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    GENERAL THEORY CONDITIONAL EVOLUTION OF LIFE Science and evolution Philosophy of evolution A different theory of evolution Concept of evolution, life and vital impulse Definition of biological evolution of life Biological evolution Historical and human evolution Theories on the origin of life The logical approach and concept of life Metaphysical definition Freedom of living beings Vitalism and vital impulse systems Criticism of previous evolutionary theories Creationism vs evolution Intelligent Design and  Lamark's theory  Charles Darwin Mendelian genetics Neo Darwinism and  Synthetic Theory Genetics and evolution Evolutionary genetics Objectives of life and evolution of man Guaranty and security Sexual differentiation Efficacy and optimisation - Genotype and phenotype Dominant and recessive genes Internal coherence or compatibility - Evolution of species Genetic variability GTCEL - Definition of the theory of life Evolution of life Scientific theory Research on evolution Computer learning games Esnuka with simulation of evolution Development and evolution Theories of human origin   I SCIENCE AND EVOLUTION I.1 Philosophy of evolution The advance of science is marked throughout history by major revolutions produced primarily by the discovery or explanation of natural events, the formulation of theories, and the development of new technologies Normally these great leaps of science evolution are associated with names such as Aristotle, Pythagoras, Galileo, Newton, etc., but it is important to recognize that, with no disrespect to these geniuses of mankind, their discoveries or theories were also the product of the culture and scientific environment of their times Likewise, we cannot forget the influence that philosophic tendencies and religions of different civilizations have had and still have on science evolution; on the other hand, many people think that each step taken by science brings human beings closer to such philosophic-religious ideas Perception, intuition, and logic are the three means used by humans in order to increase their dominion over nature As we will see, the commonly named scientific method has three main variants based on these three instruments In this sense, perception and logic are concepts on two extreme ends of the scale while intuition would be in the middle; the latter allowing the formulation of theories that, in some cases, would surpass those which were developed through logic and perception, or a combination of both To a certain extent, every theory is a combination of the three The objective of this online book is to present the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, the product of concerns that we all have to a greater or lesser extent about the fundamental concepts of life and its evolution Throughout the last few years a set of ideas have started forming that were rather vague and disconnected, yet had a deep meaning and, in some cases, were more poetic than scientific I have attempted to avoid at all times the use of strictly scientific terms in order to facilitate comprehension without diminishing the precision of the vocabulary used Undoubtedly, the area of focus has been so large and varied; ranging from elementary particles and energy, to the genetic evolution, sexual differentiation, the human brain, and complex systems that conceptually behave as if they were living Genetics and theories of evolution beings; that some of the ideas will unavoidably be erroneous or incorrect, and many others already known Overall, as small as creativity may be, it needs to take certain risks in order to assert itself.  In any case, all of the ideas represent at least an element of consideration in the long road of scientific knowledge   Theory of Evolution     The evolutionary theory GTCEL (General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life) discusses on the one hand, the cause of changes in genetic information (DNA) and, on the other hand, the form in which these genetics changes are transmitted to descendants Its proposals are closer to the theories of Lamarck and Mendel than to the evolutionary theory of Darwin The new fundamental development in evolutionary genetics is the idea of the evolution as an internal mechanism of improvement of living beings, that transmits information to descendants and that, given the complexity of the aspects involved, use many systems, methods or procedures depending on each case based on its particular conditions This modern theory of evolution outcomes an assembly of implications that represent, in my point of view, revolutionary scientific aspects In particular, a direct development of the Global Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL) has been the Global Cognitive Theory; both theories address the central theme of intelligence, its mechanisms, origin, and evolution from various perspectives 31/05/2010 Página Genetics and theories of evolution Likewise, this theory of evolution presents numerous lines of investigation, development, and further exploration of a wide subject matter in light of the innovative approaches it contributes The section of related links includes the four online books of the Global Cognitive Theory: The brain and modern computers Intelligence, intuition and creativity Memory, language and other brain abilities The will, decision making process and artificial intelligence Another related link refers to the online book of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life There is also a link to the on-line book of the Global Scientific Method and the philosophy of science It includes the design of new scientific methods and the classification of the stages and steps of the scientific method; understanding the scientific method in the broad sense as the application of logic to the generation of common knowledge with a high level of reliability The scientific method works fine in general, but it works much better in its developmental phase than in its phase of general acceptance All types of social interests affect the last phase, from the realm of sociology as in the case of Darwin ’s theory, to the technician nature as in the case of the Theory of Relativity The last item of the related links is The EDI Study about Evolution and Design of Intelligence, a complete statistical survey on the heritability of intelligence performed on the fieldwork database of the Young Adulthood Study, 1939-1967 This statistical study is an empirical research about some considerations of the Global Cognitive Theory related with the brain and evolution, in particular the definition of intelligence The results of the statistical survey The EDI Study regarding an elegant intelligence show some important considerations: The hereditary nature of relational intelligence is confirmed The genetic information with less intellectual potential is the significant one, as the GTCEL states regarding the concept of conditional intelligence Likewise, it seems that the main functions of intelligence, or those evolving faster, are fairly concentrated in only one chromosome 31/05/2010 Página Genetics and theories of evolution The most innovative element of this work on cognitive psychology is undoubtedly the section relating to simulation This section contains the explanation of how the artificial intelligence quotient vectors are generated by using the previsions of the new theory of evolution; they practically behave like the variables that were actually observed, in despite of the intrinsic complexity involved As if that were not enough, with the due caution this subject deserves, the existence of a finalistic or teleological evolution is scientifically proven to agree with that indicated by the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life Given that the current results in this book suggest a fairly radical change from the common opinions held by the majority of the scientific community and society, the logical deduction is that more extensive studies on cognitive psychology using the same methodology need to be performed An example of further exploration of this study is found in the section that has been added subsequently, which is related to partner choice and intelligence In this section a hypothesis regarding a concrete requisite of the acceptable limit of the difference in intelligence when forming a couple, is confirmed and simultaneously reinforces the model's overall coherence In fact, the requirement refers to the unconscious choice of an unknown intelligence for current cognitive psychology   31/05/2010 Página Genetics and theories of evolution   I.2 A different theory of evolution of life Every theory has a philosophical substratum, including the experimental theories – even the concept of perception is a usually studied by philosophers In a theory directly related to the concept of life, this duality is more openly apparent Therefore, it is advisable to have both points of view present so as not to mix them and let a different philosophic-religious position affect the acceptance or rejection of the evolutionary theory’s scientific content In the formulation of this theory, it is clear its philosophical content While trying to formalize the Global Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, I came across the problem of defining this theory briefly and concisely Therefore, I had to define life in some way, and then the general idea of life emerged: “The fundamental characteristic of life is freedom”; however, the scientific content of this theory does not imply to accept this affirmation The definition of the different evolutionary theory has helped me a lot with its development and perfection as if it were the key to solving a puzzle; however, I insist that they are independent subjects The problems derived from the said duality and the double meaning of the concept of evolution has led to the dedication of title II to this concept’s terminological delimitation and a brief exposition of the concept of life from the philosophical point of view The title II contains the following sections: The first, relating to the concept of evolution makes special reference to its temporal and spatial perspectives: long term and short-term evolution, and the micro and macroevolution It is worth indicating at this point that the Darwinian theory of evolution alters this concept in that; it did not know microevolution on Cellular Biology and it practically omits the existence of short-term evolution in superior animals The broad concept of life based on strictly philosophical content Lastly, the vital impulse systems, which would be those, that behave like living beings, at least as far as the characteristics of their evolutionary processes are concerned In title III, an initial critique of the sections is included However, I add a few criticisms throughout the book, mainly on the evolutionary theory of Darwin; 31/05/2010 Página Genetics and theories of evolution since it is generally accepted nowadays although it depends on which context is being referred to It appears that Darwin theory of evolution is losing momentum in the science world in view of the advances in Evolutionary Biology and Genetics New ideas about the evolution of life are in title IV, divided into four major sections The first introduces a general description of the title, the second deals with evolution through the use of a logical argumentation whose scientific contrasting are considered plausible, the third on the sources or origins of genetic modifications, and the last relating to the means, methods, processes, and mechanisms through which they materialize   Iguana - Cancun     Specifically, the ideas of the new theory of evolution or Evolutionary Biologyorbit around the objectives of evolution such as the direct cause of changes in genetic information and the way in which these changes are passed on to descendants The new proposals are conceptually closer to Lamarck and Mendel’s theories of evolution than to Darwin ’s theory of evolution The proposals of the different theory of evolution GTCEL explain the functionality of the sexual differentiation and they allow a greater precision in the definition of the concepts of dominant and recessive genes in the fields of Evolutionary Biology and Genetics Another practical implication is the very possible non-existence of the missing link in the human evolution, since the evolutionary jumps are one of the methods present in nature and, normally, they are the result of two or more evolutionary branches There is also an explanatory example of the verification method of the genetic information within car's evolution, which nature uses This title mainly refers to the theory of evolution of life in the common field of Genetics, searching for the origins or immediate causes of the modifications of 31/05/2010 Página Genetics and theories of evolution genetic information that pass on to descendants according to the logical objectives that every evolutionary system should have Although analogies with the vital impulse systems will be included, it will be mainly for exposition purposes Next, title V focuses on the concept and definition of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, incorporating its formulation as concisely as possible while conserving its essence A few brief conclusions derived from the definition of the evolutionary theory are included in the third point of this title and, in fact, are part of the conceptual body of the theory The next step would be the empirical verification, or theoretical proof Title VI discusses the difficulty of proving the theory while proving the relative easiness of verifying its partial aspects Hence, a completely developed mathematical-statistical model of evolution of intelligence was put forth in order to test the method of Verification of the Genetic Information (VGI) in terms presented in title IV, based on the hypothesis of the heritability of intelligence The results of the EDI statistical study confirm the alternative theory of evolution and are in another book online Likewise, I mention other specific models that could also withstand an empirical contrasting Title VII briefly describes the Esnuka program designed to allow the assimilation of this theory’s proposals by introducing them through a computer-simulation on thebilliards game The validation of the purely scientific aspects of the theory would have enormous consequences for the development of Biology and Genetics by providing these sciences with a coherently theoretical base, especially for the advances already made This would also give off major consequences for other branches of knowledge such as psychology and history Some of these consequences are in title VIII There is a double purpose of this title; on one hand, the mentioned exposition of the consequences of the Global Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, and on the other, to help its acceptance as much as it allows a better understanding of the social reality in which we live and of its historic evolution It is curious that one can talk of a scientific globalization process in the twenty-first century A brief exposition of these theories on evolution is in the Annex 31/05/2010 Página Genetics and theories of evolution   BIOLOGY NEWS All of the biology news appeared in the newspaper El País on the indicated date and they are, to a certain extent, about current topics In case the biology news relate to an article in an international magazine, it appears following the date The science and biology news are not part of the text in the sense that are independent Nonetheless, I have tried to fit them contextually in anyway possible I attempt to offer a vision of what, how and when some advances of scientific knowledge produced reaches the public in general It is worth pointing out that I am not necessarily or wholly in agreement with them, and that, on another hand, at times the most important is not the content of the news but rather the form, the time, the origin, the effect, etc At the same time, to point out that this biology news set does not try to be a summary of the most important biology news in the subject matter during the last ten years What's more, I chose them for attracting my attention but, in general, numerous articles are contradictory to the presented ones, especially in those of opinion or of interpretation In short, what I try with this group of biology news is to express how the general culture is changing in respects to the central topic that we are dealing with: the biological evolution Of course, also to point out the coincidences with the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life and that I had completely developed the basic lines of this modern theory and published them in October of 1992 Deserving special mention, due to the important psychological support that they have given me, is the published article in a special supplementary edition in the newspaper El Pais 26.11.1992 by Eric H Davidson (a) (author of the term intelligent genes!) about the classic concept of parasoite from a copycat gene Another article from 02-10-2002 in relation to the National Conference of Ethology (h) that, in general terms, presents an evolutionist model or a vision of life similar to that of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, or at least, of a similar inspiration 31/05/2010 Página 10 Genetics and theories of evolution   VIII.1 Personal development and social psychology Regardless of the Vitalism philosophy, which upholds the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, in the personal context, it would help to comprehend oneself in the sense of understanding the cognitive abilities and the objectives of personal development that one can try to achieve, keeping in mind the personal costs that they can involve The most illustrative evolutionary psychology example would be, on one hand, the acceptance of the fact that certain types of intelligence and of memory being 8090% hereditary; and on the other, the possibility that much higher levels of cognitive abilities can be transmitted to the descendents than those that are present in the parents   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "an experiment directed by two investigators from the University of Chicago , has shown that women have an excellent sense of smell which allows them to distinguish between very poor genetic variants of  men by doing nothing more than smelling his shirt" El País 23-01-2002 Nature Genetics   Another example, the female gender seems to have a certain speciality in materials technology, since it is the one responsible for developing or providing resources and materials to the individual in its first stages of development In turn, it could imply that it has a more developed sense of smell; it would also be possible that the popular saying of women having more intuition may start to have a more scientific basis There are still many people that think - Perhaps they are right! - the difference of behavior of boys and girls in very early ages are due to environmental and educational factors On the contrary, I would say that developmental psychology of boys and girls is different since very early due to innate conditioning towards certain tendencies while choosing some behaviors From a point of view of the family, it can help in the understanding of differences between family members, their origins, their problems, their advantages, etc However, I think that the most important effect would be of social psychology 31/05/2010 Página 124 Genetics and theories of evolution Only realizing that the set of ideas related to evolution accepted until nowadays, outlined in purely rationalist-humanist esthetics, is deeply rooted in current society It is clear that a significant alteration in the ideas would mean a change similar to what occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries when the sun stopped revolving around the Earth and, strangely enough, at the same time, man began to be considered with generality, as the only intelligent animal with feelings! In this sense, the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life would make up a part of a new social culture once the population as a whole has gotten passed the phase of the humanist and anthropocentric rationalism We can cite the following as extended concepts compatible with this new philosophy: the theory of chaos, the fractals as reflection of complex systems with their own dynamics, the necessary acceptance of the inequalities without meaning any type of complex or searching guilty subjects as certain current of the developmental psychology does regarding economic growth The observable scientific development in the short-term basis and, similarly, the evolution of new technologies with the derived expressions in all of the fields of human activity, are the source of this new culture o social psychology 31/05/2010 Página 125 Genetics and theories of evolution   VIII.2 Cognitive psychology and development of education   The purely personal strategy about the study and the permanence in the educational system including even its higher levels will vary by that greater knowledge of the individual cognitive abilities from the Global Cognitive Theory Furthermore, this permanence in the educational system must not be understood only in its quantitative aspect but rather also qualititative; for example, the types of subjects in which a person can be specialized On the other hand, learning and specialization in the educational system is not he only way There is other perfectly valid ways, even more adequate depending on the particular characteristics of each individual Regarding the development of education, it is worth remembering the human brain’s different ways of functioning when confirming certain hypotheses for operations that apply the method of external verification, such as intelligence and mathematical memory; and those that not apply it, such as the intuitive reasoning, the normal memory and the linguistic memory, the latter with its specific nature Likewise, it is easily imaginable that these new contributions to cognitive psychology can influence in the strategy of public powers in relation to the learning system and the evolution of the education in general terms 31/05/2010 Página 126 Genetics and theories of evolution   VIII.3 Evolution and economic development   History, not as if it could be any other way, is full of infinite events, facts, situations, etc., suitable for the application of the Conditional Vitalism methodology proposed for the analysis of vital impulse systems Now I will cite some examples of art development and evolution of history that have attracted my attention the most   Hotel en Playa del Carmen     The long-term mix of races of any species is beneficial for the genetic development; in fact, it could be one of the more general bases of the genetic evolution and of the possible evolutionary leaps I have explained this effect with greater or lesser clarity throughout the exposition of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life In a way, the effect would be similar to that produced by the sexual differentiation in comparison with the germline evolution Perhaps, this type of evolutionary psychology explains better why the Egyptian Empire lasted more than 4,000 years, or because the Greek and Roman empires both lasted approximately between and centuries, in despite of being substituted by societies with a noticeably inferior culture, art and technology I leave this discussion about evolution and human, economic and technological development for another moment and for the reader's reflection, because it would be too broad for a detailed analysis On the contrary, for an event of evolutionary psychology in history as important as 31/05/2010 Página 127 Genetics and theories of evolution the French Revolution I can indeed, although briefly, point out its most important cause It seems clear that social psychology aspects such as the struggle for freedom and justice are not exclusive to that historical moment, so they cannot be the direct cause of the French Revolution However, in my opinion, there is a fact that could allow this revolution to take place If one observes a famous painting, perhaps more than one of the paintings or pictures that have by subject this period of art, many people are seen close up, such as a battle, a protest or a demonstration, but right in the central point of the painting, right in the center, a hand appears strongly gripping a pistol This could just well be the immediate cause of the revolution: a technological change or leap that radically altered the relationship of forces between the different social classes   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "A morphological study indicates that the American Indians coexisted with other populations that arrived previously from Asia until their extinction, this primitive population, called PaleoAmerican, coexisted with the American Indians, of mongoloid features and descendents of a subsequent migratory wave from Asia " El País 04-09-2003 Nature   Just to mention here, for being another topic of great scope, the evolution of the languages With the new approaches of social and evolutionary psychology, many of its characteristics are understandable Nonetheless, I want to point out that I am not the first in giving this evolutionary focus to them, that is, as if they had their own life throughout history     31/05/2010 Página 128 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX THEORIES OF HUMAN ORIGIN This is a brief presentation of the general ideas about evolution and theories of human origin such as Creationism, Theory of Lamarck, Theory of Natural Selection of Darwin, the Laws of Mendel, Neo-Darwinism (Modern Synthetic Theory and Punctuated Equilibrium) plus the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life See chapter III about criticism of these theories of human origin and evolution IX.a) Creationism and other religious theories   I have mentioned the Creationism and other religious theories because indeed, they are theories of human origin and evolution Although the non-existence of a Superior being like God, Creationism and other theories based on theological ideas not have a scientific character, due to the nature of science 31/05/2010 Página 129 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.b) Intelligent Design The Intelligent Design movement has recently appeared as an updated version, or modernization of the Theory of Creationism This movement has its beginnings in 1991 although it has deep roots in creationism and the Lamarck theory Although the Intelligent Design is not a formal theory, this movement removes itself from the Theory of Creationism as soon as it attempts to explain evolution and human origin within the scope of scientific research, which is why I separate it from the truly religious theories The Intelligent Design movement developed in the early nineties although the ideas are much older The Intelligent Design imply the existence of a teleological or finalist evolution and, consequently, that theories of random mutations and Natural Selection would no longer constitute the main components of evolution and not explain the human origin at all At times, I have to admit that the radical defenders of the Darwin theory and orthodox science remind me of the classic institution of the Holy Inquisition and, therefore, have as many religious-philosophical connections as this institution, or the Intelligent Design, or even the most orthodox Creationism The Intelligent Design is an attempt to get close to science from a religious point of view, which it might be not good enough but it is good anyway     31/05/2010 Página 130 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.c) Lamarck's theory of evolution Lamarck's theory of evolution appeared in his Zoological Philosophical Work written in 1809 His evolutionary theory was as follows: Environmental changes generate new needs These needs determine the use or disuse of some organs Such organs develop or are diminished The acquired characters are hereditary Therefore, this theory of evolution is also a theory of the human origin   Jean-Baptiste de Monet Lamarck (1744-1829) (Public domain image)   The famous expression for Lamarck's Theory of evolution is functions create organs and heredity determines the change in offspring Therefore, human origin is the monkey thinking A typical example of Lamarck’s theory is the evolution of the necks of giraffes, due to the effort of eating leaves from the trees 31/05/2010 Página 131 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.d) Theory of evolution of Darwin   This point refers to the biological theory by Charles Darwin, the English Naturalist in his main work The Origin of the species, en 1859 As a contrast to Lamarck's evolutionary theory, Darwin's theory of evolution proposed natural selection as the basis of evolution and human origin His theory was as follows: Individuals display differences Shortage of food leads them to fight for existence Individuals with superior differences have more chance to reach adulthood, reproduce and transmit these variations to their offspring From a philosophical point of view, the Theory of Natural Selection of Darwin base on the emergentism Later, in his The Origin of Man and Sexual Selection (1871), he added a new factor of evolution and human origin, sexual selection, in which male or female chooses partners with more attractive qualities The scientific community generally accepted the evolutionary theory of Darwin (in opposition to Lamark's), as presented in his work The Origin of the Species in 1859 This theory of human origin and evolution of Darwin has been updated many times while keeping its essence, it maintains that individuals present/display variations and that evolution is determined by natural selection The variations in DNA or in the genes are random mutations in self-adaptations of Darwin theory of evolution, in order to remark its character supposedly not directed     31/05/2010 Página 132 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.e) Dominant character and Mendel's laws of heredity The laws of heredity as evolutionary processes discovered by Gregor Mendel, Austrian Augustine monk, in his Investigations on hybrids in plants (1865) Alongside to the theories of human origin and evolution in their strict sense is the Theory of Mendel (1865) on genetic inheritance, whose fundamental elements are gene combinations and their dominant or recessive character The theory of heredity of Mendel consists of the following two laws: The Law of Scission: factors inherited from parents join in the resulting hybrid and separate when the hybrid reaches the adult stage and produces its sexual cells     This first law of heredity can be better explained using the example of white and red varieties in the Marvel of Peru plant: The first generation produces all pink flowers The second generation produces one white, two pinks and one red flower During the third generation, if white flowers mix with other white flowers, they produce white flowers; red flowers with other red flowers produce red flowers, and pink flowers repeat the results in the second generation of hybrids The Law of Dominant Character: the dominant character does not destroy the recessive character in the hybrid; it merely conceals it 31/05/2010 Página 133 Genetics and theories of evolution An example of the theory of Mendel on this law of heredity is given of the cross between white and grey rats: The first generation produces grey rats The second produces one white and three grey rats The appearance of white rats in a ratio of to in the second generation shows that the white (recessive gene) character has not been destroyed, but remains hidden     For an easy understanding of the law of heredity of the dominant character, only one character (mono-hybridization), has been included, but two or more (dihybridization or poli-hybridization) can also be included and the evolutionary process would be similar, although the possible combinations would grow in geometric proportion     31/05/2010 Página 134 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.f) NeoDarwinism Theory of evolution and human origin derived from Darwinism which, supported by scientific advances in cytology, biochemistry, genetics, etc denounces the influence of the environment on the evolution of the species, and the heredity of acquired characters Giving merit to variations in germination produced by natural selection and displayed through new morphological or functional characters Other theoris of evolution and human origin are Synthetic Theory (Dobzhandsdy, Mayr and Simpson), Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (Eldredge and Gould) and Neutralism Theory (Larmore and Rawls) 31/05/2010 Página 135 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.g) Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution and Punctualism  The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis has incorporated the latest advances of science in biology and genetics If the neo-Darwinism or neo-Darwinian Theory explicitly incorporated the random variations or mutations within the population, the Synthetic Theory of evolution incorporates the random variations or mutations of the genetic information and accepts this mechanism as part of the evolution that, together with the mechanism of the natural selection, produce evolution as a whole The Synthetic Theory of evolution or Modern Synthetic emerged around the middle of the 20th century from the ideas of three authors specialized in different branches of the evolution: Theodosius Dobzhandsdy in genetics, Ernst Mayr in the species of living beings and George G Simpson in the great categories of the organisms   Pequeño Senegal (Teresa Pérez Barrasa)   The diversification emerges slowly, usually through gradual changes, and originates in the specialization Therefore, it is part of the Gradualism trend as the initial Theory of Darwin We can summarize the important differences of the Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution with the Theory of Darwin in the following: It accepts the random genetic change as a mechanism of the important evolution, in addition to the mechanism of the natural selection 31/05/2010 Página 136 Genetics and theories of evolution It assumes that the traits are inherited through the genes The variations of the population are due to the presence of multiple variations of a gene Lastly, it assumes that the specialization is due, usually, to small random changes in the genetic information In other words, Synthetic Theory incorporates the aspects related to the microevolution and it assumes that the macroevolution is simply the accumulation of the microevolution Concerning the evolutionary leaps and Modern Synthetic Theory, the controversy is currently present because of the fossil registry, about which there is not a clear position within the scientific community The opposite movement would be Saltationism It consists of the old attitudes defended by the geneticist Richard Goldschmidt and the paleontologist Otto Schindewolf of evolution in leaps On the same line, more recently, the Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium or Punctualism appeared due to the contributions from the paleontology of Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould in 1972; the latter incorporates the selection between species to the Darwinian selection between individuals Although the Theory of Darwin is close to Gradualism, it could be compatible with Saltationism; both Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium or Punctualism and Modern Synthetic Theory belong to the Neo-Darwinism 31/05/2010 Página 137 Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.h) GTCEL-General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life   It is necessary to bear in mind that the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life is a fully scientific and evolutionary theory based on the assumptions that all life has an intrinsic tendency to widen the sphere of freedom using evolution within environmental and logical conditions, which indirectly imply an intelligent design It means something little it working since the origin of life Definition, characteristics and main conclusions of the evolutionary theory are in title V of this online book Regarding Saltationism and Gradualism, the GTCEL accept small and gradual changes while explaining the evolutionary jumps as quick and big changes of the genetic structure to allow a much bigger development, like the origin of new species In other words, the evolutionary leaps are a logical consequence of the evolution of vital impulse systems   ***   ...1 Science and evolution Philosophy of evolution A different theory of evolution Concept of evolution, life and vital impulse Definition of biological evolution of life Biological evolution Historical... life Evolution of life Scientific theory Research on evolution Computer learning games Esnuka with simulation of evolution Development and evolution Theories of human origin   I SCIENCE AND EVOLUTION. .. 31/05/2010 Página 15 Genetics and theories of evolution   II.1.a) The biological evolution Various aspects hinder the understanding of theories on biological evolution because the immediate or
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