Bulletins of American paleontology (Bull. Am. paleontol.) Vol 345

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But ins of yakontoio^ Begun OLUME 106, NUMBER in 1895 JUNE 345 Silurian Radiolarian Zonation for the Caballos Novaculite, Marathon UpHft, West Texas by Paula J Noble Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New York, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, 3, 1994 PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION OJjiccrs President Vice-President J Thomas Dutro John Jr C Steinmetz Henry W Theisen Secretary Treasurer Director Annika Farrell Warren D Allmon Tiusiccs Samuel T Pees (to 30 95) Richard E Petit (to 30 96) Gary Rosenberg (to 6/30 96) James E Sorauf (to 6/30/94) John Steinmetz (to 6/30/94) Tucker Abbott (to 30 96) Bruce M Bell (to 30 96) Carlton E Brett (to 6/30 95) R Ann Budd F William (to 6/30/94) Crepet (to 6/30/94) J Thomas Dutro Jr (to 6/30/96) Annika Farrell (to 6/30/95) Robert M Linsley (to 6/30 '95) Peter McLaughlin (to 6/30/95) L Susan Stephens B (to 6/30/96) Henry W Theisen (to 6/30/95) Raymond Van Houtte (to 6/30/94) BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Warren D Allmon Editor Reviewers for I his issue C harles D Jon C AiTCHisoN A Blome in both scries, and a\ ailable numbers and \ olumes may be Volumes 1-23 of Bu/hinis of Aniencun I'aleoniology ha\e been reprinted b\ Kraus Reprint Corporation Route 100 Millwood New York 10546 USA Volume of Palacontoiirapluca Anwricuiia has been reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation Fifth Ave New \ork N>' 10003 USA liad list on of mlos reqLiesl 1 I Subscriptions to Bul/elins of Iniencaii Paleontology may be started at any \olume or Near Current price is L'S $50.00 per \olume Numbers of time b\ ralaeoiuographica Aiuericana arc priced individually, and are invoiced separately on rccjuest for additional information, write or call: Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road Ithaca, NY 14850 USA (607) 273-6623 FAX (607) 273-6620 © This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39 48-1992 (Permanence of Paper) )LUME LIBRARY FEB 1^ 'Budct] rxcan tovcqs) Begun 106, NUMBER 345 in 1895 JUNE Silurian Radiolarian Zonation for the Caballos Novaculite, Marathon UpHft, West Texas by Paula J Noble Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New York, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, 3, 1994 ISSN 0007-5779 ISBN 0-87710-434-6 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 94-654807 Printed in the United States of America Allen Press, Inc Lawrence, KS 66044 U.S.A TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract Acknowledgments Introduction Regional Setting and Structural Framework Caballos Novaculitc Sample Localities Previous Work Method of Sample Preparation 11 Effects of Preservation Bias 11 Radiolanan Zones of the Caballos Novaculite Rotasphaerid Super/one (Ro) asyiumclnca Lowest Occurrence Zone Palacoaclinosphdcra Zone Zone Praespongococlia Taxon Range Zone magiiaspina Partial Range Zone Zone Praespongocoelia-Slylt>sphacra Zone Stytospliacra (?) magiuispiua Taxon Range Zone Zone Rolasphaevacea-Devoniglansus uniciis Partial Range Zone Zone Devoniglansus unicus-Pseudospongoprunum (?) taincrsi Interval Zone Chronostratigraphic Assignment Comparison with Other Silurian Radiolarian Faunas Southern LIrals Kazakhstan Cornwallis Island, Canadian Archipelago 11 I 13 13 ('.') 13 13 ('.') 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 japan K.urosegawa Tectonic Zone Assemblage Assemblage Assemblage Assemblage 15 15 Secuicollacta ? exquisita Assemblage 15 Pseudospongoprunum taziikawiicnsis Assemblage Pseudospongoprunum sagittalum Assemblage Devoniglansus unicus Assemblage 16 16 16 Fukuji Area, Gifu Prefecture 16 t'usalfanus osohudanwnsis Assemblage 16 Pracspongocoelia (Spongocoeliu) parva-Praespongocoelia {Spongocoelia) kamitakarensis Assemblage Zadrappnius yoslukicnsis Assemblage Slylosphacra sp A-Sly/osphacra ? sp B Assemblage Sly/osphaera ? sp C Assemblage '' Systematic Paleontology 16 ' 16 16 17 17 17 Introduction Radiolarian Species Concept 17 Morphological Terminolog> 18 Relationship Between the Rotasphaeridae and Pseudorotasphaeridae Class Actinopoda 18 19 Subclass Radiolaria Order Polycystida Suborder Spumellariina 19 19 19 Superfamily Rotasphaeracea 19 Family Rotasphaeridae Genus Rolasphacra 19 Genus Secuicollacta Family Pseudorotasphaeridae Genus Pseudorolasphaera Superfamily Spongodiscacea Family Sponguridae Genus Pseudospongoprunum Genus Devoniglansus Superfamily Incertae sedis Family Inaniguttidae Genus Inanihella Genus Pusalfaiuis Genus Ornindogutta Genus Zadrappolus Family Palaeoactinosphaeridae Genus Palaeoaclinosphaera Genus Stylaclmosphacra 19 22 25 25 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 36 Family Palaeoscenidiidae 37 Genus Goodhodnim Genus Holdsworthum 37 37 Family Incertae Sedis Genus Genus Genus Genus 37 37 Bipylospongia Praespongocoelia 38 38 39 Cenosphaera Slylosphaera Appendix: Radiolarian Sample Descnptions 39 References Cited 41 Plates 44 Index 53 OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST Text-figure Page map Locality for the Marathon uplift Generalized stratigraphy of the Paleozoic Ouachita Front rocks exposed in the Marathon Locality map showing outcrop pattern of the Caballos Novaculite uplift Lithostratigraphy of the Caballos Novaculite west of the Dagger Flat Anticlinorium Straligraphic cross section of the lower chert and shale member of the Caballos Novaculite showing lithology and sample honzons 10 member of the Caballos Novaculite showing ranges of primary and secondary Radiolarian biozonation for the lower chert and shale marker taxa 12 Correlation of local radiolarian zones in the Marathon uplift with radiolarian assemblages described from Japan and Kazakhstan Schematic diagram showing skeletal elements of the Rotasphaeridae 15 10 Schematic diagram showing skeletal elements of the Pseudorotasphaendae Schematic diagram of the genera in the family Inaniguttidae LIST 18 29 OF TABLES Table Radiolarian taxon occurrence chart for the lower chert and shale measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements measurements for for for Rolasphacra beckwilhensis Rolasphaera dclicala Rolasphaera marathonensis for Rolasphaera luuJa Rolasphaera qiiadrata for Rolasphaera roherlsorum for for Secuicoltacta cassa ? for Seeuicollacla foliaspinella for Seeuicollacla C) plalyspina for Seeuicollacla solara for Pseudorolasphaera hispida Pseudorolasphaera communa for Pseudorolasphaera lanceolata for Pseudorolasphaera (?) rohustispina for Pseudorolasphaera (?) rolunda for Pseudospongoprunum (?) lauversi Onundogulla (?) kingi Onundogulla (?) varispina for for for for for for for for for Zadrappolus lunans Palaeoaclmosphaera arnica Palaeoaclmosphaera asymmelnca Palaeoaclmosphaera harricki Palaeoaclmosphaera (?) crucispina Palaeoaclmosphaera eleganiissima for Palaeoaclinosphaera (?) for Slylaclinosphaera oclaspma prima for Bipylospongia rudosa for Praespongocoelia fusiforma for Slylosphaera (?) magnaspina member of the Caballos Novaculite 18 fold-out inside back SILURIAN RADIOLARIAN ZONATION FOR THE CABALLOS NOVACULITE, MARATHON UPLIFT Paula J WEST TEXAS Noble The University of Texas at Austin Department of Geological Sciences Austin, TX 78712' ABSTRACT This paper presents a local biozonation for Silurian radiolanans recovered from the Caballos Novaculite, Marathon uplift m of strata from the western half of the uplift have yielded abundant and Texas Six measured sections representing 25-30 six biozones The Rolasphaerid Superzone (Ro) and 4, and is defined by the first and last appearances of the superfamily Rotasphaeracea The base of this superzone has not yet been determined in the Marathon uplift All taxa chosen for this biozonation are commonly occurring, distinctive, robust forms that can be correlated from section to section, thereby meeting the criteria for establishing a practical and widely applicable biostratigraphic scheme Three conodont assemblages co-occur with the radiolanans and show the youngest zone to be no younger than Pndolian (Late Silunan) The oldest zone Zone is at least as old as Ludlovian and may be as old as Wenlockian (Early Silunan) Further moderately well-preserved radiolarian assemblages that can be subdivided into contains the four oldest zones 2, chronostratigraphic calibration Taxa from the Ro Superzone is needed to constrain the ages of these radiolarian zones better bear strong resemblance to Silurian radiolarian assemblages from the Canadian Archipelago and Southern Urals, and are identical to forms described from the Fusalfanus osohudaniensis through Slylosphaera ? sp C assemblages from the Fukuji Area, Gifu Prefecture, Japan Several taxa in the lower part of Zone 6, above the Ro Superzone, are identical to those in the Devoniglansiis unicus assemblage from the Kurosegawa Tectonic Zone, southwest Japan The widespread geographic it may be possible to generate a global radiolanan biozonation for the Silunan distribution of these assemblages suggests that penod in this paper One new superfamily three new families, The new superfamily Rotasphaeracea includes the new families Rotasphaendae Various biostratigraphically useful Silunan radiolanans are described six new genera, and 28 new species are descnbed and Pseudorotasphaendae Within the Rotasphaendae are the genera Rolasphaera n gen containing R beckwithensis, n, sp., R dcliLLila n sp R iiiaialhoncn.sis n sp., R niida n sp., R quadraia n sp., and R robertsorum n sp., and Sccuicollacla NazarovandOrmiston, containing S cassa Nazamv and Ormislon S foliaspi iiella n sp., solara n sp., and {!) platyspma n sp Within the Pseudorotasphaendae is Pseudorotasphaera n gen., containing P communa n sp., P hispida n sp., P lanceolata n sp., P (?) robustispina n sp and P (?) rotunda, n sp The new family Palaeoactinosphaeridae contains Stylaclinosphaera, n gen., with S prima, n sp and Palaeoactmosphaera, n gen containing P antica n sp., P asymmetrica, n sp., /' barncki n sp., P (?) crucispina n sp., /' licgantissiiua n sp., and P (?) ociaspma n sp Other new taxa described are Pseudospongopriimim (?) lamcrsi n sp Pracspongococlia n gen., containing P fusijorma n sp and P parva Furutani, Bipylospoiigia n gen containing B riidosa n sp., Slylosphaera (?) magnaspina n sp., Oriundogiilla (?) kingi n sp Ornindogulla (?) vanspiiia n sp., and Zadrappolus liinans n sp Systematic revisions of the following taxa also are included: Genus Sccuicollacla Nazarov and Orniistonm and its type species, Sccuicollacla cassa Family Inaniguttidae Nazarov and Ormiston and its genera Inamgulla Nazarov and Ormiston Inanihella Nazarov and Ormiston Fusalfanus Furutani, Zadrappolus Furutani, and Oriundogiilla Nazarov and Ormiston in addition to Spongococlia parvus Furutani Fusalfanus osohudaniensis Furutani, and Pseudospongoprunuiu Wakamatsu ci al ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Field work in west Texas was funded by grants from the Geological Society of America, the Geology Foun- The University of Texas at Austin, the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, and Sigma Xi Publication funds were provided by the OwenCoates Fund of the Geology Foundation at The University of Texas at Austin The Gretchen L Blechscmidt grant received from the Geological Society of America and the Hendricks grant received from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists helped dation at ' Current Address: Geology Department, California State Uni- versity Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 95819-6043 finance a visit to Nagoya University for the study of the type Silurian radiolarians deposited by Dr H Fu- and Mr H Wakamatsu, I am greatly indebted Mizutani and S Kojima and to Mr K Sugiyama and Ms, H Nagai of Nagoya University for their assistance with the collections I thank Jim Hayne and Ike Roberts of the Paisano Cattle Company, Travis and Polly Roberts of the Roberts Ranch Gage Holland, Ann, and Mark Daugherty of the Gage Ranch, and Bob McKnight for permitting access to field areas This manuscript was greatly improved by the comments and criticisms provided by the reviewers Jon C Aitchison and Charles D Blome I also thank Richrutani to Drs S ard E Casey, Martin B, Lagoe, Brian K Holdsworth, William R Muehlberger and Emile A, Pessagno, Jr, Bulletin 345 ber of the studies are detailed accounts of taxa from isolated samples, or samples collected from poorly exposed and faulted sections Although these studies are good surveys of the potential diversity of early Paleozoic faunas, they provide limited biostratigraphic information The data presented herein from the Marathon uplift are critical to the development of a comprehensive early Paleozoic biostratigraphic scheme because they have been collected from a number of structurally continuous measured sections where stratigraphic relationships between radiolarian assemblages can be recognized 'TEXAS GLASS MTNS ARATHON PLIFT REGIONAL SETTING AND STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK GULF OF MEXICO PERSIMMON GAP y SOLITARIO 100 km MEXICO Text-figure — Locality map for the Marathon uplift showing its Bend Ouach- position at the southwestern extent of the Ouachita Front, Big region, west Texas ita Shaded area denotes outcrop areas of the Front for helpful discussions and drafts of the manuscript, who assisted me useful suggestions and thanks to on earlier Laura Brock in the field INTRODUCTION Paleozoic radiolarian studies is a relatively young has grown over the last decade into a dynamic area of research with valuable biostratigraphic and pafield that and Murchey, 1986) In schemes were first introduced for Late Devonian and younger rocks (Holdsworth and Jones 980; Ishiga et al., 982) Since that time, an increasing number of detailed Late Paleozoic radiolarian studies have been published (e.g Won, 1983; Nazarov and Ormiston, 1985; Cheng, 1986) In contrast, early Paleozoic radiolarians have remained leoecologic application (Jones the early 1980's, biozonal 1 relatively unstudied, with the ranges of taxa uncertain and poorly dated As a consequence, there are large gaps in the existing Paleozoic biozonations and no comprehensive radiolarian zonation exists for the Silurian through Middle Devonian The few published works on Silurian radiolarians have documented unique and diverse assemblages which show potential for generating a useful biostratigraphic scheme for the early Paleozoic Silurian radiolarians have been described from Japan (Furutani, 1990; Wakamatsue/a/., 1990; Aitchison 1991), Australia (Aitchison, 1990), the Canadian Archipelago (Goodbody, 1986; Renz, 1988), and Kazakhstan (Nazarov, 1975) Several workers have been able to place their assemblages in a stratigraphic context, yet a num- The Marathon uplift exposes deformed Cambrian through Pennsylvanian marine sedimentary strata believed to have been deposited in a parautochthonous basin located along the rifted southern paleocontinental margin of North America (Arbenz, 1989) These rocks are exposed in a topographic depression, the 3500 square km Marathon Basin, located approximately 50 km north of Big Bend National Park (McBride, 1989) The basin is rimmed by Cretaceous carbonates to the east, south, and west, and by the Permian Glass Mountains to the north-northwest The Marathon uplift is part of a larger feature, the Ouachita orogenic belt, a sinuous, mainly subsurface belt that extends from the Big Bend Region of Trans-Pecos Texas to east-central Mississippi (Flawn et al., 1969; Text-figure 1) The Ouachita orogenic belt was deformed synchronously with the Appalachian System in the CarboniferousPermian Ouachita orogenic phase caused by the convergence of proto-North America (Laurasia) with Gondwana (Ross, 1979) Rocks of the Ouachita orogenic belt crop out only in the Marathon uplift Persimmon Gap area, and Solitario uplifts of west Texas, and in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas Two stages of deposition are recognized in the Marathon uplift on the basis of sediment composition and rate of deposition; a slowly deposited pre-orogenic stage and a more rapidly deposited syn-orogenic (flysch) stage (Thomson and McBride, 1964) The rocks deposited during the pre-orogenic stage are Cambrian-earliest Mississippian and are characterized by extremely low rates of deposition producing approximately 1000 m of shales, chert, limestone, and minor sandstone over a 200 million year period (Text-figure 2) The syn- orogenic stage, starting in the late Mississippian, is characterized by high rates of deposition producing a thickness thick clastic wedge of approximately 4000 m deposited in only 60 million years (McBride, 1989) Paleocurrent indicators and overall geometry of the syn-orogenic strata indicate that the dominant source Silurian Radiolation Zonation, West Texas: Noble 103 15 EASTERN DOMAIN Conglomerate Siltstone/ Sandstone Bedded chert Shale 30 00 — Locality map showing outcrop pattern of the CaKing (1937) Heavy gray doited line separates structural domains of Muehlberger (1978) Measured sections: PH = Payne Hills, PH2 = Payne Hills II SS = = McKnight, EB = Sulphur Springs, MC = Monument Creek, = Hollow Appendix for the precise Wood See East Bourland, Text-figure ballos Novaculite in gray, modified from MA WH location of each section source proposed for the Dimple Limestone, a calsandwiched in between the Tesnus and Rayformations (Thomson and Thomasson, 1969), is carentite mond and olistostromal blocks that occur in the base of the Tesnus Formation in the western basin margin can be traced to North America (McBride, 1978) The size of the Tesnus olistoliths also indicates that the basin had to be in close proximity to continental North America Text-figure 2.— Generalized stratigraphy of Paleozoic Ouachita Front rocks exposed in the Marathon uplift The pre-orogenic se- quence was deposited along a rifted passive margin, whereas the flysch sequence was deposited syn-orogenically during the Ouachita orogeny Tesnus and lower Raymond, came from the southeast (McBride, 1966; Cotera, 1969) clastic input did The rocks exposed in the Marathon uplift have been folded and thrusted into a series of anticlinoria- synclinoria and imbricate stacks of thrust sheets trending NE of terrigenous clastic debris, in particular, the source for the to allow for their transport Some during the syn-orogenic stage, the north and northwest A come from of the however, northern NW (King, 1937; and showing transport to the Flawn et al., 1961) The structural grain is well illustrated by the outcrop pattern of the Caballos Novaculite (Text-figure 3) Three structural domains are recognized in the uplift based on the deformational style and the rheology of the rocks exposed (Muehlberger 1978; Muehlberger and Tauvers, 1989) The western Bulletin 345 upper chert and shale member (DCS) I] Silurian Radiolation Zonation, West Texas: Noble 47 Explanation of Plate Scanning electron micrographs of Spumellaria (Radiolaria) from the Caballos Novaculite, Marathon Basin, west The scale given after each figure corresponds to the scale bar in the lower left Texas Figure 1,2 Page Pseudorolasphaera sp 40 Sample 386, Rock House Gap Fragment showing mlemal primary spine Thmner bar Sample 395c, Wood Pseudorotasphaera (?) Wood Palaeoactinosphaera 25 robuslispina Hills, scale Scale bar = 35 fim Scale bar new species = 35 iim Broken specimen with chalcedony bar = 50 ^m 26 infilling which obscures internal structure 41 Hollow, scale bar = 50 Mm Broken specimen showing internal structure, (?) octaspina new species 35 (USNM 466214), sample 223, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 ^m, Palaeoactinosphaera barricki new species Holotype 8, species Pseudorotasphaera sp Sample 395c, new Hollow Fragments showing spinose nature of cortex, Sample 325c, Payne to = 25 ^m 3,4 Pseudorotasphaera hispida Arrow points hollow rod (primary bar) connecting to solid rod (secondar bar) connects to cortex, but not to a primary spine Scale bar = 12 ^m Scale structure (USNM Holotype 9, Sample 325c, Payne 466307), sample 325c, Payne Hills, scale Hills, scale bar 34 = 50 Mm bar = 35 Mm Note prominent collar grooves along spines Base of grooves penetrate cortical shell at collar pores 10, 11 Palaeoactinosphaera elegantissima new species 10 Sample 326c, Payne 11 Holotype (USNM Hills, scale 35 bar = 50 Mm 466309), sample 326c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm 12-14 Palaeoactinosphaera asymmetrica new species 12 13 14 34 (TMM 1842T\1), from sample 215c, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm, Holotype (USNM 466306), from sample 322c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm Paratype (TMM 1841TX2), from sample 214, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm, Paratype new species From sample 223, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm From sample 214, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 35 Mm Holotype (LISNM 466305), from sample 214, East Bourland Mountain, 15-17 Palaeoactinosphaera antica, 15 16 17 18 19 33 scale bar Stylactinosphaera prima, new species (USNM 18 Holotype 19 Sample 322c, Payne 36 466310), sample 322c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 35 Mm = 88 Mm Hills, scale bar = 88 Mm 48 Bulletin 345 Explanation of Plate Scanning electron micrographs of Spumellaria (Radiolaria) from the Caballos Novacuhte, Marathon Basin, west The scale given after each figure corresponds to the scale bar in the lower left Texas Page 39 ;ure 1, Spumellanan indet Sample 328, Payne Stylosphaera (') sp A Hills, scale bar = 88 Mm, magnaspina new species 38 Sample 328, Payne Hills, scale bar = 88 Mm Goodbodium sp Sample 215c, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 35 nm Holdsworthum sp Sample 326c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 ^im Spumellanan indcl sp B Sample 325c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm Sample 326c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 iim Cenosphaera hexagonalis Aberdeen, 940 Sample 215c, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm 37 37 39 38 Pataeoactinosphaera C) crucispina new species 11 Holotype (USNM 466308), sample 322c, Payne Hills, scale bar Sample 322c, Payne Hills Broken specimen showing 50 Mm Undescribed Spumellanan Sample 223, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm Fusalfanus osobudaniensis Furutani, 990 15, 17 From sample 325c Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm 12 13, 14 15, 17, 18 internal structure Note bladed primary From sample Inanihella sp = 30 213c, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm 30 A Sample 327c, Payne bars, scale bar 41 18 34 = 88 Mm Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm Note delicate remnants of delicate outer cortical shell Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 106 Plate Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 106 Plate Silurian Radiolation Zonation, West Texas: Noble Explanation of Plate 49 Scanning electron micrographs of Spumellaria (Radiolaria) from the Caballos Novacuhte, Marathon Basin, west The scale given after each figure corresponds to the scale bar in the lower left Texas Page Figure 1,4 Oriundogutta (?) kingi Holotype new (USNM 466302), sample 325c, Payne Sample 327c, Payne 2,3 Oriundogutta (?) varispina 31 species Hills, scale new bar Hills, scale = 50 Mm = 50 Mm species 31 Holotype (LISNM 466303), sample 8802, Sample 8802, Monument Creek, scale bar Monument Creek, scale bar 32 Zadrappolus Sample 219, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm Note tapered spines Zadrappolus spinosus Furutani, 990 Sample 326, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm, sp aff spinosus Zadrappolus lunaris new species Paratype (TMM 1853TX1), sample 330, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm Holotype (USNM 466304), sample 330, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm Zadrappolus sp A Hills, scale 32 32 32 = 88 Mm bar Zadrappolus tenuis Furutani, 990 Sample 223, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm Zadrappolus sp aff tenuis Furutani, 990 Sample 324c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm 14-16 Zadrappolus yoshikiensis Furutani, 990 14, 15 Sample 325c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm 16 Sample 327c, Payne Hills, scale bar = 50 Mm are shorter than Z spinosus Sample 326c, Payne 10, 12, 13 = 50 Mm = 50 Mm 7, bar 1 32 32 32 Bulletin 345 50 Explanation of Plate Scanning electron micrographs of Spumellaria (Radiolaria) from the Caballos Novaculite, Marathon Basin, west The scale given after each figure corresponds to the scale bar in the lower left Texas Page Figure 990 Sample 215c East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 18 Mm Sample 215c, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 nm Sample 077, Payne Hills, scale bar = 88 ^m 1—4 Praespongocoelia (Spongocoelia) parva Furutani 6-9 Bipylospongia rudosa 6, 7, 10 37 species (TMM 1841TX3), sample 214, East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 Mm Holotype (USNM 46631 1) sample 214 East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 tim Paratype 40 Praespongocoelia sp Sample 077, Payne 11, 12 new 38 bar = 50 ^m Fragment Hills, scale showmg spongy cortical wall Praespongocoelia fusiforma new species 38 Holotype (LISNM 466312) sample 213c East Bourland Mountain, scale bar = 50 nm 12 Paratype (TMM 1855TX1) sample 396c Wood Hollow, scale bar = 50 ^m 13-15 Pseudospongoprunum C) tauversi new species 13 14 Sample 882, Monument Creek Equatorial and polar sections showing multiple concentric spongy layering, 1 28 scale bar = 50 Mm 15 Holotype 6-20 Devoniglansus unicus 16 17 19, 20 (USNM 466301) sample 882, Wakamatsu Sample 330 Payne Sample 330 Payne et at Hills, scale Hills Monument Creek, scale bar = 50 Mm 28 990 bar = 50 Mm Same specimen, scale bar = 50 Mm (figs 17 and 19) 18 Mm (fig 20) Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 106 Plate Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume Plate 06 10 •^.^ ^ Silurian Radiolation Zonation, West Texas: Noble Explanation of Plate Transmitted light micrographs of Rotasphaeracea, all scale bars 51 = 50 ^m Page Figure Rotasphaera marathonensis, new species 21 3, Sample 328 Payne Hills, note open pore network and fine secondary spines Sample 326c, Payne Hills Secuicollacta solara new species Sample 326c, Payne Hills Note rotasphaerid structure with primary rods Sample 326c, Payne Hills 24 4, Rotasphaera beckwithensis new species 20 , \ Sample 326c Payne Sample 326c Payne 3')5c, Wood Hollow Note long thick-bladed spines Cortical 26 shell is less inflated than that of P coinmuna Pseudorotasphaera communa new species 12 10 11 Hills Note rotasphaend structure with primary rods and degree of tenting of primary spine bases Focal plane is on cortical shell to illustrate pore structure Pseudorotasphaera lanceolata new species Sample 8, 9, Hills 26 Sample 213c East Bourland Mountain Focal plane on cortical wall showing pore structure Sample 213c East Bourland Mountain Reversed side of specimen in fig showing internal structure Sample 213c, East Bourland Mountain Enlargement of fig showing close-up of internal structure Pseudorotasphaera Sample 395c, sp Wood Hollow Fragments showing internal structure 41 Bulletin 345 52 Explanation of Plate Transmitted micrographs of non rotasphaerid spumellaria (Radiolaria) from the Caballos Novaculite, Marathon = 50 ^m Basin, west Texas Each scale bar Page Figure 990 Sample 325c East Bourland Mounlain Shell Fusalfanus osobudaniensis Furutani, 30 filled with microcrystalline quartz which obscures internal structure Note spongy wall structure Cenosphaera bexagonalis Aberdeen Sample 326c, Payne 6, 9, 1 940 Palaeoactinosphaera C) octaspina new species Sample 223, Payne 35 Hills Oriundogutta (') varispina new species Sample 435c McKnight Ranch Palaeoactinosphaera (?) crucispina new species Sample 322c Pa\nc Hills Oriundogutta spp Sample 330, Payne 38 Hills 31 34 ?? Hills Zadrappolus lunaris new species Sample 330 Payne Hills Zadrappolus spinosus Furutani, 1990 32 32 Sample 223, East Bourland Mountain Zadrappolus sp Sample 223 East Bourland Mountain 32 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 106 ^ Plate kM V Hi^,: 10 >-• Silurian Radiolation Zonation, West Texas: Noble 53 INDEX Note: Page numbers are in light face; plate numbers are in bold face type aberdeenae Cenosphaera 38 jlammatum Palacosccnidium Acanlhosphaera macroacantha 31 Jbliaspinella Secuicollacta 23 amoenitas, Secuicollacta aniica Palaeoactinosphaera Fukuji Area 15-17 radiolarian taxa from 23, 25, 31, 32, 38 36 27 Fusalfanus osobudaniensis Assemblage 4, 13, 34, 36 Fusalfanus osobudaniensis 5,9 13, 16,30,31 Fusalfanus 5, 16, Australia fusiforma Praespongocoelia Palaeoaclinosphaera 4, 13, 34, basiporosus Hexasiylus Beckwith Hills beckwiihensis Rolasphaera 2,8, 13, 35 20 20, 39, 40 14,20,21 16 5, 14, 15, Haplentactiniidae Belodella 14 Helioenlaclinia bakanasensis Bipylospongia rudosa 7, Bipylospongia 13,37 7, 13, 14, 37 7-9, 11 14.39^1 age of 14 5,9, 14, 17,38,39 hexagonalis Cenosphaera 20 Hexastylus basiporosus 3,4, 13.25,26,27 39 39-41 sample descriptions Canadian Archipelago radiolarian taxa from hydrofluonc acid etching 1, 23 14, 19, 22, 23 Ichinotani Valley, Japan 38 Inanigutta 38 14, Collar grooves 17,37,38,39 4, Collarpores conodonts 8, Inanihella sp 1 18,28.38 4, 18.28 14, 16,28 Inanihella 31 12 6, 14 16 kingi Comwallis Island 14 Kockelella absidala radiolanan taxa from Onundogulta 19, 23, 31 6, 13, (?) 14 lanceolata Pseudorotasphaera Dapsilodus praecipuus 14 Llandoverian Dapsilodus sparsus 14 2, 20, 21 17, 38 lunaris 14 16,28,29,37 Dimple Limestone Zadrappolus (?) Marathon Basin Marathon uplift structural 20,21,22,24,26,34,37,38 type localities at locality descnption echinatum ?Palaeoephippium "! cf eleganlissima Palaeoactinosphaera Enlaclmosphaera 4, 16, 33, domains radiolanan zones of 41 marathonensis Rolasphaera 23 Maravillas Limestone 13,34,35 36 33 31 14, 30, 31 5, 13,39 6, 22 6-9 geology Mountain 12 13, 14, 16 6, 7, 14, 32, macroacantha .Acanlhosphaera macroacantha Inanihella magnaspina Slylosphaera 3,8, 13.26 14, 16 Lowest-Occurrence Zone, defined Ludlovian Devonian, Middle 6, 16 Devoniglansus 7, 13, 14 15, 16,28,29,37 Devoniglansus unicus-Pseudospongoprunum lauversi Interval 7, 13, 14, 15, 15 23, 28, 29, 39 8, Zone 14,31 14 Kurosegawa Tectonic Zone radiolarian taxa from Dapsilodus obliquicoslatiis Devoniglansus unicus 33 14, 30, 31 Kazakhstan corals 6, 13, 29, 30, Interval Zone, defined 28 Rotasphaera Devonian Late 29 5, 30, 31 28 delicala 16, 30 Inanihella tarangultca Dagger Flat Anticlinorium 37 37 24 A 11,27, 14 5,9, 13,35 macroacantha I nanihella Copiellintra (?) cf Inaniguttidae Copicyntra crucispina Palaeoactinosphaera 5, horrida Secuicollacta sp 5,9, 14, 17,38,39 5,9, 5, 19 Secuicollacta Cenosphaera aberdeenae Cenosphaera hexagonalis Cenosphaera plulonis Cenosphaera chalcedony A 33, 37, 39 6, 14, cassa Secuicollacta hispida Slylosphaera Holdsworthum sp Holdsworthum 23 30 hispida Pseudorotasphaera Caballos Novaculite 16,37 19, Haymond Formation East Bourland 38 15, 16 Goodbodium 14 ?, 17, 30, 31 Gifu Prefecture Belodella sp indet cassa 16 30 bakanasensis Hetioenlaclinia barricki 23 24 4, 33, 34, Aslroentactiniinae asymmelnca Palaeoactinosphaera 37 1, 7, 13, 14 2,8 13, 19 20, 21, 27 McKnight, locality descnption 40 Bulletin 345 54 Pseudorotasphaeridae Psetidospongoprunum (?) tauversi Pseudospongoprunutn sagittatum Assemhlsige Mississippian Monument Creek 14 9, 40 locality description !'• '8 morphospecies 25 16,28,38 15, 16 Pseudospongoprunum sagittatum Pseudospongoprunum tazukawaensis Assemblage Pseudospongoprunum -8 38 type localities at 18, 19, 7, 14, 16, 28 7, 28 16 " novaculite "- 21 20, nuda, Rolasphaera octaspina, Palaeoactinosphaera O 4,9 13 14,36 {7) kingi Oriundogiilta (?) varispina ramificans robertsorum Rotasphaera 13, 14,31 robustispma Pseudorotasphaera 6.9, 13,30,31 5,9, 13, 16,30.31 '4 Palaeoactinommids 33 14 Palaeoactinosphaera (?) asymmetrica Lowest-Occurrence Zone Palaeoactinosphaera C^) crucispina Palaeoactinosphaera C^) octasptna 13 5,9, 13.35 4, 9, 13, 14, 36, 36 4, 33, 34, 36 Palaeoactinosphaera antica Palaeoactinosphaera asymmetrica 4, Palaeoactinosphaera barncki Palaeoactinosphaera elegantissima 4, 27 20, 21 2, 8, 13, 14, 2, 20,21 2,8,13,19,20, 21,27 1, 20, 21 2, 21, 22, 26 2,20,21, 22, 27 1,2,8,13,14,16,19, 20, Rotasphaera Rotasphaeracea-Devof!/g/a«ii« unicus Partial Range Zone 13 Rotasphaera robertsorum Ouachita orogenic belt Ozarkodina eosteinhornensis 27 3, 4, 13, Rotasphaera nuda Rotasphaera quadrata 16 Osobudani Valley, Japan 31 2, 20, 21, 22, (?) Rolasphaera beckwithensis Rotasphaera delicata Rotasphaera marathonensis 31 Onundogutta ramificans osobudaniensis Fusalfanus 18 19 6,9, 14.31 OnundogiMa Onundogutta 8, Ordovician, Late Onundogulta 39 quasirobusta Stylosphaera 13,34,36 13,34,35 Rotasphaeracea Rolasphaerid morphotype 18, 19 13, A 21, 22 Rotasphacnd morphotype B Rotasphaend Super/one rotasphacnd structure 8, 18 Rotasphacndac 18, rotunda Pseudorotasphaera 19, 25 19,23 25, 33 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 rotasphaerids 23 9, 13 (?) 22,23 13, 27 16, 28 4, 13, 34, 35 , 36 sagittatum, 18, 33, 36 Santiago Secondary rod, defined Palaeoscemdiitm flammatum 23 37 37 Secuicollacta ? exquisita Assemblage 15 Palaeoscen iidids 14 Secutcollacta amoenitas 23 Paleosphaera 33 Secuicollacta cassa ? 12 Secutcollacta cassa 38 Secuicollacta foliaspinella 4,5,6, 33, 34, 35 Palaeoactinosphaera Palaeoactinosphaendae Palaeoephippium'! cf echinatum Palaeoscenidiidae Partial Range Zone, defined parva Praespongocoelia Payne 16 Hills type localities from (?) cf S 41 Secuicollacta 6, 38 Cenosphaera Praespongocoelia (Spongocoelia) parva-Praespongocoelia (Spongocoelia) kamitakarensis i^ssemblage Praespongocoelia-Stylosphaera (?) magnaspina Partial Zone 7, 16, Praespongocoelia parva Praespongocoelia Taxon Range Zone Praespongocoelia Primary rod, defined Primary spine unit, defined Pseudoaulophacilae Pseudorotasphaera (1) robustispina Pseudorotasphaera (?) rotunda Pseudorotasphaera hispida Pseudorotasphaera lanceolata A 7, 16, 28, Spongocoelia 38 32 27 18 Slylactinosphaera 4, 33, 36 27 Stylosphaera magnaspina Ta.\on Range Zone Stylosphaera (?) magnaspina Stylosphaera ? sp A-Slylosphaera ? sp B Assemblage 5,13,39 13,27 3,8, 13,26 13, 6,9, 14, 16,32 38 18 3,4, 13,25,26,27 3,4,8, 19, 23, 31 Spongodi scacea Sponguridae Spongurus Spumellarian indet sp A Spumellanan indet sp B Stylactmosphaera prima 38 3,4, 13,27 3, 25 14 Spongocoelia sp nova 4, 13 36, 37 prima Slylactinosphaera 14, 23, 24, radiolarian taxa from 13 13, 14, 16 Pndolian 1, LIrals 38 6, pre-orogenic strata Simpson Springs Mountain spiculitic chert 13 13, 14, 15, 16, 28, 37, 24 1,8, 15 16, 18, 19,20,2 2,23 41 spmosus Zadrappolus Spongocoelia parvus ( Praespongocoelia parva) 16.38 23, 24 horrida 16 Range Praespongocoelia fusiforma 1, solara Secuicollacta Southern 23 19,22,23 1,8, 14,23,24,25 1, 25 Secuicollacta solara A 20, 23, 24 20, 23, 24 Secuicollacta sp 1, 1, 14, Secuicollacta sp platyspina Secuicollacta 0) 18 platyspina 40 39, Pena Blanca Mountains Pennsylvanian Pseudorotasphaera Secutcollacta 20, 21 24, 26, 27, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, 39 locality descriptions plulonis Pseudospongoprunum Member 14,25,2 27, 37 27 4, 5, 13, 39 5, 39 13,36,37 13 (?) Stylosphaera ? sp B Stylosphaera C C ? sp Stylosphaera? sp 16 16, 17,39 17 Assemblage 17, 39 Silurian Radiolation Zonation, West Texas: Noble Slylosphaera hispida Slylosphacra quasirobusla Slylosphaera 5, 37, 39 39 varispina Oriundogulla 39 Wallisemdus sp indet Wenlockian Wood Hollow, Sulphur Springs, 40 locality description syn-orogcnic strata 6, 7, larangulua Inanihclla lauversi Pseudospongopninum 7, 14, 16, 28, 38 18 tenuis 6, 13, 32 6, 32 sp aff 7, Tetrentactirna barysphaera-Ceratoikiscurn famenium Zone tnlobites udosa Bipylospongia umcus Devomglansus 14 14, 16 type localities at 26 locality description 41 yoshikiensis Zadrappolus 6, 16, 32 6, 7, 14, 32, 33 6, 33 6, 32 12 Tenting, defined uadrala Rotasphaera 6,9 14.31 31 (f) Taxon range zone, defined Zadrappolus tenuis Zadrappolus Tesnus Formation C) 55 23 16 2, 21, 22, 26 7, 13, 37 7, 13, 14, 15, 16, 28, 29, 37 Zadrappolus Zadrappolus Zadrappolus Zadrappolus Zadrappolus Zadrappolus Zadrappolus Zadrappolus lunans %p A sp aff tenuis spinosus tenuis 6,9, 6, 16,32 13,32 6, 16,32 14, yoshikiensis Assemblage yoshikiensis 16 6,9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 32 ... 6/30/96) Henry W Theisen (to 6/30/95) Raymond Van Houtte (to 6/30/94) BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Warren D Allmon Editor Reviewers for I his issue C harles... numbers and olumes may be Volumes 1-23 of Bu/hinis of Aniencun I'aleoniology hae been reprinted b Kraus Reprint Corporation Route 100 Millwood New York 10546 USA Volume of Palacontoiirapluca Anwricuiia... pattern of the Caballos Novaculite uplift Lithostratigraphy of the Caballos Novaculite west of the Dagger Flat Anticlinorium Straligraphic cross section of the lower chert and shale member of the
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