Bulletins of American paleontology (Bull. Am. paleontol.) Vol 542421968

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Jfc nakbrai: aiggPKf BULLETINS^ OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY (Founded 1895) 54 Vol 242 No NOTES ON SIPHOCYPRAEA By Axel A Olsson and Richard E Petit 1968 Paleontological Research Institution Ithaca, New York, 14850, U.S.A - -• i PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 1967-1968 President Vice-President Kenneth E William B Heroy S Harris Rebecca Secretary-Treasurer Caster Katherine V W Palmer Director Armand L Adams Kenneth E Caster Counsel Representative AAAS Council Trustees Katherine V W Palmer (Life) William B Heroy (1963-1968) Harris (Life) Axel A Olsson (Life) Hans G Kugler (1963-1969) Sass (1965-1971) W Storrs Cole (1964-1970) Kenneth E Caster (1966-1972) Donald W Fisher (1967-1973) Rebecca S Daniel B BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA Katherine V W Palmer, Mrs Fay Editor Briggs, Secretary Advisory Board Hans Kugler Glenn Marks Kenneth E Caster A Myra Keen Jay Axel A Olsson Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be had on application For reprint, Vols 1-23, Bulletins of American Paleontology see Kraus Reprint Corp., 16 East 46th St., New York, N Y., 10017 U.S.A For tion, reprint, vol 111 Fifth Ave., Subscription I, Palaeontographica Americana see Johnson Reprint Corpora- New may be York, N Y 10003 U.S.A entered at any time by volume or year, with average price Numbers of $16.00 per volume for Bulletins voiced per issue income Purchases in U.SA of Palaeontographica Americana in- for professional purposes are deductible tax For sale by Paleontological Research Institution 109 Dearborn Place New York 14850 U.S.A Ithaca, from BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY (Founded 1895) 54 Vol No 242 NOTES ON SIPHOCYPRAEA By Axel A Olsson and Richard E Petit June 25, 1968 Paleontological Research Ithaca, New York Institution 14850, U.S.A Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 68-133 Printed in the United States of America NOTES ON SIPHOCYPRAEA Axel A Olsson and Richard Petit E INTRODUCTION In 1932, Schilder referred the so-called Linne) Many 1887 Mouse Cypraea (Cypraea mus of the southern Caribbean to the genus Siphocypraea Heilprin, like the senior author, G B Sowerby I , a who have collected Cypraea henekeni near relative of C inns from the Miocene beds of Santo Domingo and many other places in the Caribbean region, even as far south as Ecuador, the reason for this startling generic assignment was not at The apparent first type of Siphocypraea, species S problematica Heilprin, 1887, of the Caloosahatchee marls of south Florida, was generally regarded as the only species of the genus, an aberrant form fauna with many In the Bulla stage, 5" problematica was known crater-like pit or depression over the apex, the spire is in a special other singular, endemic genera and species of mollusks elevated and pointed important and from it have a deep, circular or to whereas in most other Cypraea- Dall, 1890, considered this feature very he derived the comma-shaped or spiral apical sulcus so characteristic of S problematica as the result of rotation of the posterior end of the outer lip around Soon afterwards, the Bulla stage of Cypraea it carolinensis Conrad, 1841, of the Duplin Marl became known, also with a low, sunken apical area but which with growth did not produce a spiral or curved posterior canal Meanwhile, Julia Gardner (1948), not under- standing the significance of the depressed apex of the juvenile Cypraea " Akleistostoma" proposed the generic term carolinensis, species as type; a wholly unnecessary term as A few years ago, as the richly fossiliferous marls were penetrated along molluscan fauna came many to light, and with the Duplin in previous articles beds below the Caloosahatchee canals and a shown in bewildering pits, a somewhat older series of specimens of Siphocypraea in countless numbers could be collected on the canal banks Those individuals showed complete intergrading forms between C ensis with a simple notch to others with a ing S problematica It was evident at carolin- curved or spiral one approach- once that C carolinensis and S problematica are species of the same direct evolutionary lineage Following the formation of the inrolled ceases, and is lip, growth in size by coiling replaced by a general enamelling of the surface by the mantle Research Associate, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution; Paleontological Research Institution and of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadephia Research Associate, Paleontological Resarch Institution Originally inadvertently spelled henikeri, named for Colonel Heneken Honorary Bulletin 242 280 show extreme Several species of Cypraea Jobes common This small to large Cypraea could go into retirement, reabsorb stage, and growing again start or wholly disproved There variation in size its lip reverting to the Bulla This legend has neither been confirmed of fossil Cypraeas in the a great scarcity is Bulla stage, perhaps to be explained in that the immature shell and hence would be destroyed during growth forms of These specimens, as well Colombia, give incentive as S when mus from others is thin fossilization This study began a short while back a fine series of from condition led to the belief that a small a the junior author received correspondent in Venezuela collected by the senior author in review of both Muracypraea and to a general Siphocypraea lineages, the two most important groups of Cypraeas in the American Tertiary AND LINEAGE OF SIPHOCYPRAEA HENEKENI MURACYPRAEA WOODRING, MUS S This lineage the older, appeared at least as early as the lower Mio- is cene (Woodring, 1959, 194), and has continued through to the Recent, p represented in the southern Caribbean by Miocene species S is where it displays different localities Ingram."' The and synonymy and region Ecuador and possibly also to Peru in It is considerable to the most I, 1850), principal described be widely distributed throughout eastern Pacific common variation have been described The first nuts (Linne) in of which as separate region south to middle Miocene beds many forms from especially by species, henekeni complex has been reviewed by Woodring, 1959, S In the eastern Pacific region, the last representative listed of Muracypraea S henekeni (G B Sowerby from Santo Domingo but now known the Caribbean 1957 known is S cayapa (Pilsbry and Olsson, 1941) from the Jama Formation, Ecuador of Pliocene age As also noted by Woodring, 1957, Muracypraea reached the western Pacific, and Martin (1891-1922), in his large his monograph of the Miocene of Java, illustrated specimens of Cypraea murisimilis (plates 26,27) so similar could be considered as the Mrs Jesse B Jackson, Between 1939-47, same species It seems to S benekeni that they likely that Muracypraea Jr W M Ingram worked on Cypraea, visited many musuems, and indiscriminately described a large number of fossil forms without knowledge of variation or geologic occurrence Often no acknowledgment was made to the geologist who may have laboriously collected the specimens Such naming is a habit which adds nothing but a clutter of useless names Siphocypraea: Olsson and Petit 281 arose in Oligocene time, probably in the Tethyan Pacific, and trated into the Caribbean in early Miocene, managed where it pene- first greatly flourished and to survive to the present time in a limited area Siphocypraea (Muracypraea) mus (Linne) Cypraea mus Linne, 1758, Systema Naturae, Ed Plate 18, 10 p figs 3-3e 721 (Carthagena, Gulf of Maracaibo) Siphocypraea (Akleistostoma) mus (Linne), Coomans, 1963, Studies on Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, vol XV, No 68, pp 52-63 pi I a-b A series of growth forms of S mus from adult was received by the junior author and some are illustrated on Plate from A 18 the small Bulla stage to the a correspondent in Venezuela, minor paper on the growth forms mus based on Colombian specimens was published by Ingram, 1945 of S An but adds nothing of significance and treats mainly of changes in color important paper on presents ture mus S is that of much new information ern coast of South America eastern A Colombia on the west specimen of is The record The town of Turbo is Museum the A Gulf of Atrato, gulf the 1963 and thorough review of the as well as a litera- and the is The protoconch general is brown to about in the of this species along the north- from about Rio Hacha in north- Margarita in eastern Venezuela Isla collection of the United States National considered dubious, and a large river emptying adjacent shores top side of a Nat/ca, The nucleus limited we have not accepted situated on the banks of the Rio Atrato more unlikely place pimples occur which The range is mus, collected by E Daniel (Dec 1932) supposedly S Turbo, Colombia, :>f in and the many names and generic combinations which authors have applied to this unusual species at Coomans which appeared are a at the it head heavy load of sediment into lined with mangrove swamps for a Cypraea could hardly be imagined or nucleus of S its may mus is large, resembling that of the surface glazed over with callus but faint trace of indicate an original, sinusigeroid embryonic shell encircled by a faint line marking its termination although a color continues for another turn then changes to the lighter shade of the final whorl Cordon, a locality referred to by Ingram and again by Coomans is situated on northwest coast of the La Goajira Peninsula in northeastern Colombia Coomans showed this locality on his map as being on the Paraguana Peninsula in Venezuela The shells from El Cordon were collected by J A Nomland, a geologist for the Richmond Petroleum Company which carried on large scale This locality is shown on exploration in coastal Colombia during the 1920 ths the American Geographical Society map, Barranquilla sheet, 1,000, 000, as Cardon The de los Remedios and is situated about 80 kilometers east of Rio Hacha region is arid, covered with tall cactus (several large species of cactus commonly known as Cardon) El the Bulletin 242 282 Specimen B is mm, 31 3d) (fig is still over the apex, is it in the Bulla stage; the length of its shell elevated and rounded, rising from C specimen inner edge stripes The to mm end of the posterior above the apical In its sharp and the cross ribs on the base show mainly as color is still side, there are no mm 30 In specimen height along the apical axis is formation of the outer well advanced, lip is its its mm, 32.4 is D (fig is apical depression a continuous line of is reduced to a smal- ler size covered with callus concealing the spire; length of shell over the apex, is it mm 35.6 The its 3b), the inner edge inrolled and thickened, and strongly cross-ribbed, while there small denticles on the body side; few denticles, except for a small ones over the columellar section; length of shell mm, and lip is crater 3e), the formation of the inrolled lip has begun, but (fig on the inner or body ; mm 30 is 38.9 deposition of a surface callus has hardly begun and the juvenile pattern of zigzags remains These observations indicate that the principal growth in size is com- pleted in the Bulla stage by secretions along the edge of the simple lip and size and in coiling; of size is adhered and weight is as far as these As to sides a fairly uniform pattern achieved by secondary deposits of enamel, along with a change of color pattern dorsum and specimens go, the shell grows to maturity, further growth in It is The mantle secretion is thinly spread over much heavier over the posterior end leading to formation of the posterior lip the the protuberances and the formation of the canal notch S mus shows considerable variations in pattern and in the adult, no nile form the pattern between lighter a and sides, of zigzags marked change whole and is alike and In the juve- brown design maintained through the Bulla stage and for a time after the lip has fully formed overlays the intensity of color consists of narrow, close-set, zigzag stripes of areas, gerontic stage, a the two specimens are exactly In the mature adult and into the takes place and a general glaze or surface, thinnest over the enamel dorsum, heavier on the base as a filling in of the apical depression The juvenile pattern covered over, and one of irregular spots and flecks appear In general the adult marking fawn brown between is a confused blending of large spots of pale lighter areas, the spots sometimes joining into radial The dorsum mantle line is white or light in color, usually with an irregular blotch of dark brown at its end over the apical depression The surface of the dorsum may be evenly rounded or domed, rows along the flanks SlPHOCYPRAEA smooth, or it may OLSSON AND PETIT : 283 bear two conspicuous nodes or humps, one on each side of the mantle line These dorsal humps have been the posterior end at considered deformities or abnormalities by some writers, but they represent significant morphological features and indicate relationship with the henekeni forms of the Miocene was S is the member surviving last, S of Muracypraea LINEAGE OF SlPHOCYPRAEA PROBLEMATICA HEILPRIN, SlPHOCYPRAEA SENSU STR1CTO This lineage appears to be younger than Muracypraea, the best species (S problematica Heilprin) distributed is formations from the Carolinas to Florida S The in known earliest known Neogene the upper species is chilona (Dall) 1900, from the lower Miocene Chipola beds of Florida, Dut juvenile stage with depressed apex its (Olsson and a longitudinal section genus attained is full series of intergrading became development extinct at the close of Caloosahatchee time, been found in the overlying Unit A basis of The 6) in a former paper in our on the pi 83, fig upper Neogene in the forms discussed inferred only is 1964, Petit, sub- bewildering The subgenus and no specimens have to date In the typical and most advanced species (S problematica Heilprin and and tran si toria Olsson S sulcus developed is Petit, 1964), the comma-shaped, posterior The formation to the extreme for this curious feature :an be seen in Plate 18, figure which represents a partial longitudinal The cut through the aperture to the dorsum shell is seen inside the heavily wall of the dorsum as due to two through all as in S mus The formation factors First, stages of the or S thin-walled Bulla of the spiral sulcus can be clearly seen the retention of a deep, apical depression group which does not become filled with callus henekeni; secondly, followed by the elevation and thick- ening of the posterior end of the outer comes to sulcus on the body whorl (fig 2a, small, thickened wall of the base and the thinner overhang the apical hollow; lip at side thickens forcing it to rotate so its end the same time, the edge of the and raises into 2b) to conform in height with the outer a calloused wall lip FLUORESCENT PATTERN A from a beautiful fluorescent pattern can often be produced on Siphocypraea few localities, and a series is illustrated in figure The juvenile Bulletin 242 284 pattern is formed by zigzag bands, replaced or overlain Long-wave one of small spots and the fluorescent pattern can be photographed units give the best results using a very fast film and a special yellow W must be used ratten) camera by in the adult lamps of 3200-4000 angstrom ultraviolet filter over the lense (No to eliminate all ultraviolet light done Preferably, the photography should be 8, K from entering the in a darkened room GENERAL CONCLUSIONS Siphocypraea sens// and Muracypraea are members of the same str'icto generic group and represent two lineages which arose probably in Oligocene time and became fully differentiated in the Miocene the widest the as known distribution and in its Miocene of the Caribbean region and Ecuador and Peru indistinguishable it ; is from the form typical Muracypraea has is found throughout in the Eastern Pacific as far south known from the Miocene of Java in forms Caribbean It may well be of Tethyan origin also with a distribution which encircled the earth oblong, squatty shape and in its typical Muracypraea has usually an form humps carries two, dorsal bordering a shallow depression over the concealed apex resembling the enlarged eyebrows of a mouse, hence the name Siphocypraea is s probably endemic Pinecrest beds s is a special development to the from the same stock and Miocene of southeastern United In the States (Duplin) of south Florida, the group proliferated to an astonishing degree and gave rise to a maze of variable, intergrading forms, but the subgenus became fully stablized S problen/atica, its at most advanced species in the Caloosahatchee marls in The subgenus became extinct the close of Caloosahatchee time SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Coomans, H E Systematics and distribution of Siphocypraea mus and Propustularia wrinamensis Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, vol XV, No 68, pp 51-71, pi 1963 Conrad, T A 1841 Appendix to: Observations on the Secondary and Tertiary formations of the southern Atlantic States by ser., vol 41, pp 344-348, pi James T Hodge Amer Jour Sci 1st Siphocypraea: Olsson and Petit Dall, W 285 H 1890-1903 Tertiary fauna of Florida delphia Trans., vol 3, pts (1890, pt 1, Wagner Free Inst Sci Philapp 1-200, pis 1-12; 1900, pt pp 949-1217, pis 37-47) 5, Gardner, J 1948 Mollusca from the Miocene and lower Pliocene of Virginia and North Carolina Part Scaphopoda and Gastropoda U S Geol Sur., Prof Paper 199-B, pp 177-310, pis 24-38 Heilprin, Angelo Explorations on the west coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee 1887 Wilderness Wagner Free Inst Sci Philadelphia, Trans., vol 1, vi, 134 pp., 19 pis.; reprinted 1966, Palaeont Amer., vol IV No 33, pp 359-506, pis 54-74 Ingram, W M 1946 A contribution on the development of the Cypraea Nautilus, vol 59, pp 113-115 1947 Fossil Amer Bull and Recent Cypraeidae Paleont., vol 31, No mus Linnaeus of the Western regions of the Americas 120, pp 1-82, pis 1, Martin, K 1891-1922 Die Fossilien von Java Bd 1, pp 1-538, 63 pis Geol Reich- Mus Leiden Samml., n.s., Olsson, A A 1964 Neogene mollusks from northwestern Ecuador Institution, 256 Paleont Research pp., 38 pis Olsson, A A., and Petit, R E 1964 Some Neogene mollusks from Florida and Paleont., vol 47, Pilsbry, H A., No 217, pp 556-561, pi Bull Amer and Olsson, A A A Pliocene fauna from ivestern Ecuador phia, Proc, vol 93, pp 1-79, pis 1-19 1941 the Carolinas 83 Acad Nat Sci., Philadel- Schilder, F A 1932 Woodring, W Fossilium Catalogus I, Animalia Pars 55 Cypraeacea, 276 pp P Aluracypraea, 1957 88-90 a new subgenus of Cypraea Nautilus, vol 70, pp Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama U S Geol Sur., Prof Paper 306-B, pp 143-239, pis 24-38 1959 PLATES Bulletin 242 288 Explanation of Plate 18 Page Figure 1-lc Siphocypraea (Siphocypraea) transitoria Olsson and Petit 281 Fluorescent patterns 2-2b Siphocypraea (Siphocypraea) transitoria Olsson and Petit 2c-2d la Adult, dorsal pattern, length 59 mm; No 27619 PRI lb Juvenile pattern, length Juvenile pattern, length 48.5 mm lc Adult, ventral pattern, length 51.3 mm; No 27620 PRI Kissimmee, Osceola County, Fla.; No 27621 PRI 48.3 mm Longitudinal section through aperture showing apical sulcus and Brighton, Highlands County, inner Bulla stage, length 49 mm Fla.; No 27622 PRI 2a Showing elevated callus on body side 2b Apical view of of canal, length 38 mm; No 27623 PRI same specimen Kissimmee, Fla Siphocypraea (Siphocypraea) problematica Heilprin 2c 281 with newly inrolled lip, length 45mm end of lip high, length 40.7 mm aker rock pit, west of La Belle, Hendry County, Fla Young stage, 3-3e 281 shell thin, posterior 2d Bulla Whit- Siphocypraea (Muracypraea) mus (Linne) 279 Adult, dorsal and basal view, length 49.4 mm; No 27624 PRI Young adult still retaining juvenile pattern, length 3b 38.9 mm; No 27625 PRI 3c, 3d Bulla stage, apical and ventral aspects, length 30.8 mm; No 27626 PRI 3e Juvenile 3a form with newly inrolled lip, no denticles on body side of apertur, length 32.4 mm; No 27627 PRI Ski Beach, Judibana, Venezuela Siphocypraea (Muracypraea) henekeni (Sowerby) show nodes on dorsum, length 57.3 mm Middle Miocene, Gurabo Formation, Rio Gurabo, Gurabo Adentro, Santo Dom- Adult to ingo 278 Bull Amer Paleont., Vol 54 Plate 18 INDEX Note: Light face figures refer to page number refer to the plate number 279, 281 Akleistostoma Caloosahatchee marls I) Dall, W H Ecuador El Cordon Bold face figures XL (No 184) 996 pp., pis Type and Figured Specimens XLI XLII XLIII (Nos 185-192) 381 pp., 35 pis Australian Carpoid Echinoderms, Yap forams, Shell Bluff, Ga forams Newcomb mollusks, Wisconsin mollusk faunas, Camerina, Va forams, Corry Sandstone 16.00 673 pp., 48 pis Venezuelan Cenozoic gastropods (Nos 194-198) 427 pp., 29 pis Ordovician stromatoporoids, Indo-Pacific camerinids, Missis- 16.00 (No 193) sippian forams, XLIV XLV XLVI XLVII 16.00 P.R.I Cuban 16.00 rudists (Nos 199-203) 365 pp., 68 pis Puerto Rican, Antarctic, New Zealand forams, Lepidocyclina, Eumalacostraca 16.00 (No 204) 16.00 (Nos 205-211) 419 pp., 70 pis Large Foraminifera, Texas Cretaceous crustacean, Antarctic Devonian terebratuloid, Osgood and Paleocene Foraminifera, Recent molluscan types 16.00 584 pp., 83 pis Eocene and Devonian Foraminifera, Venezuelan fossil scaphopods and polychaetes, Alaskan Jurassic ammonites, 16.00 564 pp., 63 pis Venezuela Cenozoic pelecypods (Nos 212-217) Neogene mollusks XLVIII XLIX (No 218) 1058 pp., pis Catalogue of the Paleocene and Eocene Mollusca of the Southern and Eastern United States (Nos 219-224) 671 pp., 83 pis Peneroplid and Australian forams, North American carpoids, South Dakota palynology, Venezuelan Miocene mollusks, 18.00 16.00 Voluta 518 pp., 42 pis Venezuela and Florida cirripeds, Antarctic forams, Linnaean Olives, Camerina, Ordovician conodonts, Niagaran forams 16.00 420 pp., 10 pis Antarctic bivalves, Bivalvia catalogue 16.00 L (Nos 225-230) LI (Nos 231-232) LII (Nos 233, 236) 387 pp., 43 pis Zealand forams, Stromatoporoidea, Indo-Pacific, cene-Pliocene California forams New 16.00 Mio- LIIL (Nos 237-238) 488 pp., 45 pis Venezuela Bryozoa, Kinderhookian Brachiopods 16.00 LIV (Nos 239-243) 327 pp., 24 pis 11.25 Dominican ostracodes, Texan pelecypods, Wisconsin mollusks, Siphocypraea, Lepidocyclina Palaeontographica Americana Volume I See Johnson Reprint Corporation, 111 Fifth Ave., N Y Monographs of Areas, II New York, 10003 (Nos 6-12) Lutetia, rudistids and venerids 21.00 531 pp., 37 pis Tertiary turrids, Neocene Spondyli, Paleozic cephalopods, Tertiary Fasciolarias and Paleozoic and Recent Hexactinellida Heliophyllum halli, III (Nos 13-25) 513 pp., 61 pis Paleozoic cephalopod structure and phylogeny, Paleozoic siphonophores, Busycon, Devonian fish studies, gastropod studies, Carboniferous crinoids, Cretaceous jellyfish, Platystrophia, and Venericardia 25.00 IV 492 pp., 72 pis (Nos 26-33) Rudist studies, Busycon, Dalmanellidae, Byssonychia, Devonian lycopods, Ordovican eurypterids, Pliocene mol- 25.00 lusks V VI (Nos 34-37) 445 pp., 101 pis Tertiary Arcacea, Mississippian pelecypods, Cretaceous Gulf Coastal forams (Nos 38) 49 pp., 19 pis Lycopsids and sphenopsids of Freeport Coal 32.00 Ambonychiidae, 3.75 BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY Vols I-XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI See Kraus Reprint Corp., 16 East 46th N Y 10017, U.S.A 306 pp., 30 pis Paleozoic fossils of Ontario, Oklahoma and Colombia, Mesozoic ehinoids, California Pleistocene and Maryland Miocene mollusks 12.00 , 420 pp., 58 pis (Nos 95-100) Florida Recent marine shells, Texas Cretaceous fossils, Cuban and Peruvian Cretaceous, Peruvian Eogene corals, and geology and paleontology of Ecuador 14.00 XXVm (Nos 109-114) XXXI 12.00 (Nos 88-94B) (Nos 101-108) XXX New York, 334 pp., 27 pis (Nos 80-87) Mainly Paleozoic faunas and Tertiary Mollusca XXVH XXIX St., 376 pp., 36 pis i 14.00 Tertiary Mollusca, Paleozoic cephalopods, Devonian fish and Paleozoic geology and fossils of Venezuela 412 pp., 14.06 34 pis Paleozoic cephalopods, Devonian of Idaho, Cretaceous and Eocene mollusks, Cuban and Venezuelan forams (NOS 115-116) 738 pp., 52 pis Bowden forams and Ordovician cephalopods 18.00 563 pp., 65 pis (No 117) Jackson Eocene mollusks 16.00 458 pp., 27 pis (Nos 118-128) Venezuelan and California mollusks, Chemung and Pennsylvanian crinoids, Cypraeidae, Cretaceous, Miocene and Recent corals, Cuban and Floridian forams, and Cuban fossil 16.00 localities XXXD (Nos 129-133) 294 Silurian cephalopods, Mytilarca XXXHI , 16.00 pp., 39 pis crinoid studies, (Nos 134-139) 448 pp., 51 Devonian annelids, Tertiary graphy paleontology Tertiary forams, and 16.00 pis mollusks, Ecuadoran strati- XXXIV 400 pp., 19 pis (Nos 140-145) Trinidad Globigerinidae, Ordovician Enopleura, Tasmanian Ordovician cephalopods and Tennessee Ordovician ostracods and conularid bibliography 16.00 XXXV (Nos 146-154) 386 pp., 31 pis G D Harris memorial, camerinid and Georgia Paleocene Foraminifera, South America Paleozoics, Australian Ordovician cephalopods, California Pleistocene Eulimidae, Volutidae, and Devonian ostracods from Iowa 16.00 412 pp., 53 pis Globotruncana in Colombia, Eocene fish, Canadian Chazyan Antillean Cretaceous rudists, Canal Zone Foraminifera, 16.00 XXXVI (Nos 155160) fossils, XXXVII XXXVIII foraminiferal studies 486 pp., 37 pis (Nos 161164) Antillean Cretaceous Rudists, Canal Stromatoporoidea 16.00 Zone Foraminifera, 447 pp., 53 pis Venezuela geology, Oligocene Lepidocyclina, Miocene ostracods, and Mississippian of Kentucky, turritellid from Venezuela, larger forams, new mollusks, geology of Carriacou, (Nos 165-176) 16.00 Pennsylvanian plants XXXIX 448 pp., 36 pis „ (Nos 177-183) Panama Caribbean mollusks, Venezuelan Tertiary formations and forams, Trinidad Cretaceous forams, American-European species, Puerto Rico forams 16.00 ^3 ... Axel A Olsson Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be had on application For reprint, Vols 1-23, Bulletins of American Paleontology see Kraus Reprint Corp., 16 East... or year, with average price Numbers of $16.00 per volume for Bulletins voiced per issue income Purchases in U.SA of Palaeontographica Americana in- for professional purposes are deductible tax... characteristic of S problematica as the result of rotation of the posterior end of the outer lip around Soon afterwards, the Bulla stage of Cypraea it carolinensis Conrad, 1841, of the Duplin
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