Bulletins of American paleontology (Bull. Am. paleontol.) Vol 341

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It ^ 'Xf?-; A >r Y rxcan OLUME 103, NUMBER 341 JUNE 26, 1992 Eocene Euthecosomatous Pteropoda (Gastropoda) of the Gulf and Eastern Coasts of North America by Kenneth A Hodgkinson, Christopher L Garvie, and Allan W H Be Paleontological Research Institution 1259 rrumansbur^ Road New York, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, J PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION ^- Officers Harry A Leftingwell J Thomas Dutro, Jr Henry W Theisen James C Showacre Roger J Howley Peter R Hoover Henry W Theisen President VicE-PkEsrDE^NiT V / Secretary Treasurer Assistant Treasurer Director Legal Counsel Trustees Edward Bruce M Bell (to 6/30/93) Carlton E Brett (to 6/30/92) William L Crepet (to 6/30/94) Thomas Dutro Jr (to 6/30/93) Harry A Leffingwell (to 6/30/93) J Robert M Linsley (to 6/30/92) Samuel T Pees (to 6/30/92) William B Picou, Jr (to 6/30/92) Constance A Sancetta (to 6/30/94) James C Showacre (to 6/30/93) James E Sorauf (to 6/30/94) John Steinmetz (to 6/30/94) Henry W Theisen (to 6/30/92) Raymond Van Houtte P S Ventress (to (to 6/30/94) 6/30/93) BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Peter R Hoover Editor Reviewers for this issue David A T Dockery, Richard III L Squires and available numbers and volumes may be have been had on request reprinted by Kraus Reprint Corporation, Route 100, Millwood, New York 10546 USA Volume of Palaeontographica Americana has been reprinted by Johnson list of titles in both series, Volumes 1-23 of Bulletins of American Paleontology Reprint Corporation 1 Filth Ave New York NY 10003 USA Subscriptions to Bulletins of American Paleoiuology may be started at any volume or year Current price is US $45.00 per volume Numbers of time, by Palaeontographica Americana arc priced individually, and are invoiced separately on request for additional information, write or cal Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road Ithaca, NY 14850 USA (607) 273-6623 MCZ LIBRARY AUG 1992 HARVARD UNIVERSITY The Paleontological Research Institution acknowledges with special thanks the contributions of the following individuals and institutions PATRONS ($1000 or more at the discretion of I he contributor) E Allen (1967) American Oil Company (1976) James Atlantic Richfield Company (1978) Christina L Balk (1970, 1982, 1983) HansM Bolli (1984) Ruth Browne Mr G & (1986) Mrs Kenneth E Caster (1967) Chevron Oil Company (1978, 1982) Exxon Company (1977 to date) Lois S Fogelsanger ( 966) Gulf Oil Corporation (1978) Merrill W Haas (1975) Robert C Hoerle (1974-1977) Richard I Johnson (1967, 1986) J M McDonald Foundation (1972, 1978) Mobil Oil Corporation (1977 to date) Samuel T Pees (1981) Richard E Petit (1983) Robert A Pohowsky (1982) Texaco, Inc (1987 to date) Union Oil of California (1982 to date) United States Steel Foundation (1976) Charles G Ventress (1983 to date) Christine C Wakeley (1976-1984) (continued overleaf) LIFE MEMBERS ($400) R Ralph Tucker Abbott James E Allen Elizabeth A Balcells- Baldwin Christina L Balk Bruce M Bell L Harry Langenheim, Egbert G Leigh, Gerard A Donald Shuji Niko Hans HiROSHI David John Bottjer Ruth G Browne David Bukry Sybil B Burger Lyle D Campbell John L Carter Anneliese S Caster Kenneth E Caster John E DuPont J Thomas Dutro Jr J J Mark Erickson Richard J Erickson Lois S Fogelsanger A Eugene Fritsche Christopher L Garvie Ernest H Gilmour Merrill W Haas Anita G Harris Steven M Herrick Carole S Hickman Robert C Hoerle F, D Holland, Jr Frederick H C Hotchkiss David Jablonski Jr Lenhard Louie N Marincovich, Robert A Black Richard S Boardman Bolli R Moore NODA Sakae O'Hara William A Oliver, Samuel T Pees Richard E Petit Edward Jr B Picou Jr Robert A Pohowsky John Pojeta, Jr John K Pope Anthony Reso Arthur W Rocker Arnold Ross Walter E Sage, John B III Saunders Judith Schiebout Edward S Slagle Robert E Sloan Richard L Squires David H Stansbery Jorge P Valdes Raymond Van Houtte Charles G Ventress WiLLL\M P S Ventress Emily H Vokes Harold E Vokes Richard I Johnson David B Jones Peter Jung Tomokj Kase Patricia H Kelley David Garrett Kerr Cecil H Kindle Christine C Wakeley Wiluam Victor A Zullo Jmi Kriz F Klose, II Jr A Leffingwell Thomas R Waller Albert D Warren, Jr Gary D Webster Ralph H Willoughby Armour C Winslow Thomas E Yancey Jr 3u((ctmsof -i^KyncrxcaYV yakcmttowqs^ OLUME 103, NUMBER 341 JUNE Eocene Euthecosomatous Pteropoda (Gastropoda) of the Gulf and Eastern Coasts of North America by Kenneth A Hodgkinson, Christopher L Garvie, Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New York, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, and Allan W H Be 26, 1992 Library of Congress Card Number: 92-64047 Printed in the United States of America Allen Press, Inc Lawrence, KS 66044 U.S.A CONTENTS Page Abstract Introduction Previous Investigations of Eocene Pteropods Present Study Paleobiogeography Biostratigraphy 9 Shell Microstructure Acknowledgments 11 Abbreviations of Repository Institutions 11 Systematic Paleontology Introduction 12 Classification 12 Systematics 12 Subclass Opisthobranchia 12 Order Thecosomata Suborder Euthecosomata Family Limacinidae Genus Allaspiratella Genus Limacina Genus Skaptotion Family Cavoliniidae Subfamily Clionae Genus Bovicornu Genus Camptoceratops Genus Genus Genus Genus Genus 13 14 21 24 24 24 Praehyalocylis 30 Cu vierininae 31 Appendix: Collecting Localities Index 13 Hyalocylis Creseis Euchilotheca Genus Bucanoides Genus Cuvierina Genus Loxobidens Genus Tibiella Plates 13 25 26 26 29 29 Cheilospicata Subfamily References Cited 12 31 32 33 34 35 38 43 57 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Text-figure Correlation chart of Eocene and some Oligocene formations in Texas, Louisiana Mississippi, and Eocene stratigraphic units in Texas Distribution of selected Eocene pteropod species in North America States bordering the northern Gulf of Mexico, showing the locations of several collecting The location of cited exploratory wells in offshore eastern Alabama 10 36 37 sites Canada LIST OF TABLES Page Table The taxonomic status of the Shell microstructure of selected Measurements (in mm) American Eocene pteropods discussed by Collins American Eocene pteropods species of and diameter/length ratios ( 934) of specimens of Creseis simplex used in this study 11 29 EOCENE EUTHECOSOMATOUS PTEROPODA (GASTROPODA) OF THE GULF AND EASTERN COASTS OF NORTH AMERICA by Kenneth A HoexjKinson' Christopher L Garvie^ AND Allan W H Be' ABSTRACT Euthecosomatous pteropods of Early Tertiary seas were equally or more diverse than they are in present-day oceans, and probably as abundant Twenty-eight new species (Allaspiralelta gracilens Limacina adornata Limacina aegis Limacina cana- Limacina convolutus Limacina davidi Limacina heatherae Limacina helikos Limacina lahiata, Limacina pianidorsalis, Limacina smithvillensis Limacina stenzeli, Limacina texana Limacina valuta Limacina wechesensis, Skaplotionl reklawensis Skaptotion spirale Camptoceratops americanus Cheilospicata repanda Creseis cylindrica Bucanoides hasiannulata Bucanoides divaricata Bucanoides tenuis Cuviehna giitta Cuvierina lura Loxobidens aduncus, Tibiella annulata and Tihiella reflexa) and three new genera (Bucanoides Cheilospicata and Loxobidens) are described from the Eocene of Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and the Nova Scotian shelf In addition, seven species that previously were not reported from North America were found in these localities These 35 species plus 13 previously described North American Eocene pteropod species constitute a total of 48 species now known to occur in North America All of these species are formally described here except for single specimens oi Hyalocylis sp A, Creseis sp A, and Praehyalocylis cretacea (Blanckenhom, 1889) The latter species has been described from the late Eocene of Oregon and Washington (Squires, 1989) It is basically a worldwide species with additional reported occurrences in Russia, Turkey, and Australia The genera Camptoceratops and Euchilotheca are reported from North America for the first time daensis tous pteropods Pteropods are one of the most abundant and ubiquitous members of the plankton community in modem seas, and their skeletal remains are preserved in large quantities in some areas of the deep-sea floor The shells of these small mollusks are often abundant enough to form pteropod oozes These oozes occur in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Blake Plateau, Bermuda Platform, and in parts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans Fairbridge ( 966) estimated that these oozes, together with those of foraminifers and coccolithophores, cover 128 million km-, or about 35% of the ocean bottom Sverdrup, Johnson, and Fleming (1942) estimated that pteropod oozes cover about million km^, or about 1% of the sea floor Pteropods are opisthobranch gastropods that have adapted to a planktonic existence According to Be and Gilmer (1977, p 744), there are 28 modem euthecosomatous pteropod species, of which seven belong in the family Limacinidae (= Spiratellidae) and 21 in the family Cavoliniidae Unlike the euthecosomathroughout of the Limacinidae are sin- in the larval stage but not in the adult, INTRODUCTION gymnosomatous and pseudothecosomatous pteropods, which have a shell their life cycle possess aragonitic shells The shells istrally coiled [technically the coiling is (Keen, 97 , p 805)], but we follow most other authors For a discussion of hyperstrophic coiling see p 13 Most species belonging to the Cavoliniidae have bilaterally symmetrical, straight or slightly curved shells Several North American creseid genera, like Bovicornu and Camptoceratops, have shells with a very loose spiral Euthecosomatous pteropods are abundant and widein describing the coiling as sinistral spread in the world's oceans, and range from polar to tropical regions Twenty-one species inhabit the ' 9285 W 9200 N., R S F D 1, Box 428-F, Lehi, Utah 84043, A - Backerstrasse 4, IV Stock, 8000 ' Deceased Munich 60, GERMANY cir- cum-global belt of tropical and subtropical waters, where the surface-water temperature is 18°C or higher Only four species live in sub-Antarctic and/or Antarctic waters, of which three also occur in Arctic and/or sub-Arctic regions Thus among pter- species diversity opods follows a trend seen in many other marine in- vertebrates; namely, that species diversity is greater in lower latitudes and decreases toward the higher latitudes For detailed discussions of the biogeography, taxonomy, and comparative anatomy of modem pteropods, see Boas (1886), Pelseneer ( 888a, 888b), Meisenheimer (1905, 1906a, 1906b), Schiemenz (1906), Bonnevie (1913), Tesch (1904, 1913, 1946, 1948), Vayssiere (1915), Massy (1932), Morton (1954), and Pruvot-Fol (1954) More recent publications are those U hyperstrophic Bulletin 341 by McGowan Chen and Be (1964a, Rampal( 1968, 1973, 1974, 1975), Herman (1978), Lalli and Wells (1978), Spoel and Pierrot-Bults (1979), Be and Gilmer (1977), Rottman (1980), Stepien (1980), and Wormuth ( 98 ) Abbott (1974) and Keen (1971) have also described and illustrated most of the Recent pteropod species in the oceans contiguous to the North American continent Most euthecosomatous pteropod species live in the ( 960, 1968, 1971), 1964b), Spoel (1967, 1972), upper 500 m of the ocean, but three species [Limacina helicoides Jeffreys, ISll Clio balantium {Rang, 1834), , and Clio chaptalii (Gray, 1850)] are known to inhabit resemble the whorls of gastropods with a sinprotoconch Most gastropods have dex- initial istrally coiled but many of these have embryonic whorls that are coiled sinistrally {e.g., pyramidellids and many of the opisthobranchs) These protoconchs are often small, smooth, and thin-walled, and superficially resemble spiratellid pteropods Pteropod shells can also resemble the thin, unomamented, sinistral shells of freshwater gastropods Other groups of animals have small, elongated conical shells that superficially resemble some cavoliniid pteropods Such shells can nevertheless be differentitrally coiled shells, For example, scaphopod and worm tubes deeper waters Several species exhibit diurnal migration, descending below the photic zone during daylight and ascending at night to surface waters where they may feed on phytoplankton, microzooplankton and small organic particles (Boas, 1886; Pelseneer, 1888a, 1888b; Morton, 1954; and Gilmer, 1974) Pteropods are not commonly preserved: their shells are thin, fragile and composed of aragonite, which is less stable and more susceptible to dissolution than the calcitic shells of planktonic foraminifers and coccolithophorids The aragonitic shells are rarely found in the relatively organic-rich sediments that border the continents or in oceanic regions below the aragonite compensation depth (ACD) In the ocean, the ACD is that level below which the rate of aragonite solution exceeds the rate of deposition Thus pteropod shells will not be found below this level The ACD, according to Berger (1978), varies in depth from ocean to ocean as well as within the same ocean Its average depth in the Atlantic Ocean is near 1.5 km in low latitudes and between and 3.4 km in middle latitudes It is between 0.5 and 1.5 km in the Pacific and Indian Oceans The ACD decreases towards high latitudes and continental ated slopes discard the juvenile portions of their shells in the Fossilization of pteropods clearly requires special paleoenvironmental conditions Herman ( 978, p 151) noted that pteropods are better preserved in basins having high bottom temperatures, sluggish circulation and rapid rates of sedimentation, such as the Mediterranean and Red seas She also observed (p 53) that pteropod distribution is controlled by salinity, food and oxygen availability, and by water depth Wellpreserved pteropods of Pleistocene age have been found in many oceanic regions (see Stubbings, 938; Herman, 1971, 1973; Jung, 1973; Samthein, 1971; Be et ai, 1976; Diester-Haass and Spoel, 1978; Almogi-Labin and Reiss, 1977; and Almogi-Labin, 1982) Preserved pteropod shells are abundant in Recent and Pleistocene sediments, and, in general, pteropod remains become shells are open at both ends, whereas pteropod shells are closed at the apex Caecid gastropods are also closed apex but usually have an expanded lip or varix at an intermediate stage of growth and a relatively thick shell, which may be ornate with a distinctively pointed extension of the septum Curry (1965, p 358) noted the following useful characteristics for distinguishing mature pteropod shells from the juvenile shells of other gastropods: (1) pteropods have thinner walls, whose thickness is usually in the range of from to 40 ^m; (2) they have a closed apex; (3) they are normally not ornamented except for growth lines or corrugations of the shell wall (we note that the Peraclidae, not recorded as fossils, and Limacina adornata, n sp., have surface ornamentation at the and are exceptions to this rule); (4) the apertural lip of may be thickened or expanded locally, but such expansion or thickening occurs only when the shell is fully grown; and (5) pteropod shells, if coiled, the shell exhibit a sinistral coiling direction Some pteropods cylis Fol, manner many {e.g., Cuvierina Boas, 1886, Hyalo- 1875, and Diacria Gray, 1847) truncate and same and as scaphopods (Hodgkinson, 1974, p 8) other mollusks Before truncation, the pteropod secretes a caudal septum PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS OF EOCENE PTEROPODS 1 abundant as geologic age increases shells of certain mature pteropods closely resemble the juvenile stages of other gastropods For example, the coiled shells of Limacina may closely less The North American Eocene pteropods have been described by p 9), p 5), p Meyer ( 884, p 1 0; 886, pp 78, 79; 887, Lea ( 833, p 24), Aldrich ( 887, p 83; 895, de Gregorio (1890, pp 16, 17), Gardner (1927, I 1 377; 1951, pp 10-12), Collins (1934, pp 137-234), Curry (1965 pp 357-371) and Squires (1989, pp 440-442) Collins (1934) discussed 12 "Eocene" species from six locations in Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas in his monograph of American Tertiary pteropods (see Table 1) Of these, nine are now considered valid, one is not correctly identified, and two are invalid The two invalid species {Creseis elba de Gregorio, 1890 and C ' Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 103 rv^ ^>' ,' '^j \a/ j^y ' ^^ Plate 10 North American Eocene Pteropods: Hodgkinson, Garvie, and Be 53 Explanation of Plate 10 Page 30 Figure maximus denseannulatus (Ludwig) Locality 7, Cook Mountain Formation, Wheelock Member Hypotype(USNM 360359) detail of shell, x50[SEM] Hypotype (USNM 360360) x6 [LM], 1-5 Praehyalocylis (USNM showmg ornamentation and Figured specimen Lost specimen, showing annulations and lipped aperture 360361) lipped aperture, x6 [LM] x6 [LM] Composite drawing based on available specimens, approximately x4 new genus and new species Locality 8, Weches Formation 6, Holotype (USNM 360362) lateral view x32 [SEM]; oblique view showing basal septum, x46 [SEM] Paratype (USNM 360363), apical fragment, showing basal annulations x 32 [SEM] 9, 10 Enlargements showing helical microstructure of shell wall 9, x |,750 [SEM]; 10, x4,000 [SEM] 6-10 Bucanoides basiannulata Hodgkinson, 31 ' Bulletin 341 54 Explanation of Plate P^ee Figure 1-3 Bucanoides divaricala Hodgkinson, 1, Locality 18, holotype new genus and new species Cook Mountain Formation, Wheelock Member (USNM paratype (USNM 360365), lateral view, x43 [SEM]; 360364), lateral view, x 24 [SEM) (USNM 360381) in rock matrix, on same rock fragment as a figured specimen Locality 17, Large specimen 360351), oi Creseis cylindnca n sp., x6 [LM] 4-6 Bucanoides tenuis Hodgkinson, new genus and new species x21 [SEM] Locality 12, Stone City Formation Paratype (USNM 360367), showing inflated form, (USNM 360368), x 26 [SEM]; 5, Locality 23, Cook Mountain Formation, Hurricane Lentil 5, paratype 2, (USNM '2 6, holotype (USNM 360366), xi8 [SEM] new species Cook Mountain Formation, Hurricane Lentil Paratype (USNM 360370), broken specimen, showing aperture 7, dorsal view, x44 [SEM]; 8, apertural view, x44 [SEM] ventral view, x24 [SEM]; 9, 10 Locality 18, Cook Mountain Formation, Wheelock Member Holotype (USNM 360369) 9, 10, lateral view, x29 [SEM] 11-15 Cuvierina lura Hodgkinson, new species 11 Locality 8, Weches Formation Holotype (USNM 360371), x51 [SEM], x44 [SEM]; 13, apertural view, x44 [SEM], 12, 13 Locality 7, Weches Formation Paratype (USNM 360372) 12, lateral view, 7-10 Cuvierina gutta Hodgkinson, 7, 14, 15 32 Locality 23, Locality 8, [SEM]; Weches Formation Specimen x70 [SEM], 15, lateral view, (lost) truncated a short distance from the basal septum 14, septal detail, x 144 32 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 103 Plate 11 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 103 Plate 12 North American Eocene Pteropods: Hodgkjnson, Garvie, and Be Explanation of Plate Figure 1-5 55 Page Loxobidens aduncus Hodgkinson, new genus and new species Locality 19, Cook Mountain Formation, Wheelock Member Holotype (USNM 360373) 1, apertural view, x73 [SEM]; 2, lateral view, x73 [SEM] Lost specimen ventral view, x85 [SEM]; 4, apertural view, x85 [SEM]; 5, lateral view, x85 [SEM] Apical fragment, paratypc (LISNM 360374), questionably assigned to L aduncus, x31 [SEM], Tibiella annulata Garvie, new species Locality 10, Weches Formation, Viesca Member, Holotype (USNM 360375) Lateral view, x |7 [LM] Ventral view, x 17 [LM], Tibiella marshi Meyer Locality 26 Gosport Sand Neotype (USNM 360376), Lateral view, xl2 [SEM] 10 Enlargement showing trigonal aperture, x 45 [SEM], Tibiella reflexa Hodgkinson, new species Locality 12, Stone City Formation 1 Lost specimen, oblique view, showing thickened aperture, x40 [SEM], 12 Paratype (USNM 360378), "nested" specimens, lateral view, x33 [SEM], 33 1,2 3-5 7, 10 II, 12 34 34 35 Bulletin 341 56 Explanation of Plate Figure 1-3 Tibiella reflexa 35 Hodgkinson, new species Locality 12, Stone City Formation 2, 4-8 Holotype (USNM 360377), lateral view x34 [SEM] Fragment (lost), showing reflexed shell at aperture 2, x48 [SEM]; 3, x 190 [SEM] ^^ Tibiella texana Collins Locality 8, 7, Weches Formation Topotype Topotype Topotype (USNM (USNM (USNM Apertural fragment 360379), lateral view, x 13 [SEM] 360383), apertural fragment, showing recurved flange, x90 [SEM] 360384), apertural fragment, without recurved flange, x 87 [SEM], (lost) 7, apertural view, x 50 [SEM]; 8, lateral view, x 50 [SEM] Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 103 Plate 13 North American Eocene Pteropods: Hodgkinson, Garvie, and Be 57 INDEX Note: Page numbers are in light face; plate numbers are in bold face type; the page numbers on which prmcipal discussions occur arc in AAPGCOSUNAchart Gulf Coast (1988) series for the Abbott (1974) Abildgaard (1791) ACD [aragonite compensation depth] Avnimelech (1945) 7,28 adornata, Ltmacina 5,6,10,74,15,17 aduncus, Loxobidens Alabama balantium Clio 5,10,75 basiannulala Bucanoides Co Choctaw Comer Be and Gilmer (1977) Beet al (1976) Be, MacClmtock, andChew-Currie(I972) 36 bearnensis, 37,38 Altaspiralella Plotophysops Monroe Co 35,38 Claiborne 37 Berggren 38 38 bernayi Spinalis 38 Blainville Alabama Ferry Alabama River 35,37,38 Aldrich (1887) 6,13,14,16.19,36 Aldrich (1895) 6,14,16,28 Aldrich Collection, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore Maryland 35 Almogi-Labin (1982) Almogi-Labin and Reiss (1977) Altaspiralella Korobkov, 1966 ^rac/Ve/w Hodgkinson, n sp Amoco-Imperial Amoco-lmperial Amoco-lmperial Amoco-Imperial Amoco-lmperial Amoco-lmperial #A-1 Bittern M-62 well #A-1 Gannet 0-54 well #A-1 Heron H-73 well #A- Kittiwake P-1 #A-1 Murre G-67 well #A-1 Petrel A-62 well Amoco-Impenal #A-1 Puffin B-90 well Amoco-Imperial #A-1 Shearwater J-20 well Amoco-Imperial-Skelly #A-1 Mallard M-45 well Amoco-Imperial-Skelly #A-1 Osprey G-84 well Amoco-Imperial-Skelly #A-1 Spoonbill D-30 well Ampullaria pygmaea Lamarck 1804 38 Big Black River (1816-1830) 12,14 Blanckenhom (1889) 5,7,30 BM(NH) [British Museum (Natural History), London, England, U.K.] 12,13.18,20-23 Boas (1886) Boltovskoy (1974) 5,6,12,31,32 11 33 12,14 BovicomuUeyer 1886 eocenense Meyer, 5,24,25 me 38 Burleson Bluff 38 Burton (1933) 7,10,24,25-28 7 7,10,25,28 18,22 16 37,38 38 5,31 10 5,10,1 l,i7 5,10,i7 11 11 5,10,1 1,31, i2, 33 37 22 38 38 Caddell Formation 19 Caecum (Meioceras) 26 25 corpulenta (Meyer) andersoni, 7,22 Planorbis Skaptotwn 7,10,21,22,23 Andrews (1971) 12 annulata Tibiella ANSP [Academy Antarctic 19 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 well ^raaVc Meyer, 1887 Bracklesham Beds Brann and Kent (1960) Brazos River Brown's Cave Bucanoides Hodgkinson, n gen basiannulata Hodgkinson, r\ sp divancata Hodgkinson, n sp f«u«5 Hodgkinson, n sp 5,10,25 10.1 1,/i, 14, 18,20 (1985) Bonnevie(1913) Bosc (1816-1817) 5,10,74,18 americanus, Camploceralops et al 10,13.74,36 11 13 Bonelli (1872) 10,1 l,7i,14,18,20 (WduQh, Mil) 5,6,9 Berger(1978) 13 (Curry, 1981) 5,10,ll,i7 10 35 37 Jackson Little Stave Creek Gosport Landing Washington Co., St Stephens 7,21-23 bartonense Skaptotion Bashi Formation 5,6,8,9,13,16,28,35,36 elongatoidea 21-23 Barton Beds 5,10,ii Claiborne Z)M™e/«« 33 12 Limacina Clarke Australia 12 acicula Creseis aegis [0.3436 of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] Ocean aragonite compensation depth [ACD] Ocean Atlantic Ocean Bermuda Platform Arctic Blake Plateau Spiratella gracite (Meyer) California State University, Northridge, California Camploceralops Wenz, 1923 americanus Garv\e, n sp ;;n5ca (Godwin-Austen, 1882) 11,12,23 Canada Nova 11 5,24,25 5,10,25 25 16 Scotian shelf 5,15,20,21,36-38 canadaensis, Limacina Cane River Formation 8,14 5,6,18 Caribbean Sea Carpenter (1858-1859) 24 Carrizo Formation auguslana, Limacma italics 10,75,16,18,20 7,15 Cavo/;ma Abildgaard, 1791 Cavohniidae Cedar Creek 5,76 8,9 12 5,9,11,24 37 Bulletin 341 58 chaplain, Clio chastelii Cleodora (Creseis) Cheilospicata Hodgkinson, 29 n gen Hodgkinson and Garvie, Chen and Be (1964a) Chen and Be (1964b) Chickasawhay River repawrfa n sp nimba de Gregorio, 1890 simplex (Ueyer, 1886) sp A 38 30 sp of Aldrich (1895) 16 Spiralis 16 Spiratella Claiborne Bluff 35,37.38 Claibome Group Cook Mountain Formation 8,27,28 7-9,22,28,29,36.37 cretacea Praehyalocylis 5,7 ,30 Crockett Formation Stone City 9,15,17-19,22,23,27-29,31-33,38 Cleodora parisiensisT)e%\^a'^e% 1861 Cleodora (Creseis) c-Aa^re//; corpulenta (Meyer) hastata (Meyer) hastata (Meyer) simplex (Meyer) C/(o Linnaeus, 1767 Curry 11 12 ,23 12 12 12 Boas 1886 6,12,31 ,32 columnella (Rang, 1827) globosa Collins, 1934 29 gutla Hodgkinson, n sp 29 26 27 28 28 /»ra Hodgkinson, n sp 11,31 ,32 33 5,10 32 11 33 5,10,1 l,i2 ,33 11 senonica inJlata Avnimelech, 1945 33 Cuvierininae Gray, 1840 Cyclostrema (Daronia) nitens (I 24 ,31 22 Lea) cylindrica Creseis Dall (1892) Dall (1921) davidi, corpulenta (Meyer) 26 27 28 28 hastata (Meyer) simplex ( Meyer) of Palmer and Brann (1965) Clionae Jeffreys 1869 24 Cockfield Formation 8,24 Collier, Frederick J 11 Colliers Ferry 37 Collms (1934) Colorado River 6,7,14,16,21,24-28,33-35 37 columnella Cuvierina 5,10,27,32 35 22,24,26-28,34 13 Limacina 5,10,/7 Defrance (1804-1845) 29 Deshayes (1856-1865) 19,29 Diacria Gray 1847 6,12 Diester-Haass and Spoel (1978) divaricaia Bucanoides 11 Dockery (1977) Dockery (1986) Dockery and Zumwalt (1986) Dockery, David T., Ill Donaghe, Lisa 5,10.i/ 28 7,9,24 24 11 11 11,31,32 Conrad (1833) Conrad (1865) Conrad (1866) Conns (Lithoconus) sauridens Conrad, 1833 convolutus Limacina 22 22 5, 10 /6, 17, Cooke C Wythe (Meioceras) Cleodora (Creseis) Clio (Creseis) Creseis Cossmann (1893) Cossmann (1912) Cossmann (1913) elongatoidea 26 26 26 Spiralis 14 7,10,26,27 cossmanni, Skaptotion 23 Cox (1960) 12 Rang, 1828 adcu/a Rang, 1828 7,12,24,25,26,27,29 corpw/e/Ha (Meyer, 1887) 7,28 21 14 19 sp 32 Limacina Limacina Physa 24-26 n elevata Altaspiratella 22,24,26,28 Cram 6,7 elegans Euchilotheca 27 26 Styliola elba Creseis 18 corpulenta cy/iWnca Hodgkinson, 13,14,18,20,23 25 D 27 Clio (Creseis) Caecum 6,7,13-24 29 12,24 balantlum (Kan% 1834) chaplain (Gray 1850) sp Curry (1965) Curry (1981) Curry and Rampal (1979) injlata (Bonelli, 1872) Potiez and Michaud 1838 sp cf C (C.) Member Cin/emw 28 9 Wheelock Marl Member Claibome Sands 5,2S ,29 26 ,28 Member Spiller 7,10-12,25,25 ,29 virgida Kang, 1828 9 6,7 spp Cuvier(1797) Cuvier(1804) Cuvier(1817) 9,15,18,22,23,27,28,31.32,38 28 Landrum Member Mount Tabor Member Hurricane Lentil 7,10,24,26,27, 28 C /!a5/a/a (Meyer, 1886) sp cf 10,/6,19 6,7 )?,&(>) 5,10,26 choclavensis, hastata (Mtytx, 5,24,26 chivensis, Praehyalocylis Limacina Physa elba de Gregorio, 1890 7,10,26,27 5,10.27,32,35 10.13, /'#,36 14 Spiratella elongatoides, Limacina 14 14 Spiratella (Altaspiratella) England 18-23,29,32 Hampshire of Sheppey London Highgate Sussex Bognor Regis 21,23 13,25 Isle 13 20 eocenense BoYicornu Meioceras Esso Resources Calgary Alberta Canada 7,10,24,25-28 24,26 11.17.18 North American Ecx:ene Pteropods: Hodgkinson, Garvie, Eiichilotheca Fischer 1882 5,24,26,29 elegansG.F Harris 1894 32 10,29 iwcY;m7a(Defrance 1828) 13 Euthecosomata Meisenheimer, 1905 12 Euthyneura Spengel, 1881 7,11,17,18 Exxon Company, U S A [Houston, Texas] 38 Exxon Corporation # Baker well Exxon Corporation #1 Labokay well (Houston River Prospect) 38 38 Exxon Corporation #1 R H Strain well 38 Exxon Corporation #1 State Lease 12770 well 11 Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas Fairbridge (1966) Fischer (1880-1887) 24,26,29 Branch Rorida Fol(1875) 38 Flat 36 6,12,24,29 Forest Hill Formation 18,19,29,32 Aquitaine Basin, Gaas 28 Paris Basin 19,24 23 southern Gan 13,25 Fumestin (1979) Garback, Mary Creseis 7,28 healherae Limacina A 11 6,7.21-23 helicma Limacina sp /7 22 6 (1969) 11 22 11 38 6,12,24,29,30 A 5,10,12,29 29,30 siriala (Rang 1828) Indian Ocean 5,6 inflata Cmierina Limacina 33 33 Italy Jackson Group Janssen (1990) 24 38 Jeffreys (1877) 11 Jung (1973) Keen (1971) 31 Knight, Mr M unich Gilmer (1974) Glendon Formation globosa Cmierina Kosciusco Formation gracile 7,10,25,28 5,\Q,14,[i 25 graalens Altaspiralella Gray (1840) Gray (1847) Gray (1850) de Gregono (1890) 31 Edie Gulf of Mexico Cmierina 11 5,10,i2 I (1833) 22 Harris, G D (1899) 14,16 24-28 32 Harris, G F (1894) canadaensis Hodgkinson choclavensis Cleodora (Creseis) 27 27 Clio (Creseis) Styliola 7,10,24,26,27,28 27 hastata (cf ), Cleodora (Creseis) 5,6,10,74,15,17 n 10,75,16,18,20 sp (Mdnch 1887) Hodgkinson, n sp 5,76 10,76,19 5,10,76,17,18 davidi Hodgkinson, n sp 5,10,77 e/eva/a Collins, 1934 21 elongatoidea (Aldrich) 14 14 elongatoides (Aldrich) /jWkv/w Phipps, 1774 helicoides iefireys 1877 /jW;Ao.5 ;>!//ara labiata 28 5,10,75 Aear/ierac Hodgkinson, n sp hastata, Creseis 38 6,I2,/4,15, 17,21 aiigustana (Gardner \95\) co«vo/!(/!K (1895) and Palmer (1946-1947) 6,7,1 1,21-23 Leaf River Limacina Bosc, 1817 arfo/vMfa Hodgkinson, n sp ae^/i Hodgkinson, n sp 11 gutta Limacina 5,10,/S and Wells (1978) Lamarck (1804) 16,19 Lamont-Doheriy Geological Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York II 19 Laubnere (1881) 22 Lea, H C (1849) Lalli Lea, Sicily, 11,24,30 labiata 6,12,24 Italy] 13,14 6,12,13 6,22,27 de Gregorio Collection [University of Palermo, Palermo, 35 8,9,22,23,27-29,34,35,38 (Meioceras) Mrs Jim 33 25 (1882) 5,6,13,14 & Korobkov (1966) Korobkov and Makarova (1962) Bovicornu 9,14,23 Jeffreys (1869) 36 Gosport Sand Formation 8,28 7,9,13 Janssen and King (1988) Germany Harris, G D., 5, 10, 15, Hodgkinson, Erlene Homalaxis sp of Burton (1933) Hoover, Peter R Hurricane Bayou Hyalocylis Fol, 1875 Georgia Hams, G D Herman (1971) Herman (1973) Herman (1978) Herman and Rosenberg Hodgkmson (1974) 36 Griffin, 14,21 Limacina helikos Limacina Henderson (1935) helicoides, Gause Quadrangle (1989) Caecum 5,10,77 6,7,15,18,20,22 R Godwm-Austen Gardner (1927) Gardner (1951) Garland Creek Garvie, Shirley 59 France southwestern, and Be Hodgkinson, n 14,21 sp 5,10,15,77 d'Orbigny, 1836 Hodgkinson, ne»jom n (Curry, 1965) 5,10,77 sp 5.10,75 10,11, /S.19 60 Bulletin 341 Limacma MGS Hodgkinson, p>'gmaea (Lamarck, 804) p/a«;(/oria/;5 smtth\illensis n HoA^inson, sp 5,17,/S I0,U,16,i9 n %p i^enzW; Garvie, n sp 5,10./9 ray/on (Curry, 1965) 5,10,79,20 /eva«a Garvie and Hodgkinson, n 10,16,20 sp 5,10,20,21 irochiformis (d'Orhi^y 1836) 18 tutelina (Carry, \9(>5) valuta Hodgkinson, n sp wechesensis Hodgkinson 13,14,20 n %p 5,6 5,27 5,10,11,20,27 Limacinidae Gray, 1847 Lindveit, Mr & Mrs Gus Linnaeus (1758) 5,9, 7jf 35 12 Linnaeus (1767) Lisbon Formation Little Brazos Bluff Little Brazos River Little Stave Creek 12,24 8,18,22,23,28,37 [Mississippi Geological Survey] localities 112c Milne-Edwards (1848) Miss Lite Aggregate clay 12 pit 38 Mississippi 5,6,8,9,16,35,36 Hinds Co., Byram 38 38 38 Cynthia Edwards Jackson Red 28,38 Bluff 24,25,38 Smith Co., Bay Springs 38 38 Raleigh Warren Co., Redwood London Clay 38 38 37,38 21.25 Bed 20 Mississippi Valley Portland Division C 13 Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad Division D 13 Mobil Sable Island #1 F-67 well MontgomePv (Creola) Landing Moodys Branch Formation Beetle Division E 13 Louisiana 5,8,9,15-17,35,36 Wayne Co., Hiwannee 38 Morton (1954) Cameron Parish 38 mullispira Plolophysops Rouge Parish Grant Parish, Montgomery 38 38 Loxobidens Hodgkinson, n gen a^w/iau Hodgkinson n sp 12 Ludwig(1864) lura Cuvierina 11 MacNeil (1944) MacNeil and Dockery (1984) Madagascar Nosey-Be Mancini (1979) Marianna Formation "mames National Science Foundation 5,31.ii Nelms (1979) 5,10,ii nemoris, 7,9 Spiratella 18 nimba Creseis 6,7 24 24,26-28,36 10,1I,7S,19 nilens Cyctostrema (Daronia) Planaria 24 "Planaria" Skaptotion 18 22 7,22 22 7,10,11,21,22,23 North Sea Basin 13,22,23 34 12 7,10,i4,35 11 Massy (1932) Praehyalocylis 10 Opisthobranchia Milne Edwards, 1848 d'Orbigny (1836) 9,18 Oregon 5,30 12 10,iO,36 var dense-annulalus, 30 30 Ocean Palmer (1937) Palmer and Brann (1965-1966) 30 parisiensis Pacific Praehyalocylis Tenlaculites var densecostatus Praehyalocylis McElroy Formation McGowan McGowan McGowan 13 Limacina Martin William maximus 5,6 5,10,ll,i2,33 bleues" marshi Tibiella maxinnis Cement Company 30 marshalli Tibiella maxinms denseanmdatus 38 38 38 38 38 36 38 38 8,25-29,38 Shubuta Vicksburg Calcasieu Parish East Baton 36 38 38 102 5,6 22 7,14,16,22,25-28,34,35 Cleodora (1960) Spinalis (1968) Pearl River Pelseneer( 1888a) 5,6 5,6,30 Pelseneer (1888b) 5,6 (1971) Mediterranean Sea A/e/oceraj Carpenter, 1858 24 eocenense (Meyer) 24,26 Meisenheimer (1905) Meisenheimer (1906a) Meisenheimer (1906b) Meridian Formation Mexico 5,13 Meyer (1884) Meyer (1886) Meyer (1887) Peraclidae Persian Gulf Phipps(1774) Physa 14,21 choctavensis Wdrich 1887 16 elongatoidea Mdrich, 1887 Pin Oak Creek 14 6,7,26,27.31.34,35 6,12,24,25-28 ' ' 19 38 36 21,33 Veracruz 29 6J5-28 Planaria nilens I "Planaria" nilens plamdorsalis 37 Lea 1833 (I 7,22 Lea) Limacma Planorbis andersoni Gardner 1927 22 5,\1,18 7,22 North American Eocene Pteropods: Hodgkinson, Garvie, and Be Plolophysops Curry 1981 13 hearnensis Curry 1981 13 Cuny 1981 Poliez and Michaud 1838) Praehvalocvlis Korobkov in Korobkov and Makarova, 1962 13 mullispira 29 ( ' 24,30 ivprat'ca 30 (Blanckenhom, 1889) maximus 5,7,30 denseannulaliis {Ludv/ig 1864) 10 10,iO,36 30 30 ina.ximus (Ludwig) var dense-anniilalus {Ludw\g) maximus var densecostalus (Ludwig) PRI [Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New SkaptolionCuuy 1965 andersom (Gardner 1927) barlonense Curry 1965 cossmanni Cuny 1981 15, 17 18,2/, 22 York] 7,10,21,22,23 7,21-23 , 23 , mYe«i(I Lea, 1833) Korobkov and Makarova, 1962 f/7/ve«^w 61 Hodgkinson, ip/ra/e n sp Skaptotioni reklawensis Gaxv'ie, smithvillensis sp 7,10,11,21,22,23 5, 21, 2i n %p Limacina 5,10,21,2J 5,10,/9 A, Creseis Hyalocylis 5.28,29 5,10,12,29 sp., 36 Clio (Creseis) 28 pnsca Camptoceratops 25 Creseis Prosobranchia Milne Edwards, 1848 12 Homalaxis 28 22 20 Pruvot-Fol (1954) Pteropoda Cuvier, 1804 Pulmonata Cuvier, 1817 Spiratella 12 spp., Creseis 12 Sparta Formation 8,9,24 Spengel (1881) pygmaea A mpullaria 19 Linmcma 10,11,16,79 spirale, 12 Skaptotion 5, 21, 2i Spiralis Spiratella 19 choaavensis (Aldrich) 16 Spirialis 19 elongatoidea (Aldrich) 14 pygmaea 19 \aT pezanti, Spirialis Spiratella QUmwiWe 1817 12,14 augitstana Gardner, 1951 Queen City Formation 8,9 7,15 choctavensis (Aldrich) elongatoidea (Aldrich) Rampal (1968) Rampal (1973) Rampal (1974) Rampal (1975) Rang (1827) Rang (1828) Rang (1834) nemoris Curry 6,11 6 11,31,32 7,12,24-27,29,30 Rattlesnake Bluff 38 Red Bluff Clay Red Bluff Formation Red River Red Sea 38 8,24,27 38 5,6 12,13 reflexa Tibiella Reklaw Formation Marquez Shale Member pygmaea (hamarck 1809) 19 of Venables (1963) taylori Curry, 1965 20 20 20 sp Curry, 1965 tut elilia Spiratella (Altaspiratella) elongatoides (Aldrich) 5,13 Spirialis ie/-«av( Laubriere, 1881 19 pam(«ww 19 Watelet and Lefevre, 1885 pygmaea (Lamarck) pygmaea (L&raarck) 19 \ar pezanti Cos%mann, 19 \9\'i 8,9,20-23,26,36 Spoel (1972) 6,14 5,10,21,2i 5,10,26 Spoel and Pierrot-Bults (1979) Squires (1989) L Squires, R St 5-7,12,30 11 Stevens Quarry Richter(1976) 11 Stanton Robert J Ridge Creek 36 Stave Creek Riverside Park 38 37 Stenzel (1953) Russia 14 Spiratellidae Dall, 1921 6,12,14 Rocky Creek Rottman (1980) 18 Spoel(1967) Newby Member repanda Cheilospicata 1965 5,10-12,27,34,i5 9,20,36 reklawensis, Skaptotionl Stenzel H stenzeli 11 37,38 Stenzel, Krause 38 19,36 and Twining (1957) 7.9 B 19,20 Limacina 5,10,79,20 Stepien (1980) Sabinetown Formation Samthein (1971) sauridens Conus (Lithoconus) Schiemenz (1906) inflata, Stone City Formation striata, Hyalocylis Styliola 9,32 Scott (1963) senonica 33 27 Cuviertna Shimer and Shrock (1944) simplex Cleodora (Creseis) 28 28 Clio (Creseis) Creseis Styliola "Styliola" 7,10-12,25,25,29 26,28 28 7-9,17-19,22,23,26-29,32,35,37 29,30 30 Stubbings (1938) SO'/(o/a Gray, 1850 12,24 Meyer, 1887 hastata Meyer, 1886 26 27 simplexUeyer, 1886 26,28 corpiilenta striata Rang 30 28 "Styliola" simplex succincta Euchilotheca succinta, Vaginella 10,29 29 Bulletin 341 62 Sverdrup, Johnson, and Fleming (1942) 33 Syria Tallahatta Formation Taylor, 8,15,16,37 E J 20 13 \0.35 texana CoWms, 1934 Tombigbee River 7,34,35 Toulmm 38 36 (1977) Toulmin (1977) localities ACM taylori, Limacina 10,16,20 20 Spiralella TBEG texana CoWins 1934 'Tibiella'- [Texas Bureau of Economic Geology] localities 36 37 ll-T-2 37,38 AMo-4 AMo-6 AWa-3 37,38 38 MCl-l 38 38 MHi-1 38 36 37 Trinity River ll-T-29 21-T-l 37 Triptera 38 trochiformis, Limacina 18 21-T-6 26-T-l 38 Tuntivate-Choy, Saijai 11 Turkey Tumbull, Hardie 11 ll-T-7 ll-T-26 37,38 37 26-T-6 I13-T-2 38 38 113-T-9 145-T-52 38 38 145-T-58 165-T-13 36 maximus Teniaculites tenuis Tesch Tesch Tesch Tesch vat dense-annulalus Ludv/ig Bucanoides 1864 tutelina Limacina Two 20 Mile Creek 38 Taylor Branch 20,36 USGS (1913) (1946) 7671 (1948) USNM 38 [National Institution, lexana 5,10,20,21 Washington, DC] 30 5-9,19,20,22,23,28,32,33,35,36 Utah, Lehi 37 37 19,36,37 Vayssiere (1915) Winchester 37 Venables(1963) Vicksburg Group Bucatunna Formation Byram Formation Mint Spring Formation Co 38 Bryan 37,38 Co 37,38 37 Caldwell Stone City Bluff 37,38 Cherokee Co Fayette Co., Kirtley Store Co 38 Washington Watelet and LeFevre (1885) Weches Formation Tyus Member Crockett 38 Porter Springs 38 37 37,38 Middleton 38 36 Milam Co Robertson Co., Wheelock 28,38 38 Rusk Co Texas A & M University Electron Microscopy Center, College Station, Texas 11 Texas Gulf Coast Thecosomata Blainville, 1824 Therrill Formation Tibiella Meyer, 1884 13.18,30,34 26,27,31,^^; 12 Meyer Hodgkinson 8,27,38 26,28 5,12,30 19 8,9,13,14,21,23,28,29,31,33,36,37 Member wechesensis, Limacina (1923) Whitsett Formation Wilcox Formation Wilcox Group Hatchetigbee Formation 5,2/ 9,19,34,37 5,6 5,10,11,20,27 24,25 17,18 8 Member 14,16,36 Winona Formation Bashi Wormuth (1981) Wngley (1934) 29 5,10,i4,36 Yancey, Thomas E Yazoo Formation Yegua Formation 11 8,24,38 8,9 34 marshi Meyer ISS4 re/7eA:a 8,27,38 8,26,27,38 12 a/j«M/a/a Garvie n sp marshalli Viesca Wenz Leon Co., Leona 8,27,38 Limacina valuta 35 20 virgula, Creseis 36 37 Houston Houston Co., Augustana 29 Vaginetla succinla Defrance, 1828 Varsol® 36 Guys 1-35 31 Upton Burleson U.S.S.R southern Smithville Brazos of Natural History, Smithsonian Aral Sea southern coast 10,i5 Co Bastrop Museum 7,34,35 13 Tibiella "Tibiella" Texas Anderson Co., Elkhart 36 38 38 [United States Geological Survey] localities 5264 6454 13,14,20 Spiralella (1904) Limacina 30 5.10.1 l,31,i2.33 11 38 34 Quoy and Gaimard 12 n sp 12.13 1.10.34.35 5,10-12,27,34,i5 Zilch (1959) Zilpha Formation 34 ... Millwood, New York 10546 USA Volume of Palaeontographica Americana has been reprinted by Johnson list of titles in both series, Volumes 1-23 of Bulletins of American Paleontology Reprint Corporation... USA Subscriptions to Bulletins of American Paleoiuology may be started at any volume or year Current price is US $45.00 per volume Numbers of time, by Palaeontographica Americana arc priced individually,... 6/30/93) BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Peter R Hoover Editor Reviewers for this issue David A T Dockery, Richard III L Squires and available numbers and volumes
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