Bull of N.Y. Museum V5-20 ELM-LEAF Beetle in NY Sate, Ephraim Porter Felt, 1898

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University of the St a te of New York BUL LETIN OF THE New York State Museum VOL No 20 J UN E 1898 ELM -LEAF BEETLE - IX N EW Y OR K STATE PREPARED BY EPHRAIM PORTER FELT, D Sc Acting State Entomologi st ALBANY r UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK I8g8 Price cents University of the State of New York RE GE NTS YE.o\R 1874 ANSON J UD D U PSON , D D , LL D , L H D., Chanceiior, Glens Falls 1892 'VILLIA:,>I CROSWELL DOANE, D D " LL D , Vice- Chanceliar, Albany 1873 MARTIN T OWNSEND, M A., LL D Troy 1877 CHAUNCEY 1\'1 D EPEW, LL D - New York 1877 C HARLES E F ITCH, LL B., :M A , L H D R ochester 1877 O RRIS H WARREN, D D - Syracuse 1878 WHITELAW R EID, LL D New Y ork 1881 WILLIAM H WATSON, M A., 1\1 D - Utica 188 HENRY E TU RNER L ow ville 1883 ST CLAIR :McKELW AY, LL D , L H D., D C L - Brooklyn 1885 HAMILTON HARRIS, Ph D , LL D Albany 1885 D ANIEL B EACH , Ph D , LL D - Watkins 1888 CARROLL E S ~IITH, LL D Syracuse 189 PLI NY T SEXTON, LL D - Palmyra 1890 T G UILFORD SMI TH, M A , C E Buffa lo 1893 L EWIS A STIMSON, B A , :M D - New York 1894 J OHN P ALME R, Se cr et ary of State, ex ojJicio 1894 SYLVESTER 1fALONE - Brooklyn 1895 ALBERT VANDER VE ER, M D , Ph D Albany 1895 CHARLES R SKINNER, LL D , Superintendent of Public I nstruc tion , ex oiJicio 1896 FRANK S BLACK, B A " Governor, ex ojJicio 1896 TIM OTHY L WOODRUFF, M A , Lieutenant-Governor , ex ojJicio 189'7 CHE STER S LORD, M A - Brooklyn SEC RETARY MELVIL DEWEY, M A DIRECTORS O F DEPARTMENTS 1890 JAMES RU SSELL PARSONS JR, M A., Examination department r888 MELVIL DE WEY, M A., State library and Extension depat:tment 1890 F : J H MERRILL, Ph D., State museum CONTEN TS PAG'E Preface • Outlin e _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ E lm·l eafbeetl e in New York state Bad reputati on of it s family - - - - - - - ­ , _ - In action means death t o til e elms , Dis tri b uti on " " _ Description .• •• • • _ _ L ife-Ilist or y _ _ _ • • • • , _ _ 13 Number of generations _ H abits of beetle a nd larvae Species of elms at tac ked -­ An associa ted insect .• 16 , , _ 18 Means of distribution " " " L ; , 18 ••• Nat ural ene mies of elm-lea f beetl e Rem edi es • • ••, 20 21 21 Cost of sp rayi ng elms • Propel' a pparatus _ 22 _ 24 Ti me and manner of spray i ng A palli at i ve measnre Useless measu res 26 • 27 .•• • Remedies for associa ted i usects 16 17 Descrip tion an d life·hist ory Secondary a t tacks by insects 13 15 , • _ I nj nri es and chara cteristics '" 28 •• •• • 29 E xp lanation of pl ates 34 Bibli ography • .• •• PREFAOE This bulletin was prepared.first to bring prominently before the public the very destructive nature of t his imp orted insect, and second to demonstrate that it can be controlled without great expense, pro vid ed intelli gent direction is gi ven to the matter The lif e-history and habits of this beetle have been giv en som e­ what in detail becau se unless they are thoroughly understood, it is very easy t o adopt means that are onl y partially successful or futile In order to give the bulletin a more prac tical valu e, short acc onnts have also been in cluded of three othe r in sects, which, working with the elm-leaf beetle, have aided greatly in ruining many noble elms In t he portion devoted t o remedi es prominence bas been giv en tofhe cost of spraying per tree, the proper apparatus and the time and manner of application It is surprising to, see what mi s­ takes some men mak e in dealing with Insect s and how they clin g to methods of no va lue To offs et this t end ency, two of the mor e common fallacies are mentioned and their futility shown E P A.lbany N Y , 21 June, 1898 FELT THE E LM-LEAF BE ETLE I N NEW YORK STATE THE ELM-LEAF BEETLE I N NEW YORK STATE Galeruc ella luteola Mtiller Ord, Coleoptera: Fam Ohrysomelidae This import ed ins ect has committed su ch extensive injury t o the elms in the cities and villages a long t he Hudson river that it is worthy of extended notice- Th e residents of places wh ere this pest has established itself ve r epeatedly ob served t he grubs working on t heir elms and in many in stances have seen two or even three cr ops of leaves destroyed in a single season without taking steps toward the protection of the trees The causes fo r this condition of affai rs are not hard to find, as the majority are inclined to trust in providence and hope that the ravages of the insect will not be as severe the next season Many others see the grubs at work on the underside of the leaves but not being quite sure of th e best method of cont r olli ng them, and as there is no wa y of doing this without labor, they usually make no effort to subdue the p est Bad reputation of its family This beetle is a member of the large, leaf-eating family of OM ysomelidae, which comprises a number of ou r mos t injurious insects It in cludes such well­ known pests as the aspara gus beetle, Orioeerie asparagi Linn., the Oolorado potato beetle, Doryphora 10-lineata Say, the 12-spotted Diabrotica, D l '£-punctMa Oliv and the striped cucumber beetle, Diabroiic« vittata Fabr., all well-known in sects against wh ich perpetual warfare mu st be waged Another member of this family, the cottonwood-Ieatbeetle, Lina scripta Fabr., recently inflict ed serious damage upon the large basket industry in the willow growing districts about Syracuse, Rochester and other localities in that part of t he state Judging from the well -known rec ords 'of its allies, we may expect that th e elm-l eaf beetle will continue to be very destructive Inaction means death to the elms , Th e elm -leaf beetle was known in Albany in 1892, probably having made its way to the city a year or two earlie r, and since that time its ravages have become rnore and more serious, until in 1897 most of the numer­ NEW YORK STA T E lIWSEU:M ous European elms along our st reets were completely defoliated once,the second growth of foliage was seriously injure d, and some trees had their third set of leaves attacked This condition of affairs was observ ed in A lbanyand Troy an d was true to a gr eater or less extent in many other places along t he Hu ds on river Th e leaves are the breathing organs of a tree 'I'heir removal or de­ struction weakens it seriously , and t o have that occur even once it season for suc cessive yea rs, means th e early death of t he UIl­ fortunate elm The number of magnificent sha de trees kill ed by this insect in Albany, since its ad vent, may be est imated a t over a thousand , and had not the city taken a ct ion t o pro te ct t he elms many mor e would have succumbe d in the next year or two It is useless to hope that another season the pest may not be as destructive It shows a r emarkable vig or and prolifi cacy in our climate At W ashington, D C., it has been kn own for a long seri es of years and still is very injurious In New Jersey, New York city, New Haven, Conn., an d other localities it has been found necessary t o spray the t rees with a poisonous mixture in order to avert serious injury Parasites, diseases of various kinds and predatory enemies seem s to have little effect in reducing its numbers The valley of the Hudson riv er as far north as Sara­ toga lis now included in the same life zone as that of the latter places named Distribution .This insect is common over a large part of Europe, but it is injurious only in the southern portions of Ger­ many and France and in Italy and Austria The records of the earlier entomologists indicate t t the beet le mu st have made its way to this count ry a bout 18;14, because in 1838 it was re­ ported as very injurious to elms in Baltimore, Md It is now found from Charlotte, N C., t o north of Salem, Mass Up to 1896, so far as known, it was limited to t errit or y eas t of the Appalachian chai n of mountains In that year it was found es­ tablished at Elm Grove and Wellsburg, W Va , by Dr Hopkins of the Agricultural experiment station of that state Its prog­ ress up the Hudson is interesting to follow, indicating, as it does I THE E LM-LE AF BEETL E I N NEW YORE: STATE the distribution of the beet le along the lin es of travel In 1879 a it was abundant a nd destructive at Ne wburg ; 12 years later it was re por te d to this office from Po ughkeep sie, in 1890 from Hud­ son , in 1891 fro m Ne w Balt im ore a nd in 1892 it had reached Albany and Tro y It was fonnd at l\Iechanicville in 1896 by Dr L, O Howard, of W ashington, D O That same year the larvae were abundant at Averill Park in the t own of Sand Lake about seven miles southeast of Tro y, the beetl es evidently having been transported thither by the numerous electric cars running to that station In a simila r manner it has spread: over a large por­ tion of Oonne cti cut a nd into Rho de Island It had made its way up the Oonnecticut va lley to Springfi eld by 1891, and to Am­ herst by 1895 Th e latter yea r it wa s found by Dr Howard at Millers F alls a nd was reported to him t hen at Sonth Vernon, it having crossed the New Hampshire line It has also been re­ ported from north of Salem, Mass., and at Middl ebury, Vt.-two localities distant from ot he rs where it has been found The above re cord indicat es most clearl y that this pest has not made its way to all portions of the state where it may be ex­ pect ed to thrive The climate of t he upper austral life zone seems to agree with the in sect, judging from the number of broods and its ab undance in Al bany and vicinity The area within the state embraced by this zone has been represented on plate 4, in the 11th Report OJ/, the insects ot New York Briefly, it embrace s Long and St aten islands, t he valley of the Hudson river north ab out to Saratoga and a large portion of the north­ western a nd ce ntral part of th e state adjacent t o the great lakes and includin g Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca lakes and neighboring bodies of water This insect will probably make its way along the lin es of trav el to most of the cities and larger villages lying within the abo ve limits 'I'he beetle having become established at localities not yet included within this zone, in dicates that it may have an even wider range, although climatic conditions will probably prevent its becomin g destructi ve a Uofortunntel y most o f th ese da tes indicate on ly th e time whe n th e ravages of th e insect wer e ser ious enough to attract th e -a.t ten tion of some on e , and BO only a ppro x im a tely the year of it s arri val NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM Description 'l'he work of this pest is so striking as to excite the attention of even the most casual observer The majority have little idea of the appearance of the insect in its various stages and but faint conception of its life history In order to control the pest it must be recognized and its nature understood to a certain extent The 'parent insect may be recognized by aid of the colored figure (pI 1, fig 2), although care should be taken not to confound it with the striped 'cucumber beetle, Diabrotica vittata Fabr., which it resembles in a general manner The elm-leaf beetle is about { of an inch long with the head, thorax and margin of the wing covers a 'reddish-yellow The coal black eyes and median spot of the same color on the head are prominent On the thorax there is a median black spot of variable shape and a pair of lateral ovoid ones The median black line of the wing covers is separated from the broad lateral stripes of the same color by greenish-yellow The elytra are minutely and irregularly punc­ tured, bear a fine pubescence and at the base of each elytron there is an elongated black spot in the middle of the greenish­ yellow stripe The markings are usually constant in the adult, but the color is quite variable during life and changes more or less after death In some beetles emerging from winter quart­ ers, theconspicuous greenish-yellow stripes of the wing covers are nearly black The antennae are a golden yellow with more or less brownish markings The legs are yellowish with the tibiae and tarsi 'marked with brown, The under surface of the head and prothorax is yellowish, that 'of the rnetathorax aud ab­ domen black The orange yellow eggs are deposited in irregular rows side by side, forming clusters of from five to 26 or more on the under surface of the leaf Each egg is somewhat fusiform, attached vertically by its larger end, with the- free extremity tapering to a paler, roundedpoint (pl 1, :fig 3) Under a power­ ful lens, the fine reticulations of the egg shell are easily seen The recently hatched larva is about "lJ~ inch long, with the head, thoracic shield, numerous tubercles, hairs and legs jet THE ELM-LEAF BEE TLE IN NEW YORK STATE bla ck Th e in t egument between t he t ubercles is a dark yellow The tubercles a re so large and the hai r s so prominent t t the pre vailing color of th e larva at this sta ge is black As t he larva in cr eases in size and mol t s, t he stiff black hair s become lesa con­ spicious and the yellowish markings more prominent (pl 1, fig 4) until the last stage A full gr own larva is about in ch long , more flattened than in the earli er stages, with a broad yel­ low st ri pe rsall y and a narrower stripe of the same color on eac h side, th ~ yellow st r ipes being separated by broad dark bands thickly set with tub ercles bearing short, dark-color ed hairs The dorsal yellow stripe is broken on each side by a subdorsal ro w of dark tubercles, which in cr eas e in size posteriorly The lateral yellow st ripe in cludes a row of prominent tubercles witb dark tips bearing sh or t h ail'S of th e sanne color (pl 1, fig 5) The predominat ing color of the ventral surface is yellow Th e pupa is bright or an ge yellow, about inch long, and with a very conve x dorsal su rf ace whi ch bears transver se row s of stout, inconspicuous set ae * Life-history I n order to control t his insect successf ully it mu st be known and its habits understood Trite though the pre­ ceding may appeal', I have noticed men in several places spraying for this pest a nd doing no execut ion, f'or the simple reason that they did not under stand the fundamental principl es involved ill fighting insects In one cas e th e trunk of the tree was sprayed whil e the grubs wer e on t he leaves, and in the othe r they used pari s green an d! water when ker osene emulsion or whaleoil soap solution should hav e been employed 'I'he beetles pa ss the wi nter in attics, sheds 01' out-houses and ill va ri ous sh elter ed places 'With the advent of warm weather in the sp ring, they emerge fro m t heir r etreats and may be found on the walks during the sunny portion of the day or upon the windows of hou ses, vainly trying to escape Even when writing t hi s (May 12th) number s of t hese beetles are to be se en on the office windows of t he fourth story of the capit ol, thus showing t o what a height t hey will fly in seeking secure winter qu arters On the appea rance of the leav es, the last of April or the ea r ly 10 NE'V YORK STATE MUSEU}! half of May in this latitude, they fly into the trees and eat irreg­ ular holes in the foliage (fig 2) After feeding some time, and pairing, the orange yellow eggs are deposited on the under sur­ face of the leaves in clusters of about 5-26 The duration of the egg stage in July averages about 'fi-ve days, in cooler weather it may be longer Feeding and oviposition continue for several weeks in the spring, probably from four to six During this time the beetles consume a large amount of foliage, which is evidently necessary for the development OIf the eggs, as clusters are laid every day or two until the full complement is discharged, which is in the neighborhood of from 431 to 623 As there seems to have been no attempt, at least in this country, to determine the prolificacy of this insect, the following record may be of in terest, On 1\iay 31st, two large females were taken and isolated with plenty of food On June 1st, one had deposited four clusters, comprising 42 eggs; on the 3d, a cluster of 18; on the Gth, clus­ ters of 21 and 26 eggs; on the 8th, clusters of 26 and ~ 011 the 9th, a cluster of 27; on the 10th, clusters of and 31; OIl the 13th, clusters 'of 3,7,8,11,15 and 19; on the 15th, clusters' of 14 and 27; on the 16th, a cluster of 30)· on the 17th, a cluster of 32; on the 19th, clusters of 10 and 26; on the 20th, a cluster of 36; on the 21st, clusters of and 25; on the 22d, clusters of and 31; on the 23d, clusters of 1,2, 7, 11 and 13; on the 27th, clusters of 13~ 21 and 32; 011 the 28th, clusters of and 17, making a total of H23 ['he other had deposited on June Ist, two clusters containing a total oif 29 eggs; on the 3d, cluster'S 'of 9, and 14; on the Gth, another of 18; on the Sth, clusters of 15 and 20; on the LOth, a cluster of 20; on the 11th, a cluster of 23; on the 13th, clusters of 11 and 13; on the 14th, a cluster of 31; on the 15th, a cluster of 16 and scattering; on the 16th, a cluster of 28; on the 18th, clusters of 26 and 30; on the 20th, clusters- of and 6; on the 21st, clusters of and 18; on the 22d, clusters ot and 20; on the 23d, a c:lusterof 27; on the 27th, 'clusters of 5,.7, and 15, mak­ ing a total of 431 The continued oviposition and the 'prolificacy of the beetles is strikingly shown in the above record They were abroad in Pla te Ha.nd spraying outfit in opera.tion IN D E X The superior figu re points to t h e exact place on the page in nin ths; e g.394 me ans four nint hs of the way down page 39 Da tes are printed i n it alic s Ac ademy natura l sc iences ( Ph il.) , Proceedin gs cited, 299 Al ba ny , elm-leaf beetle i n, 59, 71• cost of spraying at, :.l26 d istribu t i on of Gossy pa ria in, 186 Gossyp ar ia in , 166 Inju ri es b y pigeou Treruex in , 197• inj ury to el ms in, i59-162 • la rvae ab undant in Octo ber, 127 number of t r ees killed by b eetle iu ,62 • vages of beetle in, 9-61• Albany eve ning j ou rn al cit ed, 315 • American agricult ur ist cited, 30 ~ ; American association for ad va ncement of sc ience, P roceedings cited, 337 elm a t tacked, 155, 163 • Amer ican entomologist, I880 cit ed, 302 , 3u6 • American naturalist cited, 307• Ameri can a, Ulmus, attacked, 155 • Amh er st ( Mass.) , beetl e at" in I 895 , 73 • Aphis li ons, 213 • Ap pa lachi an ruouutaiu s, beetle east of till I 896, 68 • Ar gu s cited, 316, 347 as pa ragi, Crioceris, 56 As paragus beetle, 56 Attics, hiberna tio n of beetle in, 97 Atwat er , W O., cited, 332• Au stria, b eetl e injurious in , 67 Averill Park, beetl e at, in I896, 72• Balt im ore , Md , beetle injurious at, in J83 8, 68 Ba nds of cot ton, 272 ; of tar, 27 3• Barnard W S., cit ed, 326 Bask e t indust ry inj ured b y cotton­ wo od-lea f beetle, 57 Ba sket willo w i nj ur ed byeot tonwood­ l eaf beetle, 57 Beck with , M H , ci te d, 329 Bir ds carr ying Gossyparia, 186 Black ening of tree s bS Gossyparia and fungu s, 168 • Boiling water 264 • Boston , Mass., Gossy par ia in , 166 Britton, E , cited, 338• Bruner , L , cited, 331• Bnrli ng to u, Vt., Gossypar ia in, 166 Burrow s of pigeon T remex, 196 ,V ca lmariensis, Chrysomela [Gal er uceil a luteola] , 9~ Galeru ca [Galerucella luteol o] , 294, 301• e mupestris, U lmus, attacked, 157 Camptobroehis grandis, 213 Canadian ent omologist cite d, 30' , 309, 3F, 323, :346• Capit ol, hi ber nation of beet les in, 99 • Carman , E S., cit ed, 333• Carolina, Ma nt is, 21' Ca rson cit y, Nev., Goss yparia in, 167 Catalog ue cols opteror um Europae, Ca u ­ casi, Armen iae rossicae cite d, 328 • Ca yuga lake in upper austral li fe zon e, 77• Ch arl ot t e, N C., beetle not k nown f urther so uth, 68• Chauliognathus marg inatus, 20g • Chinch-bug, 207• Chi tte nden , F H., cited , 333• Chr ysom ela cal marieueis [Gal erucella luteola], 29' Chrysomelidae, 51 Clark son, F , cited, 317 «r-; .';0 a i.- tra: h f.' :.1 ~ It' fav , ,r.d t- 111 1" "' 1h-, ; " Cull'PI,I"l a ~I :, CtJlllt a du I" I Lit II I II 1' :~ ' J ;/ l'uIr UIl It.I ·1 11· :1 t· X l i-:" Clilll ;tt, · ' If 1;1' 1" , C u ll i ll l !I" " ; II f11 "':Il T II:U i :H I: II :I 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,l e ~" ri h " ol S' E ighth re po rt ti ll in sec ts Xc \\' Yor k c iter l , 31 , or E lectr h- "l1 rs loe" l le , 7: probnh ly t rans pc rt in g l : i ~ of la na l'~ t.: " ~ " I:! ~ i ui-: P h" lo it , r.f I",ell.· a w l ln r v.o-, 1:-:', h ihe rnn t ion " I' IIl'dl , '~ !,' inm -tio n menus d eat h t o I Ill ;'-;- ;3 INDE X TO MUSEUM BULLETI N Elm-leaf beetl e-continued inj u ries will p robably be ­ ti n uous, 64 • insect enemies of ,2OS-214• lar va e des cri bed , 89-9 • life-h istor y, 95 n a t ural enemies, 205-215 • necess ity of knowiug life-history, 95 • notorious pests b elonging t o its fa mily, 56 numbers on trunk, 151 oviposition of, 101, 124• pa lli a t ive measu re, 261 p robable li mits of its sp read , 75 • prolificacy , 103-113 pupa te largely on g rou nil, 14s ravages along th e Hu dson, 51 rec or d of deposition of eggs, 104­ 113 r em ed ies, 216-251 second b roo d, d evelopment of, 126 s prea ds very slowly, 138- 142 • snlphu r, plugging tre es wit h , 275 • tender leaves p re ferred, U 7• u seless measu re s, 27 E lm s, Tremex columba attacki ng , 189 • injuries to, 52 n ot p rote ct ed by bands, 272 • Sap er da trideutata a ttac king, 199­ 202 • sp ecies attacked by elm -leaf be etle, 155 • E mm ons, E , ci t ed, 297• E neyelopedie m et hodique - H ist oire n utu rel le in sect cited, 296 En gli sh el m suffers seve re ly, 11>7, 163 • En gli sh sp arrow ca rry ing Gossypuriu, 186 • feeding ou b eetle larv ae, 215 • Eu tomologia system atica cited, 294 • Ent omolog ical Dews cited, 323, 325, 343 • Entom ologi cal soc ie ty of Ontar io, R e· port cit ed, 325 • E ntomolo g ical society ( Was h.), P ro­ ceedings cited , 304, 323 , 326 , 335 • 20 39 en t omoph ilu m, Sp or ot ri ch um, 206• E numeratio insectorum Aus tria e indi­ genorum cited , 295• Europe, beetle co mmon over a large portion , 66 Europ ean elms d efoliated , 141, 156• E x pla ua ti on of plates, 351 Fab ri ci us, J C., c ited, 294• F a lco ner, W , cited, 319 • F eed in g habits of beetle, 136• F elt, E P , ci ted, 346 F erna ld, C H , cited, 334• F ield a ud for est , I 876, cited, 302• F ifth rep't on insects of Ne w York cited , 298, 311 F igure of lea f eaten by beetle, 142• Gossy pari a fe ma les, 172• m ale cocoon s of Gossy paria, 182• p igeon 'I're mex, 192 elm-le a f beetle, PI elm-leaf eaten by larvae, 114• Sap erd a trid enta t e, 203• spr a ying apparatus, P lat es 4, t rees inj u red hy beetle, P la t es 2, F i tch, A., cited, 29 8• F ourth r ep't ou i nsect s of New York ci t ed , 309 • F ran ce, beetl e injuriou s iu sou th ern port ion , 67• °F rem d, Charles, r eference, 165• F u ller, A S., cited, 306 • Fu ng us grow ing in honey d ew, 16s Gale ruca ea lmarie nsie [Gale rucellu l ute ola] , 294, 301 xunth omelaenn [Galerucell a lu te o­ la], 295, 302, 313, 322, 331, 342 • Galerucella luteola, see elm -leaf beetl e xan tbo melaena [ luteola] , 314 Gard en a ud for es t , cited, 322, 338, 339 , 345• Gen erations , number of, 131• Germ an y, beet le inj u riou s in so uthe rn portion, 67 • glob uli ferum , Sp orotrich um, 207• Glover, T , cited, 301 ,I,­ I I 40 NEW YORK STATE :MUSEUM Gossyparia ulm i, 165• Gould force pump, 239, 242, grandis, Camptobr ochi s, 213 Harris T 'Y., cited, 297 H amilton, J , ci t ed , 328 H a tch experi ment st ation, Mass, agri ­ cultural coll ege, Bulletin ci ted, 344• H en sh aw, S., cited , 318 • Honey dew secr eted by Goss y pa ri a, 16s Hopkins , A D., cited, 68 H ose for spraying, 229, 233 • Howard, L 0., cited, 72, 335; on elms attacke d, 163• Hudson: beetle a t, in £890, 71• Hudson river, injurJ· to elms alon g, 52,61• progress of beetle up, 69• Hulst, G D., cited, 321 Inclosin g base of trees, 266• Insec t life cited , 3()4, 326, 333• In sects j ujurions to torest-sh ade t ree s cit ed,308 Insects inj urious to vegetation, 297• I nsects transporting Gossyp aria, 186• Introduc tion of be etle in this coun­ try, 67• Introductio n to modern classificat ion insects cited, 296• Italy, beetle injurious in , 97 J ohnso n, W G., cit ed, 344• Kerosene emulsion, meth od of prepa­ rati on , 284• spraying with, 97 Kerosene or k er osen e emulsion, 264 • Kingsley's standard naturul hi story ci ted, 31s Kirklan d, A H., on cost of sp raying trees, 224• Lace-wing flies, 213 L a nsingbnrg, inj u ry to elms iu , 1[;8 L a r va, elm -leaf beetle, des cribed, 9-9 4, L arvae abu ndant in October, 127 descent of first b rood, 123; second brood, 126• developing on old leav es, 12s droppin~ fr om overhang ing lim bs, 153• pl aces of pu pati on, 152 • pupation on rough ba rk, 148-155 Leaf sk ele to n ized b y lar vae, 114 • L ea ves, t hei r dest ru cti on weakens t he tree , 62 • I e Con t e, J I ., cited, 299 • Lewis, P C., on cost of spraying, 227 la bo r savin g devi ces of, 243• Life-ht st ory , elm-lea f beetle, 95-12 • See el m-lea f beetl e Gossyp aria, 176• Life zon e, upper aus t ral, area in New York st ate in cl uded w it hi n, 76 beetle limi ted the reby, 78• Liu a scri pt a, 57 Linnaeus , C., cited, 294 • Li n tn er, J A , cite d, 309-316• Li st Coleoptera North Amer ica cit ed, 318 • Lockwood, S., cited , 307 L ondon purple for beetle, 251 L ong I sland in upper au stral life zoue, Lu na te lon g st i ng, 197 lu nator, Th alessa, 197• luteola, Gal erueella, 51 See elm-leaf b eetle, Male and cocoons of Gossyp aria, 181• Manner of spraying, 247-259 • Man t is Caro lina, 214 Manti ssa iuscctorum cite d, 295 • runr ginutus, Chauliognathus, 209 • Marlatt, C L , cited, 337 Massa chus etts agricultural college , R ep 't cited, 335 • Maynar d, 'V., cited , 345 • Meohauicvi ll e, b eet le at, in £896, 7~ Meianges de philosophie et de math­ ematique cited, 293• Metal ex tension to h ose, 245• INDEX TO MUSE D1>r BULLETI N Mich igan agricultural coll ege, Gosay­ paria at, 167• agric ultural exp erimen t stat ion , Bul­ letin cited, 342 • Middleb ury, V t , beetl e at, 75 • Miller' s F all s, Mass , beetle fo und at, in I 895, 74• Mite s near egg s, 213 , Molasses to mak e poison adhe re, 252, m olo chi nus, Qnedius, 209• mo ntana, Ulmu s, attack ed, 157 • Milller, M., cited, 293 • Natural ene mies of elm beetl e, 205 • Natural h istory of Ne w York- Ag ri­ c ulture cit ed, 297 • Nebraska stat e h or t icultur al society, Rep' t cited, 331 N ew Balti more, b eetl e at, in J89J , 71• Newburg, be etle at, i n I 879, 71 , New Brun swick , N J , b ut one bro od, 132• cost of sp r aying at, 211 New H ampshir e agri cnltura l experi­ ment station , Rep' ts cited, 329 • New Haven , Conn , necessit y of sp ray­ ing for b eetle i n, 65• N ew J ersey ag ri cultural experim ent stat ion , Bull et in cit ed , 321, 324 ; R eport cit ed , 321, 322, 323, 32 4, 325, 326• ne cessity of spray ing for b eetle in , 64 • Ne w Yor k st ate ag ricultur al societ y 'I'ra usact ion s cit ed , 298• R epor t s on insects of, cited, 301, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316• New York city, n ece ssity of sp raying for be et le i n, 65, Nin th rep't ou in sects of New York cited, 3IS Nozzle for spra ying , 229, 234• Nu mbe r of ge nerat ions, 131 Nursery stock , Gossy paria on, 165 ; dis t ributed by, 185 , Old leaves , larvae dev eloping on, 128• Olivier, A G., cited , 296• 20 41 On eida l ak e, in uppe r a ns trallife zone, 7• Out-houses, hi bern a t ion of beetle i n 7• Ovipositi on of bee tle, lon g co nt in ued, 103- 114 • • P ac kard, A S., cit ed, 3OS P alliativ e measur e, 261• P al o Alt o, Ca L, Gossyparia at, 167• P arasit es of beetle not effective, 65 P a r is g reen and water, spraying with, 97, 251 P enn sylvania sta te board ag r icult u re, Rep't cit ed, 339 • P erk ins, G H., cit ed, 327• P igeo n Treuiex, 189 • Pl atynns p un ctifo rm is, 209 • P l uggi ng" t rees wit h sulph ur , 276 • P odisn s spmosus, 211 Poughkeep sie, be etle at, in I88I , 71• P r aying Mantis, 214 • Predatory ene mies of beetle no t a bu nd ­ ant, 65 • P reven ti ve measures fo r bore rs, 287• P r oceedi ngs of academ y of n at ural sciences (P lril ) for J865 cited, 299 • P rol ifiea cy of beetle, 103 • P seud im ago of Gossypu ria, 182 • P sych e cited, 31S, 32s Pu mp for sp raying, 229, 239• pu nc t ifor mis, Pl a tyn us, 209• Pu pae fou nd November 7th and 16t h, 129 • Quedius moloch inus, 209 • Qu ick lim e to pr ev e nt burnin g foli age, _· o- R athvon, S S., ci te d, 302• R ecord of egg de posit, 104-1 13 R eit ter , E , ci ted, 328• Remedies, boili ng' wa ter, 264 • destruction of larvae a nd pu pae, 263 • d igging out b orers , 287• in clo sing b ase of trees 266• i" r 11 I I I I 42 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM R em ed i eB-CQu ti ll uecl k er osen e or kerosene emuls ion, 264, 283• spraying wi th po isons, 216-259, 282 • whale oil soa p solution, 28 3• for elm-leaf beetie, cost of spraying elm s, 218_.228 poisoning foliage recommend ed , 216• proper a pp a t us, 228-247 • time of application, 247-25 9• Report ou inseets of New York, 11th cited, 76• R ho de Isla nd, b eetle i n, 73 • R il ey, C V , cited, 30 2• Rochester, inju ries by cottonwood-leaf beetle in vicinity, 57 Rural New York e r cited, 319, 333 • Rye, Gossy par ia d isc overed at , 165• s accharlnum, Coniotbecium, a fung us, 168 • Sal em, Mas s., beetle found north of, 6B,75 Sand Lake, be etle at, in IS96 , Sa p erda t ridentuta, beetle d escr ibed and fig ured, 202 • infesting elms, 198• larval burrows, 201• Sargen t , C S., cit ed , 34 • Saratoga, near north ern li mit of u ppe r austral life zon e, 77 • Schiedt, R C , cited, 83 9• Schrank, F P , ci ted, 295• Science cited, 30 4• Sco tch elms suffe r severe ly, 157, 163• lar va e feed in g on in October , 127• Sec ondary attack s, by pigeon Tremex injurious, 189• b y elm borer in ju rious, 19B• enco uraged by elm-leaf beetle , 188• scripta, ] ina, 57 Seventh rep't on in se ct s of Ne w York ctted, 312 • Seneca lake in upper austral life zone, ci t ed , 77 • Sixth rep't on i nsect s of New Yor k c ited, 312• Ske leton iz ing by bee tle, 137• by larva, 114- 122• Slinger1:lnd , 1\1 V , ci t ed, 332• Smith, J B., cited, 322• on cost of sp rayi ng, 219-224• poison to be used, 25 1• Sont h Vernon , N H , bee tle at, 74• Southwick, E B., cit ed , 341; sprayi ng ou tfi t de signed b y, 23$ Species ius ectoru m ci te d, 29{ s pinosus, Po disus, 211 Sporotrichum eu t omoph ilu m, 206• g lobultferum, 207• Spraying, cost of, 215-228 • for elm-lea f bee tle, 113, 248-25 3• hand appa ratus, 231• labor savi ng d ev ices, 243• pow er apparatus , 235-24 • proper a pp aratns, 228• tim e and manner, 247• und er su rface of leaves t o be t reated , 254• wi th k er osene emuls ion, 97, 283 • with paris gre en and wa ter, 97, 255• Spring, appeara nce of beetles in, 98• Springfield, Mass., beetle a t, in I89I, 73• st a bu lans, Cyr toueura, 209• St aten I slan d in u pp er austra l li fe zone, 77• Step ladd er 01' platform fo r spraylu g, 243: SLone, H B , cit ed, 306 • Storrs ug rl cul tural expe ri me nt st a ­ t ion , Bulletin ci te d, 322• Striped c ucu mbe r be etle, 82• St urgis-Britton , cite d, 342• Sul pliur, pl ngging t rees wi th, 276 • Sy racuse , In ju ries by cot t on wood-lea f be etle i ll vicinity, 57 Systema en t,olllo!og ille c ited, 29{ Systema natu rae ci ted, 29~ T aft-Da vi s, cited, 34 2• 10-linea t a , Dor y p horu, 56 Tenth r e p' t on iuseet s of New York ci te d, 314 • INDEX TO M USE UM BULLETIN 'I'h al essa lu na tor , 197 • Time for s pra ying, 24L25 ~ T ransa ct ions of N Y St atc a gri cu l­ tural society fur I s i $ cit.ed, 29 • Treatise on Insec ts of Ne w E nglund , 291 T re me x columba, 18~ de scriberl, 191 figured, 192 • in juries t o elms, 197• 'I'hal essu parasite of, 197• preventives, 286 trtdentu tu, Saperd a, 19~-2 04 Troy, beetle a t, in I$92, • d istribution of Goasy pur ia in, 166 ; 186• eggs numerous there in Scptem ber, 126 • injuries b y pi geon T rem ex in, 197• rava ges of b eetle in , 61 ; 15s Troy da il y ti mes, cited, 346 Tw elfth rep 't on insect s of New Yor k cited, 292 ; 316 12-punctat a, Dia bro ti ca, 56 12 spo tted D iabrotica, [,6 U lm i, Gossypari a, 165 Ulm us American a a ttacke d, 155 • campestris at tack ed, 157• montana attacked, 157• United Stat es Dep't agriculture, Di vision e ntomology , circ ular ci t ed , 337 ; Bulletln (ne w ser ) cite d, 305 ; 314 ; 324 ; 334 ; 335 ; 33S ; 341 ; 343 ; Bulletin cit ed, 307 ; Bul­ letin cited, 303 ; Builetin (new ser ) cited 334 ; Bulletin 10 cited, 303 • 20 43 U S De p't agricult nre-con tinned Rep' t co mm issi one r cited , 301 ; 302 ; 30:1; re p't sec re tary ci ted , 305 • Yearbook c ite d, 336 U S En to mo logi ca l commission, Bul­ le t in c ited, 30S ; Report cited, 30s Upper austr al life zone, area in New York state in clu ded w ith in, 76 be etlc li mited t her eby, 78 • Useless measures, 271• Va lley of Hud son river in same life zoue as New York c it y, 66 Va n Wag eu eo, G H , cited , 317 Vermont agric ult ural ex pe r imen t sta­ tion, R ep't cited, 327 • st ate board a g ric ulture , R ep't ci t ed, 327• vi ttata, Diahr ot ica , 82 • W ashingto n , D C., continued injury b y b eetle in , 164 • Gossyp ari a i n, 167 • Washing to u park, be etle in , 139 • Webster , F M., ci ted, 343 • \Veed , C M., c ited, 329 • Weig-el, \V., cited, 34 • \V ell sburg, W Va:, be etle a t, 6s "Wes t wood , J , cited, 296 W i ckham, H F , cited, 346 • Willows, b asket, injured by cotton­ w ood-I ea f b eetle, 57 xanthomelaena, Galeruca [ Gal eru ­ cella luteola ], 295, 302, 313, 322, 331, 34 2• xanthomel aena [luteola ], Galerueella, 314 • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ ­ Uniz'ersif)1 of t~e Stale of jVew York New York State Museum PUBLICATIONS Museum reports date pI O New York sta te museum Alban y r848 to date Avera ge 50 pa ges a yea r Price fin- n Il in cloth 11tr;f} in j>rhzt , 50 Ct' 1t!S Annual report, 1847 ­ a 'Z!olu me in ja}t y: 75 cents Museum bulletins University of the State of New York Bulletin of the New York state museum v 1-2, O Albany 1887-date Price to ad'Zlallc.'t! subscr i ber s 50 ( (.'ll h " a z'o!/IJJle , o hune nos, Price $ r i n clot/I Bull etins of this vol ume a r e patr ed in depende ntly r Marshall, W: B Pr eliminary list of New York unionidae 19p March 1892 P rice cents, Peck, C: H Contri but ions to the botany of the stat e of New York 66p pl May 1887 P rice 25 cents Smock, J: C Buildi ng stone in the state of New York 152P· March 1888 Qui ofprint Nason, F Some New York minerals and th eir loca lities 19p I pl Aug 1888 Price cents, Lintner, J A Wh ite grub of the May beetle 31P il Nov 1888 Price 10 cents Lintner, J A Cut-worms 36p iI N QV 1888 Price 10 cents, Volume 10 4- 1I0S Pric e $I i n clotli Smock, J: C First report on the iron mines and iron ore districts in the state of N ew York + 70P map 58 X 60 em, June 1889 Price 20 cents Peck, C: H Boleti of the United States 96p Sep 1889 P rice zo U1Its Marshall, W: B Beaks of unioni da e inh abiting the vicinity of Albany , N Y 23P I pI Au g 1890' P rice 10 cents Smock, J : C Buildin g stone in New York 210p map 58 X 60 cm, tab Sep 1890' Price 40 cents Yolurue Merrill , F : J H Salt a nd gypsum industries in New York 92P map s 38 X 58, 61 X 66 em, I I tab 12 pl April 1893 Price 40 cents 12 Merrill , F: J H & Ries, H Brick and pottery clays of New York state 167P I map 59 X 67 em pl March 1895 Price 30 cents 13 Lintner, J A Some destructive insects of New York state; 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i- : Paleozoic brachiopoda 16+ 394p 84 pl 1894 Price ... the bulletin a more prac tical valu e, short acc onnts have also been in cluded of three othe r in sects, which, working with the elm-leaf beetle, have aided greatly in ruining many noble elms In. .. during the sunny portion of the day or upon the windows of hou ses, vainly trying to escape Even when writing t hi s (May 12th) number s of t hese beetles are to be se en on the office windows of. .. had suffered injury In the southern portion of its range, this insect finds an enemy in the praying Mantis, Mantis Carolisui Linn Although I have seen nothing of the kind in this vicinity, one
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Xem thêm: Bull of N.Y. Museum V5-20 ELM-LEAF Beetle in NY Sate, Ephraim Porter Felt, 1898, Bull of N.Y. Museum V5-20 ELM-LEAF Beetle in NY Sate, Ephraim Porter Felt, 1898

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