Bulletins of American paleontology (Bull. Am. paleontol.) Vol 353

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-American Begun VOLUME 112, NUMBER in 1895 ^^^^^ FEBRUARY 353 Systematic Paleontology, Biostratigraphy, and Paleoecology of Middle Ordovician Bryozoa (Trepostomata) from the Hermitage Formation of East-Central Tennessee by Edward Joseph Marintsch Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New ^ ork, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca 17, 1998 PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION Officers Constance M Soja President First Vice-President Second Vice-President Donald L Wolberg Shirley K Egan Henry W Theisen Secretary Treasurer Director Howard P Hartnett Warren D Allmon Trustees Megan Carlton E Brett (to 6/30/98) William L Crepet (to 6/30/00) J Thomas Dutro, Jr (to 6/30/99) Shirley K Egan (to 6/30/98) M G Harasewych (to 6/30/98) Howard P Hartnett (to 6/30/99) Harry G Lee (to 6/30/00) D Shay (to 6/30/99) Constance M Soja (to 6/30/97) John C Steinmetz (to 6/30/97) Amy Thomas Donald McCune R Samuel T Edward Pees (to Peter B Stifel (to 6/30/00) Henry W Theisen (to 6/30/98) Mary Kane Trochim (to 6/30/98) Gregory R Wahlman (to 6/30/99) 6/30/00) (to 6/30/98) C Whiteley L Wolberg (to 6/30/00) (to 6/30/99) B Picou (to 6/30/98) Trustees Emeritus Harry A Leffingwell Robert M Linsley James E Sorauf Raymond Van Houtte William P S Ventress BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Warren D Allmon Reviewers for Marcus M Key, A Jr this issue Edward M Snyder may be had on request Volumes 1-23 of Bulletins of American Paleontology are available from Periodicals Service Company, 11 Main St., Gemiantown, New York 12526 USA Volume of Palaeontographica Americana has been reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003 USA list of titles in both series, and available numbers and volumes Subscriptions to Bulletins of American Paleontology may be started at any time, by volume or year Current price is US $67.50 per volume Numbers of Palaeontographica Americana are priced individually, and are invoiced separately on request for additional information, write or call: Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road Ithaca, NY 14850 USA (607) 273-6623 FAX (607) 273-6620 @ This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper) Begun VOLUME 112, NUMBER in 1895 ^^^"^ FEBRUARY 353 Systematic Paleontology, Biostratigraphy, and Paleoecology of Middle Ordovician Bryozoa (Trepostomata) from the Hermitage Formation of East-Central Tennessee by Edward Joseph Marintsch Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New York, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, 17, 1998 ISSN 0007-5779 ISBN 0-87710-444-1 Library of Congress Catalog Card Numbei This publication is supported in part by a Corporate Membership from Exxon Exploration Company Printed in the United States of Anr Allen Press, Inc Lawrence, KS 66044 U.S.A CONTENTS Page Abstract Introduction Acknowledgments Materials and Study Techniques Collecting Localities Sample Preparation and Study Methods Repository of Specimens Stratigraphic Collection Levels and Specimen Identification Labels The Hermitage Formation General Distribution and Subdivisions Hermitage of the Study Area 10 Stratigraphic Position 11 General Depositional Settings of the Hermitage Formation and Stratigraphically Contiguous Strata Trepostome Bryozoan Faunal Analysis 11 Trepostome Bryozoan Assemblages from the Hermitage Formation of the Eastern Tennessee Study Area Bryozoan Assemblage One Bryozoan Assemblage Two Bryozoan Assemblage Three Comparison With Some Other Middle Ordovician Bryozoan Assemblages Biostratigraphic Utility of Bryozoan Distributions from Tennessee Study Area 13 13 13 13 15 24 28 Conclusions Introduction to Systematic Paleontology 29 30 32 33 Taxonomic Considerations Glossary of Terms Used in Morphologic Descriptions Description Format Key to Abbreviations Used in Tables of Quantitative Data Systematic Paleontology Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus 33 Prasopora Nicholson and Etheridge Mesotrypa Ulrich Peronopora Nicholson Acantholaminaliis n 35 39 gen -t- Homotrypa Ulrich -t-1 Monticulipnra d'Orbigny Bythopora Miller and Dyer 56 57 Baloslomella Ulrich 61 Ehdotrypa Ulrich 64 67 77 77 79 82 87 89 Helerolrypu Nicholson Cypholrypa Ulrich and Bassler Stigmatella Ulrich and Bassler Tarphophraama Karklins Pan'ohalloporu Singh Anaphragma Ulrich and Hemiphragma Ulrich Bassler 90 References Cited Plates 93 Index 118 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Text-figures Map showing study area in eastern Tennessee Graphic display illustrating relative abundances of common trepostome species (a 3%) within Bryozoan Assemblages found at Norris Lake IV section Graphic display illustrating relative abundances of common trepostome species (a 3%) within Bryozoan Assemblages found at 10 Chamberlain Branch section Graphic display illustrating Wilson Branch section 1^ relative abundances of common trepostome species (a 3%) within Bryozoan Assemblages found 15 at ** Graphic display illustrating relative Howard Cemetery 10 common abundances of trepostome species (> 3%) within Bryozoan Assemblages found 19 Bryozoan Assemblages across study area Range chart of trepostome bryozoan species found at Norris Lake IV section showing all horizons of occurrence as well as stratigraphic distributions of Bryozoan Assemblages and Biostratigraphic Units Range chart of trepostome bryozoan species found at Chamberlain Branch section showing all horizons of occurrence as well as stratigraphic distributions of Bryozoan Assemblages and Biostratigraphic Units Range chart of trepostome bryozoan species found at Wilson Branch section showing all horizons of occurrence as well as stratigraphic distributions of Bryozoan Assemblages and Biostratigraphic Units Range chart of trepostome bryozoan species found at Howard Cemetery section showing all horizons of occurrence as well as stratigraphic distributions of Bryozoan Assemblages and Biostratigraphic Units Lateral relationships of LIST OF TABLES Table Relati ve Relati ve abundances of abundances of Relati ve abundances of Relat! ve abundances of Relati ve common common common common common common common trepostome species (> within Bryozoan Assemblages at within Bryozoan Assemblages at at trepostome species (a 3%) within Bryozoan Assemblages at trepostome species found within Bryozoan Assemblage One trepostome species found within Bryozoan Assemblage Two abundances of Relati ve abundances of Relati ve Summary of relationships of Bryozoan Assemblages Quan ve data, Prasopora falesi (James) abundances of 3%) 3%) trepostome species (> 3%) within Bryozoan Assemblages trepostome species (a to lithotype, associated macrofossils, Quant: ve data Mesotrypa angularis (Ulrich and Bassler) ve data, Mesotrypa Quan ve data Peronopora mundula (Ulrich) 13 Quant ve data Peronopora weirae 14 Quan ve data Acaniholaminatus typicus 15 ve data, Acantholaminatus multistylus 24 Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant 25 Quam ve data, Bythopora dendrina (James) 26 Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant Quant ve data, Batostomella suhgracilis (Ulrich) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 sp A Quant: 12 sp n sp n gen., n n gen., n sp ve data, Homotrypa minnesotensis Ulrich ve data, Homotrypa flahellaris var spinifera Bassler ve data, Homotrypa similis Foord ve data, Homotrypa tabulata sp n ve data, Homotrypa tuberciilata Ulrich ve data, Homotrypa callosa Ulrich ve data, Homotrypa subramosa Ulrich ve data, Homotrypa sp ve data, Monticulipora A sp A ve data, Batostomella subgracilis robusta var n var ve data, Eridotrypa mutabilis Ulrich ve data, Heterotrypa rugosa n sp ve data, IHeterotrypa subramosa (Ulrich) ve data, Heterotrypa subtrentonensis ve data, Heterotrypa magnopora n ve data, Heterotrypa exovaria sp n ve data, Heterotrypa praenuntia sp n sp var simplex (Ulrich) ve data, Heterotrypa praenuntia var echinata (Ulrich) ve data, Cyphotrypa acervulosa (Ulrich) ve data, Stigmatella distinctaspinosa n sp ve data, Tarphophragma multitabulata (Ulrich) ve data, Tarphophragma ampla (Ulrich) ve data, Parvohallopora pulchella (Ulrich) ve data, Parvohallopora granda n ve data, Parvohallopora granda var inflata n var ve data, ve data, Norris Lake IV section Chamberlain Branch section Wilson Branch section Howard Cemetery section sp Anaphragma hermitagensis n sp Hemiphragma ottawaensis (Foord) and trepostome species found within Bryozoan Assemblage Three 10 at section of deposition 22 25 26 27 27 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY, BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, AND PALEOECOLOGY OF MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN BRYOZOA (TREPOSTOMATA) FROM THE HERMITAGE FORMATION OF EAST-CENTRAL TENNESSEE Edward Joseph Marintsch Science Department, St Thomas High School, Houston, TX 77007 ABSTRACT The Hermitage Formation of East-Central Tennessee is stratigraphically situated between the Carters Limestone below and the Cannon Limestone above It contains a diverse and abundant fauna dominated by trepostome bryozoans Four continuous stratitwo within the Sequatchie Valley of the Appalachian Plateau (Howard Cemetery and graphic sections have been examined Wilson Branch) and two within the Valley and Ridge Province (Norris Lake IV and Chamberlain Branch) The Hermitage varies between 45 and 130 feet (13.7 and 39.6 m) (thickens to the east), and is composed of clean to argillaceous wackestones and pack-Stones deposited in an open marine platform carbonate setting The present study systematically describes the trepostome — bryozoan fauna and takes note of their changing relative abundances and biostratigraphy within each section This is the first in Kentucky for Middle Ordovician sediments younger than Blackriveran in age study of this type south of the plateau deposits The lower boundary of the Hermitage Formation such a biostratigraphic/taxonomic study since is close to the underlying T-3 Bentonite providing an ideal starting point for this bentonite is an isochronous surface upon which lateral and temporal distri- butions of these bryozoans can be based Within the Hermitage Formation, 36 species-group taxa have been recognized These include 17 genera and 33 species which A new genus, Acantholaminams consists of new species A typicus and A mullistylus Other new species Panohaltopora granda Anaphragma hermilagensis Peronopora weirae Heterotrypa magnopora, H sublrentonensis, Homotrypa tabulata New varieties include Batostomella subgracilis var rohusta and Panohallopora granda var inflata Species previously described and found within the present study area include Bythopora dendrina, Batostomella subgracilis, Prasopora falesi, Eridotrypa mutabilis, Mesotrypa angularis, Pan'ohaltopora pulchella Homotrypa minnesotensis H flabellaris var spinifera, H subramosa, H callosa H similis, H tuberculata, Heterotrypa subramosa Heterotrypa praenuntia var simplex H praenuntia var echinata Cyphotrypa acervulosa, Peronopora mundula Tarphophragma ampla, T multitabulala and Hemiphragma ottawaensis Three species were not assigned a trivial name and are identified herein as Monticulipora sp A, Homotrypa sp A, and Mesotrypa sp A The new varieties assigned to various species (Par\'ohallopora granda var inflata and Batostomella subgracilis var robusta) are of particular interest from a taxonomic standpoint since they differ from the non-varietal forms primarily in the development of the exozone (e.g length of the exozone and wall thickness) and pose questions as to the possible effect of environment on the trepostome phenotype Criteria used to delimit boundaries between some co-occurring species in the present study area (e.g Tarphophragma ampla —> Tarphophragma multitabulata: Bythopora dendrina —> Batostomella subgracilis: Pan'ohallopora pulchella —» Panohallopora granda) are rather subtle since the range in morphologies found within these species-couplets is often expressed as a largely continuous gradient in zoarial form between taxa Groups of numerically dominant trepostome species were observed to occur in time and space and have been referred to herein as Bryozoan Assemblages (One Two, and Three) Assemblages are generally correlated with subtle changes in lithotype ( = lithofacies) ranging from muddy and argillaceous wackestones to clean packstones When compared with other Middle Ordovician bryozoan faunas, taxa from the Hermitage appear to be most similar in species composition to part of Karklins' (1984) Tarphophragma multitabulata Assemblage Zone of Kirkfieldian to lower Shermanian include five varieties include H exovaria H rugosa Stigmatella distinctaspinosa and '1 age Three loosely defined local biostratigraphic zones (five zones within the eastern sections) are present wilhm the Hermitage of and have boundaries which are possibly influenced by variations of local lithofacies the study area INTRODUCTION relation." said John Rodgers (1953, p 64) stated that "probably more controversy has raged over the stratigraphy of the Chickamauga limestone and equivalent rocks in the southern Appalachians than over that of any other major unit here discussed except the Ocowee Series, and this despite the generally good outcrops, the ready accessibility of the outcrop area, the well characterized and differentiated lithologic units, the several usable key beds, and the abundant fossils The controversy has concerned both subdivisions and cor- much of what he Time-equivalence of strata when atbased mainly on presumed lateral litho- Over thirty years later, is still true tempted fa^ies is relationships with a minimum of biostrati- graphic control (Walker et cil 1983; Ruppel and Walker, 1977; Walker, 1974; Walker and Alberstadt, 1976; Wilson, 1949) The problem of correlation is by the fact that exposures occur along strike belts that are sometimes widely separated because of folding and thrusting It is apparent that in order to reconstruct geologic and evolutionary events that took place in the southern Appalachians further complicated Bulletin 353 during the early Paleozoic, a detailed, workable biostratigraphic zonation is needed The research presented herein is principally a bio- Hermitage Formation as exposed in the Valley and Ridge Province and Appalachian Plateau of East-Central Tennessee Efforts have been specifically directed toward the stratigraphic study carried out within the systematic paleontology of the trepostomatous bryozoans Bryozoans have biostratigraphic potential and are numerically dominant, geographically widespread, cies in the past were defined typologically, largely ig- noring the effects of genetic and ecophenotypic variability among population members The present report, then, is the first major paleonfrom Ordovician strata above the T-3 Bentonite within the Appalachians south of Kentucky Only a few other studies provide detailed information on the presence and distribution of Ordovician trepostome species from areas in relatively close geographic proximity to the Hermitage of Ten- tological study of bryozoans McKinney (1971a,b) studied the trepostomes and taxonomically diverse, but are virtually ignored within strata of the Southern Appalachian Basin Indeed, Walker and Ferrigno (1973, p 301) in a study of Middle Ordovician reefs in East Tennessee stated their opinion "that the abundance, wide occurrence, and rapid evolution of the ectoprocts of the Middle Ordovician require their careful testing as biostrati- nessee graphic indicators." The bryozoans, then, would seem the present study area the T-3 Bentonite be a potential tool in the understanding of facies changes and other lateral relationships at this place and from the Hermitage by the Upper Carters Formation, approximately 35 feet (10.7 m) of fossil-poor strata Karklins' (1984) detailed work describing 22 species of trepostomes from predominantly platform carbonates of the Middle Ordovician Lexington Limestone and Upper Ordovician Clays Ferry Formation in northem Kentucky and Brown's (1965) work in the lower Lexington Limestone of central Kentucky are, in part, laterally equivalent to the Hermitage (environments of the various Lexington Limestone Members are described in Cressman, 1973) Singh (1979) identified 16 to time An advantage in carrying out this particbeen the presence of a distinctive lith- initial ular study has ologic unit traceable throughout the study area, namely, the T-3 Bentonite which occurs at the base of the Upper Carters Limestone (see Kolata et al 1987, and Samson et al., 1987, for chemical correlations of the T-3 Bentonite with K-bentonites of the Upper Missis- sippi Valley) Since bentonites are generally believed to be deposited isochronously, the study of fossilifer- (24 species) within environmentally undifferentiated biomicrudites, micrites, and calcareous shales from the Lower Chickamauga Group of northeastern Alabama The upper stratigraphic limit of his study is marked by the T-3 Bentonite His to lowermost strata are equivalent beds not older than the Ridley Formation Within mainly is separated ous strata above the T-3 horizon allows us to gain an increased perspective of the spatial and temporal vari- trepostome ations of a faunal group within approximately time- stone of Kentucky, Indiana, and equivalent rated from the Clays Ferry by the Fairview Formation strata At the time that McKinney (1971a) completed his the Middle Ordovician trepostomatous Bryozoa from Alabama, he remarked that only one study of Middle Ordovician bryozoans south of Kentucky had been published (although he notes a number of "incidental reports" found in several stratigraphic works), that of Coryell (1921) on the ectoprocts of the work on species within "organoclastic" limestones of the Upper Ordovician Bellevue Lime- Though Ohio which is sepa- the integration of bryozoan species distri- butions from varied published geographic and graphic works is beyond strati- the scope of the present re- trepostome systematics and distributional data presented herein should permit a better understanding port, the of trepostome bryozoan evolution as well as the larger- only contributions to the paleontology of the Hermit- scale biostratigraphic and paleogeographic relationships within and among various southern Appalachian Middle Ordovician environments Any attempt to unravel such phylogenetic and paleoecological distributions must begin with a detailed and thorough examination of the component fauna The study and included data base presented herein, then, is a first step and major building block in the understanding of these re- age Formation are those of Bassler (1932) and Wilson (1949) who merely list species of Bryozoa from the fossil-rich, Stones River Group of Central Tennessee (Presently, Group is thought to encompass that part of the Chickamauga limestone up to and including the Carters Limestone.) McKinney limited his work to the lower Chickamauga Group up to the T-3 Bentonite the Stones River in northeast Alabama Within Central Tennessee, the lationships within a heretofore largely unstudied, yet Central Basin Techniques accessible and knowledge the bryozoans were rather poor (compare, for example, the 1953 Treatise published by volume with Boardman et al.)\ the latest (1983) edition furthermore, many spe- geographic area ACKNOWLEDGMENTS available at the time of their publications concerning The writer acknowledges the help of Dr Peter Bretsky of the SUNY advisor who proposed at Stony Brook, my this research topic, W dissertation provided en- Middle Ordovician Bryozoa of Tennessee: Marintsch couragement throughout, and was always available for discussion Dr Richard S Boardman of the Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution (presently Curator Emeritus) provided supervision during my tenure as Smithsonian Pre-Doctoral Fellow at the National Museum D.C Dr Roger J in Washington, Cuffey of the Pennsylvania State of Natural History University and Dr Olgerts L Karklins of the United States Geological Survey (presently retired) freely discussed various topics related to this author's work and offered insightful and uplifting comments Dr Robert C Milici, formerly of the Tennessee Division of Geology, presently State Geologist of Virginia, graciously provided locality data for several outcrops in Tennessee and took the author to several excellent localities Frank K McKinney of Appalachian State Univer- Dr sity was kind enough to afford insights into his re- search with trepostomes as well as locality information and section descriptions of outcrops in northeastern Alabama Mr and Mrs Ken Cooper of Kingston, Tennessee provided genuine southern hospitality while working at the Chamberlain Branch section near their home Don Dean of the Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution freely gave of his knowledge into the preparation of trepostome specimens The National Science Foundation (NSF Grant #EAR 7809952) and Sigma Xi insightfully provided grant monies in support of this work The Smithsonian allowed me to study at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C for six months Dr Marcus M Key, Jr of Dickinson College, Dr Edward M Snyder of Shepherd College, and Drs Peter R Hoover and Warren D Allmon, past and present directors, respectively, of the Paleontological Research Institution reviewed this manuscript and offered numerous suggestions for its improvement Dr Key, in particular, left not a zoarium unturned in his most thorough scrutiny Mr Neil Hanson and Mr Howard Kiatta of Houston, Texas provided financial support toward the publication of this manuscript Finally, but foremost, grateful to my wife, Fran, who I am has always been a source of encouragement MATERIALS AND STUDY TECHNIQUES Collecting Localities NORRIS LAKE IV SECTION 58' 10" 36° 14' 51" N, 83° W, Big Ridge Park Quadrangle, Union County, Tennessee found on the northeast side of the fourth peninsula east of the Andersonville dock Carters, Hermitage and Cannon Formations present Outcrop locality from R C Milici (pers comm.) This section is CHAMBERLAIN BRANCH SECTION 35° 49' 13" N, 84° 31' 06" W, Bacan Gap Quadrangle, Roane County, Tennessee This section outcrops on the southwest side of the Tennessee River, directly southwest of the southeastern end of Long Island The Chamberlain Branch flows northeastward into a small embayment of the Tennessee River found south of the outcrop Carters, Hermitage, and Cannon Formations present Outcrop locality from R C Milici (pers comm.) HOWARD CEMETERY SECTION, 85° 15' 45" W, 35° 29' 08" N, Mount Airy Quadrangle, Bledsoe County, Tennessee This section is found in Sequatchie Valley, east of East Valley Road, approximately 700 feet (213.4 m) northeast of Howard Cemetery Outcrop was measured northeast of the branch flowing into the Sequatchie River Entire section is exposed up the hillside See also description found in Milici (1970) Carters, Her- mitage, Cannon, and Catheys Formations present WILSON BRANCH SECTION 00' 45" 35° 46' 23" N, 85° W, Vandever Quadrangle, Cumberland County, Tennessee This section is found in Sequatchie Valley three Road miles northeast of the intersection of East Valley and the road to Lowe Gap (on Melvine Quadrangle) Outcrop is on the east side and at the very end of East Valley Road near the intersection of the road leading west to the Alvin C York highway (Wilson Branch was not found approximately 500 feet [152.4 m] south of the road leading to the Alvin C York highway as indicated on the 1956 Vandever, Tennessee Quadran- but was found directly north of it) Hermitage and lower Cannon Formations are present Outcrop locality from R C Milici (pers comm.) gle, Sample Preparation and Study Methods At each from each locality, hand-sized samples were collected fossiliferous horizon Where fossils were apparently absent or sparse, or where the unit was ex- ceedingly fossiliferous, samples were collected at ap- proximately 0.5 meter intervals At each horizon, specimens of all the macroinvertebrate fauna were taken from different areas along individual bedding planes At the same time, detailed field notes were taken of lithological variation, sedimentary structures, and bedding features Sections were measured beginning at the chert bed found directly beneath the T-3 (or T-4) Bentonite Samples were returned to the lab and cut into cm thick slabs using a standard diamond blade Slabs were then ground flat on a glass plate using 220, 600, and 800 silicon carbide grit in that order Frequent crumbling of friable slabs during both the cutting and grind- Bulletin 353 ing procedure was dealt with by impregnating the sample with epoxy, Duco cement, or a clear acrylic lacquer and then placing a thick rubber band around the periphery After the final grit, slabs were highly polished on an 8-inch diameter lap using 0.3 micron aluminum oxide powder on a Buehler felt polishing cloth Each slab was then etched for to seconds in a solution of 1:60 formic acid Acetate peel replicas mm were prepared using 0.005 or 1.5 thick cellulose acetate sheeting The peels were examined for lithologic content, and the positions of nearly 5,500 trepostome bryozoan specimens were noted on drawings of each polished side About 1,500 specimens spanning all possible species and from varying lithofacies were selected for further examination involving threedimensional analysis By matching peel to rock surface, these specimens were located on the actual hand samples and were cut out Each zoarium was matched to the portion of its colony found on the non-polished side of the succeeding contiguous slab This latter slab was sliced in half parallel to the other cuts so as to not destroy the polished face when Natural Identification Labels Norris Lake TV Section At the Norris Lake IV Section, the Carters/Hermitft (15.8 m) above the top of the T-3 Chert The lowermost exposed bed of the underlying Carters Formation occurs 35 ft (10.7 m) above the T-3 Chert This Carters bed is the horizon above which the specimen data were collected The T-4 Chert occurs 19 ft (5.8 m) above the T-3 Chert age contact appears 52 Typical the top of the T-3 Chert [USNM in the average, = Hand sample indicator (A = first hand sample from this horizon, B = second, etc.) = Slab number from hand sample Trepostome colony was noted from right side of left side) If slab pieces, eaoh was was denoted cut into (e.g., as "b") = Trepostome colony ony noted from indicator slab, (A = B = second first col- colony, AA = 27th colony, etc.) = Various measurements were made on (M) colony and they appear this in the statistical ta- bles (F) = Indicates material which was particularly fragmentary 432401] = the specimen catalog number the United States National Museum at col- Chamberlain Branch Section onies per taxon, characters per colony, and repli- were measured Characters measured included cavity diameters of autozooecia and mesozooecia, autozooecial wall thick- cates per character number of autozooecia per square millimeter, diameters of acanthostyle laminar sheath and lumen, and colony diameter Where appropriate, measurements ness, were made in the exozone and endozone within macular and non-macular regions "L" two "a" or slab unless otherwise indicated with an (from quan- 1 [USNM IV = Norris Lake IV section = The number of feet above the base of the exposed Carters Formation from which the specimen was collected = The corresponding number of feet above (143) thick acetate for further study On 108(143)A-1-D(M) 108 D of taxa IV NL A Over 12,000 measurements were used NL label: 432401] Both pieces of individual zoaria were examined under a binocular microscope and oriented in such a manner that the best longitudinal, tangential, and transverse sections could be prepared from either or both of the zoarial samples Where necessary, specimens were embedded in epoxy cubes for ease of handling and/or the preservation of morphological features found at the colony surface These specimens were cut using a Raytech Blue Blazer ultrathin blade and subsequently ground, polished, and etched as noted above for the large hand samples Tangential sections were frequently attained by making a cut near the colony periphery and grinding down to the surface using a diamond studded lap Oriented sections of each zoarium were then placed on individual slides of 1.5 mm titative characterizations Institution, Stratigraphic Collection Levels and Specimen cutting out the zooecial counterparts (USNM), Smithsonian History Washington, D.C as well as Repository of Specimens Holotypes, paratypes, hypotypes and colony remnants are deposited in the U.S National Museum of At the Chamberlain Branch Section, the base of the exposed Hermitage appears 45 ft (13.7 m) above the top of the T-3 Chert This chert is the horizon above which the specimen data were collected The T-4 Chert occurs 34 ft (10.4 m) above the T-3 Chert Typical label: CB = CB 145B-4-A (F) Chamberlain Branch section 145 = The number of feet above the top of the T-3 Chert from which the specimen was collected Other symbols are as for the Norris Lake IV Section above Bl'L[.f,tins of American Paleontology, Volume 112 Plate 19 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 112 rJ jk!S Plate 20 Middle Ordovioan Bryozoa of Tennessee: Marintsch 113 Explanation of Plate 20 Figure 1-4 Turphophragma multitahulala (Ulrich) a Tangential section showing subrounded to subpolygonal zooecial cavity outlines, and few small mesozooecia with subpolygonal to polygonal cavity outlines, Hypotype USNM 432772 [NL IV 96(131)E-I-B], X33 Ib.lc Longitudinal sections showing laminar walls with a faint dark line defining zooecial boundaries, diaphragms throughout colony, within endozone diaphragms most closely spaced at proximal-most parts of zooecial tubes, planar exozonal diaphragms closely spaced, mainly perpendicular or somewhat inclined to zooecial walls and of variable thickness, and small exozonal mesozooecia cut obliquely for autozooecia, Id Hypotype USNM in lower exozone with closely spaced diaphragms having thicknesses not greater than 432772 |NL IV 96( 131 )E-1-B], X25 USNM 432772 Longitudinal section of outer exozone showing wall microstructure of mostly V-shaped laminae, Hypotype |NL IV 96(131)E-1-B], xlOO endozone showing smaller, newly formed zooecia having to more polygonal zooecia, Hypotype USNM 432769 [NL IV 51(86)A-17L-A], X40 2a Transverse section across older, 2b sides distributed Longitudinal section showing a relatively narrow exozone Otherwise similar to Figures lb and Ic, Hypotype between larger, USNM 432769 [NL IV 5U86)A-17L-A], x33 2c Tangential section with elongate zooecial cavity outlines due to slightly oblique nature of some zooecia Otherwise similar Hypotype USNM 432769 [NL IV 51(86)A-17L-A], X33 Oblique section through endozone showing regular budding pattern of autozooecia Note smaller (relatively younger) zooecia with to sides, and larger (relatively older) more multisided zooecia whose planar walls smoothen out zooecially outwards to form subrounded apertures, Hypotype USNM 432813 [CB I30A-8-A], X25 to Figure la, Oblique section through endozone as for Figure 3, Hypotype USNM 432785 [NL IV 94(129)A-3L-B], X25 Page 80 Bulletin 353 Explanation of Plate 21 Figure 1-2 I Tarphophntfima ampla (LUrich) la Transverse section of endozonc showing smaller, ontogenetically younger zooecia with to sides distributed between larger, older, more multisided zooecia whose planar walls have taken on 43(78)B-3L-G], X40 showing subpolygonal Ic USNM Id a subrounded appearance, 432822 [NL IV 43(78)B-3L-G], XIOO T multitabulata (cf Plate 20, Figure Ic) but for USNM 432822 [NL IV 43(7S)B-3L-G], X25 showing generally subpolygonal autozooecial cavity outlines and more common mesozooecia than for T multitabulata due to less crowding peripherally by autozooecia, Hypotype USNM 432825 [NL IV 49(84)A-7R-B], x43 Transverse section as for Figure la, Hypotype USNM 432825 [NL IV 49(84 )A-7R-B], X40 Longitudinal section of e.xozone showing V-shaped laminae composing autozooecial walls, Hypotype LISNM 432825 [NL IV 49(84)A-7R-B], XIOO Longitudinal section showing an exozone wider than for Figure Id and approaching that of T multitabulata Hypotype USNM 432825 [NL IV 49(84)A-7R-B[, x25 absence of thick exozone, Hypotype 2d 432822 [NL IV Longitudinal section showing a narrow exozone with thin walls, diaphragms throughout autozooecia thicker and more variably 2a Tangential section 2c USNM to oriented in the exozone, and small exozonal mesozooecia Note suiiilarity to 2b Hypotype subrounded autozooecial cavity outlines and increased numbers of angular mesozooecia compared to T multitabulata Hypotype USNM 432822 [NL IV 43(78)B-3L-G], X25 Longitudinal section of exozone showing thin walls whose ordinarily laminar microstructure is obscure (cf Figure 2b), Hypotype lb Tangential section Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 112 Plate 21 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 112 Plate 22 Middle Ordovician Bryozoa of Tennessee: Marintsch 115 Explanation of Plate 22 Figure 1-3 Panohallopora pulchella (Ulrich) la Longitudinal section showing very few diaphragms, restricted to proximal-most ends of zooecia in endozone and sometimes exozone and fairly common mesozooecia in exozone with closely spaced diaphragms, Hypotype USNM 432895 [CB 149A-7- Page 82 A] x25 lb Tangential section showing rounded zooecial cavity outlines and subrounded to subpolygonal mesozooecial cavity outlines in Ic Longitudinal section of exozone showing wall microstruclure of distinct V-shaped laminae, Hypotype fairly right more angular and walls thinner 432895 [CB 149A-7-A], X45 thick-walled portions of colony Zooecia are comer of figure, Hypotype USNM in a slightly deeper tangential cut in lower USNM 432895 [CB 149A-7-A], XIOO Tangential section of a thin-walled specimen showing round to subround autozooecial cavity outlines and polygonal meso- Transverse section of endozone showing polygonal zooecial cavity outlines, Hypotype zooecial cavity outlines Hypotype E], Parvohallopora granda 4a USNM 432894 [CB 72C-4L-C] x45 USNM 432841 [NL IV 108(143)A-8- X40 n 84 sp Longimdinal section of outer exozone showing V-shaped laminar wall microstructure, Holotype 108(143)A-3-E] XIOO 4b Transverse section of endozone showing polygonal zooecial cavity outlines, Holotype USNM USNM 432920 [NL IV 432920 [NL IV 108( 143)A-3-E], X40 showing rounded (to subrounded) autozooecial cavity outlines, polygonal zooecia boundaries (appear as white lines), a macula in the upper right comer of figure, and few mesozooecia The latter appear to have been crowded out peripherally by autozooecia Holotype USNM 432920 [NL IV 108(143)A-3-E], X45 4d Longitudinal section showing thicker walls and increased numbers of diaphragms in exozone than found in P pulchella Endozonal diaphragms are restricted to proximal ends of zooecial tubes, mesozooecia present in exozone, Holotype USNM 432920 [NL IV I08( 143)A-3-E], X25 4c Tangential section relatively thick walls, Bulletin 353 Explanation of Plate 23 Page Figure Panohallopora granda la n sp var inflaui n 86 var Longitudinal section showing wide exozone, increased numbers of diaphragms, and thicker exozonal walls compared to nonvarietal form of the species Note mesozooecia crowded out peripherally, Hypotype USNM 432962 [NL IV 108(143)A-15-C] X25 lb Longitudinal section of exozone showing wall microstructure of V-shaped laminae Note median line within wall, Hypotype USNM Ic 432962 [NL IV I08( 143)A-15-C], XIOO Tangential section showing very thick walls, rounded (to subrounded) autozooecial cavity outlines, and megazooecia in macula all mesozooecia present in lower exozone (see Figure la) are absent in tangential Hypotype USNM 432962 [NL IV 108( 143)A-15-C[, x45 Transverse section of endozone showing polygonal zooecial cavity outlines Hypotype USNM 432962 [NL IV 108( 143)A-15- in left center of figure Note that nearly section (except for macular region), Id C], X40 Hemiphragma ottawaensis (Foord) showing unevenly thickened laminar walls in both endozone and exozone, and diaphragms and hemiphragms throughout oriented perpendicular to zooecial walls, Hypotype USNM 433073 [CB 50A-3-X], X25 Tangential sections showing mainly subrounded zooecial cavity outlines, and numerous acanthostyles mainly at zooecial comers, Hypotype USNM 433073 [CB 50A-3-X], X33 Longitudinal section of exozone showing distinct broadly arched wall laminae, and hemiphragms, Hypotype USNM 433073 [CB 50A-3-X] XIOO 2a,2b Longitudinal sections 2c, 2d 2e 89 tl'LLHTINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY, VOLUME 112 Plate 23 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 112 Middle Ordovician Bryozoa of Tennessee: Marintsch 17 Explanation for Plate 24 Page 87 Figure 1-2 Anaphragma hermitagensis n sp la Longitudinal section showing irregularly thickened and thinned autozooecial walls in exozone composed of V-shaped laminae, lb Tangential section showing rounded to subrounded zooecial cavity outlines, well-defined polygonal zooecial boundaries, un- zooecial boundaries delineated by a dark line, even to crenulate autozooecial walls in endozone, and rare exozonal diaphragms, Holotype common [HCM Ic USNM 433017 [HCM 18(57)B-5-E], X25 small mesozooecia minute acanthostyle-like features, and a macula in right side of figure, Holotype USNM 433017 18(57)B-5-E], X45 Transverse section showing polygonal zooecial cavity outlines in endozone Holotype USNM 433017 [HCM 18(57)B-5-E], X40 Id Longitudinal section of exozone showing irregularly thickened and thinned walls with distinct V-shaped laminae whose apices are joined by an even dark line, Holotype 2a USNM 433017 [HCM 18(57)B-5-E], x 100 USNM 433058 [CB 67A-3-A], x 100 Longitudinal section as for Figure Id, Paratype 2b Tangential section as for Figure lb but for somewhat more common mesozooecia, Paratype USNM 433058 [CB 67A-3-A[, X45 showing pinching and swelling of autozooecial walls in exozone, a dark median line marking zooecial boundaries within laminar walls, diaphragms absent, zooecial bends at both base of exozone and outer endozone, and several narrow mesozooecia, Paratype USNM 433058 [CB 67A-3-A[, x25 2c Longitudinal section 89 Hemiphragma ottawaensis (Foord) Longitudinal section of exozone showing distinct broadly arched wall laminae, and hemiphragms, Hypotype 50A-3-X], XIOO LISNM 433073 [CB Acantholaminatus 42 gen n Acanlholaininatus imillistyhis 27, 28, Acantholaminatus typicus n gen., n 42-44, 96 Carters Formation (= Carters Limestone) (PI 4) Catheys Formation Central Basin (Tennessee) sp 18-22, 25-28, 42, 43, 96 (PI 3) 96 30 30 Acanthostyle (Definition) acen'ulosa Cyphotrypa 16-19, 21, 24, 25 28, 75, 77, 78, 111 Cladopora Eridotrypa 24 77 Amalgamate Wall 65 19, 64-66 30 Structure (Definition) ample, Callopora 24 80 ampla Tarphophragma 13-17, 19-21, 23-29, 80-82, 114 (PI 21) 87 13-17, 19-21 23-29, 87, 88, 117 (PI 24) 87 mirabile Ulrich and Bassler angularis Mesotrypa 7, 1 12 17 22, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13-17, 20-23, 25-29, 35-38, 94 (PI 1) 56 12, 17 9, 11 17, 21 39 Chaeteles gracilis Nicholson Chamberlain Branch Section 61 10-14 17 18, 22, 24-26 29, 81 Champlainian Series Characteristic Faunal Members (Biostratigraphic) II, 34, 57 24 6, 28 Chickamauga Group Chickamauga limestone Chickamauga Supergroup 5, 11 Cincinnatian Stage Anaphragma Ulrich and Bassler Anaphragma hermitagensis n sp Anaphragma Chaetetes decipiens Rominger 18) (PI acenulosa Leptotrypa aedilis 82 (PI 4) Acanthopore (Definition) aedilis Calopora elegamida Hall Cannon Formation (= Cannon Limestone) n.sp n gen., 21, 24, Cladopora aedilis Eichwald 46 65 Clays Ferry Formation 6, 15 Cobourg Formation 21 conica Sligmatella 78 Conodont Zone Constellaria (Midcontinent) 11 Dana 21 Constellaria teres Hayes and Ulrich (Cystoporata) 15 appressa Heterotrypa 38 68 crenulata Stigmatella 77 arcuatilis Balticopora 18 Crenulate Walls (Definition) 30 Astogenetic Change (Definition ) 30 68 42 Curdsville Atactoporella Ulrich Autozooecium (Definition) Axial Diaphragms (Definition) Axial Region (Definition) 30 30 30 angularis var parvalrypa Mesot/ypa Atactopora subramosa Ulrich Balticopora arcuatilis Karklins 18 Batostoma oltawaense Foord 24, 89 Batostomella Ulrich Member of Hermitage Formation Member of Lexington Limestone Clenodonta curi'ata, 9, 15, Homotrypa 77 Cyphotrypa Ulrich and Bassler Cyphotrypa acen'ulosa (Ulrich) 16-19, 21, 24, 25, 28, 75, 77, 78, 111 (PI Cyphotrypa switzeriensis Karklins Cystiphragm (Definition) Cystose (Cystoidal) Diaphragm (Definition) 13-19, 22-29, 57, 59 61-63 71 104 Batostomella subgracilis (Ulrich) var rohusta n (PI 11) var 25 28 63 64, 86, 104 (PI 11), 105 (PI 12) Bellevue Limestone Biostratigraphic Utility of Bryozoa 6, Black River Formation Black River Stage 24 24 11, 21 Blackriveran Stage 21, 24, 28 Member of Hermitage Formation Brannon Member of Lexington Limestone 15 Bromide Formation 24 Bryozoan Assemblages and Relation to Lithotype, Macrofossils, and Environment of Deposition 23 Bryozoan As.semblage One 13-19,22,23,28,29 Bryozoan Assemblage Two 13-18, 22, 23, 28, 29 Bryozoan Assemblage Three 13-19,22,23,28,29 Bythopora Miller and Dyer 57 Blue Clay Shale Bythopora dendrina (James) 13-18, 20-29, 57-60 103 Bythopora fruiticosa Miller and Dyer Bythopora subgracilis Bassler (PI 10) 57 57,61 18 30 30 9,11 Dalmanella Coquina Member of Hermitage Formation 9, 11-14,23 Dalnumella fertilis [BxaciuopoAa.) decipiens, Chaeteles 39 11, 24 Decorah Formation 24 Decorah Shales Deicke Bentonite 11 Dekayella Ulrich 75 75 22, 24, 75 24 74 75 75 69 68 68 69 Dekayella praenuntia Ulrich Dekayella praenuntia van echinata Ulrich Dekayella praenuntia var simplex Ulrich Dekayella praenuntia var multipora Ulrich Dekayella robusta Foord Dekayia prolifica (Ulrich) Dekayia subramosa (Ulrich) Dekayia ulrichi (Nicholson) dendrina, Bythopora dendrina, Helopora 19, 13-18 20-29, 57-60, 103 (PI 83 Callopora ampla Ulrich Dinorthis pectinella (Brachiopoda) 30 31 13, Homotrypa var persimilis 31 distinctaspinosa Stigmatella 13-15, 18-21, 23-29, 77-79, 112 24, 80, 24, 82, Ulrich 84 82 24 25 28, 52-54, 101 (PI 8) 23 35 Diplotrypa infida Ulrich 24, 80, 81 Callopora multitabulata (Ulrich) Callopora pulchella Ulrich 10) 57, 61 Diaphragm (Definition) Diaphragm- Wall Unit (Definition) Distal Direction (Definition) Callopora Hall callosa, 18) 61 Batostomella subgracilis (Ulrich) Callopora pulchella 17 44 elegantula, Calopora Encrusting Colony (Definition) Endacanthopore (Definition) (PI 19) Middle Ordovician Bryozoa of Tennessee: Marintsch 119 Endacanthostyle (Definition) 31 Heterotrypa parvulipora Ulrich and Endostyle (Definition) 31 Heterotrypa praenuntia var echinata (Ulrich) Endozone 31 Heterotrypa praenuntia var simplex (Ulrich) (Defininition) Endozonal/Exozonal Transition (Definition) 31 18-22,24-28,75,76, Environmental (Ecological) Control of Character States Species Presence, or Species Abundance 28-30 45 46 57 59 63 71, 75, 81 84 86 Environments of Deposition (of strata in study area) 13-15 23 29 Eridoirypa Ulrich Eridotrypa aedilis Bassler 19 24-26 28, 67, 68, 74, 106 (PI 'heterotrypa subramosa (Ulrich) 24-26, 28, 68, 69, 107 (PI 14 64 65 Heterotrypa subramosa (Ulrich) 64-66 Heterotrypa subtrentonensis (PI minor Ulrich 12) Eridotrypa trentonensis (Nicholson) 66 66 Even-Sided Walls (Definition) 31 Exozone (Definition) exilis Homotrypa exilis var B Homotrypa 31 var 45 50 50 exovaria Heterotrypa (PI Heterotrypa trentonensis (Ulrich) 70, Heterotrypa ulrichi Nicholson 68, ( : : sp n 13-21 23 25-29, 69-71, 74, 109 13-17, 19-21, 23-29, 64-66 105 (PI Heterotrypa prolifica (Ulrich) Heterotrypa rugosa n sp Eridoirypa murabilis Ulrich Eridotrypa murabilis 111 (Pi 24-28, 74, 75, 77 110 16, 17, 19, 21, ) Homotrypa Ulrich Homotrypa callosa Ulrich 24, 25, Homotrypa cun'ata Ulrich Homotrypa exilis Ulrich Homotrypa exilis var B Bork and Perry Homotrypa flabellaris var spinifera Bassler 25 28 68 72 74 108 (PI 15) 109 (PI 16) : 44, 46, 28, 52-54, 101 (PI 45, 13-29, 46, 47, 51 98 (PI 24-29, 46, 47, 51, 98 (PI Homotrypa minnesotensis Ulrich Fairview Formation falesi Monticulipora falesi Prasopora 34 13-17 19 21-26 28 29 33-35 94 flahellaris var spinifera (PI (PI 5) 69, 72 frondosa Monticulipora 67 Bylhopora 57 Galena Shales Galena Shales and Limestones cf Homotrypa similis Foord Homotrypa sp A Homotrypa subramosa Ulrich Homotrypa tabulata n sp 16, Homotrypa tuberculata Ulrich 16, 17 19-22, 24-28, 48, 49, 100 (PI 24, 25, 28, 55, 56, 101 (PI 13, 16-28, 46, 53, 54, 102 (PI 26-28, 49, 50, 96 (PI 19-22 24-28 46, 49, 51, 52, 100 (PI 17 21 24, Homotrypella Ulrich Chaeletes Homotrypella mundula Ulrich liranda, Par\'ohallopora 19, Homotrypella nodosa Ulrich and Bassler 13-17 19-29 71 83 85 86 115 (Pi 22) liranda var inflata, Pan'ohallopora 13-15 18, 22-29, 85, 86, 116 Granular Phosphatic 14, 15, 13-29 46 47 51 98 gracilis cf Homotrypa cf minnesotensis Ulrich Homotrypa similis Foord Homotrypa foliacea Heterotrypa fruiticosa 1) 16, 17, 20, 21, Member (PI of Hermitage Formation Homotrypella (?) suhgracilis Ulrich Honnotoma (Gastropoda) Howard Cemetery Section 24, 9, 10, 12-14, 17, 22, 25, 27, Hull Formation Granular Wall Structure (Definition) grayae Prasopora Grier Member of Lexington Limestone Growth Surface 15,17, (Definition) Immature Region (Definition) Inclined Diaphragm (Definition) Incomplete Diaphragm (Definition) Independent characters measured Gultenberg Formation Hallopora Bassler Hallopora multitahulata (Ulrich) Helopora dendrina James 8, 22 24 57 Hemiphragm (Definition) Hemiphragma Ulrich Hemiphraxma irrasum (Ulrich) Hemiphragma ottawaensis (Foord) infidel Diplotr\pa infida Mesotrypa Inflecting Acanthostyle (Definition) Integrate Wall Structure (Definition) Ion Formation Ion Member irrasum of Decorah Formation Hemiphragma Irregular Walls (Definition) 22, 24, 26, 28, 89, 116 (PI 23), 117 (PI Hemiphragma ottawaense (Foord) Hemiphragma ottawense (Foord) 24 K-Be 6-8 9-13 (Main Section), 17-19, 21, 22, 28 29 hermilagensis Jessamine Limestone 24, Hermitage Formation Anaphragma 13-17 19-21 23-29, 87, 88, 117 21 19 29 Laminar Sheath (Definition) Laminated Argillaceous Member of Hermitage Formation Heterotrypa appressa (Ulrich) Heterotrypa exovaria n sp Leplotrypa acerxulo.sa Ulrich 25 28 68 72 74, 108 (PI 15) 109 (PI 16,17,20-22.24-28.71-73 110 U, (PI Heterotrypa Nicholson Heterotrypa foliacea (Ulrich and Bassler) Heterotrypa magnopora n sp Kirkfield Formatioi Kirkfieldian Stage 69 (PI Lexington Limestone Logana Member of Lexington Limestone 31 24 77 6, 11, 15, 18, 24, 29 15, 18 Longitudinal Section (Definition) 31 Lumen 31 ( Definition) 120 Bulletin 353 Maculae (Definition) magnopora, Helerotrypa Parx'ohallopora granda 17, 20-22, 24-28, 71-73, 110 Panohallopora granda (PI Massive Colony (Definition) Mature Region (Definition) Median Layer (Definition) Megazooecia Definition ) Mesopores (Definition Mesotrypa Ulrich 12 Mesotrypa angulahs Ulrich and Bassler 13-17, 20-23, 25-29 35-38, 94 (PI Mesotrypa angularis var parvalrypa Fritz Mesotrypa infida (Ulrich) Mesotrypa sp A 26, 28, 38, 39, 95 (PI Mesotrypa spinosa Ulrich 38, Mesozooecia Definition Parx'ohallopora pulchella (Ulrich) cf 19-21, 24-28 39-41, 95 (PI Peronopora weirae n sp 17, 20, 21, 24-28, 40, 41, 96 Petaloid Arrangement (Definition) praenuntia var echinata, praenuntia var praenuntia var simplex, praenuntia var echinata, Dekayella 19, 22, 24, multipora, Dekayella Dekayella 24 74 Heterotrypa 18-22, 24-28, 75, 76, 111 (PI cf Homotrypa Anaphragma praenuntia 24-28, 74, 75, 77, Monticulipora d'Orbigny 12, Prasopora grayae Nicholson and Etheridge Prasopora simulatrix Ulrich Prasopora simulatrix var ohentalis Ulrich Monticulipora ramosa d"Orbigny prolifica 42 56 A 25 27, 28, 56, 03 96 multitabulata, Hallopora 18, 22, 24, multitabulata, Monotrypella Proximal Direction (Definition) (PI 24, 80, pulchella, Callopora 24, 82, pulchella var persimilis, Callopora 13-29, 82-85, pulchella, Parvohallopora 79, 15 (PI 22) Tarphophragma 13-17, 19-29, 71, 80-82, 113 mundula, Homotrypella mundula, Peronopora mutabilis, Eridotrypa Rafinesquina hermitagensis (Brachiopoda) (PI Ramose Colony 19-21, 24-28, 39-41, 95 (PI 32 Mural Lacunae (Definition) robusta, Dekayella (PI Group 11 nicklesi, Stigmatella 78 nodosa, Homotrypella 40 12-14, 23 24 69 21, 22 24 Rockland Formation Rocklandian Stage 11 19 24-26, 28, 67, 68, 74, 106 rugosa Heterotrypa 7, 8, 10-14, 17 18, 22, 24, 25, 28 29 81 Sequatchie Valley Sherman Offset Acanthostyle (Definition) 32 Ontogenetic Change (Definition) 32 Bed Orthis testudinaria (Brachiopoda) Falls 7, 7, Shermanian Stage 11, Shoreham Formation Silty Nodular Limestone Member of Hermitage Formation similis Homotrypa 14, 15, 19-22, 24-28, 48, 49, 100 Homotrypa simulatrix, Prasopora 9-13, 17-19, 25 Formation similis, cf 13) (PI Sample preparation techniques Norris Lake IV Section 23 82 (Definition) mutabilis var minor Eridotrypa 13-17, 19-21, 23-29, 64-66, 105 13, ramosa Monticulipora 19, 14, 15, Rhynchotrema increbescens (Brachiopoda) Richmondian Ridley Formation Orthis 19, 22, 24, Prosser Formation 27, 28, 42-44, Acantholaminatus multitabulata Callopora Nashville 19, 21, 24, Dekayia prolifica, Heterotrypa (PI multispinosa, Stigmatella multitabulata, 10 (PI 13-17, 19, 21-26, 28, 29, 33-35, 94 (PI Monticulipora falesi James Monticulipora frondosa d'Orbigny multistylus Prasopora Nicholson and Etheridge Prasopora falesi (James) 79 Monticules (Definition) sp (PI simplex, Heterotrypa var 16, 17, 19, 21, Moniliform (Definition) Monticulipora (PI praenuntia Dekayella Homotrypa Monotrypella multitabulata Ulrich (PI Phragmodus undalus (Conodonta) Polymorphism (Definition) minnesotensis, mirabile, (PI 13-29, 82-85, 115 39, 14, 15, Millbrig Bentonite 24-29, 46, 47, 51 98 Peronopora Nicholson Peronopora mundula (Ulrich) ) 16, 17, 20, 21, 83, 85, 86, 115 (PI 22) pan'ulipora Heterotrypa ) minnesotensis, sp n sp var inflata n var 13-15, 18, 22-29, 85, 86, 116 ( ( n 13-17, 19-29, 71 16, 11,22 29 21 9-1 (PI 7) 24, 48 Ottawa Formation 21 ottawaense, Batostoma 24, 89 simulatrix \ai orientalis Prasopora Hemiphragma ottawaensis, Hemiphragma 24, 89 Sowerbyella (Brachiopoda) 12, 13 Sowerbyella sp 14, ottawaense, 24 22, 24, 26, 28, 89, 116 (PI 23), 117 (PI 24) ottawense, Hemiphragma 24, 89 19, 21, 24, Spechts Ferry Formation 34 23 38, 39 32 Pamelia Beds of Ottawa Formation Pamelia Formation Parvohallopora Singh 24 Stigmatella crenulata Ulrich and Bassler 21 Stigmatella distincta.ipinosa n sp Stigmatella Ulrich and Bassler Stigmatella conica 34 19 spinosa Mesotrypa Overlapping Diaphragm (Definition) 82 19, 22, 24, 77 Brown 13-15, 18-21, 23-29, 77-79, 112 78 77 (PI 19) Middle Ordovician Bryozoa of Tennessee: Marintsch Siif-inatella multispinosa Brown Transverse Section (Definition) Siigmalella sp Trenton Group Stones River Group Trenton Shales Style (Definition) Trenton Stage subramosa Atactopora Trentonian Stage II, 19, Eridotrypa suhramosa Dekayia 24-26 28 68 69 107 subramosa IHeterotrypa suhramosa Homotrypa suhfiracilis 12 Tetradium (Coelenterata: Tabulata) Siiamaiella nicklesi Ulrich and Bassler 13 Heterotrypa (PI 16-28 46 53 54 102 (PI tuberculata 70, 71 Homotrypa 19-22, 24-28, 46, 49, 51, 52, 100 16, 17, Batostomella 13-19, 22-29, 57 59 61-63 71 104 32 24 22, 24 1, 24, 28 21, 22, 80 66 typicus (PI (PI 7) Acantholaminatus 96 (PI 4) 24-28 40 41 96 (PI 3) 18-22, 25-28, 42, 43, 96 suhf-racilis var robusta Batostomella (PI 3) 25, 28, 63, 64, 86 104 (PI 11), 105 (PI suhgracilis Bythopora Homotrypella 57 24 (?) subgracilis swilzeriensis, U-Shaped Wall Laminae ulrichi (Definii Heterotrypa Cyphotrypa V-Shaped Wall Laminae Definition ( subtrentonensis Heterotrypa 13-21 23 25-29 69-71 74 109 (PI weirae Peronopora Surface Angle (Definition) Wilderness Stage 11 Wilson Branch Section T-3 Bentonite Zoarium T-4 Bentonite 11 12 Chen tahulata * Homotrypa 16 17 21 24 26-28 49, 50, 96 (PI ) Zooecial Cavity (Chamber Tube) (Definition) Zooecial Wall (Definition) 13-17 19-21 23-29 80-82 114 Tarphophragma muttitabulata (Ulrich 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 (Definition) Zooecial Bend (Definition) Zooecial Boundary (Definition Zooecially Outwards (Definition) Tarphophragma Karklins Tcirphophragma ampla (Ulrich) (PI Zooecium (PI Zooids (Definition) Zygospira (Brachiopoda) ) 13-17 19-29 71 80-82 113 Constellaria 25-27, 81 Zooecially Inwards (Definition) Tangential Section (Definition) teres 7, 10 13, 14, 17, 22, T-3 Chert T-4 32 ) 7, 20 21 (Definition) Zygospira recunirostra (Brachiopoda) 12 13, 23 ... Ventress BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Warren D Allmon Reviewers for Marcus M Key, A Jr this issue Edward M Snyder may be had on request Volumes 1-23 of Bulletins. .. list of titles in both series, and available numbers and volumes Subscriptions to Bulletins of American Paleontology may be started at any time, by volume or year Current price is US $67.50 per volume... Volumes 1-23 of Bulletins of American Paleontology are available from Periodicals Service Company, 11 Main St., Gemiantown, New York 12526 USA Volume of Palaeontographica Americana has been reprinted
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