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'^i CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES IX THE COLLECTION OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM PART TESTUDINATA I (TOETOISES) BY JOHK EDWARD GRAY, F.R.S &c LONDON: PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES 1855 L-&T3^ lKi/&^^S/ PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET INTRODUCTION The chief object in preparing the present Catalogue complete account of British Museum, and has lieen to give at one the species of the Shielded Reptiles {Cataphracta) all of those species present desiderata in the Museum, known to exist in other Cabinets, but to enable travellers, collectors xiev,- no^x' in the which are and others to a at assist in completing the national collection An indication of the separate locality of each specimen is given ; its sex and state are also noticed The figures of the new stone by Mr Ford, so well species contained in the known for the Museum Collection have loeen drawn on beauty and accuracy of his pencil JOHN EDWARD GRAY British Miisevm, December 1, ISoii 4i CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES, Sect II SHIELDED REPTILES (CATA- they are surrounded by a series of bones forming the edge of the shields the lower shield or sternum is formed of four pair and a central anterior bone The jaws are tion ; : PHRACTA) Body covered with square imbedded plates, generally The bones of the forming a dorsal and ventral shield hard mass, and including skull thick, united together into a The tongue the quadrate bones and pterygoid processes to the exsertible The affixed is short, mouth, scarcely lungs are enveloped by a thick peritoneum, which performs The the part and has the appearance of a diaphragm vent is round or linear, plaited The male organ and va- gina are simple, the former having only a groove along its the egg covered with a hard upper edge Oviparous : shell slit, : the young, when hatched, having a large umbilical which soon disappears Reptilia Cataphracta (Shielded Reptiles), Grai/, Syn Arm Nat Hist Rept (1831) Tort B.M (1844) ; Reptilia Loricata et SqCamata i 275 (1838) ; (part.) Gray, Cat Ann Phil (182.5) Order III The body CHELONIA (TORTOISES) enclosed in a case, formed of two : the upper shield or thorax formed of the ribs more or less dilated on the sides, united together and adherent to the dorsal vertebrae : the upper bill vent is The by a toothed suture, preventing any mo- bill, rarely hid by fleshy Eyes The drum of the ear visible, nearly Tail conical The legs short, thick with distinct eyelids superficial horny covers the lower Uke a box a circular hole Chelonia (1835) ; Tortues (Chelonians), Gray, Ann Nat Hist i 275 Cat Tort B.M on Cheloniens, Bum ^ Bib Erp Ghi ii (1835) Reptilien, 1811 Bell, Zool Jonrn n 513 Testudinata, Oppel, Bona}) Saggio Anim Vert 12 (1832) Fitz Syst Rept 29 (1843) Chelonii, Latr Rept Syn Rept (1831) Gray, Ann Philos (1825) Bonap Saggio Anim Vert 12 (1832) Eichwald, Zool Sj)ec iii 194 Chelonea, Fleming, Phil Zool ii 268 (1822) Sterrichrotes (Chelonii), Ritzen, Nov Act Acad Nat Cur xiv 269 (1828) Les Cheloniens (Chelonii), Brongn Bull Soc Philom XXXV (1808) ed ii Oss Foss v Cuv R A ii ; ; shields united by their margins, and leaving only the head, ueck, tail free, which are covered with a scaly skin limbs and toothless, covered with a lips ; Latr Rept Blainv Bull Soc Philom (1816) Ann Mus xiv Wiegmann ^ Ruthe, Handb Zool 163 Testudinata, Fitz Syst Rept 2!) (1843) Testudines (Hedraeoglossae), Wagler, Syst 133 (1830) FoRNiCATi, Haworth, Phil Mag (1823) Chelonia, Gray, Cat Rept B.M Geof^ CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES Mr T Oppel, in his Ordnungen, Familien u Gattungen derRep(1811), divides the Tortoises (Teshidinati) thus: — tilien I Chelonii b onyx Chelonia Chelys Amyd^ II Testudo a Bell, in his Tri- 513, 1828), divides the Order thus iii Emys Regne Animal, u (1817), Testudo, Limi., thus Cuvier, LONiENS or : divides the Che- — {Chelys) Les Chelides ou Tortues a gueule Les Tortues moUes ( Testudo Kinixys (Homeana) Terrapene {c\a.usa) Einosternon (longieauSternotheerus (Leachianus) b Sterno solido datum) Hydraspis (galeata) 2 * Les Tortues d'eau Tortues de terre {Testudo) ** Les Tortues a boite Tortues de douce {Emys) mer {Chelonia) Sterno mobili a :— Testudinid^ I Pyxis (arachnoides) Emydid.s; II Fam A Digitata (greeca) M paper on the Characters of the Order, Testudinata {Zool Journ Families and Genera of the r^voiiyf) Chelys Chelonura (serpentina) (picta) \ III Trionychid.e Trionyx {Coxoms.'a- Emys ' (fimbriata) delicus) IV Sphargid* Sphargis (mercuCheloniad^ Chelonia {Mjdas) B Pinnata The same arrangement is foUovped in the Second Edition, rialis) and he has added the generic names wliich have been Brongiven by Fleming, Bell and others to his sections of ii V 8, gniart's genera Merrem, Tent Syst Amphib (1820), divides the Tes- TUDINATA thus rangement : — Sterrichrotes, I Halichelones Caretta ** Pedibus Triomjx digitalibus *** ** tamata Terrapene Emys Sphargis * Ma4 Testudo **** Chersina Dr John Fleming, in the Philosophy of Zoology (1822), where he named many of the sections indicated by Cuvier Animal Kingdom, arranges the Chelonea thus drocheloues II * Matamafa Cistuda A Lips corneous Cavity with a lid ** Emys Testudo Cavity without a lid B Lips fleshy Coriudo Chelonia Chelonura Chelys the Fam Nat du Regne Animal, 91 Chelonii thus (1825), divides the Order Cryptopodes l.Tortue rapene (Tortue a boite) ecailleuse queue) et Mydce Amydcs thus : solide Chelonee II : — * Gymnopodes i Ter- Carapace Saurochelyde (Tortue a longue ** Chelys Carapace molle : — Feet and head retractile into the carapace Carapace solid, covered with horny scales Cryptopodi Testudo II Emydid^ Fam I TESTUDiNiDiE * Beak Emys horny; sternum entire Emydina ** Beak Terrasternum sutured ; horny transversely Terraphene Sternotherus Kinosterphenina I *** Beak fleshy Chelidina Chelys Feet and head not or only partly retractile into the Carapace mostly soft Gymnopodi carapace Fam III Trionicid.e Trionyx IV Sphar- II 1 emys 16 10 Hydromedusa 11 Phrynops 14 13 Pelomedusa 18 Cinixys Sphargis V Cheloniad^ Chelonia Der- II Testudines tyloCherseus 20 19 Pyxis Cher- 12 15 Pelusias Staurotypus Clemys Cinosternon 17 Emys podes Chelonia Chelys Trionyx Plat8 Podocnemis 21 Testudo Dr Gray, in the Synopsis Reptilium, Part Chelonii thus Dr Gray, in the Annals of Philosophy for 1825, proposed the following arrangement Terrapene Asjjidonectes divides the GID.E Trionyx a Cherso- — Rhinemys sina Emyde B Chersy- 2 Clemmys Testudines oiacopodes I Trionyx non Chelonia Carettce b Sphargis C Podochelones Emys Dysmydte matochelys I Eretmochelones Phyllopodochelones Trionix Latreille, in Fam Dr John Wagler, in the Naturliches System der Amphi(1830), divides the Order Testudines (p 133) bien G M A Chelonii Chersine :— * a Chelone chelones (1828), proposes the following ar- xiv : * Pedibus pinniformibus in his Xoca Act Dr F A Ritzen, in his Natur Eith Amph., Acad Nat Cur Fam I Kinixys Emys : Testudinid.5; Pyxis Kinosternon (1831), II Testudo Emyd.e Chersina Cistuda IV Trionycid.« V Cheloniad.j; 13 15 Sphargis 14 Emyda Trionyx 16 Chelonia Wiegmann and Ruthe, Handbuch der Zoologie cUvide the Order Chelonii thus into families : Fam I Chelon/E Chersinje Testudo Chelydra V Chilot^ III Chelyd^ Chelydra 12 11 Hydraspis 10 Chelodina Sternotherus Chelys i — Sphargis Cinosternon Trionyx III Emyd^ — (1832), Chelonia IV Chelyd.« Emys II Chelys CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES M Charles Bonaparte, in his Si/sfema Generale d'Erpetologia, 80 (1832), divides the Testudinata thus : Order NilD^ Chelonii Fam Chelina II I tudinina 1 Order — Tortue a Cherseus tnopode Tortues b Pyxide Americaines e Chersine C Podocnemide 14 Tetro- 16 Plat- 15 Steniothere Pentonyx Cheludine 17 emyde 18 Les Po- III Chehjde TAMiTES ou Tortues fluviales 19 Gymnopode IV Les Thalassites ou Tortues 20 Cryptopode b C im21 Chelonee a C franches MARINES C caouanes c briquees 22 Sphargis M.Charles L Bonaparte, Testudinidi draspedini chini III d Tavola Analitica dei Che- in his Chelonii (1836), divides the lonii into three famiUes b Euiidini a Testudinini Chelini Chelonidi II a Trionicidi Chelonini a b Testudinina c Hy- Trioni- Spargidini Cherseus Chei-sina {Cylindraspis, Chersind) Kinixys (Ciiiofhorax, Cinixys) Pyxis Emys {Emys, Cyclemis) Cistudo {Clemys, Rhinoclemys) 10 Geomys 11 : Order I PODA Fam Emydina Terrapene Tetraonyx Kiiiosternmii {Sternotherus, 18 Etnydina 16 Pelfocephalus 17 Podocnemys 20 Pelusios 21 dura {Macquaria) \9 Pelomedusa 22 Chelo- Trionycid^ 23 Chelys 24 Ainyda {Aspido25 Trionyx nectes, Platypeltis, Pelodiscus, Amy da) G Chelonina 26 Chelonia {CheIII Chelonid^s II Ionia, Caretta) '27 Trionicina Thalassochelys Sphargidina 28 Sphargis Saura Squamata Amphisbenee phracta I saura ; — Ophidia Chelonia and he points out the analogies between those of Mammalia and Birds this II Fam I Chelydra CiTestudines Order II Stegano- Hydraspides II Emyd^ 1 Emys Cino- Hydraspis § Staurotypus Fam I Chelyd^ Chelys §3 Labiata Fam I Trionyches Trionyx Aspidonectes Order III Oiacopoda Fam I Chelonia Chelonia Thalassochelys Fam II Dermato- chelyd^ Derma tochelys C F I Mayer (System des Thierreichs, 189, 1849 Wiegmann's Arch 1850, 67) arranges the Tylopoda or ; : — The upper pairs), shield or carapace is formed by the enlarged and united together and (Emys, ribs (eight to the annular part of the dorsal vertebra by toothed sutures, so as to be imthe lower shield or plastron is formed of the moveable ; pieces which represent the chest bone (usually nine), and a circle of bones analogous to the sternal cartilages of qua- drupeds moveable The vertebrae of the neck and tail alone are The two long envelopes are immediately covered with skin or tremity scales, —Ann The bones and surround the muscles of the ex- Phil 1825 of the sternum are in general united together into a single plate, and are often affixed to the margin b}' a toothed suture, but in the CistudcB they are united to by a and cartilaginous band allowing of a sometimes, as in the divided into Cata- sutures, allowing the front order and Eressodaetyli Pterodactyli (Chelonia) — Emydo- Bsenodactyli (Testudo) Trionyx) it Dr J E Gray (Ami Nat Hist 1838, i 275) proposed a new arrangement of Reptiles with short characters, thus : I Testudo Mandibulata 14 Staurotyptts 15 HydraspiCinosternon) Hydraspis {Platemys, Rhinemys, Phrynops) dina (Chelodina,Hydromedusd) Chehna Fam Rostrata § Clemmys sternon — Tylopoda Chersina nixys 13 Chelydra 12 Platysternon 13 Dr Fitzinger (Systema Reptilium, p 29, 1843) divides Testudinata thus the Homopiis Chelodina 12 : Testudo {Testudo, Psammobates, Geochelone, Chelonoidis) III Kinixys Pyxis 10 Emys Cistuda (Rirer Tortoises) * Sternotherus Kinosfernon :^ Specchio dei Geiieri e Sotfogeneri Chelys Platysternon Testudo Tortoises) Honopus Chelonians thus The following is the I Testudinidi Chelydra Hydraspis IV Trionycid.* 14 Trionyx lo Emyda V Chelonid.e 16 Chelonia 17 Sphargis Europeennes 10 Staurotype Eviysaure Plutystertie \\ Cinosterne B Pleuroderes \2 Peltocephale 13 I Chersina nyx Ord II Che(Crocodiles) Fain I Chelidrid^e (Crocodile TestudinidjE (Land 11 (1839), Cyclopcedia — Cistude a Indiennes d Ho- Les Elodites II Emi/de Africaines : Emydosaures (Tortoises) Emyd.e A Cryptoderes b Baillantes a Clausiles c Cinixys ou Tortues paludines b 1835) divide ii Les Chersites ou Toktues terrestres I I LONiDES Tortoises) Messrs Dume'ril and Bibron {Brp G6n Tortoises or Cheloniens thus: Cabinet p 343, arranges these animals thus II the Lardner's Swainson, in Tes- Chelo- III Chelonina Sphiirgidina Testudinid^ I Trionicid^e — Box Tortoise, slight motion the sternum ; is two or three parts by one or two cross move on the middle or hinder lobe, or both, to or fixed part In the genus Che- the lydra, and the families Trionyeidte and Cheloniadce, sternal bones form a ring, leaving a cartilaginous space in the centre B CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES Synopsis of the Families ii 419, 513 (1828) Swainson, Lard Cyclop 344 (1839) Testudinina, Bonap Tav Analit (1836) Testudinidse, Bell, Zool Journ A Digitate a TESTtTDrNID^ EMYDlD.a; Back with horny scales Feet club-shaped ; claws 5-4 or 4-4, blunt Caudal shields united into one, incurved Neck retractile Feet palmated ; claws 5—4 or 4-4, acute Caudal Neck retractile Pelvis attached to the shields separate Sternal shields 11 or 12 vertebra; only Testudinoides, Fit:inger, Neue Class (1826) Test Tvlopoda, Wagler, Syst Amph 138 (1830) Fiiz Syst Rept 29 (1843) Testudines, Fitz Syst Rept 29 (1843) Chersine, Merrem, Tent 29 Chersinse, Wiegm ^- Ruthe, Handb Zool 164 Testudo (Tortues de terre), Brongn Cuv R.A ii CHELYDID^ Feet palmated ; claws 5-4 or 5-5, acute Caudal shields separate Neck contractile Pelvis attached Sternal shields 13 to the vertebrae and sternum b TRIONYCIDffi Back with soft skin Feet palmated ; claws 3-3, acute, covered with a soft skin having a fle.xible Bones ed ; ii Chersites ou Tortues terrestres Bum ^ Bib Erp Gen ii Cat Mus Par (1835) Testudines terrestres, Plin Testudinidse Testudinina (part.), Bonap Saggio Anim Fert 12 Chersochelones (Dysmydse), (part.), Ritzen, Nov Act Nat ; Cur xiv 270 (1828) margin B Pinnate CHELONIAD.S A Digitata Tortue de terre, Synopsis of the Genera Feet fin-shaped, compressed Feet digitate Testudo Homopus iii Thorax and sternum sohd Toes 4-4 ; sternal plates in- 12 ; inguinal plates moderate Banhenton, Eno/ Meth 689 Amydse, Oppel, Rept 4, 6, (1811) Laud and Freshwater Tortoises, Shaw, Zoo!, Testudo digitata, Merreiii, Tent 20 Thorax and sternum solid: sternal plates 12; Toes 5—4 guinal plate moderate Thorax and sternum soUd Chersina : sternal 11 plates Toes 5-4 i Testudines stegauopodes et T tylopodes, Wagler, Syst 138 (1830) Podochelones, Ritzen, Nov Act Nat Cur xiv 270 (1828) Thorax, hinder Kinlxys guinal plates very large Thorax Pyxis solid ])art mobile ; sternal plates 12; in- Toes 5-4 Sternum, fi-ont lobe moveable : sternal plates 12 a Back covered with hard horny scales Leptonota Toes digitate, 4- or a-claioed Tylopoda TESTVDO, Linn Thorax convex, subglobose, solid Sternum soUd, covered with twelve sternal shields, the gular pair separate pectoral Testudo, Merrem, Tent 21 Amydse /3, Oppel, Rept (1811) * ; narrow shields Feet clavate Testudines terrestres, Plin Testudo (Tortues de terre), Brongn., Cuvier Test Tylopoda, Wagler ; inguinal shields moderate Head scaly, above, and one vertical shield be- with two frontal sliields tween the eyes Claws 5-4, blunt Testudo (graeca), Gray, Ann P^?7.x 210(1825); Syn.Rept Cat Rept B M (1831) Fleming, Phil Zool ii 270 (1822) Bum I- Bib Erp Gen ii 55 (1835); Cat Meth ; Fam Head I TESTUDINIDiE (Land ovate, shielded ; jaws naked retractile into the cavity ; Tortoises) uostril apical of the shell Neck Feet short, club- Shell very solid, thick, shaped, armed with blunt claws the ribs united to the ovate, together margin, in the adult state covered with homy concentrically grooved shields, marked with a permanent areola ; marginal plates 24 to 26, the caudal pair always united together into one broad geneSternum broad and solid, closed in rally incurved plate the centre of the adult, and firmly attached to the thorax a bony suture, covered by the end of the pectoral and by abdominal plates Tail short and thick Testudinidae, Gray, Ann Phil x 211 (1825) (1831) Rept Chersini, Merrem, Tent Chelonoides (Boiei), Fitz Syst Rept 29 Geochelone (stellata), Fitz Syst Rept 29 Psammobates (georaetrica), Fitz Syst Rej) 29 T (Testudo) grieca, Wagler, Syst 138 (1830) Fitz Syst Rept 29 Megalochelys (gigantea), Fitz Syst Rept 29 Chersina (Cyliudraspis) Vosmaeri, Fitz Syst Rej)t 29 Cherseus (marginatus), Wagler, Syst 138 (1830) Fitz Syst Rept 29 Testudo Bum ^ Bib Erp Gen ii 57 Linn Bum S,- Bib Erp Gen ii 30 Cat Meth R Bell, Zool Journ ii 514 Testudo, Testudo, a sp., ; Wagler, Syst 138 (1830) ; Syn.Rept They are slow in their motions, eating vegetables and CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES roots woods or living in ; warm and temperate in fields lu colder climates they burrow, and parts of the world the winter sleep during In the genus Testudo the sternum some specimens of T rmpns is quite solid, inauritiana, T marginata, but in and Ho- areolatus, the hinder lobe has been observed to be moveable On Wagler has separated the this account Dr when and will probably, have been more obser\'ed, be found of all when common these animals to the females the species adult plate none last vertebral shield almost always as ^vide as the caudal and two hinder marginal plates Shell oblong, depressed nuchal shield broad nicked behind ; ; shields pale brown, grooved ; sternum produced pectoral shields short covered with scales ; tail ; in ; front, deeply head and cheeks very short T denticulata, Schoepf t 28 T caibonaria, Spix, t 16 Bell, Test Dumeril R tessellata, ; forests of h, i,j, k, c 2, t 13; Neuw Obs Zool Brazils; (stuffed) Cayenne; Guadaloupe ; Chili South America South America Presented by the South America I, m, n, o Zool ii 181 Shell only (adult and young) South America p, iv Georgia and q, r South America Skeletons (half-grown) This species differs in appearance according to the state of the surface of the shell When perfect the surface is black, with small yellow impressed areolas to the plates surrounded with deep concentric grooves but the surface is ; Museum 8|- inches : — often N America Richard Harlan, M.D Adult, brown f ; Specimens in British b 12 18 Osteology Wiedemann, Arch Florida Adult, brown t t f, g Half-grown and young ; a t Cat Mith 99; ii Half-grown, with only eleven marginal scales (stuffed) West Indies Presented by John Gould, Esq T Carolina, Litin Syst Nat Leconte, Ann Lye N H iii 97 T tabulata, Schoepff 56 t 13? T tabulata, var., Schlegel, F Japon 70 T Schweiggeri, Gray, Syn 10 var., in Griffith, A K Bum Sr Bib Erp Gen ii 108 Cat M R ,pine Icones Amphib ; Zoological Society I ; Erp Gin Adult (stuffed) Adult d Bonap Tesfud Europ et Amer 152 T depressa, Lesueur, Cuv R A ii 10 Hab North America 7, gigantea, Schweigger ? foveolata, Licht Berl Acad 251 (1820) not Merrem Sphargis mercurialis, Schinz, t f The Brazilian Tortoise, Gray, I c e f Cat ; f Schneider, Schoepff Her in Grseca, t 45, 48 erosa, Schweigger a, b, c 256 Gray, Syn 1 Bum f Bib Erp Gin ii 105 Cat Meth Schweigger, Arch Kcenigsb i 317 Guerin, Icon f t t Cagado, Spix, Braz sculpta, Spix, Braz T T T T T T 1-8 f 1, t et Bibroii, Hab America; i ! Gopher, Barf ram' s Tracels, i 55 La Tortue gopher, Bosc, N Diet H N xi 269, ?T tessellata, Merrem, Tent 31 Testudo Gopher, Gray, Cat Rept B M T Pol3'phemus, HoUbrook, Amer Rept i t Say, Jonrn A N S Phil iv 204, 207 Baud Rept t 9, 13 American Mongofa f Neuw Abbild ; Bum ^ Bib Erp Gin ii 89 T Hercules, Spix, Bra::, t 14 Gray, Syn T Boiei, Wagler, Amphib t f Abbild or t Mi-th R The Gopher Testudo Gopher 1, t Syn TJ^agler, T M ; ; Gophers Gophers, Gray, Cat Rept B animal red or yellow, spotted Bell, Test t A The shields black, grooved, areola small, nuchal ; Testudo tabulata Wall Chelon 70 t 22 Baud Rept i 242 Cat Rept B.M Gray, Syn 10 But it former into a genus, under the name of Cherseus a of the females when are about be they may only peculiarity to deposit their eggs, The Brazilian Tortoise Testudo tabulata Shell subquadrate, oblong, depressed, sides contracted 10| Laches Edward Doubleday, Esq ; Adult, blackish N America N.America ; Mexico Presented by Presented by Mr Warwick's Collection d Adult, blackish lection North America M Parzudaki's Col- more or destroyed, less worn, when the concentric furrows are the surface becomes areolas are obliterated a distinct species smooth, In this state The hinder it and the small has been considered vertebral plate is large, as broad as the caudal, the hinder marginal and the half of In one specimen, which has only eleven marginal plates on each side (the two liinder caubeing imited ?), the hmder vertebral is as wide as the the second hinder marginal plate dal and half the large hinder marginal plates CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES B The last vertebral generally only as loide as the caudal and half of each of the hinder marginal shields Confined to the Old World B.M Testudo B, Gh-ay, Cat Rept wanting ; last three animal black last ; only) 32 inches ; Nuchal plate not a ; state Nuchal inches ; Young only) (shell plate distinct Nuchal plate 14 inches ; di- Nuchal plate none; (shell only); 5^ inches nucleus of marginal and gular plates pale h Young nuchal plates variable or vertebral often as broad as the b inches Very young (only upper part of shell) nuchal plate Presented by J E Gray, Esq Testudo Indica, Gmelin, S N Cat Rej)t Gray, Syn ; ; ; marginal 40 (shell stinct pectoral shields short ; c good Adult The Indian Tortoise Testudo Indica Black Adult e Indian a a n Skeleton; adult o Skeleton B.M Cat Zool Soc ; p Skeleton Skull q Chersina retusa, Merrem, Tetit T Elephantopus, Harlan, J Acad Phil iii 284 t T nigra, Qi'oy, Voy Uran t 40 Cat Mith R Duin ^ Bib Erp Ghi ii 115 T Californica, Quoy, Bnll Sci T Dussuniieri, Schleyel, Mvs Leyd i Pet Gaz t 76 f A T gigantea, Schioeiy Arch Kcenigsb i 327 Dum ^- Bib Erp Gen ii 120; Cat Meth R Schoepf Hist Testudinum, t 22 r Presented by Her Majesty Mr India half-grown Bartlett's Collec- ; half-grown Dr Mantell's Collection India Monstrosity Dorsal shields and the bones beneath them India Mus Zoological very convex, concave within Society ; Var Elongate, compressed on the sides, and turned up at the edge Testudo Vosmaeri, Fitz s Adult Presented by the Earl of India? (stuffed) Derby 13 t India? tion fig Shaw, Zool t Wieymann, Bon Trans, ; No T Vosmaeri, Fitz Cat 44 Dum ^ Bib Erp Gen ii 140 ; Cat Mith R T nigrita, Bum ^- Bib Erp Gin ii 81 Cat Meth T Daudinii, Bum S,- Bib Erp Gin ii 125 R T Elephantina, Dum ^- Bib Erp G4n ii 110; Cat ; Testudo Indica —The skull in the and the one figured by Cuvier, convex forehead t 1 Museum f Collection, 7-20, have a veiy Meth R.b T Perraultii,I>Mm.^.Bii E'rp.G^n.ii.l26; Cat.Mith.R.o La ronde, Lacep Quad Ovip i 126 t T orbicularis, Bechst in Lacep i 154 T rotunda, Latr Rept i 107 R T Peltastes, Dum S/- Bib Erp Gen.u 138; Cat MM Syst Rept 29 Fitz Chersina (Cylindraspis) Vosmaeri, (1843) Testudo (Megalochelys) gigantea, Fitz Syst Rept 29 Hab Isle of France Seychelles Isle Angouan India ; ; California ; ff ; (stuifed) (stuffed) Hab Galapagos ; 23 inches inches ; ; feet bad ; Nuchal plate none Nuchal inches sions Testudo Indica plate rounded Very young plate none (stuffed) ; 4i inches Whitish ; nuchal ; ; Osteology Cuvier, Oss Foss v 176 t rapidly shelving ^ 153 ? shell only, very large E Cross, Esq and broad — Skull high, convex to the nose-cavity, forehead convex, ; broad between the eyes ; tem- edge of the jawbetween the nose-cavity and the mouth narrow and rounded ples flat behind ; cheeks small, four-sided ; Nose-cavity oblong, nearly twice as high as broad, conPalate broad, oblong, very tracted on each side above 17, 20, sides in front deeply concave, and with concave converging under the condyle ; beneath concave bone deeply Sphenoid Presented by lower jaws narrowed and rounded in front, not more than half as hieh as behind 11 f skull Upper flat, skull The folis only known by the of a skull and measurements the lowing are descriptions the of same dimenof T Indica and T planiceps nearly nucleus of plates dark inches Nuchal ])late distinct d Very young (stuffed) Last vertebral narrower than the last three marginal Presented by General J Hardwicke Bengal h depressed, flat; forehead Mag N.H 1855, none i much Testudo planiceps Gray, Proc Zool Soc 1853; Ann Half-grown (stuffed) Young Young Skull towards the nose-cavity This species ;' / Testudo planiceps The Flat-headed Tortoise Tab XXXIV Galapagos m Adult (stulfed) Adult animal and shell / ; la TabXMV, r^^'"^^- TESTUDO INDICA,'>'n.-ing TE5TUDO TABIILATA EMYt RjtaS-West Inj- Tab XXXVI ':''^^f~i, BWll™l.u« I, Turl,»W I* LBATAGUR DHOInGOKA EMYS DF.CUSSATA 1,,, TabJDOLVII BWlk»liins Rail iLWnst I it PODONEMIS EXPANvSA EMYS SUBTRLJ'JGA Imp I 'Vf^, < , r-^.>*^ w pi w % ^'X W H I w o o Pi ii I ^ 'U ( ^ >jf \ V \ \ rabfflXIX Ford MACRO CHELYS TEMMINCKU &WcsL inip Tab XL \ •s 1"^ •\ 'P' vii^' ' 't WjL.wt-jns Lilt Txr-aS'.r-.l IMACROCHELYS TEMMINCKH CHELYDRA SERPENTINA rii;p TabXLL A ;^ pwcSWcs'l CHITRA INDICA W Td.bXLlI ;;angkticl;s trionyx ... lonii into three famiUes b Euiidini a Testudinini Chelini Chelonidi II a Trionicidi Chelonini a b Testudinina c Hy- Trioni- Spargidini Cherseus Chei-sina {Cylindraspis, Chersind) Kinixys (Ciiiofhorax,... Tortoises or Cheloniens thus: Cabinet p 343, arranges these animals thus II the Lardner's Swainson, in Tes- Chelo- III Chelonina Sphiirgidina Testudinid^ I Trionicid^e — Box Tortoise, slight motion... 1, ISoii 4i CATALOGUE OF SHIELD REPTILES, Sect II SHIELDED REPTILES (CATA- they are surrounded by a series of bones forming the edge of the shields the lower shield or sternum is formed of four
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