Catalogue of the madreporarian corals in the British Museum

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: 377 CATALOGUE Zool, OF THE MADREPORARIAN CORALS THE IN BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) VOLUME The Genus I MADREPORA BY GEORGE BEOOK ô LONDON PRINTED BY ORDER OP THE TRUSTEES SOLD BY LONGMANS & QUARITCH, KEG AN PAUL & B Co., 39 PATERNOSTER ROW; PICCADILLY; DULAU & Co., 37 SOHO SQUARE; Co., PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD; 15 AND AT THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, S.W 1893 S£P 1986 w FLAMMAM PRINTED BY TATLOE AND FKANC18, RED LION COUET, FLEET STKEET N \ PREFACE The first attempt to get the Collection of Stony Corals in the British was made Museum in the year 1876, when the Trustees engaged Dr Briiggemann to prepare a complete Catalogue Unfortunately, the work of into systematic order this able Zoologist was interrupted by his premature death in various reasons could not be resumed for additions were of the Naturalists should be made specially ' to many 1878, and for In the interval important years the collection, of which the specimens collected by the Transit of Venus,' mentioned; then, ' in Alert,' and ' more recent Challenger years, when ' expeditions the question about the formation of Coral-reefs had been reopened, a considerable amount of material was received from several Naturalists this inquiry : especially who took special interest in from Dr Guppy, who collected in the Solomon Islands from Mr G C Bourne, who investigated the coral-reefs of Diego Garcia Mr J who J Lister, passed some years in Polynesia ; ; from from Mr Bassett-Smith, ; who, by the instructions of the Hydrographer of the Admiralty, thoroughly searched the Tizard and ' Kambler ' and ' Penguin the Eamesvaram reefs Macclesfield ' ; their survey by H.M.SS and from Mr Thurston, who paid several The Mr Saville-Kent transferred Banks during present work was near to the Museum its visits completion when, to finally, the large collection which he had formed on the Great-Barrier Reef and in Torres Straits PEEPACE IV From these and other sources the collection in the present extent, the 1104 They the total The to the are Museum has grown to its number of specimens of the genus Madrejwra amountino- to described number of in the present volume species of the genus amounting under 180 names specific to 221 task of arranging these materials with the nomenclature most conformable preceding literature was surrounded by unusual the Author was assisted by a series of named specimens difficulties ; and although of Klunzinger's Red Sea Madrepores purchased some years ago, by one species collected by Haeckel in Ceylon and described by Ortmann, and by the whole of the ' he would not have succeeded so well in his work if Challenger ' types, he had not, at considerable personal sacrifice, visited the principal coUections on the Continent with the object of studying the types contained in them The Museum, besides, is greatly indebted to him for the care bestowed on the curatorial part of the work, by which every specimen has been now rendered avaUable for future study ALBERT GtJNTHER, Brim M^eur., ^ June H., IQth, 1893 ^''^'' '^ '^'' De^^aHmenf of Zoology INTRODUCTION The number total of species referred to the genus Madrepora s up to 1890, present work was undertaken, appears to be 157, not including the when the nomina nuda of Valenciennes and other authors recorded by the descriptions, and I am In most cases the various authors have been identified not aware that any author has type specimens contained in continental museums from published compared together the The American not been redescribed or refigured since the original publication therefore, lapsed into a state of confusion, and the occurring in certain areas are quite unreliable make, as far as possible, a species already described It be added these must To twelve or fourteen others recently published by Eehberg, species s lists types have The synonymy, of species recorded as has thus been necessary to renewed study of the type specimens of the numerous It has not yet been possible for me to study the type specimens preserved at Washington and other places in the United States, and thus I have only been able to judge of the characters and positions of the species described by Dana, Horn, and Verrill from the more or supplied by these authors Museums of Paris, The Berlin, London, Strassburg, and Jena, whilst Klunzinger's Museum be found in the Berlin Collection visiting the Stuttgart are based complete data types described by European authors are in the types are, I believe, preserved in the also to less Museum, and my at Stuttgart, but a complete set is have not yet had an opportunity of notes on Klunzinger's Eed Sea Collection on the study of the specimens identified by Klunzinger which are contained in the Berlin and London Collections INTRODUCTION vi am I who have given me various gentlemen its progress may be permitted M Bernard in Paris, Professors and Haeckel Professors To Dr Weltner am I facilities for all my hearty thanks to the study and assistance during mention the names of Professor Perrier and to Mobius, von Martens, and Dr Weltner in Berlin, and Kiikenthal in Jena, Dr Ortmann in Strassburg, Berlin my glad to have this opportunity of expressing of whom me gave further indebted for every assistance in their power much valuable information on the which he has been kind enough to supply since types and Doderlein Professor I the visited collections It was suggestion the at undertaken, and constant his which he has given me As a by my result of the I in critical points present work was the readiness with have been a source have also pleasure in acknowledging the comparison of the various European Collections already it necessary to reduce the described by previous authors from 169 to 130 new the friend Prof Jeffrey Bell referred to, I have considered the that progress and its and advice me to Giinther Dr interest in assistance of great encouragement assistance rendered of species described by myself — 91 in To number this of distinct species number must be added Short descriptions of 62 of these all have already appeared in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' for December 1891 and 1892 Some others The remainder are now described for the are based on specimens in the Collection of the British are founded on specimens referred to Museum, previously described time first whilst species by various authors For some time the idea was entertained to include an account of the species of Madrepora in the present volume position and affinities of the fossil species, existing forms would be of The little is known and a careful study of special interest the various species as reef-builders Very fossil as to the their relations to on account of the great importance of subject is, however, a very difficult one ; the type specimens are scattered, imperfectly described, and rarely figured, added to which most fragmentary of the Satisfactory specimens which material is have come under my notice not readily obtained, but even if are that INTEODUCTJON had been available, the advantages to vii be derived from a study of been doubtful, inasmuch as in the greater number of the characters on which the classification of recent species is it would have fossil forms the based are not preserved with sufficient clearness to admit of comparison The Plates which illustrate the present Morgan and Kidd from Collotype process by Messrs For various reasons species it in the As isochromatic to represent closely allied plates were chiefly used, the depth of colour of the various specimens accounts for the variation in intensity of the figures on the specimens negatives taken by myself was often found impracticable on the same Plate diff'erence volume have been reproduced by the are figured is also some of the Plates not constant, and The scale on which depends entirely on the reduction necessary for each specimen or group of specimens in order to 10- by 8-inch plate fill a I trust that sufiicient detail will be found in the figures to give a good idea of the habit of the specimens, and also, although necessarily to a less extent, of the form, angle, and variation of the corallites GEORGE BROOK SYSTEMATIC INDEX GENEEAL REMARKS page HisioKicAL Morphology 15 Classification DESCRIPTIVE PART Page MADREPORA Page EUMABEEPORA, Broolc L murioata, palmata, LamJc prolifera, Lamlc Lamh cervicomis, Dana M.-Edw secunda, crassa, Sf H intermedia, Bronl- gracilis, Dana lieteroclados, Brook attenuata, Brool: cyclopea, conigera, Dana Bana 10 smithi, BrooTc 11 efl3orcsceus, Dana 12 vasiformis, BrooJc 13 orbicularis, Brook 14 acuminata, Verrill 15 pacifioa, Brook Dana Dana 16 arbuscula, 17 virgata, Ehrh Dana 45 23 nigra, Brook 24 valenciennesi, M.-Edw Sf H Lamk 23 25 laxa, 23 26 multiformis, 25 27 multicaulis Brook 26 28 ehrenbergi, 27 30 29 clathrata Brook 30 31 decipiens 31 32 32 33 florida, Ortmann M.-Edw 47 48 £^ H 48 49 50 Brook 30 irregularis, 51 Brook 52 53 54 Brook listeri, Dana florida, Dana 32 33 confluens, 33 34 tuberculosa, 34 35 austera, 34 35 37 37 38 39 40 40 36 abrotanoides, 37 danffi, Brook M.-Edw 54 Sf H Dana M.-Edw Sf H M.-Edw Sf E 39 gravida, affinis Dana Brook 60 41 compressa, B.- Smith 42 pociUifera, 43 aspera, 55 56 56 57 58 59 Lamk 38 pharaonis, 40 46 46 60 Lamk 61 Dana 62 18 tylostoma, 41 44 manni, Quelcli 63 19 robusta, 45 scabrosa, Quelcli 64 20 grandis Brook 42 42 Dana 43 47 squarrosa, Ehrh 22 pulchra Brook 44 47a, thurstoni, 21 formosa, 46 divaricata, , Dana 64 65 200 Brook h SYSTEMATIC INDEX Page II Obontoctathus, Brook Page 66 94 microclados, 66 95 aculeus, H 50 stigmataria, M.-Edw 4- H 51 subtilis, Klunz 67 96 glochiclados Brook 68 68 97 Burculosa, 98 macrostoma, Brook 105 52 reticulata, Broolc 68 99 antbocercis Brook 106 53 oligocyathus, Broolc 69 100 recumbons, Brook 106 54 ambigua, Broolc 70 101 hyacintbus, Dana 70 102 conferta, Quelch 107 108 109 110 ^ 48 arabica, M.-Edw 49 borealis, M.-Ecliv 57 impUeata, 6f Brook 55 complanata, 56 tortuosa, H Dana Bmia 58 pruinosa, Brook ^ Ehrh Dana Dana 71 103 delieatula, Brook 72 72 104 kenti, Brook 103 104 104 104, 200 105 bifaria Brook 110 106 patula, Brook Ill 73 107 latisteUa, Brook 59 nasuta, 73 108 polystoma, Broolc 112 112 60 74 109 indica Brook 113 75 110 sinensis Brook 114 76 111 frondosa, Brook 114 77 112 elegantula, Ortmann 115 III PoLTsTACHTS, Broolc 61 62 Dana paxilligera, Dana digitifera, Dana efFusa, Dana 63 haimei, M.-Edw 64 retusa, Dana df H 65 decurrens, Elirh Horn capillaris, Klunz 77 78 IV Lepidoctathits, Brook 115 66 tubigera, 79 113 imbricata, Ehrb 67 80 114 millepora, Ehrb 116 68 diffusa, Verrill 80 115 convexa, 118 69 dilatata, Brook 81 116 Dana prostrata, Dana 119 81 117 squamosa, Broolc 120 71 nana, Studer 82 118 subulata, Daiui 120 Dana 83 119 spathulata, Brook 121 83 84 84 120 selago, Studer 122 70 dendrum, B.-Sinith 72 tenuis, 73 africana, Brook 74 rosacea, Esper 75 disticha, Brook 121 cribripora, 122 cuspidata, Dana Dana 116 123 124 85 85 86 87 123 rubra, Studer 124 Dana 125 127 sarmentosa, Brook 81 tizardi, Brook 87 89 82 quelchi, Brook 76 appressa, Elirb 77 assinulis, Brook 78 cymbicyathus, Brook 79 alliomorpha, Broolc 80 secale, Studer 124 exigua, 125 mirabUis, Quelch 125 126 studcri Brook 126 128 hebes, Dana 127 128 90 129 obscura, Brook 129 83 cerealis, 91 130 monticulosa, Brilgg 130 84 92 Dana spicifera, Dana 85 sj-mmetrica, Brook 86 pectinata Brook 94 95 V IsoPOEA, Studer 131 palifera, 131 Lamk 131 87 tenuispicata, Studer 96 132 hispida, Brook 133 88 candelabrum, Studer 96 133 securis, 133 89 patella, Studer 97 1.34 Dana cuneata, Dana 97 99 135 pHcata, Brook 134 134 90 corymbosa, 91 cytherea, Lamk Dana 92 annata Brook 100 93 arcuata Brook 102 VI TnopoBA, Brook 136 nobilis, Dana 135 135 ^ô o -^ ;> Li '^ OQ LJJ Q ^ ^ iS ^ ô 5Ê> LLl cd ^ ^ ^ Q^ 3C d « ^ "B d CQ < ^ LJJ 5: CD y ^ >Q at i < "I V5 :^ •^ -^ '< ^ '< o ^ LU en t «> ^ -Q « Brit Mna JFatlrepor Collot}fc A I Plate Moif^an & XXXV Kiiht, Ilichmoiut ^ladrepora tlntv.sfoni B Marfrcpora afrkaiia C, D 3Iadrepora attomata E Madraiiortt hruetpjcnianHl, vat: uncinata ... principal coUections on the Continent with the object of studying the types contained in them The Museum, besides, is greatly indebted to him for the care bestowed on the curatorial part of the. .. pass beyond the thecate wall theory of the origin of a theca In usual to apply the term is "costse" to the longitudinal ridges which mark the outer surface of the majority of cases the costse... the United-States National Museum The- list includes 59 species in all; the type specimens of 48 of the new species described by Dana and also of Verrill's are in the Collection The types of the
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