Bull of N.Y. Museum V3-13 The San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus and some other destructive scale-insects of the state of NY, J. A. LINTNER 1895

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University of the S ta te of New York ' BU L L E T I N OP'l'HE New York St at e Mu seu m Vol No 13 April, I895 THE SAN JOSE SCALE, Aspidiotus perniciosus AND SOME OTHER DESTRUCTIVE SCALE-INSECTS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK BY J A LI N.TNER, Ph D., STATE ENTOMOLOGIST ALBANY uNIvERSITY OF THE STATE OF NE.W YORK mBm-Ap9S-2000 1895 Price IS cents Regents D D., LL D., Chancellor D D., LL D., Vice· Chancellor LEVI P MORTON, LL.D., Governor } CHA.RLES T SAXTON, LL D., Lieut.-Governor JOHN P A.L~IER, Secretary of State Ex officio CHARLES R SKINNER, M.A., Sup't of Pub lust , ANSON JUDD UPSON, WILLIA.M CROSWELL DOANE, In order of election by the legislature JlLKCTED 1873 1874 1876 1877 1877 1877 1878 1881 1881 1883 1885 1885 1888 1890 1890 1892 1893 1894: 1895 M, A., LL D ­ ANSON JU~D UPSON, D D., LL D WII~LIA.M: L BOST'VICK, M A CHAUNCEY M DEPEW, 'LL D CHA.RLES E FITCH, LL B., M A ORRIS H WARREN, D D WHITELAW REID, LL D WILLIAM H WATSON, M A., lVI D HENRY E TURNER ST CLAIR McKELWAY, LL D HAMILTON HARRIS, LL D DANIEL BEACH, Ph D., LL D CARROLL E S1'lITH PLINY T SEXTON, LL D T GUILFORD SMITH, 1\1 AI, C E WILLIAM CROSWELL DOANE, D D., LL D LEWIS A STIMSON, B A., M D l\fARTIN I TOWNS'END, SYLVESTER MALONE ALBERT VANDERVEER, M D., Ph D - Troy Glens Falls - Ithaca New York - Rochester Syracuse - New York Utica - Lowville Brooklyn - Albany Watkins Syracuse - Palmyra Buffalo Albany - New York Brooklyn - Albany Elected by the regents 1888 MELVIL DEWEY, 1\'1 A., Secretary Albany U niversity of the State of New York BULLETIN 011 THO New York State Museum Vol N o 13 April, 1895 THE SAN JOSE SCALE, Aspidiotus perniciosus AND SOME OTHER DESTRUCTIVE SCALE-INSECTS OF TH E STATE OF NEW YORK J A L I NT NER, Ph D., STATE E NTOMO LOGIST ALBANY ' 'm U YE RSIT Y OF THE STATE OF :NEW YORK 1805 CONTENTS WHAT SCALE -IKSEC'lS ARE 267 So:iYIE DE STHUCTIVE S CALE - I~SE C TS OF THE ST A.TE OF NEW yORK 269 The App le-tree Bark -lanse • • • • • • • • • ~ (;9 T he Scurfy Bark- louse 270 T he P ine-leaf Scale-insect • .• ~7 The White Scale • • • • • • • • :271 The Maple-tree Scale-insect 272 The Pl um-tr ee Scale-insect • • • , 273 T HE SAN J OSE SCALE • •••• • •• • .• • .• 275 I ntrodu ction and Spread • •.•• • '.' • • • • 275 Occurrence in the Eastern United State s • • 276 276 I nvestigations by the U S D epar tment of Agriculture In }Iaryla nd 277 I n F lorida 277 Discovered in oth er States 278 The San J ose Scale in New York • • • .• 279 The San J ose Scale on Long Island 281 Condit ion of t he Long Island N urseries 282 The San J ose Scale in N ew J ersey 285 T he t wo Infested N ew J ersey Nurseries 287 Th e vVm P arry Nu rseries 287 The Lovett Company N urseries 287 The San J ose Scale in Ohio 290 Description of the Scale • •.• 200 D escr iption of t he Insect 291 Its Lif e-history 292 Its F ood-plants, • • • • • • • • 294 Spr ead of the In sect • • _ • 295 Carri ed by Birds, etc 296 29(; Dis tri buted in Nursery Stock Protection fr om Infested Stock 296 297 P roposed Legislation •• ' " R emedies • • .• • • 290 Winter washes • " " 300 Hom e-made Wllale-oil Soap '" 301 The Winter Resin wash • 301 P otash wash • • • • 801 Summer washes • • • 302 " 302 Gas treatment " • " T reatme nt of Nurse ry Stock • • 308 Bibliogra phy : 303 34 'I W H AT SOALE INSEOTS ARE There is a large classof small insects- some, indeed most, of which re quire a magnifying glass for their observation, which are part icu­ larly detrimental to fr uit-cult ure, yet from their inconspicuous appearance usually escape notice until discovered when search is made for the cause of the lang nishing condition or death of the tree or shrub infested by them Even then it is rather difficult to believe that th e true cause has been found in what ofte n seems to be merely an unnat ural roughe ning of the bark or a moderate incrustation formed upon the surface Th e species more commonly met with (the Diaspinre) have received the name of bad e-lice, f rom the appearance of th e young as they travel over the bark for a few days aft er they are hatch ed; and of scale-insects, fr om the seale-like covering secreted by the insect and beneath which it is hidden afte r it has faste ned itself to the bark Scientifically, they, together with the " mealy-bugs," are k nown as Ooccidre In classification they have place in that division of the H emiptera (a large order of suctorial insects) kn own as H omoptera, the wings being of a uniform thickn ess throughout, and thereby distingu ishing them from the other division (Heteroptera) in which the front wings are thickened in their basal half to a degree, often, approaching th e elytra or wing-covers of beetles It is to this last-named Di vision that the popular name of " bugs " has become attached All of the H emiptera are sucto-rial, and take t heir food through a beak or proboscis instead of by biting jaws They differ great ly in their structure, and in modes of development ; the lat ter, in some of the families, as in that of the Aphididee or plant-lice, is of intense interest The development of the Ooeeidse is quite peculiar The females not become perfected into winged creatures, but with age assume the form of scales or galls, or of grubs covered with wax or powder; or become degraded beneath their shelte ring scale into barely more tha n egg-sacs, retaining only such simple organs as are essential to th eir life dnring the reproduction of their young The male, how­ ever, undergoes a complete tr ansformation and becomes winged, but with only a single pair of wings of very simple structure (see in Figures 3, and in Plates I, II and VII) It lives but a day 268 NEW YORK STA TE :llUSEUX or two, dying speedil y afte r the f ulfilment of the purpose of its being I t takes no food, for in this stage it possesses no month or digesti ve organs A few species of the Coceidre are of service to us, such as the Ooocus cacti fr om which the valuable dye, cochineal, is obtaiue.l ; the Oarteria lacca which excretes the mat erial kn own to us as shell­ lac; from anoth er species we have t he commercial article kn own 1'.S china wax ; and still anoth er species occurring in Arabia produces a solidified honey-dew called " man na," which " is th ough t by some to have b een th e heaven-sent manna th at nourished the Hebrews in their wanderings." About 125 species of N orth American Ooecidre have been described , and others are being brou ght t o notice each year, eith er from having been pr eviously overlooke d, or recently intr oduced from abroad All of the m are destructive in proport ion to th eir rapidity of multiplication and the greater or less economic imp ort­ ance of the plants that they infest SO~!E DEST RUCTIVE S OAU~ INS~;CTS OF NEW YORK 269 SOME DESTRUOTIV E SOALE-INSEOTS OF THE STATE OF NEW YOR K B efore proceeding to the consideration of the San Jos e scale,­ th e subject of th is bulletin, it may 1)13 of service to ref er bri efly to a f ew other species which, although common in the State of Ne w Y ork, and quite harmful to the trees that th ey infest, ar e still al most wholly unkn own to the fru it-g rower and t o others who an i suffering fr om their pr esence F rom the figur es given of them, they may at once be disting uished fr om the San J ose scale TIm ApPLE-TREE BARK -LOU SE The most common of these is the apple -tree bark-louse, shown in Fig of P late I, in it s natu ral size as it occur s on th e bark of trunks and limbs, often more abundantly than is represented in the cut, completely covering th e bark and overlaying one another, and lendin g an increased diameter to the infested twig Th e color of the scale is brown or ash-gr ay, nearly approaching th at of th e bark The f emale scale measures about one-twelf th of an inch in length, of a long, usually more or less curved form, poin ted at one end on which a magn ifier may show t he yellowish cast-off skin of the insect, and rounded at the othc end F rom its peculiar shape it has been f requently written of und er the name of the oyster-shell bark-louse I t bears the scientific name of ][ytilas)J'is pomo?'ltm Bouche The male scale is of a consider ably smaller size, the sides nearly straigh t, less rounded at the larger end, and of a brighter color I t will sel­ dom be foun d associat ed with the females on the bark, as its natural pl ace is on the leaves on either side, especially along th e midrib (Riley), If a recent uninjured female seale be carefull y lif ted after oviposition -at any time during the winter -from fifty to a hu n­ dred small, oval, white eggs ' may be found und ern eath it , which would ordinarily give out the young insect about the first of J une in the latit ude of New York This destructive scale is far fr om being confined to the app le, but may also be found on the plum, peal', raspberry, wild gooseberry , wild cher ry, red currant, sugar and swamp maples, white and black ash, birch, popl ar, willows, linden, horse chestnut, elm, &0 It will be seen from the above, tha t it has a large nu mber of host-plants 270 NEW YORK STATE :MUSEUM THE SCURFY BARK-LOUSE This scale-insect, kn own to science, as OMonaspis fwrfUl"US (Fitch), is quite common in the State of New York, where, it is believed to be more numerous and more injurious than in any other of the United St ates I have recently seen an orchard of the Kieffer pear, in Columbia 00 , N Y., in which the trunks, of fr om th ree to four inches in diameter, were so thickly coated with the scales that at a little distance th ey appeared as if they had been whitewashed The scale, as it appears when scattered over the bark, and the male and female scales magnified, are shown in F ig of P late I The young larva, the mature female, the male pu pa, and the male, are represented in F igure of the same P late, which has been pre­ pared under the supervision of Mr L O Howard, of the E ntomo­ logical D ivision at Washington , to illustrate the insect in his article on the " Scale Insects of the Orchard " shortly to appear, and kindly; furnished for use in th is Bulletin by consent of the Department of Agricult ur e in: adva nce of its own publication Dr F itch has 'described so faith fully the appearance of a badly infested tree and of the scale, that his account is transc ribed here­ with: "The bark of the limb [pear tree] was covered with an exceedingly thin film, appearing as if it had been coated over with varnish, which had dried and cracked and was peeling off in small ir regular flakes, forming a kind of scurf or dandruff on the bark In places this pellicle was more th ick and firm, and elevated into little blister-like spots of a white and waxy appearance, of a cir­ cular or broad oval form, less than the tenth of an inch in diameter, abrup tly drawn out into a little point at one end, which point was stained of a pale yellowish color and commonly turned more or less to one side." This refers to the female scale, shown in enlarge­ ment at a of Figure 2, P late Th e male scales, which usually congregate by themselves (enlarged at d in same figure), are only from one-fourth t o one-third as large, narrow, usually straight, three­ ribbed, and of a snowy-white color The eggs found beneath the scales are of a pu rplish-red color T hey hatch about the first of June This scale attack s the apple, pear, black cherry, choke cherry, and mountain ash I have recently found it abundantly on the J apan EXPLANATION OF Pr,ATE II Fig i.-The pine-leaf scale-Insect, Chionaspis pinifolii (Fitch): '2, the scales on th e leaves in natu ral size: a, leaves not st unted by th e presence of th c scales ; b, scale of female of usual form, enlarged ; c, wide form of the same, enlarg ed ; d, a male scale enlarged (After Comstock.) Fig 2.- Th e whi te scale, A.apidiotu8 ne rii Bouche, on an Acacia twig, in natural size: a, th e male insect, enlarged ; b and o, the male and female scales, enlarged (After Comstock.) P LATE FIG FIG II E }""l'LAN ATION OF PLATE m Fig i -The maple-tree scale-insect, Puleinari a innu merabilis (Rathvon), with extr uded egg-masses, on grape, natural size (After Comstock ) Fi g 2.-The same, on osage orang e and on maple, (After Walsh and Riley.) Fig 3.- Th e same: a, a twi g with mature female scales and egg-masses, nat ural size; b, mature female scale from above, enlarged; c, female scale fr om below, more enlarged ; d, th e thread-like setm of th e proboscis (From th e Seventh Report on the In sects of Illinois.) Fig 4.- Th e same: a; a twi g with half-grown female scales, in natural size; b, autumnal female scale from above, enlarged; c, the same from beneath; d, the mule insect enlarged (Fro m the Seventh and Thi rteenth Dlinois Rep orts.) P LATE III FI G FIG • j • , t, , , ~>" F IG FIG ExPLA:!iATION OF Pr,ATE IV The plum-tree scale-insect, Lccanium ?jugZandi8 Bouche in natural size, on plum (From Garden and Forcst.) PLA.TE IV -'i ­· , I 'j " I ,I I ,,-.::.:~_~ _ ' _ '~:/·3!i' J ExPLAN ATION OF P L ATE V Fig 1, the San Jose scale, A spidioius pern iciosus Comstock, infesting n pear tw ig; ;J, the scales on n leaf; 8, scattered scales on a pear : 4, Iemule scale, enlarged; 5, a male scull', enlarged (F rom the Cornell Uni­ versity Ag r EX pCl' Statio n, and by permission of the California State Boar d of Hor tic ult ure.) -: P LAT E , ,' , '" '",,­ .' ExPLANATION OJ!' PLATE VI Fig t -The San J ose scales, in natural size on an apple branch; scales some what enlarged on ap ple bark at above at th e left Fig 2.-~an J ose scales on a pear showing the surrounding ring ; b, a female scale, enlarged P L A "I' E' F IG FIG ,,'r ExPLANA.TION OF PLATE VII Fig 1.-Enlarged view of the youn g larv a of the San J ose scale-insect, seen from beneath , with a greater enlarg ement of an antenna at b Fig 2.-An enlarged view of an adult female of th e San J ose scale-insect, con­ taining young; at d, a still greater enlargement of a port ion of its anal fringe Fig 3.-A greatly enlarg ed view of th e ad ult male of the San J ose scale-insect; its natu ral size shown in the inclosed crossed-lines at righ t-hand side (The figures of this Pl ate and the pr eceding one are from the U S Dept Agri culture -Division of Entomology.) PLAT E /\: FIG F lO VII I l t Un iversity of ihe State of New York New York State Museum PUBLICATIONS Museum reports New York state museum 1847 - date pl O Albany 1848 to date Annual report, Average 250 pages a year P rice f or all n ow i n p rint, 50 cents a volu me in p ap er ;5 cents 1n clo th Museum bulletins U niversity of th e State of N ew York Bulletin of the New York state museum v 1-2, O Albany 1887 - date Price to adv ance subscribers, 50 cents a volume V Iume nos Pric e $1 i n cloth Bu lletins of thIs volume are palP;pd independently Marshall, W: B Preliminary list of N ew York unionid re 19p March 1892 Price cents P eck, 0: H Oont ribut ions to the botany of the sta te of New York 66p pl May 1887 Price 25 cents Smock, J : O Building stone in the st ate of New York 152p March 1888 Out of print Nason, F L Some New York minerals and their localities 19p pl Aug 1888 Price cents Lintner, J A White g rub of the May beetle 31p il, No v 1888 : Price 10 cents Lin tner, J A Out-worms 36p il Nov 1888 Price 10 cents Volume nos Pric e $1 in cloth • Smock, J: C First r eport on th e iron mines and iron ore dis­ tricts in the state of New York 5+70p map 58 X60 em June 1889 Price 20 cents Peck, 0: H Boleti of the United States 96p Sept 1889 Price 20 cents \} Marshall, W: B Beaks of unionid re inhabiting the vicinity of Albany, N Y 23p pI Aug 1890 P rice 10 cents 10 Smock, J: O Building stone in N ew York 210p map 58 X60 em, tab Sept 1890 Price 40 cente, Volume 11 Merrill, F: J H Salt and gypsum indu stries in New York 12 13 14 15 92p maps 38 X58, 61 X66 em, 11 t ab 12 pl April 1893 Price 40 cents Merrill, F : J H and Ries, H Brick and pott ery clays of New York stat e 167p map 59 X67 em: 2pl March 1895.-Price ao cents Lin tn er, J A Some destructive insects of New York state ; San J ose scale pl April 1895 Price 15 cents Kemp, J F Geology of Moriah and Es sex townships, Essex co N Y:, with notes on the ir on mines In press Merrill, F: J H Mineral resources of New York In preparation - - Economic map Merrill, F: J H Economic map of the state of 59 X 67 em 1894 Price, unmounted, 25 cents, backed on muslin 75 cents, mounted on rollers 75 cents New York Scale 14miles to one Inch Museum m emoirs University of the State of New York Memoirs of the New York state museum v, 1, Q Albany 1889 Uniform with the pale mtology Beecher, C: E., and Clarke, J: M Development of some Silur ian brachiopoda 95p pl Oct 1889 P rice 80 cents N a t u r a l h istory Yo rk 28 v u New York state Natural history of New pl maps., Q Albany 1842-88 Dlvlslons 1-5 out of pr int D iv ision De Kay, J E Zoolog y v pl 1842-44 " To rrey, John, Bot any, v 1843 " Beck, L C Mineralogy 24+536p il, pl, 1842 " Mather, W: W ; Emmons, Ebenezer; Vanuxem, L ardner ; and Hall, James Geology v pl maps ] 842-43 , , Emmons, Ebenezer Agriculture, v, il maps 1846 54 Divisio n P aleon tology; Hall, James Palrsontology of New York il, pl sq Q Albany 184 - date Bound in cloth v Organic remains of the lower division of the New York system 23+338p 99 pl 1847 Out of print v , Organic remains of the lower middle division of the New York system 8+362p 10 pl 1852 Out ofprint v , Organic remains of the Lower Helderberg group and the Or iskany sandstone pt 1, text 12+ 532p 1859 P rwe [$3.50.] - - - - - - pt 2, 143 plates 1861 Price $2.~0 v, Fossil brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and the Chemung groups 1l+1+428p 69 pl 1867 Price $2 50 v, 5, pt Lamellibranchiata Monomyaria of the Upper Helder­ berg , Hamilton and Chemung groups 18+268p 45 pl 1884 Pr ice $2.50 - - - - - - Lamellibranchiata Dimyaria of the Upper He lder­ berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemu ng g roups 62+293p 51 pl 18 85 Price $2.50 - - - pt Gasteropoda, pteropoda and cephalopoda of the Upper H elderb erg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung groups v , 1879 .v , 1, text, 15+492p v , 2, 120 plates Price $2.50 for v v Corals and bryozoa of the Lower and Upper He lderberg and H amilt on g roups 24+ 298p 67 pI 1887 Price $2.50 V , Trilobites and other crustacea of the Oriskany, U pper Helder­ berg , Hamilton, P ortag e.-Ohemung and Catskill groups 64+236p 46 pl 1888 Cont .s upplement to v, 5, pt Pteropoda, cephalopoda and annel ida,- 42p 18 pI 1888 Price $2.50 v , 8, pt I ntrodu cti on to the study of the genera of the pa leozoic brachiopoda P rice $2.50 - - - pt I n progress .,1:': ... by the regents 1888 MELVIL DEWEY, 1'1 A., Secretary Albany U niversity of the State of New York BULLETIN 011 THO New York State Museum Vol N o 13 April, 1895 THE SAN JOSE SCALE, Aspidiotus perniciosus. .. examination of our trees here in the nur­ sery and also fruiting tr ees, and can find no t race whatever u pon any of them of the San Jose scale or other scale Having read reports upon the San J ose scale,. .. INS~;CTS OF NEW YORK 269 SOME DESTRUOTIV E SOALE-INSEOTS OF THE STATE OF NEW YOR K B efore proceeding to the consideration of the San Jos e scale, th e subject of th is bulletin, it may 1)13 of service
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Xem thêm: Bull of N.Y. Museum V3-13 The San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus and some other destructive scale-insects of the state of NY, J. A. LINTNER 1895, Bull of N.Y. Museum V3-13 The San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus and some other destructive scale-insects of the state of NY, J. A. LINTNER 1895

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