Bulletins of American paleontology (Bull. Am. paleontol.) Vol 357

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RESq DECEMBER 3L NUMBER 357 A Paleobiotic the Survey of Caribbean Faunas from Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama edited by Laurel S Collins and Anthonv G Coates Panama Paleonto 1999 PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION Ojficers Shirley K Egan President John C Steinmetz Thomas E Whiteley Henry W Theisen Howard P Hartnett First Vice-President Second Vice-President Secretary Treasurer Director Warren D Allmon Trustees J Megan D Shay Mary M Shuford Brett L Crepet Thomas Dutro, Jr Carlton William E Constance M Soja John C Steinmetz Shirley K Egan Howard Hartnett Harry G Lee Peter B Stifel Henry W Theisen Amy Thomas R Phillip P McCune E Whiteley Proujansky Trustees Emeritus Harry A Leffingwell Robert M Linsley Samuel T Pees Edward B Picou, Jr John Pojeta, Jr James E Sorauf Raymond Van Houtte William P S Ventress BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHIC A AMERICANA Warren D Allmon Editor A list of titles in both series, and available numbers and volumes may be had on request Volumes 1-23 of Bulletins of American Paleontology are available from Periodicals Service Company, 11 Main St., Germantown, New York 12526 USA, Volume of Palaeonlographica Americana has been reprinted by Johnson Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003 USA Reprint Corporation, 1 1 Subscriptions to Bulletins of American Paleontology are available for US $150 per year (individual or institution) plus postage Issues are available and priced individually Numbers of Palaeontographica Americana are priced individually for additional information, write or call: Paleontological Research Institution 259 Trumansburg Road NY 14850 USA (607) 273-6623 FAX (607) 273-6620 Ithaca, www.englib.comell.edu/pri @ This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper) 3u(Qtmsqf "fApwrxcan tvlogs) Begun NUMBER in 1895 LihjHAR 357 DECEMBER 31, 1999 Ui A Paleobiotic Survey of Caribbean Faunas from the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama edited by Laurel S Collins and Anthony G Coates Panama Paleontology Project Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New York, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, ISSN 0007-5779 ISBN 0-87710-449-2 Librury of Congress Calalog Card Number: 99-76998 This publication is supported in part by a Corporate Membership from Exxon Exploration Company This publication to is The Program contribution in Tropical number Biology at Florida International University Note: Beginning with issue number 356, Bulletins of American Paleontology is no longer designating volumes The journal will continue to publish approximately 2-4 issues per year, each of which will continue to be individually numbered Printed in the United States of America Allen Press, Inc Lawrence, KS 66044 U.S.A CONTENTS Page Introduction Laurel Collins and S Anthony G Coates PART Chapter STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOENVIRONMENT I Lithostratigraphy of the Neogene strata of the Caribbean coast from Limon Costa Rica, to Colon, Panama Anthony G Coates 17 Appendix to Chapter Newest Biostratigraphy Marie-Pierre Aubry and William A Berggren 38 Chapter Neogene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Laurel M Bybell the Caribbean coast of Panama and Costa Rica 41 Chapter Neogene Mathew planktic foraminiferal biochronology of the southern Central American isthmus A Cotton 61 Chapter A paleoenvironmenlal analysis of the Neogene of Caribbean Panama and Costa Rica using several phyla Laurel S, Collins Orangel Aguilera Pamela F Borne and Stephen D Cairns PART 81 PALEOBIOTIC SURVEY Chapter The Miocene to Recent diversity of Caribbean benthic foraminifera from the Central American isthmus Laurel S Collins 91 Chapter Stratigraphic distribution of Neogene Caribbean azooxanthellate corals (Scleractinia and Stylasteridae) Stephen D Cairns 109 Chapter in the Limon Group of Costa Rica Budd Kenneth G Johnson, Thomas A Stemann and Bridget H Tompkins Pliocene to Pleistocene reef coral assemblages Ann F 119 Chapter Neogene cheilostome Bryozoa of tropical America: Comparison and contrast between the Central American isthmus (Panama, Costa Rica) and the North-Central Caribbean (Dominican Republic) Alan H Cheetham, Jeremy B.C Jackson JoAnn Sanner and Yira Ventocilla 159 Chapter Diversity and assemblages of Neogene Caribbean MoUusca of lower Central America Jeremy B.C Jackson, Jonathan A Todd, Helena Fortunato and Peter Jung 193 Chapter 10 Neogene-Quatemary Ostracoda and paleoenvironments of Pamela E Borne Thomas M Cronin and Joseph E Hazel Chapter the Limon Basin, Costa Rica, and Bocas del Toro Basin, Panama 231 Bathymetric distribution of Miocene to Pleistocene Orangel Aguilera and Dione Rodrigues de Aguilera Caribbean teleostean fishes from the coast of Panama and Costa Rica 25 Chapter 12 A data model for the Karl W Kaufmann Appendix Panama Paleontology Project 271 A Maps Anthony G Coates 287 Appendix B Stratigraphic sections Anthony G Coates 299 Index 349 INTRODUCTION Laurel S Collins Department of Earth Sciences Florida International University Miami, Florida 33199, U.S.A AND Anthony G Coaxes Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Washington, D.C 20560-0580, U.S.A A fundamental question in biology concerns the ex- which populations and communities are affected by geographic isolation and environmental change, a full comprehension of which must include understanding environmental conditions and biodiversity of the past The main research goal of the project that produced this volume is an assessment of patterns of changing marine invertebrate faunas of tropical Amertent to ~ 10 million years, for the purpose of determining the impacts of environmental change and genetic isolation on large-scale evolution and ecologic systems This multitaxonomic paleobiotic survey takes ica over the last advantage of a "natural experiment," the Miocene constriction of the Caribbean-Pacific seaway and the Pliocene emergence of the Isthmus of Panama, which resulted in biotic isolation and changes in oceanic conditions on opposite sides We initially concentrated on southern Central America because the bulk of evi- dence indicates that this is where final isolation of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific occurred In this region, the biological effects are likely to have been most pronounced and directly relatable to the physical, sedimentary record of isthmian emergence A remarkably complete record of these events is preserved in Neogene sediments of the region, including abundant, diverse and well-preserved macrofaunas and microfaunas In addition, the Recent lies at the end of this time range, providing extant collections for comparative anatomical and molecular studies The Panama Paleontology Project (PPP), was initiated to make the systematic, regional fossil collections and fine-scaled chronologic framework necessary for these investigations All geographic, stratigraphic, and taxonomic data are integrated in the PPP Database From these and and other data, paleontologists are documenting biodiversity, biogeographic change, and the origination and extinction of tropical American or- ganisms, and relating these to patterns of environmen- and tectonic changes tal THE PANAMA PALEONTOLOGY PROJECT The PPP is a geographically, chronologically and logistically large-scaled endeavor that has taken con- The advantage of can take a multitaxon- siderable time and effort to develop a coordinated project is that it omic, integrated approach to investigating evolutionary and environmental processes The project currently involves 35 scientists from 20 institutions in countries (see the "collinsl/), ing its PPP internet site at http://www.fiu.edu/ although many more have participated dur1) The PPP organizes expe- existence (Table and measure geologic secprepares and curates macrofossils and microfossils from standardized, random samples; assigns ages using microfossils, paleomagnetics and raditions to collect fossils tions; diometric dating; and reconstructs paleoenvironments based on microfossil and macrofossil assemblages, sedimentology, and stable isotopes The maintenance and development of the PPP Database and the extensive collections support longer term taxonomic, systematic, ecologic and evolutionary studies Below we describe the organization of the project This formal collaboration began in 1986 with a reconnaissance survey of the Neogene geology of Panama by Jeremy Jackson and Anthony Coates The objective was to determine whether the fossils were sufficiently abundant, both stratigraphically and geographically, for research on the evolutionary and ecological consequences of the rise of the Isthmus of Panama In 1987, Peter Jung and Laurel Collins joined the project, which became known as the Panama Pa- leontology Project This group, with the addition of Ann Budd in 1993, formed a steering committee to plan collecting expeditions, seek funds, devise guide- Bulletin 357 Table ama — Members* Held parlicipants and assistants in the Pan- Table — Continued Paleontology Project 1986-1999 Nehm* Neumann Ross Committee Steering Hermatypic my corals, taxono- U.S.A database Anthony Coates* Stratigraphy U.S.A Laurel Collins* PPP U.S.A Database, benthic fora- minfera, stable isotopes Jeremy Jackson* Scientific coordination, Peter Jung* Mollusks U.S.A bryozoans, mollusks Switzerland Romania Noda Jorge Obando* Luis Obando Mollusks Regional sedimentation Regional stratigraphy and geology Japan Costa Rica Costa Rica Marta Ordofiez Foraminifera biostratigraphy Ecuador Dawn Peterson* Stephen Schellenberg Jay Schneider* Ostracodes John Sutter Radiometric dating (Ar39/ 40) Cyclostome bryozoans Stable isotopes of mollusks Polystirid gastropods U.S.A U.S.A U.S.A U.S.A Glycymerid bivalves Switzerland Palynology Ecuador Canada Teresita Aguilar Mollusks Costa Rica Paul Taylor* Jane Terranes* Jon Todd* Orangel Aguilera* Teleost fishes Venezuela Pascal Tschudin* Laurie Anderson* Corbulid bivalves U.S.A Italo Marie-Pierre Aubry* Calcareous nannofossils, France Jijun Guillermo Barbosa Peter Baumgartner William Berggren* Regional geology Costa Rica Tectonics Switzerland Planktic foraminifera, U.S.A Scientists Zambrano Zhang* biochronology Pamela Borne* Ostracodes U.S.A Laurel Bybell* Calcareous nannofossils U.S.A biochronology Alan Cheetham* Stephen Cairns* Cheilostome bryozoans Ahermatypic corals U.S.A Mathew Cotton* Planktic foraminifera U.S.A U.S.A biochronology Gastropods, molecular Thomas Cronin* John Dawson* Stephen Donovan* Ostracodes Harry Dowsett* U.S.A biology U.S.A Ahermatypic corals U.S.A Echinoids England Planktic foraminifera, U.S.A paleoceanography Helena Fortunato* Strombiniid gastropods Panama taxonomy database Andrew Gale Dana Geary* Facies analysis England Strombid gastopods, stable U.S.A Thor Hansen* Mollusks isotopes Antoine Heitz MoUusk U.S.A curation and France Nelson Jimenez Calcareous nannofossils Ecuador Kenneth Johnson* Hermatypic U.S.A analysis Karl Kaufmann* PPP Database U.S.A Patricia Kellcy* Mollusks U.S.A Susan Kidwell Stratigraphy U.S.A Michael Kunk Radiometric dating {Ar39/ U.S.A 40) Lorena Lanza Peter Marko* Planktic foraminifera, England U.S.A England Research Assistants Dione R de Aguilera Sample processing Raul Brito Student assistant Venezuela Ecuador Brown Regional geology Nicaragua Arcid bivalves, molecular U.S.A for fishes Field assistant Panama Martin Brunner Student assistant Switzerland Magnolia Calderon Sample processing Rogelio Cansari Field guide Daniel Castaiieda Field guide Panama Panama Panama Panama Eric Sebastian Castillo Boatman Janet Coates Field logistics U.S.A John-Mark Coates Chena Cooke Luis Cruz James Diaz Field assistant U.S.A Field logistics Panama Panama Student assistant U.S.A Beatrice Ferrenbach Field logistics Lucien Ferrenbach Xenia Guerra Field logistics Research assistant Panama Panama Panama Karl Hansen Photographer U.S.A Huichan Lin Dorotheo Machado Nannofossil processing U.S.A Field assistant Panama Claudia Mora Field assistant Costa Rica Angelica Mufioz Field guide Nicaragua Agustm Paladines Rene Panchaud Student assistant Ecuador Field assistant, collections Switzerland Field assistant Betzabeth Rios manager Sample processing Panama Fabricio Sierra Student assistant Ecuador Omar taxonomy corals, data Sr isotopes of reef corals Cardiid bivalves biochronology biochronology Timothy Collins* U.S.A Dinoflagellates Hiroshi Ann Budd* Marginellid gastropods Florin Field assistant Panama Bridget Tompkins Student assistant U.S.A Sophia Vclotti Sample processing Sample processing Panama Panama Sugasti Yira Ventocilla Jamie Wineberg David West Student assistant U.S.A Research vessel Captain Panama biology Donald McNeill* Magnelostratigraphy U.S.A Jorge Mideros Petroleum geologist Ecuador Daniel Miller* Muricid gastropods, mollusk U.S.A taxonomy Simon Mitchell Stratigraphy and Jamaica sedimentology lines for preparing collections, coordinate studies of taxonomic groups, and organize joint publications U S Geological Survey paleontologists Bybell (calcareous nannoplankton), Dowsett (planktic foraminifera) Richard Mooi* Clypeasteroid echinoderms U.S.A Galo Montenegro Petroleum geologist Ecuador and Cronin (ostracodes), together with graduate student Cotton (planktic foraminifera), contributed the PPP's biostratigraphic foundation The question of an Introduction: Collins and Coates adequate Coates fossil collections are Fossil when record was answered affirmatively by most useful researchers to they reside at centralized locations An agree- ment was signed between the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI, the home institution of Jackson and Coates) and the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel (Jung's institution) that all of the mollusks and less abundant groups (crustaceans, echinoderms, brachiopods) would be prepared and accessioned in Basel, and that all bryozoans, corals, foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils, and ostracodes would be permanently housed, after study by the appropriate specialists, the U.S National Museum at of Natural History, Wash- ington D.C By 1990, growth in the volume and completeness new procedures and of the collections required lapping) research groups, a division reflected in the parts of this volume The first group establishes a chronologic and paleoenvironmental framework for each region, and the second builds its paleobiological studies upon this framework The stratigraphic part of first group consists of Coates, Aubry (calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy), Berggren and Zhang the (planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy), and McNeill (paleomagnetics) Within the constraints of the physical stratigraphy, the biostratigraphers use the evolu- tionary and paleoceanographic history of microfossils to establish a high-resolution graphic sections refined chronology for The ages of many strati- sections are further by applying the chronology of paleomagnetic reversals Paleoenvironmental determinations (Chapter 4) are based on the modem tunato, Jackson, Marko, Miller, Nehm, Schneider, Tshudin and Todd Additional paleobiological research includes that of Aguilera (otoliths) Borne and Peterson (ostracodes), Donovan and Mooi (echinoderms), Budd, Johnson, and Stemann (reef corals) Cairns and Dawson (ahermatypic corals), Cheetham, Jackson and Taylor (bryozoans), and Collins (benthic foraminifera) In addition to the PPP Database of information about locality, stratigraphy, age, and taxon occurrence Kaufmann and Collins), Budd designed and implemented a taxonomic database (Nmita) that contains information such as photographic and scanning electron micrograph images on PPP and other tropical American pa( leontological collections To obtain comparative Caribbean and Eastern Paexpeditions were undertaken more or a broadened taxonomic expertise To census the macrofauna, full-time "factories" at STRI and Basel were established for processing bulk sediment samples taken at shell-rich sites The data on locality, stratigraphy, age, sample processing, and identified taxa began to be tracked in the PPP Database designed by Kaufmann (Chapter 12) and Collins New colleagues began to study PPP bryozoans (Cheetham), mollusks (Geary, Anderson, Schneider), corals (Cairns), and regional sedimentation (Obando) Since 1993, the PPP has developed into two (over- two sisthmian distributions are being studied with morphometric and/or molecular techniques by Anderson, For- et al in 1992 cific collections, less equally to both sides of the southern Central American isthmus during (Table 2) In the Peterson), otoliths (Aguilera), ahermatypic The second PPP research group includes members conducting macrofossil and microfossil studies of evolution, biogeography and ecology For the mollusks, by most diverse group, Jackson coordinates the lists of genera and subgenera that have been taxonomically standardized by Heitz, Jung and Todd Several molluscan clades with modern tranfar the analysis of faunal years of the PPP and the Bocas del Toro and Colon regions of Panama Many new formations were described, dated, and collected in detail to yield unparalleled collections of fos- from different stratigraphic levels and facies The Caribbean stratigraphy and collections form the focus of this volume In contrast to the Caribbean coast, the Pacific coast from the Darien (eastern Panama) to Nicaragua has sils yielded sequences that are less continuous chronolog- and not comparable in age, environment, and taxonomic diversity with the Caribbean faunas The most important Pacific sequences are in the Darien (Middle-Upper Miocene) and the Burica Peninsula (Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene) Recently, to compensate for this inadequate record, the PPP began fieldwork in Ecuador, where richly fossiliferous, Neogene sequences extend from the coast to the Andean foothills of the Borbon and Manabi basins We hope to suimnarize all these sequences in a companion volume on the Neogene of the Pacific coast ically ecology of primarily ben- corals (Cairns), and sedimentology first five cused on the relatively complete and fossiliferous Caribbean sections of the Limon region of Costa Rica, BIODIVERSITY thic foraminifera (Collins), but also ostracodes (Borne, Cronin, the next six years, most expeditions fo- AND SCALE The large scale of the Panama Paleontology Project main characteristic that differentiates it from other field-based paleontological projects To study the is the and distribution of taxa within a tropical ocean basin over —10 million years at a relatively fine diversity chronological scale requires years of constructing a regional stratigraphy and collecting and identifying fossils For most taxonomic groups, collections have only recently become sufficient to calculate biodiversity re- Bulletin 357 Table 2— PPP expeditions, 1986-1999 Sections: Coaxes 337 LIMON BASIN Sect on 30 I Pej e R ver I m PPP number 11 L thol I o° o° O 0° Q° 0° o° o° o° o° o*' o° o° o°o o o 0^0 o° o° 0° o° o° Q° o° o" o° o° o° o° o* o*' o* o" o° o° 0° 0° 0° o° 0° o° o° 0° o° Q° o° o" o" o*^ o" 10 35 Descr ipt ion ogy ooooooooooooo \TOP OF RIO BANAND FORMATION CONGLOHERATE poorly sorted, Massive, Rounded cobbles volcanic 0° o° o° 6° o*' o" 0*^0° o* o" o* 0*0" 0° o 0° 0° o** 0° 0° 0° 0° 0° 0° o°o° 38 ooooooooooooo OPOQOQOOOOOOOO 37 36 SANDSTONE Bright blue, sandy matrix, scattered cobbles to B cm 35 00000 31 CONGLOMERATE to cloy Cobbles to cm, rounded, very poorly sorted, all sizes 33 SANDSTONE 32 Fme-medium, llossive, leoched clayey, No structure or Fossi Is 31 CLAYSTONE 30 977 CONGLOMERATE 29 376 SANDSTONE 28 groded ot top low diversity nested shell medium thick, encrusting bryozoa, cloystone channels at top bivalves, OOQOQOQQQ0090Q 27 rounded vol conic cobbles, Hell Vol conic, I bed, densely packed edging unit wavy bedded 26 / SILTSTONE 25 SANDSTONE Medium Pine, volcanic 21 SILTSTONE 23 SANDSTONE 22 SANDY SHALE 21 With shelly material Estuanne Focies? Rip up closts ot bose 20 18 SANDSTONE Fine, deFined burrows ZWTYTTZTZ 18 massive I edging, with dispersed shells and poorly SANDSTONE Fine medium Fragments oF shells and wood, Corbulo Shell Fi led burrows 17 dispersed shells I 16 5, 0.5 SANDSTONE Massive, unFossi iFerous 15 blue-grey vol conic, grading coarser, I 11 972 13 12 I CONGLOMERATIC SANDSTONE Volcanic, obundant large seeds and wood 11 / NO EXPOSURE 10 SANDSTONE Medium, laminated, well sorted / NO EXPOSURE e / CLAYEY SILTSTONE Thin sandstone, ledging unit with blocks oF silty clay 60 \ NO EXPOSURE 50 SILTSTONE Blocky, leached, no Fossils EXPOSURE m SANDSTONE Medium-Fine, well sorted, volcanic, SILTSTONE i CLAYSTONE BASE OF RIO BANANO FORMATION grading to si Itstone Bulletin 357 338 Sect on 31 LIMON BASIN I Bononito River (II 25 PPP number L I Description tho ogy I \TOP OF RIO BftNANO FORMATION CLAYSTONE Dispersed shells, more abundont layers of snoi original bedding, pervasive bioturbo'tion Is, whole clams 20 SANDY CLAYSTONE Alternating, silty 10 SILTSTONE S CLAYSTDNE Clayey and silty, burrow mottled and sandy ot top Dispersed Pine shell hash Longer snoils and bivalves BASE OF RIO BANANO FORMATION LinON No Sections: Coates LinUN bf^blN 339 Section 33 Bulletin 357 340 Change oF Sea - I Sec+ on I 33, contd Sections: Coates Change of Sea 213 Section I 1155 ZIZ •^7- 341 SILTSTONE Blue-grey, CLAYSTONE Pontes thicket with grading up to Tme sandstone contd 33, Mo Husks ond hash -O 2110 1153- 210 11521151239 siderostreo S 1383-1386 238 CONGLOMERATIC SANDSTONE Rounded cobble conglomerate ^Scm to most common size oF l-2cm o o o o o o o 237 s^sm/'-^JSii/-^ 665 236 661 235 ytiS^.- CLAYEY SILTSTONE thicket) -^%ti/.-?^.- \t Por tes corol i thicket Pebbles range From annulons at top Icoionies oF M of - 1382, 1150 2310 1380 1379 §^ 1377 233 Z3Z 1378, 1113/H^i 231 1772/1773= &&3- 230 229 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Change oF Sea CLAYSTONE Blue-grey, SANDSTONE hosh Shelly, burrowed, vol conic, wi th shel l-hosh burrow Fi I I with arthropod burrows, tuFFoceous, packed I 22B0 SANDSTONE 659 216 burrows, She! I y, volcanic, turFoceous, with arthropod packed with hosh 661 201 - 660 192 2019 CALCARENITE Cou astraea U th reeF rubble, I Ai^ cerv corn i i por tes , cerv corn s , P_ , i I 180 CALCARENITE W/SANDSTONE par tes, Caulastraea P_ 168 With reeF rubble, A_ i i I 156 BASE OF QUEBRADA CHOCOLATE FORMATION 111 SANDSTONE 132 120 108 96 81 72 600 18 D 36 21 12 B ue-grey, I mo I I usk r ch, i c I ayey, TOP OF RIO BANANO FORMATION - i I Ty, no cora s I witf- Bulletin 357 342 Sect on 31 LIMON BASIN I Empa me I Description Lithology PPP number m lOB l_f 101 TOP OF EnPALME REEF MEriBER TOP OF MOIN FORMATION ^TT CALCARENITE U/SANDSTONE Hon c no agar c ds 100 I I 96 nUDSTONE F i , SANDSTONE 136913671351-1138/11397b Lotentic, with U Pontes nontostraea onnuloris, I1_ , strigoso D_ Stephanocoenia c I i voso Meondr i ^ ^ ^ 7Coulostroeo no, ^ BASE OF EMPALME RFFF MEIJBER snoi Is, EMPALME MOLLUSK LOCALITY 2017/2Q18 1199, 1500 flUDSTONE 1373 por I t I ds, Uith A_ polinoto Coulastroeo, n_ onnularis, With wood Fragments Stephonocoenia t\^ onnu or s I i tL Agoricio CLAYEY SILTSTONE nUDSTONE I SILTSTONE With corals, A_ polinoto A^ cervicornis pnrtorire nsis, P pontes Diplorio CALCARENITE ReeF rubble S Siderastrea agonciids, hodrac 56 Mottled, i not well exposed SILTSTONE Blue, CLAYSTONE Dork grey-blue, 11 10 36 21 ZB 21 20 16 / muss ids, with nontostroeo and other corals 52 18 Dichoenio Diplorio covernosa 60 with oysters, mollusks, scophopods 12 1371 agonciids , S_ siderostreo 61 - riontastraea SILTY CLAYSTONE Grey-blue, mottled, with wood Frogments Corbulo, shell hash, bryozoans, oysters, bryozoans encrusting cobbles j- CLAYSTONE 68 Uith nodrocis Corol rich with cgrvjcgrms 1372 7Z Carbonate sandstone with Caulostraeo i SILTSTONE J SANDSTONE ,.j/716717/718- i SEQUENCE OVERLAYS QUEBRADA CHOCOLATE rORMATION WITH SMALL BUT UNKNOWN GAP, BASE OF MOIN FORMATION C_ P por tes i Sections: Coates 343 LinON BASIN Pueblo Nuevo, Section 35 Cemetery Lithology PPP number m ITS 85 *^ Description UEST CEMETERY SECTION TOP OF nOIN FORMATIGN r^cJ—»^ CLAYSTONE TuPraceous, pale weathering, light micaceous groins end occosional echinoids tan, CLAYSTONE Blocky, pyntic, npple-laniinoted, horizons of massive, blocky mudstone alternating with rhythmic with occasional Fine CLAYSTONE Blue-grey, with abundant arthropod burrows crammed with echinoids mo lusks ond chei lostomes I EXPOSURE 66m SILTSTONE I CLAYSTONE Blue-grey, organic material and plants Fine grained, voicaniclastic, rich in BASE OF UEST CEMETERY SECTION EXPOSURE Approximately 77m SANDSTONE Variably laminated coorse-to-medium groined, volcanic lithorenites with lenticular beds and channels Exposure 200-300(n E-NE From cemetery neon Pueblo Nuevo Stroti graphic position is tentative extropoloted From strikes at cemetery, E-U at this exposure PROBABLY EQUALS PUEBLO NUEVO SANDS OF TAYLOR (1975) BASE OF MOIN FORMATION Bulletin 357 344 LinON BASIN Lomas del m Sect on 36 I Eastern Sequence Nor^ Lithology PPP number Description 70 TOP OF MOIN FORMATION 1181 SANDSTONE Mas3ive, weathered, lotentic, covers the top oF the Lomos del plateau and is transgress ive on the reef Facies 69 flor (.8 NO EXPOSURE 5m TOP OF LOMAS DEL MAR REEF MEMBER 67 66 627 65 ^'w'^W, 610 V REEF LENS flodracis, lens with yellow-brown weathering sandstone and ploty Montastraeo, ogonciids si Itstone motr i 63 1183 62 1182 g 610 o a SANDSTONE Massive with abundant claystone lenses, rich in mol lusks both whole and hash Pervosively biaturboted with Frequent bryozoans ond horn corols F ^ 60 59 1309 1385, 1389, =1110/1116, 59 Highly Froctured and weothered, CLAYSTONE =2005/2011 I NO EXPOSURE 57 56 1181 yellow-orange No macroFossi Is, imomte on Fractures In REEF LENS 10-15-m diometen (site PPP 9-16), contoining diverse, small coral heads Flanked by bioclastic, bioturboted, mossive si Itstone, packed with diverse mol lusks, horn corals, serpul ids, bryozoans 1180 ^ ^ ^ ? CLAYSTONE 55 Grey-blue, sometimes interFinqers with the si Itstone Flonk beds coral REEF LENS 10-15-m diameter (site PPP 91ZI, contoining diverse, smol heads Flanked by bioclosttc bioturboted, mossive si Itstone, packed with horn corals, serpul ids, bryozoans diverse mol lusks, I 1179 510 53 !,911 a Q«grw/g? s o Q o S: 912 915 917 a
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