Ornithological Monographs 56

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Ornithological Monographs No 56 Prehistoric Human Impacts on California Birds: Evidence from the Emeryville Shellmound Avifauna JACKM BROUGHTON PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION PREHISTORIC BIRDS: HUMAN EVIDENCE IMPACTS FROM SHELLMOUND THE ON CALIFORNIA EMERYVILLE AVIFAUNA ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS Editor:JohnFaaborg 224 Tucker Hall Divisionof BiologicalSciences Universityof Missouri Columbia, Missouri 65211 ProjectManager:Mark C Penrose Managing Editor:RichardD Earles AOU Publications Office 622ScienceEngineering Departmentof BiologicalSciences Universityof Arkansas Fayetteville,Arkansas72701 The Ornithological Monographs series,publishedby the AmericanOrnithologists' Union,hasbeenestablished for majorpaperstoolongfor inclusionin theUnion'sjournal, The Auk Copiesof Ornithological Monographs areavailablefrom ButeoBooks,3130LaurelRoad, Shipman,VA 22971.Priceof Ornithological Monographs no 56:$10.00($9.00for AOU members).Add $4.00for handlingand shippingchargesin U.S.,and $5.00for shipping to othercountries.Make checkspayableto ButeoBooks Author of thisissue,JackM Broughton Library of CongressControlNumber 2004113911 Printedby CadmusCommunications, Ephrata,PA 17522 Issued 27 October 2004 Ornithological Monographs, No 56 xii + 90 pp Copyright¸ by theAmericanOrnithologists' Union,2004 ISBN: 0-943610-62-1 Cover:Designby JackM Broughton Canadageesedrawing:Lineartby TimothyKnepp,courtesyof U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service PREHISTORIC EVIDENCE HUMAN IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA BIRDS: FROM THE EMERYVILLE SHELLMOUND AVIFAUNA BY JACKM BROUGHTON Department ofAnthropology, University ofUtah,270South 1400East,Room 102,SaltLakeCity,Utah84112,USA ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS PUBLISHED THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' WASHINGTON, 2004 NO 56 BY D.C UNION TABLE OF CONTENTS Listsof Tablesand Figures vii From the Editor xi ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION SAN FRANCISCO BAY SHELLMOUNDS AND THE EMERYVILLE FAUNA CHRONOLOGY AVIFAUNAL MATERIALS SYSTEMATICS AND OSTEOLOGY ORDER GAVIIFORMES SITE AND 8 Family Gaviidae ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES 13 Family Podicipedidae 13 ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 14 Family Diomedeidae Family Procellariidae 14 14 ORDER PELECANIFORMES 14 Family Pelecanidae Family Phalacrocoracidae 14 15 ORDER CICONnFORMES 17 Family Ardeidae Family Cathartidae 17 17 ORDER ANSERIFORMES 17 FamilyAnatidae 17 ORDER FALCONIFORMES 23 FamilyAccipitridae Family Falconidae ORDER GAL•IFORUES 23 24 24 Family Phasianidae Family Odontophoridae 24 25 ORDER GRUIFORMES 25 Family Rallidae Family Gruidae 25 25 ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 26 Family Charadriidae Family Recurvirostridae Family Scolopacidae Family Laridae FamilyAlcidae 26 26 26 27 28 ORDER STRIGIFORMES 28 Family Tytonidae FamilyStrigidae 28 28 ORDER PASSERIFORMES 29 Family Corvidae TAXONOMIC SUMMARY AND DEPOSITIONAL ORIGIN ARCHAEOLOGICAL MEASURES OF AVIAN RESOURCE RELATIVE-ABUNDANCE INDICES 29 DEPRESSION 29 30 30 Pr{E¾AGE COMPOSITION 31 PALEOCLIMATIC VARIABLES 32 SUMMAIắ ANTHROPOGENIC DEPRESSIONS AND 32 THE EMERYVILLE AVIFAUNAL SEQUENCE 32 WATEI•rOWL 32 COr{MOV,aNTS 39 SI•OI•BII•X)S GENERAL CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX vi 43 44 46 46 53 LIST OF TABLES Emeryvilleprovenienceunits with associatedradiocarbondeterminations Numbersof identifiedbird specimensper taxonby stratumat the Emeryville Shellmound Numbersof identifiedsubadultbird specimens by stratumat the Emeryville Shellmound Minimum interorbitalfrontal breadthsfor recentMelanittanigra,M perspicillata, and M fuscaspecimens Premaxillalengthsfor recentMelanittanigra,M perspicillata, and M fusca 12 specimens Averageweightsof anatidspeciesidentifiedfrom the EmeryvilleShellmound Numbersof identified specimens(NISP) of anserinesand anatininesby major stratumfrom the EmeryvilleShellmound Numbersof identifiedspecimens(NISP) of large geeseand small geeseby majorstratumfrom the EmeryvilleShellmound Numbersof identifiedspecimens(NISP) of mergininesand otherducksby major stratumfrom the Emeryville Shellmound 10 Numbersof identifiedcormorantsand all otherbirds (NISP) by major stratumfrom the Emeryville Shellmound 11 Numbersof identifiedsubadultand adult cormorants(NISP)by major stratum from the Emeryville Shellmound 12 Numbersof identifiedPelagic,Brandt's,and Double-crestedCormorants (NISP)by majorstratumfrom the EmeryvilleShellmound 13 Numbersof identifiedlargeand smallshorebirds(NISP) by majorstratum from the EmeryvilleShellmound A1 Numbers of identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum1, Uhle excavation 21 22 33 34 35 36 40 41 42 44 54 A2 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor stratum2, Uhle excavation 55 A3 Numbersof identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum3, Uhle excavation 57 A4 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor stratum4, Uhle excavation 59 A5 Numbers of identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum5, Uhle excavation 60 A6 Numbers of identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum6, Uhle excavation 61 A7 Numbers of identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum7, Uhle excavation 62 A8 Numbersof identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum8, Uhle excavation 63 A9 Numbers of identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum9, Uhle excavation 65 A10 Numbersof identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum10, Uhle excavation 66 All Numbersof identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for stratum2, Nelson excavation vii 68 A12 Numbers Nelson A13 Numbers Nelson A14 Numbers of identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor stratum3, excavation Nelson A16 Numbers Nelson 69 of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum5, 7O of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum6, excavation 7O of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum7, excavation A17 Numbers of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum8, excavation A18 Nelson Numbers Nelson excavation A19 Numbers 68 of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum4, excavation Nelson excavation A15 Numbers 7O 7O of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum9, 7O of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum10, Nelson excavation A20 Numbers Nelson excavation 71 of identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor stratum11, 71 A21 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench1 (0-1 ft), Schenckexcavation 72 A22 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench1 (1-2 ft), Schenckexcavation 72 A23 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench1 (2-3 ft), Schenckexcavation 73 A24 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench1 (3-4 ft), Schenckexcavation 74 A25 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench1 (4-5 ft), Schenckexcavation 74 A26 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench1 (5-6 ft), Schenckexcavation 75 A27 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench1 (6-7 ft), Schenckexcavation 75 A28 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench1 (7-8 ft), Schenckexcavation A29 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench2 (1-2 ft), Schenckexcavation 76 77 A30 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench2 (2-3 ft), Schenckexcavation 78 A31 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench2 (3-4 ft), Schenckexcavation 79 A32 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench2 (4-5 ft), Schenckexcavation 80 A33 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench2 (5-6 ft), Schenckexcavation 81 A34 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench2 (6-7 ft), Schenckexcavation 82 A35 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench3 (0-1 ft), Schenckexcavation viii 83 A36 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench3 (1-2 ft), Schenckexcavation 84 A37 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench3 (2-3 ft), Schenckexcavation A38 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench3 (3-4 ft), Schenckexcavation A39 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench3 (4-5 ft), Schenckexcavation A40 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench3 (5-6 ft), Schenckexcavation 85 86 87 88 A41 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench3 (6-7 ft), Schenckexcavation A42 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementand portionfor trench3 (7-8 ft), Schenckexcavation A43 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench3 (8 ft to ft in), Schenckexcavation 89 89 90 LIST OF FIGURES Map of theSanFrancisco Bayarea,showinglocationof theEmeryville Shellmound and other shellmound sites Demolitionof the EmeryvilleShellmoundby steamshovel,1924 Rightcoracoidof Gaviastellataandleft proximalcarpometacarpus of Phoebastria albatrus 13 Left proximaltibiotarsusof Phalacrocorax penicillatus and left femurof Phalacrocorax auritus Left proximalhumerusof Ardeaherodias 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Premaxilla of Chen caerulescens and frontal of Branta canadensis Left coracoidand rightulna of Gallusgallus Rightproximalcarpometacarpus of Numenius americanus Righthumerus,missingproximalend,of Otuskennicottii Distributionof the gooseindex(•.NISP anserines/•.NISP anatids)by stratum at the EmeryvilleShellmound Distributionof thelarge-goose index(•.NISPlargeandmediumanserines/ •.NISP anserines)by stratumat the EmeryvilleShellmound Distributionof the scoterindex (•,NISP merginines/•.NISPanatinines)by stratumat the EmeryvilleShellmound Distributionof the cormorantindex (•,NISP cormorants/•,NISPbirds) by stratumat the EmeryvilleShellmound Distributionof the subadultcormorantindex (•.NISP subadultcormorants/ •.NISP cormorants)by stratumat the EmeryvilleShellmound Holocenevariationin the frequencyof ENSOeventsasreconstructed from the sedimentation recordof LagunaPallcacocha, southernEcuador Distributionof the Brandt's-Pelagic index (•.NISP Brandt's+ Pelagic cormorants/•.NISP cormorants) by stratumat theEmeryvilleShellmound ix 15 17 18 25 27 28 34 35 36 40 41 41 42 80 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA BIRDS 81 82 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA BIRDS 83 TABLE A35 Numbersof identifiedbird specimensby elementand portion for trench3 (0-1 if), Schenck excavation Abbreviations same as Table A1 Element(portion) Taxon Phalacrocorax sp P.penicillatus Fur Cor ScaHum s w a d p Rad w d p Uln Car Syn Tib p p w d P auritus Ardea herodias w Tar Fem Z w w 1 i 13 Anserinae (small) Anserinae(medium) 2 Anatinae(large) Melanittasp Buteosp B.jamaicensis Uria sp 2 Z p 1 2 11 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 2 2 46 84 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 PREHISTORICCALIFORNIA BIRDS 85 86 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA BIRDS 87 88 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA BIRDS 89 90 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 TABLE A43 Numbersof identifiedbird specimens by elementandportionfor trench3 (8 ft to ft in), Schenck excavation Abbreviations same as Table A1 Element(portion) Taxon Cor p Sca a Hum d p Rad p Uln d Syn p Tib d Tar p 1 Pelecanus occidentalis Phalacrocorax sp P auritus 1 Anatinae(large) Melanittasp Corvusbrachyrhynchos Z 1 1 1 1 1 1 r Anserinae(small) Anserinae (medium) Fem p 1 1 1 12 THE BIRDS LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICA FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY A POOLE AND F GILL, Editors Individual profiles now available! In 1992theAmericanOrnithologists' Union,in parmership with the Academy of NaturalSciences of Philadelphia, undertook thepublication of species profilesforeachof themorethan700species whichbreedin theUnitedStatesandCanada.Theseillustratedreviewsprovidethemost comprehensive summaries of thecurrent knowledge of eachspecies, with rangemapsandanextensive listof references ButeoBooksispleased to offerindividual species accounts for$7.50 each All 716 accounts are listed on our website in taxonomic order (rearranged to conform withtheSeventh Editionof theA.O.U.Check-list) Singles maybeordered bymail,phone,fax,ore-mail.Shipping and handlingis $4 for thefn'stprofileand$1 foreachadditional profileto a maximumchargeof $10 perorder Profilesrangefrom 12to 48 pagesin length, and measure 1/2" x 11" The information contained in eachprofileincludesbreeding, nesting,habitat,foodandfeeding,range, sound,andconservation, plusmuchmore Theyprovidethemostcomprehensive, up-to-datedatafor eachspecies covered Theseaccounts are an indispensable part of yourreferencelibrary Contactusto orderyourstoday Visitour website for moreinformation:www.buteobooks com 3130 LaurelRoad; Shipman,VA 22971; USA Buteo B o ols allen•buteobooks.com orders: 800-722-2460 phone:434-263-4842 fax:434-263-4842 BIRDERS' EXCHANGE ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS (Continued frombackcover) No 37 AvianMonogamy.P A Gowaty and D W Mock, Eds vi + 121 pp 1985.$15.00 ($12.00) No 38 An Analysisof Physical, Physiological, andOpticalAspects of AvianColoration with Emphasis onWood-Warblers E H Burtt,Jr.x + 122pp 1986.$15.00($12.50) No 39 TheLingualApparatusof theAfricanGreyParrot,Psittacus erithacus Linne(Aves: Psittacidae): Description andTheoretical Mechanical Analysis.D G Homberger.xii + 236 pp 1986.$30.00 No 40 Patterns andEvolutionary Significance ofGeographic Variation in theSchistacea Group oftheFoxSparrow (Passerella iliaca).R M Zink.viii + 119pp 1986.$15.00 No 41 Hindlimb Myology and Evolution of Old World SuboscinePasserineBirds (Acanthisittidae, Pittidae,Philepittidae, Eurylaimidae) R J.Raikow.viii + 81 pp 1987 $15.00 No 42 Speciation andGeographic Variationin Black-tailed Gnatcatchers J L Atwood vii + 74 pp 1988.$10.00 No 43 A Distributional Surveyof theBirdsof theMexicanStateof Oaxaca.L C Binford.viii + 418 pp 1989 $20.00 No 44 RecentAdvances in theStudyof Neogene FossilBirds:I TheBirdsof theLateMioceneEarlyPliocene BigSandyFormation, MohaveCounty,Arizona(K J.Bichart);II Fossil Birdsof theSanDiegoFormation, LatePliocene, Blancan, SanDiegoCounty,California (R M Chandler).vi + 161pp 1990.$20.00 Nos.45 & 46 Descriptions of Thirty-twoNewSpecies ofBirdsfromtheHawaiianIslands: Part I Non-Passeriformes (S.L Olsonand H F James),88 pp.; Part II Passeriformes (H F.Jamesand S L Olson),88 pp 1991.Boundtogether(not availableseparately) $25.00 ($22.50) No 47 Parent-Offspring Conflict andIts Resolution in theEuropean Starling.E Litovichand H W Power.71 pp 1992.$15.00($12.00) No 48 Studiesin Neotropical Ornithology HonoringTedParker.J V RemsenJr.,Ed xiv + 918 pp 1997.$49.95($39.95) No 49 AvianReproductive Tactics: FemaleandMale Perspectives P G Parkerand N T Burley,Eds.v + 195pp 1998.$20.00($16.00) No 50 AvianCommunity, Climate,andSea-Level Changes in thePlio-Pleistocene oftheFlorida Peninsula.S D Emslie.iii + 113pp 1998.$20.00($16.00) No 51 A Descriptiveand Phylogenetic Analysisof Plumulaceous FeatherCharacters in Charadriiformes C J Dove iii + 163pp 2000.$19.95($15.96) No 52 Ornithology of Sabah: History,Gazetteer, Annotated Checklist, andBibliography F H Sheldon,R G Moyle, andJ Kennard.vi + 285pp 2001.$25.00($22.50) No 53 Evolution of Flightlessnessin Rails (Gruiformes:Rallidae): Phylogenetic, Ecomorphological, and Ontogenetic Perspectives B.C Livezey.x + 654 pp 2003 $10.00 ($9.00) No 54 PopulationDynamicsof the CaliforniaSpottedOwl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis): A Meta-Analysis Alan B Franklin, R J Gutierrez,JamesD Nichols,Mark E Seamans,Gary C White, Guthrie S Zimmerman, JamesE Hines, Thomas E Munton,William S LaHaye,JenniferA Blakesley, GeorgeN Steger,Barry R Noon,Daniel W H Shaw,JohnJ.Keane,TrentL McDonald,and SusanBritting viii + 54 pp 2004.$10.00($9.00) No 55 Obligate Army-ant-following Birds:A Studyof Ecology, SpatialMovement Patterns, andBehavior in Amazonian Peru.SusanK Willson.x + 67 pp 2004.$10.00($9.00) Order from: Buteo Books, 3130 Laurel Road, Shipman, VA 22971, 1-800-722-2460;E-mail allen@buteobooks.com; or www.buteobooks.com Pricesin parentheses arefor AOU members For a completelist of Ornithological Monographs includingbothin-printand out-of-printbooks, pleasevisittheAmericanOrnithologists' Unionwebsiteat www.aou.org Supplementto The Auk 121:4 ORNITHOLOGICAL No No MONOGRAPHS TheBirdsofKentucky R M Mengel.1965.$25.00 Adaptations for Locomotion and Feedingin the Anhingaand the Double-crested Cormorant O T Owre 1967 $10.00 No No 10 No 11 No 12 A Distributional SurveyoftheBirdsofHonduras B L Monroe,Jr.1968.$25.00 TheBehavior of Spotted Antbirds.E O Willis 1972.$10.00 Behavior,Mimetic Songsand Song Dialects,and Relationships of the Parasitic Indigobirds (Vidua)ofAfrica.R B Payne.1973.$10.00 Intra-islandVariation in theMascarene White-eye Zosterops borbonica F.B Gill 1973 $10.00 No 13 EvolutionaryTrendsin the Neotropical Ovenbirdsand Woodhewers A Feduccia No 14 A Symposium on theHouseSparrow(Passerdomesticus) andEuropeanTreeSparrow (P.montanus) in NorthAmerica.S.C Kendeigh,Ed 1973.$10.00 Functional AnatomyandAdaptiveEvolution oftheFeeding Apparatus in theHawaiian Honeycreeper GenusLoxops(Drepanididae) L P Richards.and W J Bock.1973 1973 $10.00 No 15 $10.00 No 16 No 17 TheRed-tailedTropicbird onKureAtoll R R Fleet.1974.$6.00 ComparativeBehavior of the American Avocet and the Black-neckedStilt No 18 Breeding BiologyandBehavior of theOldsquaw (Clangulahyemalis L.) R M Alison (Recurvirostridae).R B Hamilton 1975 $10.00 1975 $6.00 No 19 BirdPopulations of AspenForestsin WesternNorthAmerica.J A.D Flack.1976 $10.00 No 21 SocialOrganizationand Behaviorof the Acorn Woodpecker in Central Coastal California.M H MacRobertsand B R MacRoberts.1976.$10.00 No 22 Maintenance Behavior and Communication in the Brown Pelican R W Schreiber 1977 $6.00 No 23 No 24 No 25 Species Relationships in theAvianGenusAimophila L L Wolf 1977.$12.00, LandBirdCommunities of GrandBahama Island:TheStructureandDynamicsof an Avifauna.J.T Emlen.1977.$10.00 Systematics of SmallerAsian Night BirdsBasedon Voice.J T Marshall 1978 $10.00 No 26 Ecology andBehavior of thePrairieWarbler,Dendroica discolor V Nolan, Jr 1978 $45.00 No 27 Ecology andEvolution ofLekMatingBehavior in theLong-tailed HermitHummingbird F G Stiles and L L Wolf 1979 $10.00 No 28 No 29 TheForagingBehaviorof MountainBluebirdswith Emphasis on SexualForaging Differences H W Power.1980.$10.00 TheMolt ofScrubJaysandBlueJaysin Florida.G T BancroftandG E Woolfenden No 30 AvianIncubation: EggTemperature, NestHumidity,andBehavioral Thermoregulation 1982 $10.00 in a Hot Environment G S Grant 1982 $10.00 No 31 No 32 No 33 No 34 No 35 TheNativeForestBirdsof Guam.J.M Jenkins.1983.$15.00 TheMarineEcology ofBirdsin theRossSea,Antarctica D G Ainley,E F O'Connor and R F Boekelheide.x + 97 pp 1984.$15.00 SexualSelection, LekandArenaBehavior, andSexualSizeDimorphism in Birds.R B Payne.viii + 52 pp 1984.$15.00 Pattern,Mechanism,and AdaptiveSignificance of Territorialityin Herring Gulls (Larusargentatus) J.Burger.xii + 92 pp 1984.$12.50 Ecogeographical Variationin Size and Proportions of SongSparrows(Melospiza melodia) J.W Aldrich.x + 134pp 1984.$15.00($12.00) (Continued on inside back cover) ... 3A]), humeri (EMF PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA BIRDS 10 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA BIRDS 12 ORNITHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS NO 56 TABLE Numbersof identifiedsubadultbird specimens... The Ornithological Monographs series,publishedby the AmericanOrnithologists' Union,hasbeenestablished for majorpaperstoolongfor inclusionin theUnion'sjournal, The Auk Copiesof Ornithological Monographs. .. 2004113911 Printedby CadmusCommunications, Ephrata,PA 17522 Issued 27 October 2004 Ornithological Monographs, No 56 xii + 90 pp Copyright¸ by theAmericanOrnithologists' Union,2004 ISBN: 0-943610-62-1
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