Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 06

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THE TRANSACTIONS or THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON SECOND SERIES— VOLUME IV ZOOLOGY LONDON: I'RINTKD BY TAYLOR ISOLD AM) AND FRANCIS, BED LION COURT, FLEET STREET AT TUE SOCIETY'S APAKTMEXTS, BURLINGTON HOUSE; l',\ LONGMANS, GREEN, AND 1880-88 CO., I'ATERNOS I'EK-UOW — CONTENTS A Mono(jr(ipli Issued in Part of Recent Brachiopoda three parts as folloAvs I., pp 1-74, „ II., „ 75-182, „ III., „ 183-218, Titlepage, Couteuts, &c & I By Thomas Davidson, LL.B., F.R.S., F.L.S : Plates I.-XIII., published October 188C „ XIV.-XXV., „ July 1887 „ XXVI.-XXX., „ October 188S — NOTE At the request of the late Dr Davidson, and with the sanction of the Council, the proof-sheets of this by whom Memoir have been laid before Miss Agnes Crane, of Brigliton, they have been read on the Author's behalf Previous to Dr Davidson's lamented death, Miss Crane had Ijeen studying- the Brachiopoda under his guidance, publication of this work and was conversant with his wishes respecting the TRANSACTIONS OP THE LINNEAN SOCIETY — A Monograph of Recent BracJdopoda Part I By Thomas Davidson, LZ.B., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., I Sfc Eead 5th November, 1885 (Plates I.-XIII.) Introductory Remarks DUEING the last hundred years the recent Brachiopoda have attracted considerable and a large number of valuable memoirs and papers have been published upon them Their shells, shell-structure, anatomy, embryology, and affinities have alike been Observations on the living animals of several genera have also carefully investigated attention, The sea-bottoms have been dredged for Brachiopoda in many latitudes and over a wide geographical area, and their habitats and ranges of depth accurately ascertained to a very considerable extent Pour or five incomplete monographs, in which the shells only of a large number of species have been well illustrated and briefly been recorded described, monograph have appeared during the present century; but no satisfactory general and animal conjointly has yet been published ti'eating of the shell now endeavoured to supply Klister, in his new edition of Chemnitz's This omission I have In 1843, some twenty-six or thirty species, of These he figured in six quarto plates In 1846, G B Sowerby, in his illustrated forty- seven species, of ' Conchy lien-Cabinet,' described which several are now known to be synonyms ' Thesaurus Conchyliorum,' described and beautifully which number several are synonyms In 1859-62, Lovell Eeeve, in his 'Conchyliorum Iconica,' described the shells of seventyhve species, of illustrations, which some W synonyms, accompanied with a beautiful series of drawn by G B Sowerby In 1873, in the Mr w^ere ' Proceedings of the Academy H Dall published a catalogue of SECOND series — ZOOLOGY, VOL IV, all of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,' the recent species of Brachiopoda known to DE him up In to that date DAVIDSON ON EECENT BEACHIOPODA T this catalogue without figures, ahout one hundred species are enumerated, some of which are synonymous During the last thirty-five or more years, I have devoted much time to the study of the recent forms, in conjunction with that of the fossil species, and have lost no opportunity of making myself acquainted with subject, as well as in together in a single in a number the subject assembling monograph the of scattered papers chief results of and works often my ' British Fossil Brachiopoda The difiicult of access may W H Dalton and to bring researches published be realized by a glance at the of the Brachiopoda,' compiled by Mr of many independent upon the me so as to enable all available material, indeed voluminous, as is that has been done and written all ' literature of Bibliography myself, and published in vol vi (Palfeont Soc, 1886) ' had advantages which few have possessed in being able to followout the observations made with respect to the animal and its anatomy, and in having been able to draw a very large number of figures from the types of the best-preserved I have also, I believe, examples of almost all known the forms, as well as of a large series of individuals of the same species at different stages of development a species gives insufficient data, and to go through during the The study of the defined stages in cation in its 1861 of it is Tlie study of the adult condition of requisite to follow out the modifications and different stages of its existence, has shown that the animal assumes a series of welldevelopment, a fact that was but little known prior to the publiProf Lacaze-Duthiers's admirable memoir on Thecidium medi- embryo has terraneum These researches of Fritz Muller, also observations were subsequently Kowalcvsky, E Morse, by followed II Friele, the investigations should be continued, as much excellent M'^Crady, Dall, Bemmelen, A E Shipley, M A Schulgin, and one or two more obtained by these authors will be referred to in the sequel It is very these important it to note these differences still The Van results desirable that remains to be discovered, described, and illustrated The shell-structure of the recent Brachioiioda has been admirably worked out by a number of accurate observers, such as Dr W B Carpenter, W King, Van Bemmelen, Hancock, and many others, and has To Herman led to very important results E Deslongcbamps, and one or two others we are indebted for much accurate and im- portant knowledge with respect to the development of the loop, of which but known of the animal has also l)een admirably investigated sufficient to was Shipley, and worked out, and mention the names of Cuvier, Owen, Huxley, Hancock, Vogt, Gratiolet, Lacaze-Duthiers, King, Brooks, Dall, Morse, E Deslongcbamps, ward, little previous to 1852 The anatomy it is Friele, Schulgin *, and others, to Van Bemmelen, Wood- show how important and varied have been the additions to our knowledge with respect to this very necessary branch of investigation In drawing up the description of each species, I have considered it desirable, whenever possible, to reproduce the words and illustrations of the authors, and thus give them * To these all credit for their careful, painstaking researches names Dr Davidson would doubtless have added that of H G Be3-er, who paper on the shell-structure and anatomy of Lmr/ida {Glottidia) pyramidata, Stimpson, Biological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, vol iii no 5, March contributed an important to the Studies 188(3 — [xi C] from the DR T The perplexing question DAVIDSON ON EECENT BRACIIIOPODA of the affinities of the Brachiopoda has given rise to mucli and great difference of opinion, especially \yith regard to their relationship to the group of worms Now, although I not admit the Brachiopoda to be worms, they may, as well as the Mollusca and some other groups of invertebrates, have originally discussion, diverged from an ancestral vermiform stem, sucb as the remarkable worm-like mollusk Neomenia Avould denote In a recent paper on the development of Arylope or Cistella, Mr A E Shipley observes, and, I think, with justice, that the Brachiopoda and Polyzoa and he adds, " I should propose are not so closely united as to form a natural phylum to follow Gegenbaur in making a primary class of the Brachiopoda, and though in their development and adult structure they are widely separated from botli Vermes and Mollusca, of the two classes I would place them nearer to the former class than to the " All known Polyzoa are compound animals, that is to latter " * Prof Huxley f says say, the product of every ovum gives rise, by gemmation, to great assemblages of partially independent organisms, or zooids The Brachiopoda, on the contrary, are all simple, the product of each ovum not giving rise to others by gemmation All the Brachiopoda a shell composed of two, more or less horny, or calcified, pieces, possess a bivalve sliell whicb are capable of a certain range of motion on one another, and are very commonly ; : — — The shell, the pallial characters amply sufficient to articulated together by teeth and sockets." nerves, In and the this atrial system, afford lobes, the intestine, the define the class view of Prof Huxley I entirely concur As many species of Brachiopoda live at considerable depths, it is not surprising that so small a number should have been known to early conchologists, and that for many The years they should have been such groat rarities in conchological collections numerous well-conducted dredging expeditions have, however, brought to light a large number of forms that were not previously known, and we may constantly expect to add to the number of species as dredging operations extend to regions not yet explored It has been ascertained beyond doubt that Brachiopoda are much localized, and that It has also been found that the where they occur they are generally abundant range in depth of one and the same species have generally a very thin and that shell, is often very variable, that abyssal forms species living at a great depth have a much greater geographical range, and are not nearly so localized as those species that live in shallow waters The study of the species brought home by the Challenger Expedition, which I was privileged to examine and describe, has revealed much valuable information with respect The greatest depth to the Ijathymetrical and geographical distribution of many species A at which a recent species of the class has been found alive was 2900 fathoms ' number of forms inhabit to corals, and are ' and prefer rocky and stony parts of the bottom, or are attached tlierefore more difficult to obtain upon which In company with a larger number of It is necessary briefly to refer to the difficult question of classification, many * Heft •' different opinions On 4, p have been entertained the Structure and Development of Arr/iojje." Mittheilungen aua der 516 (1883) t An Introduction to the Classification of Animals, p 27 (18G9) zool Station zu Neapel, Band iv DE T DAVIDSON ON RECENT BRACHIOPODA malacologists and palaeontologists, I have considered the interior skeleton that supports the labial appendages as a classiflcatory character that could be advantageously use of, and have consequently grouped the recent species into the two great divisions Owen { = Clistenterata, King), and Lyopomata, Ovfen {^= Tretenterata, Arthropomata, King), and into six families, as follows Akthropomata., : Owen= Clistenterata, King secies I Subfamily TerebratulinjK II III Subfamily Teeebrateixin^ Genus Lioihyris, Douville Subgenus Terebratidina, d'Orbigny Genus Waldheimia, King IV Genus Terehratella, d'Orbigny V Subgenus MagaseJla, Dall VI Genus Megerlia, King 1st made Family Subfamily Megerlin^ VII Subgenus Laqueus, Dall TEREBEATULIDJE VIII Genus Bouchardia, Davidson Subfamily Magasin^ Subfamily Kraussinin^ DR T DAVIDSON OX RECENT BRACHIOPODA lu his second group he unites those forms in which the brachial apparatus or loop undergoes numerous transformations from the embryo up to the adult condition, and which have been distinguished by the names of Platydiform, Magadiform, and Megerli form stages The mantle in this group is not provided with those calcareous spicuhi which occur so constantly in the first grovip The colour also of the dried animal is yellowish, whilst in the first group the hue or tint of the dried arms and of the peripheric portions of the mantle are of a very clxaracteristic dim white This, I may, however, remark, is not always the case, as possess specimens of the dried animal of I several species of TerebratuUna that are of a decided yellow colour according to M Deslongchamps, comprise The group would, the recent genera Waldheimia, Macandrevia, TerebrateUa, Laqueus, and Magasella While fully appreciating the am animal, I or tlie importance of all characters derived from a study of the not convinced that the temporary modifications in the shape of the loop, presence or absence of calcareous spicula in the mantle, &c., are indications of sufScient importance or permanence to supersede those derived from the adult shape of the calcareous lamellae supporting the labial appendages, — characters which are often and of important assistance in distinguishing the moi*e numerous fossil members of the group Moreover, Mr W H Dall, in describing the animal of Wald- accessible, heimia floridana (Bull Mus Comp Zool Harvard, vol iii 1871), distinctlv notes p 16, the existence of a few exceedingly delicate spicula in the floor of the great sinuses It would seem therefore that these spicula occur in a genus which M E E Deslongchamps, in his proposed terized by the new classification of the Terebratulidae, places among those forms charac- entire absence of spicula After long and searching examinations of the recent forms, I have described in this monograph about one hundred so-termed species, some varieties, and about twentyOf course the vexed question as to what really constitutes a eight uncertain ones species remains the same, and is likely to remain so for a long time to come It will not be necessary to extend these introductory remarks, as fully given under each species many kind friends who have mation and specimens In conclusion in so zealous a I would tender my manner supplied me all details have been grateful thanks to the \\\t\\ valuable infor- * AETIIROPOMATA, 0\veu=CLISTENTERATA, Family TEREBRATULID^, King (Gray) emend Davidson Subfamily Tbrebkatulin^, Dall, 1870 few years a strong desire has been manifested by those palaeontologists who consider an extreme subdivision of genera desirable, to separate from Terehratnla proper those forms characterized by a small short loop, of which the principal stems are During the last united anteriorly by a slightly arched lamella, and of which Liothyris vitrea may bi- taken as the type * The drawings for tho Plates reproducing them on stone were made by myself, on paper: but the state of my health would not allow of my ; DE As T DAVIDSON ON EECENT BEACHIOPODA there are certainly some differences observable in the two groups, and as none of the recent species would agree in the characters of their loops and in certain other Llhwyd and particulars with the forms referred to the genus Terebratula of may perhaps be better to adopt Douville's generic name Klein, we Liothyris for the species it are about to describe In the larger number of the recent species, sucli as in Liothyris vitrea, L arctica, L Moseleyi, L tiva, L Bartletti, L WyvilUi, and L suhqnadruta, the connecting band of the loop The is narrow, while in L splicBnoidea—cubensis specific claims of Liothyris cernica, larger it is and L.? DalU are still uncertain, only a single example of each of them having been hitherto discovered Very small, or scarcely any modifications in the shape of the loop have been observed all the species have their shell minutely perforated l)y canals, and calcareous spicules are abundant in the mantle Liothyris vitrea, Born, Anomia (Plate sp Bora, Testacea Musei Caes vitrea, 1-12.) I figs p Linn^, ed Gmelin, 119, vignette, 1778; 3347, p 1788 Gnjphus vitrea, Megerle v Miihlfeld, Berliu Mus 1811 Terebratula vitrea, Lamarck, An sans Vert vol 1826; G Bronn, Italicus Tertiar-Gebilde, t figs 6-8, 1836, vol & Kiister, Martini ii 1844; p 66, Chemnitz, Conch -Cab on the Mollusca of the Mgenn Sea, Conch Foss 1845 delle (pars) pi Conchiglie figs i vol ix p S P Scacclii, Report, Brit Assoc Gravatelli, p 14, 1851 ix p 124, 1861 ; Soc Italiana di Scienze Nat vol i p 284, 1867 ; ; p vol p i 141, p 353, 215, 1856; i pi 70 figs p Nat Hist 5th Liothyris vitrea, Douville, Bull Soc Geol de France, 62, 3'' vol ii & Mag 23, Aradas ; ; p 33, Nat Hist, pi vi pi fig 8, 201, 1862 p and 1852; 1860, and Segucnza, Atti 1865; H C Weiukauft', Die Conch & Mag ser vol x p 28, ser vol vii 1879 ; Nat Hist vol vii 1882 E Deslongchamps, Note sur la Classification des Terebratules, ou Etudes critiques sur les Brachiopodes, pp 106 figs p 95, 1836; E Forbes, Report 56-59, 1846 fig L Reeve, Conch Icon 1-7, 160, 1843; D Galvani, Illustrazione Introduction, p 17, pi figs & Mag i O G Costa, Fauna del regno di Napoli, Chenu, Man de Couch, i vol Sicilise, 11-13, 1843; Davidson, Italian Tert Brach., Ann 1870; Jeflreys, Ann 11, Enum Moll Davidson, Sketch of a Class, of recent Brachiopoda, Ann Woodward, Manual of Mollusca, pi xvii fig Pliilippi, p 83, no Cat Couch Regni Neapolitaui, p 8, vol vii p 22, tab figs 364, 1852, and Br Foss Brach Pal Soc vol Mittelmeeres, vol 245, 1819; Payraudeau, Cat p 125, 1831; A G B Sowerby, Thes Conch, di fossili 1-3, 1851-52; Journ de Conch, vol della ; p vii & 153, pi xx 7-11, 1884 Shell longitudinally oval or ovate, globose, widest about the middle, laterally rounded more or or less pinched in near the front, front margin nearly straight or gently Colour nearly white, surface smooth, semitransparent, glassy, marked with Dorsal valve tumidly concentric lines of growth and perforated by minute canals rounded fine convex, longitudinally flattened along the middle, from which the anterior lateral portions slope to the edge Venti-al valve slightly deeper than the dorsal one, longitudinally beak incurved, moderately produced and slightly overlying the umbo of tlie dorsal valve, obliquely truncated l)y a very small circular foramen with thickened margin and separated from the hinge-line by a small triangular deltidium flattened along the middle in two pieces Loop ; in the interior of the dorsal valve simple and short, attached by its Thos Davidson 'jj\s LiNX' Soc Ser Zocl Voi N ?l 2'6 DISClNLD.4i iJ m V ' iafe^' *i^ "Ơ '^'m^mm^ ' -?>, t x -'' tr- 24 ^""^m ^ i t>!>wt}jp.r lilt 1-8 DISCINISCA LAJVIELLOSA^ L L-^VIS 12-17^ D TENUIS 6-22 D ATLAKTICA, AKTICA, 23-2G D E CUMINGl 27-30 D, STELLA 31,3FDISC]NISCA ANTlLLARUlvI Jern inu> Trans Linn Soc Ser Z Zool Thos Davidson CRANIIDvE i^mc '€' % Vol IV Pi 27 I'hos Trans Linn Soc.Ser2 Zool Voi.,lVFL28 Da'adson CRANIin^^ & LINGULin^ l.-l"' 2:4, GLOTTIDIA ALBIDA 14,-15, vw,h«-sonl,ih 0^6° G PALMERI CRANIA TIJP.BINATA 7,-11, LIN GULA TUMIDULA 20,-21":' L EXIT STA 22, L, vo/- RINOENS G AUDEBARTl Brad, (=LINGULA PYRAMIDATAStosos) 12, G SEMEN, LEPIDULA 17-18
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