupes are they must depend on the selection and good pleasure have been agreed upon by naturalists arbitrary and artificial, since after all To this I answer that affinities are natural and if all these affinities are expressed by any mode of grouping, it follows also that the groupes must be natural although, certainly, these last must in some degree have depended on our selection But in fact, of man ; ; these groupes are only chosen because they coincide with the affinities which exist in nature Our grand or analogy, when we object, an arbitrary value which are trying to find out a natural arrangement, to particular characters may exist in the ; but to express to the system, that in our pursuance of set a value upon, is the relations, whether of affinity branch of natural history we study indicated by the arrangement, our object all all an gained is ; eclectic plan, at another time esteemed of little and at times perfectly worthless Mammalia teeth in the genera of a character which at one time we Indeed, worth we is it down Comparatively constant as generally, If these relations are can be no objection whatever it part of natural history, that the most important characters break and become obvious in every in certain species, the structure of the is some groupes, such find in not to give is as the Edentata, or the genus Rhinoceros, that the dentition varies extensively in almost every species in Botany, this how steady most important is the dicotyledonous character of Exogenous plants distinction breaking down One in certain families animals according to their brain and nervous system ; another yet ; naturalist arranges us, tells Again, we have even he prefers their osteology, and so on Each point of structure, being of the utmost consequence to animal economy, is concluded by its peculiar partisan to be therefore infallible as a ground of arrangement Very little experience, however, is sufficient to shew that each of these favorite hobbies is unsafe to ride upon and we are in our search for an accurate way of expressing the relations ; which connect various beings, obliged to adopt another plan of calculating the value of principles of arrangement My plan, as is well known, has ever been not any arrangement to estimate the value of by the value in animal economy of the structure upon which this arrangement is founded, but to make the importance of every organ or structure for purposes of anangement, rise in inverse proportion to its The consequence degree of variation the birth of an arrangement which is of this rule of procedure, has been And universally applicable even yet, tliis rule is nothing more than an abstract measure of the importance of some individual character in the arrangement of that particular groupe, where we rule, to may happen moreover, that we cannot always with safety put arrangement, it is all for it use of it It is a although with respect is sometimes also a Indeed, in discovering natural arrangement, we can never safely swerve from the Linnean axiom, which although groupes; use of a process of tatonnement We it alludes more immediately "Scias characterem non characterem, et characterem non esse ut genus such and such ; ever an admirable instrument of correction, dangerous one of discovery holds good equally of make to in practice fiat to "genera," constituere genus sed genus sed ut genus noscatur." We truly make not argue that such must be the groupe, because are, in our opinion, good and distinct characters but we say, such happens to be the character, of no matter what importance, which prevails throughout the groupe, and ; ON A NEW SPECIES OF CERAPTERUS 74 Tibia lateribus subrotundata lata, apice baud parallelis apice truncatis bispinosis Tarsi intra tibiarum apices excavatos retractiles This groupe Sp found in Asia and Africa, within the tropics is ( CVrapterus latipes, Siced ) Descr CerajfkTus piccus, elytris macula subrotuuda antice quadriclcntata apieali flavescente postice lubata, anteunis rufis artieulo ultimo iu tuberculum ad basin elcvato Thorax Cajmt piceum Antenncc lateribus Note The in my Swed K V Acad my latior, scrratis, artieulo quatuor prccedentibus simul ultimo Tihiai rufe, latissimee, apice latiora foveolatus medio posticeque utrinque baud spinosse vol ix p 203 tab C fig specimen which General Davies sent to Swederus for description original collection, convergentibus Ebitra thoracc vix sumptis longiore C latipes, duplo capitc father having purchased supposed to be a native of the East Indies, which is more than probable, as it now is museum at the sale of the General's it It is comes very close flavescente baud to the Javanese species hereafter described Sp ( Cerapterus ) Descr Cerajiteriis Ilorsfieldii piccus, thorace antice rotundata literam Y quodammodo ultimo quinque postice utrinque latior, apieali siniulante Caput nigropiceum antennis rufo-forrugineis lateribus lobato, macula emarginato, elytris prccedentibus simul parallelis vix serratis, articiilo basilari sumptis longiore Ehitra tborac« subfovciilatus Thorax Tiliw latiora capite triplo lufse apice baud spinosse West Trans Linn Soc C latipes, vol xvi p 682 tab 33 fig 52—56 C Horsjicldii? West Trans Linn Soc vol xvi p 672 Note The only specimen known of this deposited by him in was brought by Dr Horsfield from Java, and It was first described by Mr the museum of the East India Company Westwood, who imagined insect should eventually be proved different, that proposal I have had great pleasure The science of Dr Horsfield insect to is so incorrect, that make an sjjecies, it in adopting, should be called is, rather ( ) proposed, however, C Horsfieldii and ; if it this out of respect for the profound entomological figure given in the Linnean Transactions of this interesting have, with Dr Horsfield's kind permission, employed Mr C Curtis accurate one for the satisfaction of entomologists that Sp I He to be a variety of Cerapterus latipes it more than The size is that of the former five lines Cerapterus Smitbii, n s Descr Cerapterus nigropiceus subnitidus, eUi^ris macula fulva lunari, tiblis intus spina apieali instructis Caput piceum subpunctatum artieulo baud duplo latior baud breviora Note For an unique specimen of Smith, who found of the tibia differs It nigropicese lateribus convergentibus vix serratis, Elytra oblongo-quadrata thorace apice rotundata abdomiue known, and Antennw ultimo piano tribus prccedentibus simul sumptis baud longiore it latiora et fere Thorax capite quintui^lo longiora Pedis uigropioci this African species I within the tropic of Capricorn It is am by indebted to the kindness of Dr far the largest of the Paussidce fiom the two former species of Cerapterus in having a spine at the extremity seems to form a distinct section of Cerapterus ON A NEW SPECIES OF CERAPTErxUS 75 Sub-genus Arthropterus, M'L Caput thorace baud augustius, abdomine £'/y?/-a Tihia lateribus baud breviora Thorax collo conspicuo, oculis magnis Scutellum minimum sub-quadratus latus, loiigior quani angusta parallela, apice truaeata Tarsi intra parallelis apice bispiiiosis tibiarum apices excavates baud retractiles New This groupe inhabits Sp Holland Arthropterus MacLoaii, Don Descr Arth ropWr us rwio-hrmmews; thorace subconvexo postic^ datis, disco Caput subpunctatuui thorace ultimo piano tribiis Antennw latins angulis anticis rotundatis, posticis acutis Cerapterm MarLcali, Don New Note Tbe only specimen known of this museum None of except Donovan, who was its first Fraucillon's There is friend Mr John Curtis, and which MacLeay, has species the autbore But I by a learn, excursions into the interior of MacLeaii' am New after the longiora, father at the sale of ; and my I have seen in from my may my brother, my first when ' Cerap- they bad the alive of these observations with and also I hope, however, as tbe M Dupont's brother's second obseiTation accords with that of make myself master still brother, " in one of his late South Wales, discovered several specimens of The in Mr George not prove, on comparison, to be father, that manner of Brnchird." soon to be able to my the valuable collection of from A MacLeaii in the form of tbe thorax, and correspondent on the Senegal species, Paiissus e.rcavatus visit Australia, Mr written on tbe species ever saw it, work on tbe " Insects of New Holland." economy of ^r///ro/)/'/i>r/ir//i/s spnnlursis " -< Jxcliiii s1rinii J'm II /mill iiliilii»s III) ^^3 '% '*% f V ^ , M N'cnchivil :i r I :i I ( :> ^1 ij/'iif'SiU'ij: (',/ivj (i^iit.iliiS 0^' M fl v,' t- / /./ / Under swihre /'/' J ^s^^i^ } hraA I V/./fV 'VY/V f'.udiiUa \ liiviTlrbrata riale ) -/ ('ini/itt riis Ur/iptrrus till ti Fui c ''' m i thii, aiiUitiM J'lij h fori- Ecrs fic Idii ii'ina lOrt fi.' ylrthn
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