Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 15

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THE TRANSACTIONS OP THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON SECOND SERIES.—VOLUME X ZOOLOGY LONDON: PRINTED I1Y TAYLOR AND PBAHCI8, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET: SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S APARTMENTS, BURLINGTON-HOISE, PICCADILLY, W AND BY LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO., 1901 A922 PATEP.NOSTER-KOW 1, — CONTENTS PART I.— October, I Biscayan Plankton collected daring a Part I Methods and Data (Plate 1904 Cruise of H, M.S 'Research,' By 1.) G Herbert Fowler, B.A., pages 1-11 Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S PART II 1900 1.— November, 1904 The Amphipoda and Cladocera, toith By Notes on a Larval Thy rostra can Rev T R R, Stebbixg, JI.A., FB.S., F.B.S., F.Z.S., and an Appendix their Distribution (Plates by G The F.L.S., A: 3.) By Choetognatha G III.— January, Herbert Fowler, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., & By G 1901 Herbert Fowler, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S By W Holt and \V M Tatteusall, B.Sc (with JV\tWith an Appendix by G Herbert Pom lei:, 11 A., Ph.D., F.L.S., V The Schizopoda E r L 103-129 F.Z.S VI The Colloid (Plates 89-101 9.) figuves) F.Z.S 55-87 PART IV.— November, F.Z.S 190") (Plates 4-7.) IV The Thaliacea on, 13-54 PART III Herbert Powler, B.A., Ph.D., the Badiolaria By R NoRRlS Wolfexden, J/ I)., F.L.S., 131-135 F.Z.S PART V.—February, VII Mollnsca {excluding Cephalopoda) 1906 By PAUL Xormale de Gand {Communicated with G Herbert Fowler, IJ I., Ph.D., F.Z.S., a PELSENEER, Projesseur a VEcole Note F.Z.S.) u their Distribution (Plates 10-12.) :\ by 137-157 25 :j iv [ j PART VI.— October, By Dr W By Edward T 1906 E Hoyle, Director of the Manchester Museum Fowler, F.L.S.) (With Text-figures.) 159-102 {Communicated by Dr G H VIII The Cephalopoda IX The Medusa? University F.L.S.) Browne, B.A., Zoological Research Laboratory, London {Communicated by Dr G Herbert Fowler, College, 163-187 (Plate 13.) PART VII.— May, X The By Fishes E "W L Holt and Herbert Fowler, F.L.S [with L 1907 W Byrne Note to the same]) PART VIII.— October, XI Decapoda By Stanley W Kemp, Fowler, F.L.S [toith B.A {Communicated by Dr G foregoing Report by the 189-201 1907 {Communicated by Dr G Herbert Note on Distribution by the same]) (Plates 14 & 15.) 205-217 PART IX.— November, XII The Ostracoda By G 1909 Herbert Fowler, (Plates 16-27.) F.Z.S.) Ph.D., F.L.S., PART X.— June, XIII The Siphonophora Cambridge, Mass B.A., By Henry F.Z S 219-336 1911 B Bigelow, Museum of Comparative Zoology, {Communicated by G H Fowler, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., 337-358 (Plate 28.) PART Titlepage, Contents, and Index XL— June, 1922 359-366 TRANSACTIONS OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY BISCAYAN PLANKTON COLLECTED DURING A CRUISE OF By G 1900 AND DATA Part I.— METHODS (Plate 'RESEARCH/ II.M.S 1.) Herbert Fowler, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S Read 21st January, 1904 IJURING the month 1900, the July, of Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty consented, at the request of the Council of the Royal Society, to place H.M.S at my Bay disposal for an investigation of the Plankton of the of Biscay I had the very great advantage of the voluntary assistance of Borradaile, of Selwyn College, Cambridge, without which it my ' Research In this ' work friend Mr L A would have heen impossible through so much in the time at my disposal My thanks are also due not only the Lords of the Admiralty and to the Council of the Royal Society, but also to to get to Admiral Sir W J Wharton, F.R.S., for his assistance in the matter, and to Captain A Field and the other officers of the ' M Research' for the ready and patient help which they rendered throughout the cruise The area studied was of over selected as being the nearest to Great Britain at 2000 fathoms could readily be obtained It lay between 46° 43' which a depth and 47° 29' North and and West longitude The stations were included in a parallelogram which measured roughly 78 by 20 nautical miles Within so small an area, and at a considerable distance from land, there is no reason to suppose that the fauna and physical conditions are other than uniform throughout and what is true of one extremity of the parallelogram may fairly be taken to hold good of the other end at the same moment This identity of conditions was deliberately selected, for, as I have else- latitude, 7° 15' 8° 18' ; where maintained *, accurate information as to the constituents of the Mesoplanktonic * Proc Zool Soc 1898, pp 5G7 SECOND SEIZES — ZOOLOGY, VOL X el $eq DE fauna is Q H EOWLEE— BISCAYAN PLANKTON : only possible by a comparison of numerous hauls taken at all depths in the same area at about the same date The special vertical problems, with reference movement to which the hauls were planned, were Epiplankton in relation to time of of the other varying conditions as rain, wind, and swell known colder water of organisms and, clay, if (1) the possible, to such (2) the presence (or absence) in deep ; to occur at the surface in higher latitudes, but not represented in the warmer surface-waters of the Bay the various groups of animals are finished, will be impossible to say it Until the Reports on of Biscay how far the attempt on these two problems has been successful but I venture to think that a glance at the table of hauls below (pp 8-10) will show that a serious attempt has been made to ; In this attack them which will first communication those working data make subsequent Reports of the cruise are published intelligible The methods of collection employed were (1) ordinary open tow-nets (about 20 inches diameter, except net 180 which was 12 inches in diameter) towed by the : ship's drift at the surface and at depths of 25, 50, 75, and 100 fathoms; (2) the opening and closing Mesoplankton net which had been previously used with success by myself in the Ea?roe Channel, and by the Dutch Siboga Expedition in the East Indies * (3) a ' ' ; Mesoplankton trawl, a bag made from the differing only latter in having a 4-foot-square mouth, and same arrangements of pilchard-netting, feet in length, but with the for opening and closing ; (4) at the close of the cruise, open tow-nets bent on to a wire rope at intervals between 100 and 350 fathoms, after the serial method in use on H.M.S ' Challenger,' for comparison with So net condition the question of the nets, some of my more certain method of a closing method brings on deck a very much I regard as the have observed, while the far as I larger quantity of material, its On what is serial often not so good as that from the closing nets results may perhaps prove of use to other collectors on hoard ship With hauls (1) at the actual surface (since a long line is necessary to let the net go clear of the ship's and clinkers and potato-parings not improve the Plankton) hemp rope and a float where the even a fine wire has a tendency to sink the bridles of the net are attached to it, give the best results refuse, : when net to an uncertain depth, and wet cod-line cuts the hands painfully hauled With planktou hauls, down to 100 fathoms a small hand-wiuch and fine wire rope with a 19 end gave excellent results away from the ; have towed anywhere between 100 and 70 fathoms be 45° in a strong drift, If the angle mark would be „ 50 „ „ >1 *" 3, }) In using two nets at a time on the wire, and a 20 at the end of a 100-fathoni wire made by the visible wire, at Siboga ' Expedi tie : may which may 70 fathoms, 35 „ t/ „ lb lead, it is safer, except in a flat calm, to bend the nets on, not at the 100, 75, &c marks, but at from to 10 fathoms below these marks ' lead at the were constant for the whole length of the wire, then the 100-fathom * deeper Epi- but even with this weight the nets have a tendency to stream upwards and and in drifting before a strong wind a net vertical, lb Introduction et Description de 1'Expedition, par pardoned for remarking that Prof Weber speaka well of the net Max Weber, p 11 ; I it is better to may perhaps be METHODS AND DATA At tbe same time, go too deep than too shallow going over visible wire in during is sounding-wire with thermometers my (/) on discovering the ; made by the the angle for example, : from the port quarter, fouled a nets, streamed were hauled, and both appeared to be straight up and down for *, of tbe submerged wire lie go from the starboard bow let shown as I have before not an accurate indication of tbe on one occasion (hauls 35 c and this cruise, both wires foul, many fathoms, although really foul of one another at 70 fathoms depth under tbe keel amidships Two attempts to improve the ordinary tow-nets are perhaps worth recording, although both were cloth faster may they failures, since serve as warnings to other marine naturalists down loosely into tbe swimmers from escaping; its effect in practice was to prevent animals from getting into the net by diminishing the opening, rather than to keep them there which was fastened cloth, In the one, a funnel of boulting- net from tbe frame, to serve as a " pocket " which should keep the to the net just Another experiment was a funnel of boulting- above the collecting-tin, the lower end hanging in the the idea of saving the organisms which get crushed in the angle between net and tin out of water lifted : worked which was net, fully described in the Proc Zool Soc for 1898, pp with 23 per cent, of failures fairly well, but : notably to the net-frame being too light for the lock, been remedied in nets defects have with latter is was not a success it The Mesoplankton (2) tin, when the 568-574, these were traced to easily remediable causes, if lowered fast or used in a heavy swell built subsequently for the Antarctic ship 'Discovery ' : these and for Dr Wolfenden The Mesoplankton (3) machine, but caught so abandoned being the rate at When heavier net-frame, worked quite satisfactorily as a catch large organisms, to small size and slow speed too small and hauled too slowly still maximum engine its much comparison with the time occupied on deep hauls, that in little, had been devised It ordinary net owing to its trawl, having a ; I attribute its failure to catch it 17-foot-square trawl to open and shut, which I was soon more than it did, to could only be heaved in at about miles an hour, which tbe winch bands could touched, large animals seem to it and cephalopods, which escape the fish, reel up the wire rope jump clear of a small hope may yield better net as delivered : I from tbe deck- have therefore designed a results, if the winch is geared to the deck-engine The epi plankton nets were out for different periods of time, generally for about an hour that uniform hauls of half an hour would have been better caught ; but it becomes doubly so is In consequence, ; I to the mercury bichloride : this when the forms a on the whole, were got by adding a bottom of the jar, and larger specimens dirty, sticky, insoluble over the specimens, apparently consisting of an albuminous compound with mercury best results, sunk is novelties, statistical (quantitative) study reagents for dealing with tbe bulk of the catch, which remains have been picked out, the chief thing to avoid all think have taken for identification only about half the material in from the other half have been taken conspicuous organisms of which every specimen was desired for deposit I of course, not so good, and that the labour of sorting tbe catch, always tedious, of the epiplankton hauls As regards is, seems to increase the number of specimens rather than of species, with the results that the condition of the material many In an hour more material little by preserving in per pure formalin to cent., followed kill, My and when the animals had by per cent, solution of formalin in fresh water The details in Table I are extracted from the ship's log The expressed on Beaufort's scale, of which *' ~ A represents a velocity of miles per hour, 5, „ 13 „ „ 39 33 *® 3} 33 >* 1'\ *"* 33 3j ts * Troc Zool Soc 189S, p 568 force of the wind is DE G H FOWLEE— BISCAYAN PLANKTON: As regards the state of the sea, it must be remembered that " smooth " in a sailor's mouth often covers enough swell to break Medusae and Siphonophora to bits in the net, and to make it difficult to work deep-water nets The depths marked with a + were the greatest depths to which a net was lowered each day and found no bottom In Table All the hauls were on board is more II are given the variable data made with open tow-nets, except where only the time of arrival given in the second column, these hauls being taken with the closing Meso- plankton net In the third column, headed " Net," given the number of meshes per linear inch is : The nets were made of the (except 65, which was of a matter of importance in dealing with minute animals ordinary Swiss Boulting Silk familiar to marine zoologists muslin) The fourth column shows the horizon investigated In the hauls marked 25, 50, 75, &c to 0, the net was lowered, towed for some time at the lowest level, and pulled straight up As has been pointed out above, these nets to the surface again as rapidly as was safe may have towed a little above the depth indicated, in some cases where the ship's drift was considerable but I not think that, used as they were on a f" circumference wire ; rope with a 19-lb sounding-lead, they are likely to have risen much above the theoretical depth As regards the deeper hauls, there were in the regular series 100"1 200 to hauls from : 200 ' MOO-fathom sections, 300 400J | 500^ 750 1000 125oJ 1500 and also as extra hauls haul from 150 to 50, 150 „ 100, „ hauls The collection may critical " depth, round a supposed " 500-fathom sections „ ; there were : 250 „ 150 „ therefore be expected to yield a fair picture of the smaller Meso- plankton The actual bulk of water from which the fauna is strained by these deep-water nets is very small and this point must not be forgotten when organisms are only occaThus with the sionally captured, or seem few and far between in the deeper hauls ordinary 20-inch- square Mesoplankton net in the tables just given ; : 100-fathom section strains 1650 cubic of which even the last 0' X 30' X U' high 250 „ 500 „ is less „ 4125 „ „ 8250 „ feet, than the cubic contents of a fair-sized drawing-room, METHODS AND DATA 12 — DE G H of H.M.S ' EOWLEE— BISCAYAN PLANKTON Station Porcupine,' ' : 1869, position 47° 39' N., 11° 33' W., or about 38, 150 miles "W.N.W of our usual position * ; and the curve of mean ocean temperatures t has been placed alongside as III This last curve, plotted, as Dr Buchan said, all latitudes for the different depths " "from the whole of the observations in recorded up to the date of his Report, may be taken as the standard curve for ocean temperatures where unaffected by specific causes But curves I and II., as compared with the regularity of III., show by a downward bow 200 and 1000 fathoms the water is much warmer than it should be according to the usually regular diminution of temperature This is no doubt due largely to the influence of the Gibraltar bottom current At the Straits of Gibraltar that between an upper inflow of colder water from Atlantic to Mediterranean, and a bottom outflow of warmer water from Mediterranean to Atlantic J the influence of this warmer there is : water is very conspicuous in the maps appended to Dr Buchan's ' Challenger ' Report, already cited, between 500 and 900 fathoms, as shown by a concentricity of the isobathytherms at these and intermediate depths with Gibraltar as a centre § That the critical points of the Porcupine curve are at higher horizons than those of the Research ' ' ' curve, and that the curve as a whole is and its position of the The ' Porcupine ' station colder, is probably due to the more northerly greater distance from Gibraltar the sixth column under the head of letters in Beaufort's scale, and are as follows B — C = M = Under the heading O = R = blue sky cloudy are taken from overcast rain mist " Light" of "Weather" : in the log is recorded the number of seconds required Wynne's Exposure Meter to a standard tint This method of light-estimation was suggested to me by Mr E W L Holt: of course it records only actinic values, not absolute light unfortunately it is practically useless at dawn and dusk, and is quite useless at night even when there is a considerable amount of nonto turn the sensitive paper of ; actinic light With regard to the occasional presence in a deep haul of isolated specimens of animals captured other- wise only at higher horizons, it must he noted that while the nets were always washed out after a haul, there is always a jiossibility of a small collecting-tin of a subsequent haul on a dipping-tube or * Wyville Thomson t A Buchan X ' : ' : in iu fresh water animal adhering to the net and appearing in the Again, an animal from a previous haul may conceivably be a killing-bottle, and so stray into a later haul, in the haste which left is over often Depths of the Sea, pp 143 & 321 Challenger ' Eeport on Oceanic Circulation, p Shearwater,' Proc Boy Soc xx p 97 § This explanation has also been accepted within certain limits by Dr Gerhard Schott Oceanographie, p 186) (' Valdivia ' Expedition, ... Commissioners of the Admiralty consented, at the request of the Council of the Royal Society, to place H.M.S at my Bay disposal for an investigation of the Plankton of the of Biscay I had the very... front margin, the fourth joint The on either margin of the second joint, the fifth joint is longer and the sixth than the fifth The fourth perseopods are shorter than the third, the the sixth joint,... satisfies was otherwise beyond all the known species the conditions of the earliest There are only three out of the fourteen which have the anterior antennae longer than the body But of these Scina
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