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I ANTHROPOMETRY BY ALES HRDLICKA Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology, U S National Museum ^ PUBLISHED BY THE WISTAR INSTITUTE OF ANATOMY AND BIOLOGY PHILADELPHIA 1920 \ PRESS OF THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY LANCASTER, PA TO LEON MANOUVRIER MY INSTRUCTOR IN ANTHROPOMETRY CONTENTS INTRODUCTION MONACO AGREEMENT GENEVA AGREEMENT 10 25 PRELIMINARIES: General 32 34 37 Precision, Simplicity Preparation Instruments, Landmarks Recording, Blanks, Place Subjects, Grouping Estimation op Age Admixture of Blood Pathological Conditions Cranial Deformations Photography and Cast-making Field 38 40 42 43 44 46 46 48 49 Work ANTHROPOMETRY OF THE LIVING: Instruments Selection of Measurements Landmarks, Blanks and Methods Measurements of the Body Measurements op the Head Measurements op the Face Measurements of the Nose, Mouth and Ears Measurements of the Trunk and Limbs Observations on the Living Physiological Observations 52 60 62 66 68 72 74 76 81 87 ANTHROPOMETRY OF THE SKELETAL PARTS: The Skull 89 Estimation of Age on Bones Identification of Parts Determination of Normality 96 100 101 104 105 106 Blanks Landmarks Methods VISUAL OBSERVATIONS 113 OSTEOMETRY 117 120 126 Types of Shape Methods Stature Reconstruction Tables 141 V CONTENTS VI OSTEOMETRY (continued): Measurements of Teeth Measurements of Brain Internal Organs Plaster Casts Anthropometric Indices INDEX 143 144 146 146 149 155 ILLUSTRATIONS: Fig Fig Fig Fig Figs Fig Fig Fig Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 AuRicuLO-BREaMATic height Bi-mastoideal diameter Nasal height Palate & Lower jaw Nasal septum Palpebral fissure Ear Anthropological compasses Method or measuring length op head Method of measuring breadth of head Method of measuring height of head Method of measuring ear Method op measuring hand Method of measuring foot Apparatus for measuring cranial capacity Osteometric instruments; skull ring Typical shapes of long bones, lower extremity Typical shapes of long bones, upper extremity 15 16 17 17 20 22 22 24 56 69 70 71 75 78 80 110 119 122 124 ANTHKOPOMETRY ALE§ HRDLICKA INTRODUCTION Definition: Anthropometry may perhaps be most simply and com- prehensively defined as the conventional art or system of measuring human body and its parts The systems of measuring the skull and the skeleton are known separately as craniometry and osteometry, but these terms are frequently merged with that of anthropometry; the thus we speak only of anthropometric instruments, anthropometric methods anthropometric laboratories Object: The object of anthropometry servation, which is always more or The curate mechanical determinations is to supplement visual ob- and uncertain, by acanthropompersonal bias, and the less limited ideal function of etry would be the complete elimination of furnishing of absolutely correct data on such dimensions of the body, who are to not attainable to a perfection, organs, or skeleton, as might be of importance to those use the measurements This ideal is but it is the highest duty for every worker to strive for as close approach to it as may be in his power Diversity: Anthropometry in general is not and may never be one uniform system It is a handmaid to various classes of workers who have different objects in view, and measurements that are indispensable to one may be of no concern to another Measurements of the body were begun and are used by the artisan, and by the artist, the object of the one being a proper "fit' and that of the other a correct or artistically superior production They were and are employed in recruiting armies, with the aim of eliminating the inferiors They are used to some extent by medical men and dentists, to assist in their patients them in reaching diagnosis or tracing improvement They enter largely into the modern systems of col- and other gymnastics, and lately also into those of the popular baby studies Certain measurements play important role in criminological and medico-legal identification Finally, we have measurements that have become invaluable aids to scientific research in physiology, anatomy and especially anthropology lege aleS hrdlicka To summarize, measurements on the human body or its parts are practiced for: Industrial purposes; Regulation of art; Military selection Medical, surgical, and dental purposes; Detection of bodily defects and their correction in gymnastics; Criminal and other identification; Eugenic purposes; and for Scientific investigation As a result of the multiple applications of body measurements, there have become differentiated, aside from the industrial and artistic systems which are of little interest tary, criminological, and to us in this connection, the mili- chnical also and eugenic anthropometry, besides that used for strictly scientific research and more particularly As to the last named, were it not for for anthropological purposes the seeming alliteration of the two words, the term Anthropological anthropometry would be of real The diversity of utility measurements in the various above named branches a legitimate necessity Regrettably, this diversity extends also more or less to instruments and methods, which makes a free interutilization of the obtained data difficult if not impossible of activities is There is a great loss of effort, and even the most closely related of the above branches remain more or less strangers to each other One of the foremost aims of all those interested in anthropometry in the broader sense should be a general unification of instruments and methods, as far as this may be practicable The present treatise is devoted to measurements used The aim of anthropological measurements is not to in anthropology replace, but supplement visual and other observations, or give them Anthropology: more precision Variety of Measurements: There are none except natural limits to the number or variety of measurements that can be legitimately practiced on the ment or human body set of such, if or its remains Moreover, every measure- carefully secured on sufficient numbers of indi- groups, will be of some value But some of the measurements were early seen to be of greater general interest or importance than others, came into universal use, were properly regulated, and constitute to-day the anthropological sysviduals representing different tem OF ANTHBOPOMETEY human This System, however, though rigid in ANTHROPOMETRY essentials, has no definite limits, and is subject to such changes as time be found advisable may in the course of it was soon found that diversity method was very prejudicial to progress, which led to attempts at regulation of the methods and instruments by schools, by national, and finally by international agreements Unfortunately, the earlier agreements conflicted, in consequence of which a great deal of work was lost Up to the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, the system of Broca or the French school was almost universal after the war, however, the In the development of the system of ; rapidly growing tendency in anthropometry made by Germany In 1874 the first for individualism did not spare proposals in this direction were Prof Ihering to the Congress of the societies German anthropological In 1877 a Craniometric Conference was held on this sub- Munich, and still another took place in 1880 in Berlin The outcome of the dehberations at these conferences was a scheme drawn up by Professors KoUman, Ranke, and Virchow, which was submitted for consideration to the 13th General Congress of the German Anthropological Society, held at Frankfort-on-Main in 1882 The scheme was adopted and designated as the "Frankfort Agreement." It introduced new nomenclature and other modifications, with unfortunate Henceforth there were the " French School " and the " Gerresults man School " of anthropometry But the new system did not prevail and the need of an international unification of methods began to ject at ' be felt One of the first attempts at an international unification of anthropometric measurements was made in the early 90's in Paris, by Dr R CoUignon.^ The effort was made in connection with certain anthropometric studies planned by him at that time, and consisted in his sending to various anthropologists of prominence in as well as out- side of France certain propositions, with a request for their critique and opinion The effort, while favored in France, remained that of an individual, and led to nothing definite A much more promising, yet in the end quite as fruitless effort for unification of anthropometric methods was made at the occasion of the Twelfth International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archeology, held in August of 1892, at Moscow Two commissions ' Garson, thereon J G ' Collignon, R pom^triques dans 186-8 The Frankfort Craniometric Agreement, with J Anthrop Inst Gr Brit & Ire., Critical Remarks 1885, xiv, 64-83 Project d'entente internationale au sujet des recherches anthroles conseils de revision Bull Soc Anthrop Paris, 1892, xiii, ALES HRDLldBLA 10 were appointed for the purpose (see p 6), but they accomplished nothing substantial The interest in the subject was however well aroused by this time, and the anthropologists meeting in 1906 with the Xlllth International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archeology in Monaco, undertook seriously and in a large measure successfully the formation of an International Agreement on Anthropometry The work thus auspiciously begun was continued by the anthropologists meeting with the XlVth Congress, in 1912, at Geneva The task thus undertaken is not yet finished but what has been done furnishes a sound and large nucleus for further developments At the occasion of the XVIIIth International Congress of Americanists, at London, in 1912, foundations were laid for the formation of an international association of anthropologists,' and one of the essential features of such an association must be a permanent International Anthropometric Board, which will deal with all questions relating to the harmonization of anthropometric methods, instruments, and ; procedures The results in anthropometric unification thus far attained are embodied in two reports, published originally in French in 1906, and in the French, English and German in 1912 As these agreements are of fundamental importance to every worker in physical anthropology, and as they are not as readily available as desirable, they will be here republished In translating the French report of 1906 there were found a number of points which needed a few words of explanation and this report, therefore, is annotated THE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT FOR THE UNIFICATION OF CRANIOMETRIC AND CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS Report of the Commission Appointed bt the XIII International Congress OP Prehistoric Anthropoloqt and Archeoloot, at Monaco, 1906 By Dr G PAPiLLAin.T, Reporter op the Commission Translated from Dr PapiUault's report in L'Anthropologie, 1906, XVII, 659-572, by A H On izing ' the motion of Committee MM Hamy, of the See Marett, R R Papillault and Verneau, the OrganXlllth International Congress of Prehistoric Report of an International Conference, Intern Cong Amer., London, 1913, i, LXXXVI etc Proc XVIIIth y ANTHROPOMETRY 149 photographs and measurements, the head can be modelled almost to perfection Casts of the body should never be undertaken except by one well is not without danger to the practised in the art, for the operation subject Casts of the lower part of the trunk and the limbs need The skin must in all instances be well oiled and experienced hands the part to be cast must not be deformed by wrong position or pressure A provision for the removal of the cast in sections is a necessity and is usually done by including in the first layer of plaster, along the line and by cutting the cast with The preparation of the plaster and other details are practically the same as in facial casting In packing casts, pad well and tightly with very dry hay or other of intended separation, a linen thread this as it begins to harden and use only smaller boxes or barrels In especially important cases, and where the casts are to be transported a great distance, individual little boxes for each cast, a number of which is then packed in a larger case, are of great advantage suitable substance, ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES Under the term 'index' in anthropometry is understood the percental two measurements It is habitual to use the smaller measurement as the dividend and the larger as the divisor, so that relation of the index is The index usually less than 100 is the simplest expression of the geometric relation of two dimensions and as such is of much utility for the prompt conveyance The index in of a notion as to the shape or relative size of parts general is also more permanent than the absolute dimensions of the parts, and therefore more valuable for group comparisons Due to their usefulness and stability, the indices in anthropometry have almost from the beginning assumed a great favor as well as For the same reasons also they have become greatly and their value particularly that of the cephalic index has been sometimes overrated No index, it is plain, can have more stability than the physiological and mechanical conditions that control the relation of the parts concerned; and as these conditions are not importance multiplied, — immutable, so the indices are subject to change As in a large majority of cases the correlation of measurements is self-evident, there is a general agreement among workers as to the constituents of the indices; but in the course of time there have developed considerable differences of opinion as to the grouping of the indices and in the nomenclature of the resulting divisions ALE§ hrdli6ka 150 In the examination of any large group of people it will be found that each given index will show a rather extended range of variation A certain part of this range will embrace the normal average, together with the normal oscillations of the index for the anthropologically purest part of that particular group; but as few larger ethnic groups to-day are free from admixture, it may safely be expected that a certain proportion of the indices obtained on the group will express aberrations Such aberrations may be detected by a proper seriation and mapping out of the indices But we are assisted in expressing them, as in expressing the differences in the indices of separate ethnic and even biologic groups, by definite subdivisions or classifications That is why this subject has received so much attenof the indices tion But such be as little classifications, to be of real value, should self-evidently arbitrary as possible, and have the closest attainable relation to natural groupings These facts were well recognized from the start in anthropology, and earnest efforts were made to arrive at the most logical classifications For guidance there were on the one hand the principal natural subdivisions or races of man, and on the other an augmenting and comprehensive supply of measurements It could readily be seen that a classification of any index which would not harmonize with the distribution of the index in at least the principal groups of mankind would not be of any great utility But it was also soon recognized that even the principal races of man were not in all respects far enough distant to give alone a sound basis for classification It was then that recourse was had to mathematical procedure By taking all the available indices on man regardless of racial subdivisions, ranges of indices could be obtained which applied to the human family as a whole; and these ranges gave certain averages as well as minima and maxima which could serve as bases of mathematical classification From an insufficiency of data however and from other causes, there arose numerous individual differences of views among working anthropologists as to exactly where to establish the boundaries of the subdivisions of the various indices, and also as to the best terms for the different subdivisions, which gave rise to a considerable confusion To-day anthropology has ceased to regard the grouping and naming of the indices in the somewhat fetishistic light in which it looked upon them before The arithmetic and graphic presentation of the distribution of each index has become the essential procedure in all ANTHROPOMETRY 151 anthropometric work, and divisions with terms, which in the nature of things must always retain something of the arbitrary, are now employed more for convenience than of necessity Stili, the classification of the various indices and its terminology are useful, and some day become subject will doubtless ments In these pages no attempt will be to proper international agree- made to treat the subject of anthro- pom.etric indices historically, or to give their different classifications For these the student Elements is referred to Broca's Instructions, Topinard's d' Anthropologic generale} publications in other languages Martin's Lehrbuch, and similar What will here be given with few exceptions are the most widely accepted and most frequently used known nomenclatures indices, together with best no limit to other legitimate indices, as there is none to possible measurements; and any index, as any measurement, may assume more or less of anthropological value if obtained on sufficiently large series and groups of individuals or specimens There is HEAD AND SKULL R V mo Cephalic (and Cranial) Index (On the skuU the index Mean is —Length Index Height (of r —Breadth Index ^ , , ^^ ' Which is — ^rj _ limited use) s Physiognomic Index (on Head) 'See on 75-79.9 (of limited use) Cephalic (or Cranial) Module _, to 74.9 80 and above approximately points lower than that on the head.)* Height Index (CephaUc and Cranial) Height up Dolichocephaly Mesocephaly Brachycephaly :: Diameter bizygomatic maximum X -~ 100 zr-i r^^v"^ line diameter t1 Menton-Hau- v — particularly rich in historic notes, p 364 this point Topinard's Elements etc., et seg 373; also Duckworth (W L H.) J Anat., Lond., 1917, LI, 167-179 ' on Height, on head, from hne connecting floor of auditory meatus to bregma; basion-bregma Not directly comparable skull, ANTHHOPOMETRT 152 Facial Index (on Menton-nasion height X 100 , ^ t^ Diameter r bizygomatic maximui maximum Head) Menton-nasion height X 100 t^ Diameter iameter bizygomatic maximun maximum Facial Index, Total (on SkuU) T, T , , ci UN Upper (on SkuU) TT J Facial Index, Facial Angle , • —nasion height —-— XUOO — Alveolar Diameter bizygomatic maximum pt fr; ^ - - —Angle between basion-alveolar point and alveolar point-nasion Alveolar Angle —Angle between basion-alveolar point lines and alveolar point-subnasal point lines AT — ui r u-x v^ Mean height orbits X 1~ of j; j-r Mean Breadth «-iu-i IT J Orbital Index Nasal Index: (on • Head)— RV inn ^-^ ir.r 100 up Microseme to 82.9 ,, oo oo n 83-88.9 Mesoseme -, Megaseme j u 89 and above of> up Leptorhinic to 69.9 — Mesorhinio 70-84.9 85 and above Platyrhinic R y inn Ear Index: (on Head) RV Palatal Index to 47.9 48-52.9 53 and above nn = up Leptorhinic ^ — Mesorhinic Platyrhinic Nasal Index: (on Skull)- below DoUchouranic Mesuranic Brachyuranic r i 1 _tui ^^ iriA Dental length' X 100 ^ ,T J : t^-t Dental Index— 5-^ Basion-nasion diameter _ 10 110-115 above 115 Microdont Mesodont ,,j^ up ,, aa above 44 ^ to 41.9 ,n aa 42-44 -l Megadont BODY c-.*- Sittmg Tj 1,+ T ^ Height Index • Height-Weight Index„, _ - , ^-^2iai5-^5E^ Stature in centimeters Diam antero-posterior (mean) at nipple height Diam lateral (mean) at same level J —Shoulder Index „, HS X 10 g^^^^ , , - , Maximum Pelvis —r^~ X external breadth of pelvis lOO' X 100' Breadth of shoulders Distance in situ between most anterior point on 1st premolar and most posterior point on normal 3rd molar In female at the upper level of the 4th chondrosternal articulation • Between outer hps of iliac crests ANTHROPOMETRY ^— BX „ Hand Index , , lOOi 153 B XlOO t:' tjIndex A Foot ' j- SIvELETAL PARTS Pelvis: ^ Mean max , lotal Index height of ossa innom , , ^ • X X 100 ^^33^^.; Greatest transverse breadth of the strait ^ , Tibio-Femoral , T J -^ T ^ , , , , L of X 1 Brachycnemic DoUchocnemic less 83 or 80 than 83 and over 100 + L of humerus X 100 + Bicondylar L of femur of tibia X 100 Diameter minimum of shaft of tibia at middle T^n Diam maximum X 100 ^ of femur X 100 : , (new), „, , B, glenoid point to spine point X 100 L, glenoid point to inferior angle — B, m —border of glenoid fossa — to spine point X 100 of outer Scapular Index: Total : ; , L, from superior to inferior angle Infraspinosus Index Sternal 75 _ „ 75-80 femur Diam minimum at upper flattening 5=n Diam maximum •' , , Diameter minor of shaft of humerus at middle Diameter major , Platymesic Index Scapular Index of radius standard Index Platycnaetmc ' 7-7 -t— 5^^ L J Intermembrae Index- , —L Max L of humerus j Bicondylar up to 100 above 100 Brachykerkik less than , , Mesatikerkik T^ i- u u Dohchokerkik above L of tibia (less spine) X 100 gig^jj^jyij^j l of femur „ ^ Humero-Femoral Index DoUchohieric ,„„ , Platyhieric Max L of radius ,, X 100 ^ j-r ^^-f Max L of humerus J Index— Platybrachic Index j^g Platypelhc L „ , ^ J Radio-Humeral,TIndex „, „, B X 100 Sacrum— above 95 95.90 L below nrv 90 Dolichopellic V inri Antero-post diam of supenor strait , 100 Brim Index Pelvic or _, X greatest external breadth of pelvis* ~ — L,—from spine point to IndexI otal z L z - ;^-r inferior angle - Greatest B of body X 100 with manubrium but without xiphoid For other indices see text under the individual bones ' For definition of measurements see ' Between outer lips of iliac crests text ALES HRDLiCkA 154 INDEX TABLES To lighten the exacting and tedious work of calculating the indices, we now have a number of printed "Tables." The best of these are those of Carl M Fiirst {Index-Tabellen; 4°, Jena, 1902); but even these are not sufficient for all occasions and much work has to be done by each student himself When a large number of indices are to be calculated for which no ready-made tables can be found, pays to make such tables it INDEX A 82 28 43 43; 44 96 10 10; 25 17; 18 112 105 Abbreviations, of observation terms Acromion Age: grouping by estimation of, in life estimation of, on skeletal material Agreements: of Monaco Geneva of Alveolar Arch upper, measurements of Alveolar Point Ankle Anthropometer Anthropometric analysis Anthropometric Commissions, of Moscow Anthropometry Anthropological system of : 28 53 36; 37 12 Criminal definition diversity Eugenic 49 work French school field German 9; 13 school in art 8 34 Industrial in gymnasia instructions in Medical MUitary on the Uving precision in preparation for procedure simpUcity in state of, in U S Asterion Astragalus, measurements and observations Auditory canal 52 34 37 38 34; 36 32 105 138 27 B Beard 85 40 63; 65 104 Blanks: anthropometric examples of for craniometrj- 155 INDEX 156 Blanks: for the living osteometrio 62 120 Body et seq Bones: deformations in 87 88 102 forms, causes of 125 long 121 measurements of normal 101 observations on sexual differences in 120; 126 94 typical shapes of Boxes, for field 120 work 50 144 87 Brain, measurements of Breasts C Calcaneus, measurements and observations CaUpers large sliding : 57 57 55 50 sliding spreading Cameras Capacity of skull methods of measuring Cast making Chest, measurements of Chin 76 27; 86 30 31 of foot 30 30 30 of forearm hand of leg of neck 30 of skull 19 of thigh 30 30 30 of thorax of waist 132 Clavicles CoUignon (R.) Companions Compass 19 107 48; 146 Circumference: of arm of 137 : 50 57 57 55 large sliding shding spreading Craniometric Commission, of Moscow Craniometry 12 14; 89 (See SkuU, measurements of) Crests, occipital Crinion Cuboid, measurements and observations Cuneiform, Internal: measurements and observations 93 72 139 140 INDEX 157 D 105 Dacryon 36 47 Data, anthropometric treatment of Deformations: artificial : 46; 47; 101 cranial of 102 47 47; 101 46 29 bones pathological posthumous Deformities Diameters: antero-posterior of thorax 28 30 30 bi-acromial bi-condylar of femur bi-condylar of humerus bi-cristal 29 bi-humeral 29 30 29 bi-malleolar bi-mammillary 29 30 29 bi-spinal bi-styloid bi-trochanteric 29 29 58 conjugate of pelvis transverse of thorax Dynamometer E 24; 75 Ear, measurements of 87 28 23 85 69 83 83 Ears Elbow Eye, measurements Eyebrows Eyes of color of Eyeslits F Face, measurements of 72 in the living 21; 22 Face, breadth 73 bigonial diameter height to crinion length , Facial index 73 73 72 16 Femoral indices Femur, measurements and observations types of Fibula, measurements types of Field work, boxes fbr supplies and observations 128 128 122 130 122 50 49 INDEX 158 Field work, transportation 49 28 87 Finger, middle Fingers Foot, bones, measurements and observations 141 measurements of Foramen lacerum medium 31 Foramen magnum Forehead ; 79 116 18 85 Frankfort agreement 9; 13 G General considerations Geneva, International agreement on anthropometry 34 25 GlabeUa Gnathion Gonion 105 105 105 43 Grouping, instructions in H Hair characteristics of color of Hand, bones, measurements and observations measurements of Head, measurements of breadth diameter frontal minimum height length height of forehead Height, sternal to the shoulder to the suprasternal notch total Heredity, in bone forms ' Humero-femoral index Humerus, measurements and observations types of 59 84 84 140 30; 77 21; 68 69 73 70 68 73 30 67 66 27 125 128 126 124 I Identification, of skeletal remains and parts Indices, anthropometric Inion Innominate index Instruments anthropometer anthropometric : attention to bench compass d'^paisseur 100 149 105 135 53 34 38; 39 54 14; 55 INDEX 14; 57 Instruments: compass glissifere craniometric 103 dynamometer handKng of 58 38 54 horizontal plane large sliding 57 14 118 compass metric tape osteometric 52; 53 plane, anthropometric plumb and 159 55 58 58 58 59 58 level scales standard block standard meter standards for colors tapes International agreements of Frankfurt K 28 Knee L Lambda 106 39 Landmarks 105 craniometric on the 62 living 81 87 77 86 86 19; 20; 21; 112 93 116 Leg, measurements of Limbs measurements of Lips Lower jaw: angles of measurements of sexual differences in descriptive terms M 86 Malars 115 descriptive terms Mandibular angle Manouvrier, tables Mastoids 21; 86 of, for reconstruction of stature sexual differences of MaxUlo-alveolar index Maximum occipital point 142; 143 113 93 18 106 Measurements, range of optional 13 order of procedure selection of Menton 82 60 106 160 INDEX Metatarsals, measurements and observationsMeter standard Mixed bloods 141 58 44; 45 identification of 45 Mixtures, racial 44; 45 recognition of Monaco, International agreement on anthropometry Moscow, attempts at, for unification of anthropometric methods Mouth, measurements of 45 10 9; 12 23; 75 N Nasal aperture, lower borders of, descriptive terms bridge 115 86 86 115 72; 106 85 86 27 septum spine, descriptive terms Nasion depression in the hving Neck Nipples Normality of skull or bones Nose, bridge 101 86 74 74 22 breadth length measurements of, in the living on the 16; 17; 111 skull descriptive terms 115 septum 86 O Obehon 106 Observations, abbreviations of terms grading of 82 82 87 115 115 106 106 115 112 137 117 physiological Occipital crests, descriptive terms Occiput, descriptive terms Ophryon Opisthion Orbits, descriptive terms measurements of measurements and observations Osteometry Orbits, Os calcis, 17; P Palate 17; 18 measurements of descriptive terms sexual differences in Palpebral fissure, measurements of Parentage, determination of 112 115 93 23 45 INDEX 46 136 Pathology, in anthropometry measurements and observations Patella, 135 135 Pelvic indices measurements and observations measurements of Pelvis, 28 94 116 48; 49; 50 87 41 52; 53 sexual differences in Petrous parts, descriptive terms Photography Physiological observations Place, choice of, for examination Plane, anthropometric 54 129 horizontal Platycnaemy, index Platymery, index of Plumb and 161 of 128 55 106 level Pogonion Prognathism 86 115 105 descriptive terms Prosthion 106 115 Pterion descriptive terms 27 87 Pubes Pulse R 46 Rachitis 127 Radio-humeral index Radius, measurements and observations 127 124 types of Recoring, mode 82 40 87 of principles of Respiration Ribs, observations on 133 S Sacral index Sacrum, measurements and observations Sagittal region, of skull, descriptive terms Scaphoid bone, measurements and observations Scapula, indices of measurements and observations t3TDes of Selection of measurements SemEty, marks of Sex, determination of, from skulls and bones Sitting height, measurements of Skeletal remains, identification of Skin, color of 135 134 115 138 130 130 125 103 99 91 28 100 59; 82 INDEK 162 Skull, deformations of base of, 110 sexual diiierences in 94 measurements of 89; 102 base Ill basio-alveolar diameter 16 bi-mastoideal breadth 16 16 bi-zygomatic breadth breadth 14; 107 capacity 19; 107 circumference 19; 112 Ill face facial measurements 16; 18 frontal breadth 16 height 15; 107 length 14; length, iniac minimum frontal diameter naso-basilar diameter 16 thickness 107 vault, arcs of methods 18; 19 measurement of 106 normality of observations on 101 113 114 blanks for physiognomy of preparation of senile changes in sexing of sutures of, obhteration weighing Span Spine, anterior superior ihac vertebral, observations on Standards, for testing of instruments for color of skin for color of eyes and hair Stature definition of : from parts of skeleton reconstruction of, from long bones estimation of, Stephanion Sternum, measurements and observations Strength, muscular Styloids, descriptive term Subjects, grouping of securing selection of Subnasal points 107 14 107 93 91 99 91 97; 98 58 28; 67 28 133 58 59 59 66 27 141 31 106 131 87 116 42 42 42 106 INDEX 163 115 Suborbital fossae 85; 92; 113 Supra-orbital ridges Supra-sternal notch 27 Sutures, descriptive term 115 98 20 obliteration of Symphysis of lower jaw T Tapes 58 116 Teeth, descriptive term condition of Tempero-parietal region, descriptive term 88 97 143 93 98 87 115 115 Tibia, femoral index 129 eruption of measurements sexual differences in wear of Temperature Temporal crests, descriptive term measurements and observations 129 122 types of Toes 87 28 76 Trochanter, great Trunk, measurements of U Ulna, measurements and observations 127 124 types of V 94 Vault, thickness of Vertex 106 W Weight 88 28 Wrist Z Zygomae, descriptive term sexual differences of 115 93 ... ALE§ hrdliCka Messrs Chantre (France) CzEKANOwsKi (Russia) Duckworth (Great Britain) Frassetto (Italy) GiuFFRiDA-RuGGERi (Italy) GoDiN (France) Hillebrand (Hungary) HoYos Sainz (Spain) Hrdlicka. .. invaluable aids to scientific research in physiology, anatomy and especially anthropology lege aleS hrdlicka To summarize, measurements on the human body or its parts are practiced for: Industrial... interest tary, criminological, and to us in this connection, the mili- chnical also and eugenic anthropometry, besides that used for strictly scientific research and more particularly As to the
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