Bulletins of American paleontology (Bull. Am. paleontol.) Vol 337

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r ins of rxcan VOLUME 100, NUMBER 337 OCTOBER Late Triassic cyrtinoid spiriferinacean brachiopods from western North America and biostratigraphic their and biogeographic imphcations by Peter R Hoover Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New York, 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, 16, 1991 PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION Officers Harry A Leffingwell J Thomas Dutro, Jr Henry W Theisen James C Show acre Roger J Howley Peter R Hoover Henry W Theisen President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer Assistant Treasurer Director Legal Counsel Trustees Edward Bruce M Bell (to 6/30/93) Carlton E Brett (to 6/30/92) Willl^lM L Crepet (to 6/30/94) J Thomas Dutro, Jr (to 6/30/93) Harry A Leffingwell (to 6/30/93) Robert M Linsley (to 6/30/92) Samuel T Pees (to 6/30/92) William P S B Picou, Jr (to 6/30/92) Constance A Sancetta (to 6/30/94) James C Showacre (to 6/30/93) James E Sorauf (to 6/30/94) John Steinmetz (to 6/30/94) Henry W Theisen (to 6/30/92) Raymond Van Houtte (to 6/30/94) Ventress (to 6/30/93) BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Editor Peter R Hoover Reviewers for this issue D V A S Ager Dagys T J N J Dutro, Jr Silberling both series, and available numbers and volumes may be 1-23 of Build ins of American Paleontology have been Volumes had on request Corporation, Route 100, Millwood, New York 10546 Reprint reprinted by Kraus Americana has been reprinted by Johnson Palaeontographica of USA Volume New York, NY 10003 USA Fifth Ave., Corporation Reprint A list of titles in 1 1 Subscriptions to Bulletins of American Paleontology may be started at any volume or year Current price is US $45.00 per volume Numbers of time, by Palaeontographica Americana are priced individually, and are invoiced separately on request for additional information, write or call: Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road Ithaca, NY 14850 USA (607) 273-6623 The Paleontological Research Institution acknowledges with special thanks the contributions of the following individuals and institutions PATRONS ($1000 or more at the discretion of the contributor) E Allen (1967) American Oil Company (1976) Atlantic Richfield Company (1978) Christina L Balk (1970, 1982, 1983) James HansM BoLLi(1984) Ruth G Browne (1986) Mr & Mrs Kenneth E Caster (1967) Chevron Oil Company (1978, 1982) Exxon Company (1977 to date) Lois S Fogelsanger (1966) Gulf Oil Corporation (1978) Merrill W Haas (1975) Robert C Hoerle (1974-1977) Richard I Johnson (1967, 1986) J M McDonald Foundation (1972, 1978) Mobil Oil Corporation (1977 to date) Samuel T Pees (1981) Richard E Petit (1983) Robert A Pohowsky (1982) Texaco, Inc (1987 to date) Union Oil of California (1982 to date) United States Steel Foundation (1976) Charles G Ventress (1983 to date) Christine C Wakelev (1976-1984) (continued overleaf) LIFE MEMBERS ($400) Ralph Tucker Abbott James E Allen R Harry L Langenheim, Egbert G Leigh, Elizabeth A Balcells-Baldwin Christina L Balk Bruce M Bell Gerard A Jr Lenhard Louie N Marincovich, Donald Robert A Black Richard S Boardman R Hiroshi Noda Sakae O'Hara WiLUAM A Oliver, Jr Samuel T Pees Richard E Petit Lyle D Campbell Edward John Robert A Pohowsky John Pojeta, Jr John K Pope Anthony Reso Arthur W Rocker Carter Anneliese S Caster Kenneth E Caster John E DuPont J Thomas Dutro, Jr L Mark B Picou, Jr Arnold Ross Walter E Sage, Erickson Richard J Erickson Lois S Fogelsanger A Eugene Fritsche Christopher L Garvte Ernest H Gilmour Merrill W Haas Antta G Harris Steven M Herrick Robert C Hoerle F D Holland, Jr John B III Saunders Judith Schiebout Miriam W Schriner Edward S Slagle Robert E Sloan David H Stansbery Jorge P Valdes Charles G Ventress William P S Ventress Emily H Yokes Harold E Yokes Frederick H C Hotchkiss David Jablonskj Christine C Wakeley Richard I Johnson David B Jones Peter Jung TOMOKI Kase Patricia H Kelley David Garrett Kerr Cecil H Kindle William F Klose, II JiRi Jr Moore Niko Shuji Hans Bolu David John Bottjer Ruth G Browne J David Bukry Sybil B Burger J Jr A Leffingwell Thomas R Waller Albert D Warren, Jr Gary D Webster Ralph H Willoughby Armour C Winslow Thomas E Yancey Victor A Zullo KrIz Membership dues, subscriptions, and contributions are the Paleontological Research Institution to continue its all important sources of funding, and allow existing programs and services The P.R.I, publishes two series of respected paleontological monographs Bulletins of American Paleontology and Palaeontographica Americana, that give authors a relatively inexpensive outlet for the publication of significant longer manuscripts In addition, leontological literature tebrate type and The it reprints rare but important older P.R.I, headquarters in Ithaca, figured specimens, among New the five largest in North America; an extensive collection specimens that can form the basis ontologic research; and a comprehensive paleontological research library of well-documented and curated works from the pa- York, houses a collection of inver- fossil for significant future pale- Institution is a non-profit, non-private corporation, and contributions be U.S income tax deductible For more information on P.R.I, programs, memberships, or subscriptions to P.R.I, publications, call or write: The Paleontological Research may Peter R Hoover Director Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road New York 14850 U.S.A 607-273-6623 Ithaca, "Mncrican JnCccmwic^ V^OLUME 100, OCTOBER NUMBER 337 Late Triassic cyrtinoid spiriferinacean brachiopods from western North America and biostratigraphic their and biogeographic impHcations by Peter R Hoover Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road Ithaca, New York, 14850 U.S.A 16, 1991 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Text-figure Page map showing location of North American Sketch Views of the cooperculum of Spondylospira /enesensis (Lees 934) Dorsoposterolateral view of ventral valve oi Dagyspinfer fascicostata n gen and n sp showing one of the two small, paired, ovate pedicle foramena that pierce the apices of both the ndged portion of the interarea and the dental plates Anterodorsolateral (interior) view of ventral valve of Dagyspirifer fascicostata n gen and n sp., showing the horizontal bar that connects the dental plates and lateral shell wall collecting localities cited in this report Posterodorsolateral views of portions of a dorsal valve oi Phenacozugmayerelta mimundnala microomament and n sp., 77 7g showing surface OF TABLES Table n gen 76 91 LIST 64, 65 Page Upper Triassic Series Stages Substages, and Zones Measurements of type specimens of Dagyspmfer fascicostata n gen and n sp Measurements of type specimens of Pseudospondylosptra perplexa n gen and n sp Measurements of specimens of Spondylospira lewesensis (Lees, 934) Measurements of the holotype of Spondylospira pannata Hoover, 983 Measurements of specimens of Spondylospira tricosta n sp Measurements of type specimens of 'itimetula parva n gen and n sp Measurements of type specimens of Zugmayerella americana, n sp Measurements of specimens of Zugmayerella'^ sp A Measurements of type specimens of Phenacozugmayerella numuncmata n gen and 66 78 80 82 84 1 85 87 I 88 89 n sp 90 LATE TRIASSIC CYRTINOID SPIRIFERINACEAN BRACHIOPODS FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA AND THEIR BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS By Peter R Hoover Paleontological Research Institution 1259 Trumansburg Road NY 14850-1398, U S A Ithaca, ABSTRACT Cyrtinoid spiriferinacean brachiopods in samples from over fifty Late Triassic marine fossil localities in western North America 942, one of which (S tricosta) is new; one new species of Zugmayerella Dagys, 1963; and four new monotypic genera, represented by Dagyspirifer fascicostala Phenacozugmayerella inimunicinata include examples of three species ofSpondylospira Cooper, new North America, all of these genera are limited to the good indicator of the early Norian The family Laballidae of eariier workers is divided into the family Laballidae and the new family Spondylospiridae, based on absence or presence, respectively, of functional pedicle foramena; the latter family is divided into two new subfamilies, Spondylospirinae Pseudospondylospira perplexa and Kamian and/or Norian One I'iliinelula parva, all species In species, Spondylospira incosta n sp appears to be a and Dagyspiriferinae, based on the form of those foramena Two features of cyrtinoid spiriferinacean species biogeography have tectonostratigraphic implications First, there are no "Tethyan" species among them, and second, the nine species of cyrtinoid spiriferinaceans reported here are predominantly confined to the Americas, including both cratonal and terrane belt localities Biogeographic evidence from the cyrtinoids, therefore, does not support close links between terranes of the present-day eastern and western Pacific Cyrtinoid spiriferinaceans provide abundant evidence of biogeographic "stitching" of various terranes For example, Pseudospondylospira perplexa Spondylospira lewesensis and Spondylospira tricosta occur in localities that are craton-bound as well as in parautochthonous and allochthonous localities Survey of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS owe Newton I CANADA) for the opportunity to examine collections a great debt of gratitude to Dr Cathryn R (Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY) for her help with the tectonostratigraphic summaries of the various localities, and for discussions of the paleogeo- graphic implications of this fauna I am indebted to the National Research Council for awarding me a post- doctoral fellowship at the United States Geological Survey's Paleontology and Stratigraphy Branch at the United States National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC, during which this study was ated I am also indebted to the Trustees of the Paleontological Research Institution, of Ithaca, New York for encouraging me to take the necessary time to cominiti- plete the study Drs J Thomas Dutro, Jr (U S Geological Survey, Washington, DC, and my advisor in the post-doctoral study which led to this paper), Norman J Silberling, (U S Geological Survey, Denver, CO), Algirdas S Dagys (Institute of Ecology, Vilnius, Lithuania), and Derek Ager (Swansea, Wales) reviewed the manuscript and made valuable comments, many of which have been incorporated into the manuscript I am grateful to Fred Collier (U S National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, U S.A.), Dutro, Silberling, George Stanley (University of Montana, Missoula, MT, U S A.), and E T Tozer (Geological under their care, and for loans of specimens, encouragement, constructive criticism, and gracious hospitality during the course of this study The illustrations in this study came from a variety of sources The photographs on all the plates were produced in 975 by R H McKinney and H E Mochizuki of the U S Geological Survey's Paleontology and Stratigraphy Branch in Washington, DC I drafted Textfigure the photographs in Text-figure A and B were ; shot by McKinney and Mochizuki, and Jorge Valdes, and Associates, Meadville, PA, respectively; Text-figures and come from the talented pen of Jude Louviere of Toledo, OH; and the photographs that comprise Text-figure were expertly shot and printed by David Tuttle, of the Department of Geoof S T Pees logical Sciences at the State University at of New York Binghamton INTRODUCTION Late Triassic cyrtinoid spiriferinacean brachiopods from western North America historically have been poorly known This is partially due to their rarity (compared with other Late Triassic invertebrate fossils) and partially due to the comparatively greater biostratigraphic utility of other forms {e.g., ammonites and flat clams, and, more recently, conodonts; see discussion Bulletin 337 64 c=^ Text-figure 1.— Sketch map showing location of North American collecting localities cited in this report (arrows point North) order by the Yokes and Haas below) Although there were sporadic reports under ies the guise of Cyrtina Davidson, 1858 and Spiriferina (1944) compendium of information on American species of Spondylospira, which incorporated available d'Orbigny, 1847 during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, not until Cooper's work of 1942 and 1944, which defined Spondylospira, were these forms studied in appropriate detail In 1944, in Shimer and Shrock's Index Fossils of North America, Cooper illustrated a specimen he assigned to Psioidea sp (p 359, pi 140, figs 52-55) This specimen was differentiated from the species of Spondylospira illustrated therein by having a smooth fold and sulcus The illustration shows a very smooth surface, and examination of the specimen (USNM 106250) reveals it to be the internal mold of a cyrtinoid spiriferinacean of a size and form similar to Spondylospira lewesensis (Lees, 1934) Because it lacks any remaining vestige of the shell, it carmot confidently be assigned to any known cyrtinoid spiriferinacean genus or species These stud- were followed in short information from the Triassic of Peru (Komer, 1937; Tilmann, 1917) Since then most North American Late Triassic cyrtinoid spiriferinacean brachiopods have been referred to Spondylospira including some forms that alia were not even spiriferinaceans {e.g., Spondylospira Hall and Whitfield, 1877; see discussion under Spondylospira lewesensis) In recent years, some cyr- and sulcus have Dagys, 1963 [see e.g., Zugmayerella been assigned to Zugmayerella uncinata (Schafhautl, 1851), cited in Stanley, 1979 p 14, pi 8, figs 10-13], but none has been formally described In 1976, as part of a post-doctoral project, I began a study of Late Triassic articulate brachiopods, based primarily on materials deposited in the stratigraphic tinoid forms that lack a costate fold Late Triassic Cyrtinoid Spiriferinacean Brachiopods: Hoover Text-figure WashCA This eventually in- collections of the U S Geological Survey in ington, DC, and Menlo Park, 65 — [continued] Fourteen years later, in March of come increasingly aware of the many 1990, having befine Late Triassic volved over 50 collecting localities, spread over an area from central Nevada north to southwestern Alaska (Text-fig ) It became immediately apparent that time and equipment were inadequate to justice to the terebratulids and rhynchonellids, both of which require elaborate preparation of many specimens to adequately understand the variation in expression of taxonomically significant characters The spiriferoids were cause most biostratigraphically significant Triassic in- commonly better preserved, and their usable taxonomic characters more readily accessible Of these, the cyr- ammonites or tinoid spiriferinaceans were a convenient group to work marine fossil localities that had been collected from by Canadian workers, I visited the Geological Survey of Canada in Ottawa, and surveyed its Triassic biostratigraphic collections At the Canadian Survey, as in the U S., fossils are most commonly collected by workers engaged in mapping, and chiefly interested in those forms that have biostratigraphic significance Bevertebrate macrofossils are not brachiopods, but rather flat clams, there were few brachiopods in the collections Indeed, the only Canadian localities GSC biostratigraphic collections that on, as they contain a variety of structures that are of represented in the great interest in terms of functional interpretations contained cyrtinoid spiriferinaceans were: (1) Nicola, British Columbia [no further information available], Indeed, these puzzling functional interpretations are one of several important factors that have delayed publication of this monograph (see Hoover, 1983; 1990) which yielded a single ventral valve questionably re- ferable to Pseudospondylospira, n gen.; (2) the type ) ) Bulletin 337 66 Table — Upper Triassic Series, Stages, Substages, Tozer, in House and Senior, 1980) Zone (UNo3) amoenum Zone (UNo2) Gnomohaloriles cordilleranus Zone (UNo Cochloceras (SevatianKUNo) Himavatites columbianus Zone Middle Norian (Alaunian)(MNo) (MNo2) Drepaniles rutherfordi Zone; Cyrtopleurites bicrenatus Zone Juvavites Lower Norian Mojsisovicsites kerri Zone; Guembelites jandianus Tropiles welleri Zone; Tropiles subbullatus (Tuvalian)(UC) Tropites dilleri (C) Zone (UC2) Zone (UCl) Sirenites nanseni Lower Kamian Zone CLC3) Austrotrachyceras austriacum Zone (LC2) (Julian )(LC) Trachyceras desatoyense Zone; Trachyceras aonoides Zone (LC area for Spondylospira lewesensis (Lees, 1934) [Lake UNo3 Laberge region, Yukon Territory]; (3) another area in similar strata about km to the east that also yielded 5" lewesensis [Lime Peak, Yukon Territory (Reid, 1985)]; (4) the Kamian of Cameron Island in the Canadian Arctic [GSC loc 25872]; (5) Trout Lake, Yukon stratigraphic ranges are not [GSC loc 86206], which yielded isolated may be referable to Zugmayerella Da- specimens that and Halfway River area of British Columbia [GSC loc 47016], which yielded isolated specimens questionably referable to the genus Spondylospira Cooper, 942 This should in no way be congys, 1963; Zone (LNol) Ktamathites macrolobalus Zone (UC3) Upper Kamian Territory (MNol) magnus Zone (LNo3) Malayites dawsoni Zone; Malayiles paulckei Zone (LNo2) (Lacian)(LNo) Kamian (after Choristoceras crickmayi Upper Norian Norian (No) and Zones (6) the strued as a gauge of the rarity of cyrtinoid spiriferinaceans in Canada, any more than U S collections are a gauge of their comparative rarity in the U S Rather, they are rarely collected Because this paper demonstrates the biostratigraphic utility of some of these forms, they may be better sampled in the course of future studies Here, then, are six genera of spiriferinacean brachiopods that may prove useful in future paleoecological and biostratigraphic studies of the Triassic System of Tozer (1980); see Table Pseudospondylospira perplexa, Norian in age [zones The most full bio- and n sp oc- through Kamian to latest UNo3 part, insufficiently high to of Tozer Norian in the early precision of dating of these localities make this is, for the form a re- liable biostratigraphic indicator Spondylospira Cooper, 1942 has commonly been used as an indicator for the Late Triassic, and with one possible exception (Hoover, 990), that is still true 5' lewesensis (Lees, 1934), the best known species of the genus, has been recovered in this study alone from 22 localities ranging in probable age from earliest Kamian through latest Norian [zones LCI through UNo3 of Tozer (1980)] The precision of the age assignments on the early end of this range is unknown Only a single locality (loc 26, Alexander terrane) includes rocks that may be older than late Kamian [zone UCl of Tozer (1980)] This date is based on analysis of associated fauna by Silberling (written commun., 1989) Dagys commun., 1990) [herein] of All specimens discussed herein were recovered UC most occurrences are (1980)], but Their n gen curs in beds that range from early late (written BIOSTRATIGRAPHY 1] known 5' states that the "distribution lewesensis through all Late Triassic is from quite unusual for Triassic cyrtinoid brachiopods In institutional collections, and their occurrence in the was documented by workers whose primary interest was not necessarily biostratigraphic, or even pa- Tethys, as well as in Boreal region, they are indicators field only of part of one stage Very suspect is distribution oi lewesensis in Camian." It may be: (1) that the ages leontologic Thus, much of the information relating to collecting localities themselves is and was interpretive presented here are correct; (2) that age assignments of some of the localities included herein are too broad or gathered from evidence recovered subsequent to the incorrect; or (3) that collecting itself (see Appendix, material in brackets) to other taxa The probable S from age assignments for the rocks recovered localities discussed herein vary in their precision; some are made on the basis of stratigraphic and others on the basis of associated fauna Dagyspirifer fascicostata, n gen and n position, sp., and Vi- timetula parva, n gen and n sp., each known from a single locality, occur, respectively, in the eariiest Norian and late Norian [zones LNol, and UNol through I some of the material may belong believe alternative (3) to be unlikely parmata Hoover, 1983 is known from only two but seems such a distinctive form that it localities, could be a reasonable indicator for the middle to late Norian [zones MNol through UNo3 of Tozer (1980)] 5' tricosta, n sp qualifies as a very good index fossil In this study terranes, it occurs at six localities in three different and nowhere Norian nor later is than the found than the earliest Norian [zones LNo earlier late early Late Triassic Cyrtinoid Spiriferinacean Brachiopods: Hoover PLATES 99 Bulletin 337 100 Explanation of Plate ^^se ^^ Figure 1-9 Dagyspirifer fascicostata 1, new genus and new species Paralypes, ventral valves, posteroventrolateral views, x (1) USNM 450274, and (2) USNM 450275, both from showing size and form of simulated partial ontogenetic series; loc 23 (interior) 3-9 Holotype ventral valve (3) anterior, (4) posterior, (5) ventral (6) dorsal (mtenor), (7) lateral, and (8) antenor interarea, views, X and (9) anterior (mtenor) view, x 3, showing fascicostate ornament, globose shell form, small, ridged , spondylospind spondylium and paired, apical pedicle foramena; USNM 450276 from loc 23 ^' 10-38 Spondylospira lewesensis (Lees 1934) 10-14 Figured specimens, articulated valves, posteroventrolateral views, xl, CASG 66258.01, (11) CASG CASG 66253.01, from loc 39 togenetic senes; (10) loc 45 and (14) 66258.02 (12) and form of simulated partial on66258.03, and (13) CASG 66258.04, all from showing CASG size anterior 15-19 Lectotype, partially decorticated articulated valves, (15) lateral (16) dorsal (17) ventral, (18) posterior, and (19) figured as [also from loc 9619, 30 ornament; GSC internal subdued of reflection X outline, and views, 1, showing form, Cynina lewesensis 20 Lees, 1934, p 35 pi 1, fig 14] Paralectolype, partially decorticated articulated valves, posterior view, x interarea, and impression of mesial junction of cooperculum showing GSC reflection of internal surface of ndged 9619a, from loc 30 [also figured as Cyrlina lewesensis Lees, 1934, p 35, on dorsal valve showing contrast between strong Chorotype partially decorticated articulated valves, posterior view, x surface; on ventral valve showing cooperculum of internal of on cast ornament and subdued surface ornament of shell two lateral plates, with ridged interarea exposed adcommissurally, and apical pedicle opening; GSC 69373, from loc 30 pi 2, lateral plates; 1, figs 15, 16] l ; 22-26 Figured specimens 22, 23, ventral valve [paratype of Spondylospira reesidei Cooper, 1942], (22) ventral and (23) dorsal 103468f; 24, 25, dorsal valve [paratype of (interior) views, x2, showing strong costae and asymmetric valve USNM Spondylospira reesidei Cooper, 1942], (24) dorsal and (25) ventral (intenor) views, x 2, showing denticulate hinge, charactenstic ornament of costae, weaker on fold than on flanks, increasing anterioriy by bifurcation in the fold, and 103468b; (26) descending branches of spire, antenorly jugate, attached to valve floor by calcareous meshwork; ventral valve [holotype of Spondylospira reesidei Cooper 942], postenor view, x 2, showing ridged interarea, denticulate USNM hinge, and slit-like apical pedicle foramena; USNM 103468a all from loc 15 27-29 Figured specimen [chorotype of Spiriferina acrotamhoensis Komer, 1937], (27) dorsal, (28) anterior, and (29) 450285 from loc 16 views, X showing characteristic form and ornament of a Peruvian specimen; lateral USNM 30, 31 Figured specimen, decorticated articulated valves (30) dorsal and outline of numerous costal bifurcations; CASG and (31) anterior views, x 66251.01, from showing effect on ornament loc 37 xl, 32-37 Figured specimens, partially decorticated articulated valves (32, 34, 36) dorsal and (33, 35, 37) antenor views, showing variation in form and ornament in three specimens in a panial simulated ontogenetic series; (32, 33) CASG 66248.01 (34, 35) CASG 66248.02 and (36, 37) USNM 106521 [figured as Spondylospira alia (Hall and Whitfield 38 1877) by Cooper {in Shimer and Shrock 1944)] all from loc 33 Figured specimen, dorsal valve and fragment of ventral valve, posteroventrolateral view, x denticulate hingeline; USNM 450286, from loc 15 3, showing articulation along Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 00 Plate '^.^ t ~^>- V 21 ) 33 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume yJJii r^.r.v 16 17 ~^M ^ s ', 25 00 Plate 10 Late Triassic Cyrtinoid Spiriferinacean Brachiopods: Hoover 101 Explanation of Plate 10 Page igure 1-3 Spondylospira lewesensis (Lees, 81 934) (3) posterior views, x showing surface ornament, spondylospirid spondylium, ridged interarea, and denticulate hinge of a multicostate variant; USNM 450287, from loc 27 4-7 Spirifera (Spiriferina) alia Hall and Whitfield, 1877 Holotype, partial ventral valve, (4) ventral, (5) dorsal, and (6) lateral views, x 1, and (7) dorsolateral view, x 2, showing low beak, Figured specimen, ventral valve, (I) ventral, (2) dorsal (interior) and 1, wide delthyrium, shallow valve profile, and lack of spondylospirid spondylium; USNM 12671; collected 1.5 mi south of Dun Glen Pass, Pah-Ute Range, Nevada, by A Hague; figured for comparison with PI 9, figs 36, 37 [Spondylospira alia (Hall and Whitfield, 1877) of Cooper (;« Shimer and Shrock, 1944) = Spondylospira lewesensis (Lees, 1934)] 8-13 Spondylospira parmata Hoover, 983 showing form, outline, fine ornament Holotype, articulated valves, (8) dorsal, (9) ventral, (10) antenor and (II) lateral views, x and subdued dorsal fold; 2) posterior and (13) posterolateral views, x (stereo), showing denticulate hinge, high ridged interarea, narrow delthyrium and fragmentary tripartite cooperculum of one basal and two lateral plates; CASG 60975.01, from loc 44 ( 81 83 , 4-24 Pseudospondylospira perplexa, new genus and new 79 species 14-18 Holotype, articulated valves, (14) anterior, (15) posterior, (16) dorsal, (17) ventral, and (18) lateral views, x I, showing USNM 450278, from loc 22 1.5, showing circular outline, narrow denticulate hinge, and surface of a strongly ornamented variant; USNM 450279, from loc 22 21 Paratype, dorsal valve, dorsal view, x 1.5, showing surface of a weakly ornamented variant; USNM 450280, from loc globose profile, narrow interarea, and hooked ventral apex; 19, 20 Paratype, dorsal valve, (19) ventral (interior) and (20) dorsal views, x 22 22 Paratype, partial articulated valves, anteroventrolateral view, x 2, in ventral valve showing antenor protrusion of dorsal portion of median septum, and spondylospirid spondylium; in dorsal valve showing hinge sockets, crural bases, and descending branch attachment ridges on valve 23, 24 floor; USNM 450281, from loc 22 Paratype, partial ventral valve, (23) posteroventrolateral (interior) view, x2, and (24) anterodorsolateral (interior) view, showing exterior and interior configurations of paired apical pedicle foramena; USNM 450282, from loc 22 aff" P perplexa new genus and new species Figured specimen, dorsal valve, (25) dorsal and (26) ventral (interior) views, x 1, showing straight, angular costae and short denticulate hinge of a large specimen; LISNM 450283, from loc 28 Figured specimen, partial ventral valve, anterolateral (interior) view, x2, showing denticulate hinge and spondylospirid spondylium of a smaller specimen; USNM 450284, from loc 28 X 3, 5-27 Pseudospondylospira 25, 26 27 80 Bulletin 337 102 Explanation of Plate Figure 1-15 Spondylospira tricosta, 1, new • species ' • ; views, x Figured specimen, articulated valves, (1) dorsal and (2) posterior 1, showing size ' ' ; ' Page g4 and form of a small individual; CASG 3-6 66256.01, from loc 42 views, x showing size, form, and charactenstic Figured specimens, articulated valves, (3, 5) dorsal and (4 6) lateral other largely decorticated; (3, 4) CASG 66255.01, the well-preserved, trifurcate costa on dorsal folds of two specimens, one CASG both from loc 41 66255.02, ,„ x 1, for scale; (8) dorsal, (9) ventral, (10) postenor, partially decorticated articulated valves, (7) dorsal view, and spondylium, xi.5, showing form, outline, ndged interarea, spondylospind (11) lateral and (12) antenor views, microomament surface x3, cancellate finely showing view, characteristic costal tnfurcation on dorsal fold; (13) antenor (5, 6) 7-13 • , Holotype from loc 32 shell and internal mold surfaces; CASG 66247.01, x showing denticulate hingeline, attachment Figured specimen, dorsal valve, (14) ventral (intenor) and ( 5) dorsal views, 2, 450289, from loc dorsal fold; on tnfurcation costal characteristic and spire, of branches ridges for descending and contrast between 14 15 USNM 28 16-32 16-71 new genus and new ;.„, species „'„ j postenor, (19) dorsal, (20) ventral, and Holotype articulated valves (16) anterior view, x 1, for scale; (17) anterior, (18) low, in interarea; ventral valve showing high, nan-ow, ndged (21) lateral views, x in nan-ow, deep, faintly costate Vilimetula pana 86 ' ' ,' i from loc 15 rounded caplike dorsal valve showing absence of radial ornament; USNM 450290 x3, showing rough, irregulariy ndged laterally-nmmed views postenor and ventral (23) valve (22) ventral 22 23 Paratype, pedicle foramena; USNM 450293 from loc 15 interarea with very nan-ow delthynum and multiple apical x 3, showing weak radial surf^ace ornament, denticulate views, dorsal and (25) (intenor) ventral valve, (24) dorsal 24 25 Paratype to valve floor by meshwork; USNM 450296, from joined spire hingeline, and antenoriy jugate descending branches of loc 26-29 •,,, 15 postenor views, x3, showing nan-ow, Paratype ventral valve, (26) antenor (27) dorsal (intenor) (28) lateral, and (29) interarea with nan-ow delthynum, sponlaterally-nmmed ndged high, flanks, costate weakly and sulcus non-costate dylospind spondylium and denticulate hingeline; USNM 450291 from loc 15 hingeline descending branches of spire, and supportive 30 Paratype, dorsal valve, ventral view, x showing denticulate meshwork; USNM 450298 from loc 15 absence of radial ornament; (32) ventral (intenor) 31,32 Paratype dorsal valve (31) dorsal view, x showing valve outline and branches of spire; USNM 450297 from descending of curvature view, x3 (stereo), showing bowl-like valve form and loc 15 [mesial ridge is silicified crack filling] 87 33-50 Zugmayerella americana new species 33-37 (33) 38-42 showing size and fonn of partial simulated ontogenetic senes; 450308 (36) USNM 450309 (37) USNM 450301; (33) from loc Paratypes ventral valves, posteroventrolaleral views, x USNM 450305 (34) USNM 450300 (35) USNM 28 3; (34 37) from loc 20; (35 36) from loc Paratype ventral valve (38) lateral (39) dorsal (intenor) (40) ventral, (4 ) postenor and (42) antenor views, x showing ndged interarea broad, flat, non-costate mesial sulcus, [same as PI fig 37] from loc 20 450301 USNM hingeline; spondylospind spondylium and denticulate postenor, and (46) lateral views, x 3, 43-50 Holotype articulated valves, (43) anterior view, xl, for scale; (44) antenor, (45) valve (47) dorsal (intenor) and (48) ventral individual; small of sulcus showing fomi, outline, and nartower ventral dorsal valve (49) dorsal and (50) ventral ventral views, x showing spondylospirid spondylium and denticulate hingeline; surface ornament; USNM 450306 from loc 28 (interior) views, x showing denticulate hingeline and paucicostate tnangular profile and outline, wcaklv paucicostate flanks, flat 1 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume 100 Plate c«-»- ^itj'^'^ Ml»^'" 41 *"•} 42 Bulletins of American Paleontology, Volume «iMn«i Plate 12 00 Vv.i»n,i„ /m ^ ""''«>y|A'5t"^''IKtV ; a> / 16 «s^vv- -^ 34 32 31 33 Late Triassic Cyrtinoid Spiriferinacean Brachiopods: Hoover Explanation of Plate 103 Page 87 Figure 1-5 Zugmayerella americana, new species 2-5 showing valve outline and flattened median fold; USNM 45031 1, from loc 28 (3, 5) ventral (interior) views, x2, showing faint incipient costae on flattened dorsal fold, denticulate hingeline, hinge sockets, median septum and ridges marking point of attachment of descending branches of spire to valve floor; (2, 3) USNM 450313, from loc 28; (4, 5) USNM 450302, from loc 20 Paratype, dorsal valve, dorsal view, x Paratypes, dorsal valves, (2, 4) 6-24 Phenacozugmayerella mimuncinata 2, dorsal and new genus and new 90 species showing size, form, and outline of a partial simulated ontogenetic series; (6) CASG 66249.01 and (7) CASG 66249.02, from loc 34; (8) CASG 66251.02 from loc 37 9-12 Paratype, partially decorticated articulated valves, (9) posterior, (10) dorsal, (II) ventral, and (12) lateral views, xl, showing denticulate hingeline, ridged interarea, and pauciplicate ornament; CASG 6625 02 [same as PI 2, fig 8], from 6-8 Paratypes, partially decorticated articulated valves, x i , 1 loc 37 13-17 Paratype, partially decorticated articulated valves (13) anterior, (14) posterior, (15) dorsal, (16) ventral, and (17) lateral views, X 1, showing pauciplicate ornament, somewhat globose form and ridged interarea; CASG 66250.01, from loc 36 18, 19 Paratype, partially decorticated articulated valves, (18) dorsal and (19) lateral views, xl, showing form and outline; CASG 66248.03, from loc 33 Holotype, partially decorticated articulated valves, (20) anteroventral view, x 1, for scale, (21) anteroventral view, x3, showing finely capillate-cancellate surface micro-ornament in ventral mesial sulcus; CASG 66250.02 from loc 36 22 Paratype, fragment of articulated valves, anterolateral view, x |, showing relation of mesial to lateral plications in a large individual; CASG 66248.04, from loc 33 23 Paratype, partially decorticated articulated valves, anterior view, x2, showing incipient secondary plication in mesial 20, 21 sulcus; 24 CASG 66252.01, from loc 38 Paratype, decorticated articulated valves, posterior view, x [photographed under glycerin], showing spondylospirid spondylium and posteriorly-produced ventral median septum; 25-33 Zugmayerella'' species ventral views, xl.5, showing laterally 450314, from loc 30-33 Figured specimen, loc 33 rimmed i, for scale, (26) posterior, (27) anterior, (28) lateral, and (29) ridged interarea globose form and very faint lateral plications; USNM 12 partial ventral valve, (30) posterior view, x (33) dorsal (interior) views, x 1.5, USNM 66248.05, from 89 25-29 Figured specimen, ventral valve, (25) posterior view, x 34 CASG A 450315, from 1, and and globose form; for scale, (31) posterior, (32) anteroventrolateral showing spondylospirid spondylium, very weak lateral plications, loc °" Zugmayerella species Figured specimen, partial dorsal valve, ventral (interior) view, x [stereo], showing mesially recurved, anteriorly jugate descending branches of spire attached to valve floor at midlength; USNM 450317, from loc Bulletin 337 104 INDEX Note: Page numbers are in light face; plate numbers are in bold face type; the page numbers on which principal discussions occur are in 74 a.v [defined] Spinfenna 81,99 Boreal region Spondylospira 83,84 Braebum Formation Ager(1964) Ager, D 68 63 V Alaska Nutzotin Mountains Bear Creek Copper River Region Jack Creek southeastern 73 Brisbois Formation 72,92,94 73 Burke and Silberlmg (1973) 92 92 92 92 Bumey 73,93 73 Keku Island Keku Straits Keku Islets 73 92,93 93 triangulation station CORN LOW triangulation station THUM triangulation station 93 93 93 Ruiu Islands Pup Island 73,92,93 92 30' 71 69,71 71 92 93.94 68.71 92 94 quadrangle Bush Bychkov and Dagys (1984) Bychkov et al (1976) 68,81 68 Cache Creek terrane Cain Mountain 73,92 92 Strait Etolin Island southern Wrangell Mountains 93 Green Butte Ridge 93 66-69,7i,78-82,9I-93 73 Alexander terrane Admiralty subterrane Annette subterrane 73 73 Craig subterrane 69 93,94 quadrangle 68,81,84.87-89 northern Shasta 71 Co 71,92 Alder Creek Trail 94 92 92 94 92 92 92 92 92 Bear Gulch Cedar Creek Canyon Fumaceville Grizzly Peak Little Cedar Creek Little Cow 73 East Fork Valley 15' California Devil's Screen Islands Creek Round Mountain Campbell (1990) Canada, British Columbia, Halfway River area 68 66 65 93 93 66 Nicola alia Spinfera (Spiriferina) 81,100 Spondylospira Spondylospira Alps americana Zugmayeretla Antelope Springs Formation alia 66,68 68,73,92 Comwallis Peninsula Gravina Island Clarence quadrangle 74 94 south-central, Upper Chulitna district, Chulitna River Nabesna quadrangle 15' Brock Shale Brueckner and Snyder (1985) Brueckner Snyder, and Boudreau (1987) Buddington A F Bufl'alo Mountain 15' quadrangle 68,78-82,87.88.91 Alaska Range 94 92 Blackwelder, E Bollibokka Mountain acrolamboensis 64,81,83,99,100 81 (aff.), 68,87 11,12 67,86,57,88,89,101.102 70.93 Aramachay Formation Auld Lang Syne Group 74 69-71 Dun Glen Formation Osobb Formation Winnemucca Formation 71,85,94 71,80,82,84,85,91,94 71.85,94 Austria, Fischenveise Imtrotrachyceras anstriacum Zone [Zone 93 LC2 of Tozer (1980)] 66.82.93 southern Vancouver Island Canadian Arctic, Cameron Island Yukon Territory, Lake Laberge region Braebum road house east side of Lake Laberge Lime Peak Babaie and Speed (1990) Balkans Begg Formation and Richter (1972) 69 87 72 74 66,72,82,83 93 93 66 93 66 southern Trout Lake canavanca 81 rohusla Spiriferina Carpathian Mountains CASG Academy of CA] [California Francisco Cathcart S 3erg, Jones, 68,87 Sciences, H 92 68.70.87 67.89 Ching and Feng (1977) Chinle Formation 92,94 Chitistone Limestone Formation Bittner(1884) 68 67,75 89 Chong D and Bittner (1902) Geology Collections, San 74.82-85.90-92.99-102 China Gueizhou Big Bend 15' quadrangle Bittner(1892) italics 68.89 69,71 73,88,93 68 Hillebrandt (1985) Chonsloceras cnckmayi Zone [Zone UNo3 of Tozer (1980)] 66,68,81,82,84,86.92-94 Late Triassic Cyrtinoid Spiriferinacean Brachiopods: Hoover 75 chorolype [defined] 69,7-^,82,94 Chulitna terrane 72 Clover Creek Greenstone Cochloceras Collier, amoenum Zone [Zone UNo2 of Tozer (1980)] 66,81,82,84,86,92-94 105 57-417 (Locality 51) 77-S-l HC341 67,72,92,94 74,82,94 (Locality 53) 72,82,94 (Locality 47) Fortieth Parallel Survey 94 Frizzell (1933) 75 63 Fred Colorado Plateau region columbianus (ci.) Tropiceltites 71 Gabb 93 Gabbs Formation Compton 71 middle member Gardner e/ a/ (1988) Gnomohalorites cordilleranus Zone [Zone (1960) 74 Condorsinga Formation Cooper (1942) Cooper (1944) 63,64,66-68,74,75,79-83,86,87,89,92,99 73 (1864) 70,92 64,81,86,99,100 76 cooperculum [illustrated] Cordey et al (1987) 69 68,69 68 Cordillera western 73 UNol of Tozer (1980)] 66,68,80-82,84.86.92-94 67-70.7/,80.82, 84, 85,91,94 Golconda Allochthon 70 Gold Range lithotectonic assemblage of Oldow ( 984) 72 Graylock Formation Great Basin GSC Cordilleran 81 [National 71 Type Collection of Fossil Invertebrates Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, and Plants, CANADA] bivalves 69 terranes 68,69,74 65,66,74.76.82,83,99 68,87 72.82,9i 10229 (Locality 29) 72,76,82,95,99 23418 (Locality 30) 72,82,90,9i loc 23462 (Locality 31) 63 GSC [Vancouver British Columbia, CANADA] Guembelilesjandiamis Zone [included in Zone LNol ofTozer(1980)] Crimea 92 64 Culdesac 5' quadrangle Cyrlina Davidson, 1858 lewesensis Lees 1934 81,99 MNol Cyrtopleunles bicrenatus Zone [included in Zone of Tozer loc loc 66,67.78-82,84,88,89,91-94 66,80-82,84,91-94 (1980)] Guex and Taylor (1976) 64 74 d'Orbigny (1847) d.v [defined] Dagys(1962) Dagys (1963) Dagys (1965) Dagys (1974) Dagys (1977) 81,83,87 63,64,66-68,81.85,87,89 77,78,81,87,89 67,75,81,87,90 89,90 63,67,68,77,81,82,87 Dagys, A S Dagyspinfer n gen 75,77,78,79,90 and n sp 63,66,67,77,78,89,99 Davidson (1851-1886) 64,75 74 Debiche, Cox, and Engebretson (1987) Department of Geological Sciences, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 63 72 Dickinson and Vigrass (1965) 94 Dickinson, W R Diller, J S 92 /a5c/f05/a?a, n gen 70 Dover (1990) Drepamtes rutherfordi Zone [included Dutro, J T in MNo of Tozer ( 980)] 66,80-82,84,91-94 1 63 Jr 74 Eagle Creek Formation Eastern Klamath terrane Ehman (1985) 68,69,77,81,84,88,89,92,94 71 93 89 Enterprise 15' quadrangle eurea Zone Zugmayerella Hague, 72,92 A 100 and Whitfield (1877) Hallam (1981) 67 Cyrtinidae Uballidae Dagys, 1962 Spondylospiridae, n fascicoslata Dagyspinfer Fencemaker thrust Ferguson, H G 63,67.75,77,80.87 fam 70 93 68 92 92,94 94 Halobia HalorellaBinneT 1884 Harl Butte 15' quadrangle Hawthorn 1° quadrangle Healy A-6 quadrangle 86 92 89 74 Hector (1879) Heiges hemipyramida Zugmayerella Hillhouse(1977) Hillhouse and Hillhouse and Gromme( 1980) Gromme (1984) Himavatites columbianus Zone [Zone Hollywood Formation Homestead 1:62.500 quadrangle Hoover (1983) Hoover (1990) Hoover (1991) Hoover, P R Hosselkus Limestone Formation House and Senior (1980) Hurwal Formation Hyd Group Comwallis Limestone Hamilton Island Limestone Hound Island Volcanics 73 74 MNo2 of Tozer (1980)] 66,67,80-82,84,91-94 70,94 93 65,66,68,79,80,81,83-85,100 65-67,74 77,79,83 68 71,88,89,92 66 72 73 73 73,78-80,82,92,93 73 73,80,93 63,67.75,87 63,66,67,77,78,89,99 70 92 Idaho Lewis 68,69,81,83,86 Co Nez Perce Co 67,72,92,94 Jaques R R Station Mission Creek 67,72,92,94 Slickpoo Settlement Field No 56-133 (Locality 48) 56-135 (Locality 49) 64,81,83,99,100 Hall Burnt Island Conglomerate Family 70 Haas (1953) 87 Dinarides 72,92 72,92 92 92 92 Bulletin 337 106 Nez Perce Co Idaho, St 15 92 72 Joseph's Mission Nez Perce Reservation east of Lewiston 89 90 inaequiplicata Zuginayerella Zugmayerella incinata, LITHUANIA 18 20 21 69 93 23 W P Izee terrane 67,68,7^,92,94 15' lone quadrangle Monger(1987) Irving and Irwin, 22 24 25 26 Jim Creek Butte 15' 94 93 94 quadrangle Johnson, R F Johnston Jones et al (1987) 74,92 Jones el al (1980) 74 74 Jones, Silberling, and Hillhouse (1977) 67-69,70,71,79.82,92-94 Jungo terrane Juvavites magnus Zone [Zone LNo3 of Tozer (1980)) Keku Volcanics 73,82,93 71 Ketner(1984) Ketner(1990) Kindle, E 69,71 M Klamathites macrolobatus Zone [Zone Klipsteinella Da^ys 1974 92 of Tozer ( 980)] 66,67,80-82,88,89.91-94 UC3 75,87 koessenensis, Sp i 81,87 riferina 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 66,67,73,80-82,84,85,91-94 35 36 37 38 39 40 4! 42 43 44 USGS loc 24387) USGS loc M96) USGS loc M1708) USGS loc M1749) USGS loc M1906) USGS loc M191I) USGS loc M1917) USGS loc M19I9) USGS loc M2135) USGS loc M2 136) USGS loc M2672) GSC loc 10229) GSC loc 23418) GSC loc 23462) LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU LSJU Ues, E J Lepismalina Wang, 1955 Levy and Christie-Blick (1989) Lewes River Group Formation Formation Formation Formation Formation Formation Formation "A" "D" loc 800-B) loc 844) 70,82,90.91,94.102 loc 872) 70,82,91.94.99,102 loc 1014) loc 1377) 70.82.94,99 loc 1517) 70,82.84,85,94 loc loc 2336-A) 2348) loc 2546) 71.85,94 loc 2970) 71,84,94.100 Little 63, 64,66.69 72 74 76,79,,S/ 82-86.93,99, 100 81 W 93 (1987) 71 2309) 71,89.92,102 2(USGSloc 2314) 71,84,92 loc (USGS loc 2446) (USGS loc 2769) (USGS loc 10548) (USGS loc 11406) (USGS loc 11814) 10 (USGS loc 13354) 12 (USGS loc 15550) 13 (USGS loc 16266) 72,82,94 67,72,92,94 67,72.92,94 67,72,92,94 Local 74,82,94 Field No 77-S-Ill) 10 of ity GSC 93 93 Bull 70 63 94 J r quadrangle "Lovelock assemblage" of Oldow, Bartel, and Gelber (1990) 69,70 LSJU LSJU 81,99 (USGS 70,82,92,94,99 73 Localities used in this study 71,85.94,101 Lower Sedimentar>' Series [LSS] "Lower Triassic limestone" of Richter (1976) Spondylospira Lewis R 71.80,82.85,94.101 73 73 73 Spondylospira 70,92,94,102 Lovelock "G" (ci.) 70,90,91,94 70,82.90,91,94 72,73 73,82,93 9,10 70,82,91,94,99,102 Louviere lewesensis, lewesensis 72,82,90,9i 71 84.85,90.91, 9i.l01 70 "E" "F" Cynina 72,82,9i 72,76,82,9i,99 93 87 73 73 "B" "C" 73,80,82.9i,100 72,80,84,88, 9i, 100-102 43 Locai ity II ofGSCBull 43 Lori Formation 64,66,69,72-74,76,79,81-83.86,93,99,100 Lees (1934) 73,80,9i 66,73,82,9i 764) 53 81,83,87 73.80,9i 724) 70 Dagys 1962 73,77,78,80,9i,99 loc Uws(1982) m 72,82,88,9i 73,80.9i.lOO loc 73 Lahalla Moisseiev 70.79,9i,94 73,88, 9J, 101, 102 720-C) Laberge Group 89 64,81.83,99 74,82,9i,99 loc 45 loc 3148) 47 Field No HC34I) 48 Field No 56-133) 49 Field No 56-135) 51 Field No 57-417) Zugmayerella K6mer(1937) the Lewiston locality" 17424) loc 72,81-83,86,87,92,93.99.101 16 63 94 Institute of Ecology, Vilnius (USGS 71,88,89,92,101.102 71.81,92 67,73,81,91,92 73,79.92 70,84,85,92 70,81,92 70,72,89,92,102 73,81,88,92 72 73 [Leland Stanford Junior University Stanford CA] 74 localities 71.84,85,90,91,9i,101 720-C (Locality 32) 724 (Locality 33) 764 (Locality 34) 800-B (Locality 35) 844 (Locality 36) 872 (Locality 37) 70,82.91,94,99,102 70,90,91,94 70,82.90,91,94 70,82,90.91,94,102 70,82,91,94,99.102 70,92.94,102 1014 (Locality 38) 1377 (Locality 39) 1517 (Locality 40) 70,82,94,99 70.82.84,85,94 71,80.82,85,94,101 2336-A (Locality 41) 2348 (Locality 42) 2546 (Locality 43) 2970 (Locality 44) 3148 (Locality 45) LSS [Lower Sedimentary Luning Formation lower 71.85,94,101 71,85,94 71,84,94,100 70,82,92,94,99 72 Series] 70.82.84,91.92.94 member upper member Luning lithotectonic assemblage of Oldow (1984) 91,92.94 91 ,94 70 Late Triassic Cyrtinoid Spiriferinacean Brachiopods: Hoover Lupc and Silbcrling ( 69-71 1985) western New Malaviles dawsoni Zone [included in Zone LNo2 of Tozer (1980)] 66,67,80-82,84,85,89,91-94 Malaviles paidcki Zone [included in Zone LNo2 of Tozer ( 980)] 66,67,80-82,84,85,89,91-94 Martin Bridge Formation May and 72,80,82,84,88,89,92-94 69 73 Butler (1986) McCarthy Formation McKinney R H megalodontid bivalves 68,87 Newton (1987) Newton [in prep.] 69 72 Newton, C R 63 Nichols and Silberiing (1977) Nikolai Greenstone 73,74 Nizina Limestone Formation 73,88.93 63 74 Notal region 92 Millville 15' quadrangle 70,71 Zealand Nolf B North America 69,71 Miller era/ (1984) 107 71 93 68-71.73,74,81,89,91,93 68 "Nutzotin Mountains sequence" of Berg, Jones, and Richter (1972) 74 mimuncinata, Phenacozugmayerella 12 63,67,89,90,91,92,102 Mochizuki, H E 63 81,92 Modin Formation Devil's Canyon Member 71,84,94 Hawkins Creek Member Kosk Member 71 71 H Moffitt, F Zone [included in 66,67,78-82,84.88,89.91-94 72.73.92 Monger Price, and Templeman-KJuit (1982) Monolis suhcirculans Gabb 1864 Moore, B N J P eastern Hells Muller and Ferguson (1936) Mullerand Ferguson (1939) Canyon 69 northeastern 73,93 Wallowa Co Coon Creek 92 93 70 70 94 Hurricane Creek Imnaha River Little Granite Creek McGraw Co 70 Creek Snake River Canyon Wallowa Mountains Oregon State University Orientospira Dagys 1965 osmana Zugmayerella Clan Alpine Range Shoshone Creek 94 94 Pacific region, eastern Shoshone Springs 94 Packard W Muller, S Nabesna C-5 1:63,360 quadrangle Nevada Churchill Under Co 71,93 93 94 94 94 94 Augusta Mountains Boundary Peak Cane Peak Jenkins Ranch Lone Peak Co Cmnabar Canyon Dunlap Canyon or Gulch Gabbs Valley Range Mineral Mayflower Ball Mill Mina Mountains "Slate Gorge" Pilot northwestern Nye Co Union Canyon Pah-Ute Range, Pershing East 92 68-71,79-82,84,85,91,92 Dun Glen Pass Co Range Juniper Mine Lovelock Nevada Quicksilver Mine Rose Creek 70,92 94 93 72.93 93 77,78,81,87 89 Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca 68,87 67-69,70,71.81,82,84,91,92,94 Paradise ten-ane 66,68,79,Si,84,100 10 parinata Spondylospira parva Vitimetula 63,66,81,85,56,87,89,101 11 87 Pearson (1977) "pedicle tubules" of Yang and Xu (1966) and Associates, Meadville, 92 92 92,94 94 94 70 70 94 100 perplexa, Pseudospondylospira 70,71 Pseudolahalla Dagys 1974 94 NY Pamlico lithotectonic assemblage of Oldow (1984) Papua New Guinea Pees, S T 93,94 68 70 63 70 Wash Formation 92,94 94 93 94 94 94 94 94 68 72 69 72 94 93 92 93 93 Creek Paulina-Suplee road "Paulina telephone" 73,92,93 Muffler (1967) Ranch house Camp Zone LNol of Tozer (1980)] Monger and Berg(1987) 69-71,93,94 68,80,82.84.87-89,92 72,94 A Bernard 93 Mojsisovicsites kerri 69,70 Suplee area 81,83,87 Mojsisvicsites 63 01dow(1984) Oldow, Bartel, and Gelber (1990) Oregon Crook Co 92 Moisseiev (1962) Muffler, L Ohio, Toledo (aff.), 63 63,66,,89.100 10 perplexa 75 PA 10 Pseudospondylospira Phenacozugmayerella mimunanala n n 68.87,59.90,92 gen 12 sp 50 00 92 Petersburg A-3 1:63,360 quadrangle 63,67,89.90.91,92,102 71 Pit Shale Port Alexander D-l 1:63,360 quadrangle 92,93 proto-Pacific ocean basin 69,74 Pseudospondylospira n perplexa, n sp aff P perplexa, n sp Psioidea Hector, 1879 sp 81,87 65,68,75,77,75,79,80.90 gen 10 63,66,68,69,79,80,84,89,100 10 50,100 86 64 108 Bulletin 337 Pucara Group Chambara Formation 74,93 73 Pybus Formation acrolamboensisK.bmiT 1937 ca^avanca Tommasi koessenensis TxLgrmiye^ Rail Cabm 72 Argillite RangelZ (1978) Reed, 81 92 72 81-84,86,99 J Reeside et al reesidei Spondylospira (1978) Reid (1985) Rhabdoceras suessiTane Richards, R 66,69 73 W 81,99 var ra/)!«M Komer, 1937 81 1882 81,87 sp ofTilmann (1917) steinmanni Tilmann, 1917 74,81,84,85 5M«i; Winkler, 1859 cf JM
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