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?# Bl TTERFLY AND ^(OTH BOOK I DIK» WD ORKKHVATIONH OF TIIK MORK FA.MIUAK HPKCIKH IIV "^m:-^^ »r j„y VI < UTHOK AND TORONTO l.KI.I.AXD & G OODCHILD I'l'BUSHERS And - 8.:.3fca there wm »**» poJyphwnu* in appie-pw orOw MUa>.«i.-^a^t ., ; i BUTTERFLY AND MOTH BOOK PERSONAL STrDIES AND OBSERVATIONS OF THE MORE FAMILIAR SPFX'IES BY ELLEN ROBERTSON-MILLER WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM nRAWIXGS BY THE AITTHOR AND PHOTOGRAPHS BY J LYONEL KING, G A BASH, DR F D SNYDER, AND OTHERS TORONTO McClelland & goodchild Publishers COPTMOHT, 1912, BT CHARLES 3CR1BNER'8 SONS Published April 1912 V }o V TO MY HUSBAND AND THE TWO GOOD FRIENDS, J N M AND L, W WHO HAVE ALWAYS ENCOURAGED AND AIDED ME IN MY WORK WITH INSECTS THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED O., — FOREWORD My interest in Moths and ten years ago while at was awakened some the farm on which we spent our sumButterflies mers The big flower garden and the old orchard served free luncheons to these insects and, judging by numbers, they appreciated the treats offered At the time I was in need of an entire change of thought a relaxation from the strain which had come with the long illness of the little mother She had grown better, but I realized that henceforth she would always require my personal care and attention, and I wanted to gjve her not only these but some new interests which might replace in part other interests that she would be obliged to relinquish It was then that the Moths fljnd Butterflies solved these problems, for they led us into the fa|iy-land of Natural Science, where, as we journeyed, we forgot much of the fatigue and pain of earlier days The following year I found that the children of the ne borhood, and even the children's parents, were taking an in ' which we reared in soap-box vivariums on the side porch, for they began to bring and send us specimens est in the insects vii FOREWORD found in their gardens and fields, to and were always glad Of course, learn about the life-histories under observation to ask the little folks to this interest pleased me and I began the house place, like when something especially important was to take of a family the hatching of moth eggs, the moulting On one such cocoons of caterpillars, or the spinning of watched a small white occasion, as a group of boys and girls heard me explam that butterfly emerge from its chrysalis and a green "cabbage the week before the butterfly had been and asked: "Why don't you write worm," a lad looked up you tell us? about these things and tell other children what remained, and the tiny seed It was a new idea, but the idea did begin to sowed by the boy germinated and took root I them—and now I have write about the insects as I knew published in difgathered together some of those first stories others of more recent date ferent periodicals and have added the hope that and am sending them out in book form, with persons feel for they will lessen the antipathy which many a more intimate creeping things and aid others to gain But, most " acquaintance with the frail children of the air." one weary and overof all, I want this book to reach some relaxation, and enjoytaxed, and help him to find the rest, little mother ment in the fairy-land of Natural Science that the showed us the and I found when the Moths and Butterflies wav i wish to express „ Country Life in Amenca, " The American Inthe Presbyterian Board of Publication, "Brooklyn Eagle," ventor," "The New Idea Magazine," " " Phila,ielphia North American," Our Animal Friends," and " Nature Story Syndicate " for certain illustrations and the also to acknowlextracts of subject-matter used in this book; interest of edge with deep appreciation the services and kindly the many friends my thanks who have to " aided me in my work E R.-M viu CONTENTS CHAPTER I The Moth and the Bcttehflt The Secret of the Silken Pockets 1« ni A Home Not Made 20 IV A II V VI VII VIII IX X with Hands May Some Day Give U Cheap and Durable Silk Caterpillar That 27 Lady Luna 33 Our Common Silk-worm 42 A 40 Caterpillar with Weapons of Defence Odd Doings Underground 54 The Biography of a Royal Moth 02 The Riddle of the 09 XL A "Worm" Insect Pitcher of Promise 74 The Biography of a Bumblebee Moth 79 Xni The Walnut Sphinx 84 XIV An Unexpected XII XV XVI A Mint Chersis Feeder ' 90 95 The Unmasking of Two Frauds iz 102 CONTENTS FAOa XVII XVm XIX A Gbapb-vine Slt and Sbcketive Undebwings XXII XXIII WaTEB-IX)VING CATERPIUiAR • • HO Odd Insect Homes AND Their Inmates XX A XXI *"" Feeder A Moth That Deuberately PoLUNATBS 119 • • 1* A Plant 185 1** The Pest OF THE Woodbine A ^*^ "Pubs" Caterpillar 159 XXIV Young Architects XXV A Gay Masquerader 171 XXVI Door-step Neighbors XXVII XXVIII 179 Orchard Visitors 185 The Monarch XXIX Silver-spangled Butterflies XXX The Little Blue Butterfly XXXI "Rag Carpet" Worms XXXII A Clever Caterpillar XXXni The Pawpaw Butterfly XXXIV A Southern Swallow-tail XXXV The Blue Swallow-tail XXXVI An Unexpected Guest • • • • • 1^1 l^^ ^^ 911 218 904 99Q THE BLUE SWALLOW-TAIL would not appear until the following year But they emerge on September seventh The resurrection of these insects was not timely, so they were sacrificed and used as mounted specimens, but had I owned a Pipe-vine I am quite terfliea began to certoin that I could have carried caterpillars into their pupa a third brood of Philenor state ^^PW^ & Êô< AUWKM CbryMUidM (thne-fourtlu iS6 life hm) CHAPTER XXXVI AN UNEXPECTED GUEST Thb Turnvs, Papilio tumu$ Initterfly, upon whose wings There must be surely character'*! strange **A golden A TULIP grew in the yard of our new home, and soon after we took place, things.' tree possession of the the little invalid mother and I watched with interest the unfolding of the odd-shaped leaves These had been tucked away within the brown winter buds so that each occupied a miniJfU't^'P*'-, mum of space Later, when the flowers appeared, great greenish-yellow blossoms, the little invalid spent much of her time under the tree, for its beauty and the warm spring days made outof-doors doubly dear because of the long months in the sick- was a delight to us both, room During flies May we noticed bright straw-color and with long tails about the tree, attracted, posed, by the nectar of the flowers; the little black butter- we then supmother made the as discovery that some of these butterflies had blue scales upon 236 AN UNEXPECTED OUEST U !r hind wing «.d wondeml «h.t the "'»' ^^^ ""^jf of the TIk blue u the hJl-m.rk to««l-book enlightened u which fôqueUy v.po U fcr.Lw PapaVo ôô"." bullerayAfter we I "^ f^ the l v^ of the tulip «e wom.n little • jf ^^^^^^ w« v.^ "«i»» «» f *^k°*^^ JZugh I kepi " ey« "P«- "^ '»'""*'' '""'°" '^ i>ko(ovnip* *» *'»» mattrers not feeding re»U upon a constructed of Mlk threads The Tum«i» when and it w^ the fir,Jt withm reach a female settle upon a leaf of August before I saw moments After her departu« Iwap to light high aldTmain I «amined among there for several had been and to my dehghl the place where she stem leaf and placed Is th, 70 Hennat, 95 «47 INDEX HtberoMiik 1A« HiduMy PapilicM* Horn-devil 9» ^^^uc, Hkmg catctpUlar 86 Ho> cstmnllar IM Holiud Dr W J 9S 904 erupkoHtei, 984 Hop-awrcfauit, 181 to Know the Butterflies." ttS "How Hammin«-bird Moth 70 Hfloieu; ns aileriaa, pkilenor, 229 troUtu 211 tumut 2S6 Parasites 103 M Pen-marked Sphinx, the, 00 Philampeitu, 104 90 eremUiu, 9A ehtrau, Philenor the, 229 PkUoiamia eyntkia, 27 Pholtu, 102 Inperialii the 54 I0.46 aekemon, 102 pandorut, 102 Polyphemus, Jugiandis, the, 84 Kearfott, Mr W the, 42 Poulton, Professor E B., 10 Proleg8,e D I9t Promethea, the, 12 Pronuba, the, 13.5 Pronvba yucctuella, 135 Pratoparee nexta, 09 Labium, 74 Labrum, 74 Larva, Lepidoptera, Looping larvK, 110 Luna, 34 Lyeanida, 190 Pupa,l Pupating, 77 "Puss "Caterpillar 151 Pyrameii, 171 cardui, 171 kuntera, 170 Mandible 74 Maxilla, 74 Melanic, 841 Milkweed ModesU Monarch, Moth Red-spotted Purple, 158 Regalis, the 62 Riley Professor Charles V., 185 Butterfly, the 185 the, 74 the, 185 Royal Walnut Moth, 62 Moult, 17 Samia Mourning Cloak 165 Myron, the, 106 eecrojna, 20 Satumiidte, Scale-wings Scudder, Dr Samuel H., 159 196 Sexta, the, 69 Needham, Dr James G., 127 Nymphula icciuicdis, 127 Nymphula, the, 127 Smyth, Mr Ellison A., 83 Soule Caroline Gray, 82 Spinneret, Osmaterium, 206 Spiracles, Swallow-tail, Black, 204 Blue, 229 Paehyrpkinx modetta, 74 Painted Beauty, 176 Painted Lady, 171 Palpi, Pandoras, the, 102 Giant, 224 Green Cloud 211 Tumus 236 Zebra 218 248 178 INDEX Vnderwinfi^ 110 Telea polifjikemut, 49 TraUde 140 VaneMO anlii^pa, 16A Tkjfridojderyx ephemeraformit, 119 Tiger Swallow-Uil SeeTurain Viceroy, Tonwto-wonn, 68 Viofet-tip IM 18S Vivarium SO Tongiie 140 Tongue-Bheath, 68 TroUut, Papilio, 211 True feet, Walnut Sphinx 84 Wheeler, Dr WiUiam M., lAl Tumiu Z the, 836 «49 atj .-;—- bra Swallow-Uil, 818 ... Tumus 239 240 241 ' th Pajnlw tumus butterfly Ames Cover Design by May XVIU 242 BUTTERFLY AND MOTH BOOK BUTTERFLY AND MOTH BOOK CHAPTER I THE MOTH AND THE BUTTERFLY "In Nature's A I little T... them r BOOK BUTTERFLY AND MOTH ằ A frequent question :ô is "How How can I ca tell a moth from a ^^^ „f the variations b-tteHlie, .ho^^n^ô scales of moths and -^^^^^^ ' in shape and Bi»e - -•... weary and overof all, I want this book to reach some relaxation, and enjoytaxed, and help him to find the rest, little mother ment in the fairy-land of Natural Science that the showed us the and
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