Studies in Avian Biology 36

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Status of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) STATUS OF THE RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFA) IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE LAWRENCE J NILES, HUMPHREY P SITTERS, AMANDA D DEY, PHILIP W ATKINSON, ALLAN J BAKER, KAREN A BENNETT, ROBERTO CARMONA, KATHLEEN E CLARK, NIGEL A CLARK, CARMEN ESPOZ, PATRICIA M GONZÁLEZ, BRIAN A HARRINGTON, DANIEL E HERNÁNDEZ, KEVIN S KALASZ, RICHARD G LATHROP, RICARDO N MATUS, CLIVE D T MINTON, R I GUY MORRISON, MARK K PECK, WILLIAM PITTS, ROBERT A ROBINSON, AND INÊS L SERRANO Niles et al Studies in Avian Biology No 36 Studies in Avian Biology No 36 A Publication of the Cooper Ornithological Society STATUS OF THE RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFA) IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE Lawrence J Niles, Humphrey P Sitters, Amanda D Dey, Philip W Atkinson, Allan J Baker, Karen A Bennett, Roberto Carmona, Kathleen E Clark, Nigel A Clark, Carmen Espoz, Patricia M González, Brian A Harrington, Daniel E Hernández, Kevin S Kalasz, Richard G Lathrop, Ricardo N Matus, Clive D T Minton, R I Guy Morrison, Mark K Peck, William Pitts, Robert A Robinson, and Inês L Serrano Studies in Avian Biology No 36 A PUBLICATION OF THE COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL SOCIETY Front cover photograph of Red Knots by Irene Hernandez Rear cover photograph of Red Knot by Lawrence J Niles STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY Edited by Carl D Marti 1310 East Jefferson Street Boise, ID 83712 Spanish translation by Carmen Espoz Studies in Avian Biology is a series of works too long for The Condor, published at irregular intervals by the Cooper Ornithological Society Manuscripts for consideration should be submitted to the editor Style and format should follow those of previous issues Price $20.00 To order, add $2.75 for postage in the US, $9.75 for Canada, and $11.75 for everywhere else Make checks payable to the Cooper Ornithological Society (in U.S funds), or pay by MasterCard or Visa Send orders to Cooper Ornithological Society, c/o John Rotenberry, Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 USA Credit card orders may be sent via email to: john.rotenberry@ucr.edu Permission to Copy The Cooper Ornithological Society hereby grants permission to copy chapters (in whole or in part) appearing in Studies in Avian Biology for personal use, or educational use within one’s home institution, without payment, provided that the copied material bears the statement “©2008 The Cooper Ornithological Society” and the full citation, including names of all authors Authors may post copies of their chapters on their personal or institutional website, except that whole issues of Studies in Avian Biology may not be posted on websites Any use not specifically granted here, and any use of Studies in Avian Biology articles or portions thereof for advertising, republication, or commercial uses, requires prior consent from the editor ISBN: 978-0-943610-83-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2008929213 Printed at Cadmus Professional Communications, Ephrata, Pennsylvania 17522 Issued: 15 June 2008 Copyright © by the Cooper Ornithological Society 2008 ii CONTENTS AUTHOR ADDRESSES xvii ABSTRACT TAXONOMY GENETIC EVIDENCE FOR KNOT SUBSPECIES ECOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA EVIDENCE FOR DISCRETE WINTERING POPULATIONS PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION 11 FIRST BASIC PLUMAGE 11 DEFINITIVE ALTERNATE PLUMAGE 13 ALTERNATE PLUMAGE 13 FEMALES 13 MALES—CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFA 13 MALES—CALIDRIS CANUTUS CANUTUS 13 MALES—CALIDRIS CANUTUS ROGERSI 13 MALES—CALIDRIS CANUTUS ISLANDICA 14 MALES—CALIDRIS CANUTUS ROSELAARI 14 FIRST ALTERNATE PLUMAGE 14 JUVENILE PLUMAGE 14 HATCHLINGS 14 DISTRIBUTION IN TIME AND SPACE 14 THE ANNUAL CYCLE 14 BREEDING RANGE 15 WINTER (NON-BREEDING) RANGE 17 MIGRATORY RANGE AND MAJOR STOPOVER AREAS 19 BIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 25 REPRODUCTION 25 Mating displays 26 Sexual behavior 26 Nest sites 27 iii Number of broods 27 Clutch size 27 Incubation period 27 Nestling period 27 Nesting success 28 MORTALITY 28 LONGEVITY 28 SITE FIDELITY 28 MIGRATION 28 FEEDING HABITS 29 HABITAT 30 PREFERRED MICROHABITATS 30 BREEDING HABITAT 30 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—CANADA 30 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—NORTHEASTERN U.S 30 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—DELAWARE BAY, U.S 30 Habitats important for Red Knots in Delaware Bay 33 Red Knot feeding ecology in Delaware Bay 36 Mapping horseshoe crab spawning habitat suitability 39 Mapping critical Red Knot habitat 41 Evidence of decline in both the population of horseshoe crabs and the availability of their eggs for Red Knots 44 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES 47 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—PANAMA 48 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—MARANHÃO, BRAZIL 48 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—LAGOA DO PEIXE, BRAZIL 48 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—PAMPAS REGION, ARGENTINA 49 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—PATAGONIAN SHORELINE, ARGENTINA 50 MIGRATION AND STOPOVER HABITAT—URUGUAY 50 WINTER HABITAT—UNITED STATES 50 iv WINTER HABITAT—CHILE 50 WINTER HABITAT—ARGENTINA 52 WINTER HABITAT—BRAZIL 52 WINTER HABITAT—PANAMA 52 POPULATION SIZE AND TRENDS 52 RED KNOT POPULATIONS OF THE AMERICAS 53 WINTERING POPULATION TRENDS IN CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFA 56 PASSAGE POPULATION TRENDS 58 BREEDING AREA POPULATION TRENDS 62 SUMMARY OF POPULATION TRENDS 63 Population size and trends of Calidris canutus roselaari 64 GEOGRAPHIC AREA SUMMARIES 65 Chile 65 Argentina 65 Brazil 70 Panama 73 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 2—Texas 73 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 4—Florida 74 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 4—Georgia 75 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 4—South Carolina 77 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 4—North Carolina 79 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—Virginia 82 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—Maryland 85 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—New Jersey and Delaware 85 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—New York 89 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—Connecticut 89 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—Rhode Island 89 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—Massachusetts 90 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—New Hampshire 91 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5—Maine 91 v Canada 93 THREATS 95 THREATS TO HABITATS IN DELAWARE BAY DURING SPRING MIGRATION 95 THREATS TO HABITAT IN MASSACHUSETTS 97 THREATS TO HABITAT IN NORTH CAROLINA 97 THREATS TO HABITAT IN SOUTH CAROLINA 97 THREATS TO HABITAT IN FLORIDA 97 THREATS TO HABITAT IN BRAZIL 97 THREATS TO HABITAT AT MIGRATION STOPOVER SITES ALONG THE ATLANTIC COAST OF PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA 98 THREAT OF OIL POLLUTION AND POSSIBILITY OF OTHER UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRINCIPAL C C RUFA NON-BREEDING SITE AT BAHÍA LOMAS, CHILE 98 OIL POLLUTION THREAT AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE AT THE ONLY OTHER MAJOR NON-BREEDING SITE AT RÍO GRANDE, ARGENTINA 98 THREATS TO RED KNOT HABITAT IN CANADA 99 OVER UTILIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL, RECREATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, OR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES 99 HAVE SCIENTIFIC STUDIES CONTRIBUTED TO THE RED KNOT’S DECLINE? 99 DO SCIENTIFIC STUDIES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT DISTURBANCE TO RED KNOTS 100 STEPS TO MINIMIZE DISTURBANCE BY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 100 DISEASE OR PREDATION 100 THE INADEQUACY OF EXISTING REGULATORY MECHANISMS 102 INADEQUACIES OF THE FEDERAL AND REGIONAL REGULATORY SYSTEM 102 INADEQUACIES OF REGULATORY SYSTEMS IN INDIVIDUAL STATES 104 CURTAILMENT OF HABITAT USE FROM DISTURBANCE BY PEOPLE AND DOGS 105 COMPETITION FROM GULLS 107 RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH SMALL POPULATION SIZE 108 WEATHER-RELATED THREATS TO RED KNOTS 108 SUMMARY OF LAND OWNERSHIP AND EXISTING HABITAT PROTECTION FOR POPULATIONS 108 vi PAST AND CURRENT CONSERVATION AND HABITAT MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN TO BENEFIT THE SPECIES 108 THE RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS 108 WESTERN HEMISPHERE SHOREBIRD RESERVE NETWORK (WHSRN) 108 IMPORTANT BIRD AREAS PROGRAM 109 CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF MIGRATORY SPECIES OF WILD ANIMALS 1979 109 NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES 109 THE INTERNATIONAL SHOREBIRD SURVEY AND PROGRAM FOR REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SHOREBIRD MONITORING 109 DELAWARE BAY—INCREASED AVAILABILITY OF HORSESHOE CRAB EGGS 110 DELAWARE BAY—PROTECTION OF ROOSTING SITES 110 DELAWARE BAY—REDUCE DISTURBANCE BY MINIMIZING RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 111 DELAWARE BAY—MONITOR NUMBERS OF MIGRATORY SHOREBIRDS ON THE DELAWARE BAY STOPOVER 111 DELAWARE BAY—PAST AND CURRENT MANAGEMENT ACTIONS FOR SHOREBIRD POPULATIONS 112 DELAWARE BAY—PAST AND CURRENT MANAGEMENT ACTIONS FOR THE HORSESHOE CRAB POPULATIONS 113 DELAWARE BAY—MANAGEMENT PLANS 114 DELAWARE BAY—HABITAT PROTECTION 114 DELAWARE BAY—BAIT BAGS 114 NON-BREEDING AND STOPOVER AREA MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION 114 South America 114 United States—Florida 117 United States—Georgia 117 United States—South Carolina 117 STOPOVER HABITAT MANAGEMENT 117 United States—North Carolina 117 United States—Virginia 117 United States—Maryland 118 vii United States—New Jersey 118 United States—Delaware 119 United States—New York 120 United States—Connecticut 120 United States—Rhode Island 120 United States—Massachusetts 120 United States—New Hampshire 121 United States—Maine 121 Panama 121 Canada 121 BREEDING HABITAT MANAGEMENT 121 OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES 121 MONITORING EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES 122 CONSERVATION GOALS AND THE SURVEYS, MONITORING, RESEARCH, AND MANAGEMENT NEEDED TO SUPPORT THEM 123 SURVEY NEEDS 124 South America—overall 124 South America—Argentina 124 South America—Chile 124 South America—Brazil 125 Caribbean countries and northern South America 125 Mexico 125 United States—Delaware Bay 125 United States—Virginia 125 United States—North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida 125 United States—Alaska 125 United States—California 125 United States—Washington 125 MONITORING NEEDS 126 Overall 126 viii South America—Argentina 126 South America—Chile 126 South America—Brazil 126 United States—Delaware Bay 127 United States—Virginia 127 United States—North Carolina and South Carolina 127 United States—Florida and Georgia 127 United States—other Sites on the United States East Coast 127 Arctic—Canada and Alaska 127 RESEARCH NEEDS 128 Broad-scale research topics 128 Country-specific research needs—Argentina 129 Country-specific research needs—Chile 130 Country-specific research needs—Brazil 130 Country-specific research needs—Mexico 130 Country-specific research needs—United States 130 MANAGEMENT NEEDS 131 UPDATE TO THE STATUS OF THE RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS) IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE, FEBRUARY 2008 131 TAXONOMIC STATUS 132 POPULATION STATUS OF CALIDRIS CANUTUS ROSELAARI 132 Summary 133 POPULATION STATUS OF CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFA 133 Tierra del Fuego population 133 Maranhão population 134 Florida population 134 Are the counts accurate? 134 Could the birds have moved elsewhere? 134 MASS GAIN IN DELAWARE BAY 135 HORSESHOE CRABS AND THEIR EGGS IN DELAWARE BAY 135 ix STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al MAP 26 Critical habitat in southern Maine and New Hampshire 171 172 MAP 27 Critical habitat in Canada STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY NO 36 STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al APPENDIX PEAK RED KNOTS DURING SPRING AND FALL ISS = INTERNATIONAL SHOREBIRD SURVEY COUNTS OF PERIODS NOT INCLUDED Fall Migration (1 Jul–31 Oct) Peak Location Count Phosphate Mines Alligator Point 132 Anclote Key Bald Point 10 Year 1992 Source ISS 1988 1975 1977 1979 1981 1993 1994 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS 15 95 1,375 1,300 1,530 1,250 1,250 915 1,348 Cape San Blas Capri Pass Carl Ross Key Carrabelle 160 Beach (CB) 98 102 50 CB Lighthouse 64 CB W picnic 45 Casey Key 72 Beach 41 460 31 13 CC Causeway Clear Springs Crooked Island Ding Darling 28 NWR Dunedin East of Bay North Englewood FSU Marine Lab Ft Desoto 800 1975 1976 1977 1980 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1981 1988 1988 1992 1993 1994 1995 1995 1993 1977 1978 1979 1981 1983 1977 1999 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS 330 2004 500 2003 Bayway and Ft Desoto Bell Glade Farm Caladesi Island Cape Romano Ft George Inlet - - - - 1999 B A.Harrington, (unpubl data) B A Harrington, (unpubl data) B A Harrington, (unpubl data) 173 MIGRATION AT VARIOUS SITES IN FLORIDA INTERSTITIAL Spring Migration (1 Apr–10 Jun) Peak Location Count Phosphate Mines Alligator Point Anclote Key Bald Point 15 11 49 87 15 Bayway and Ft Desoto Bell Glade Farm Caladesi Island Cape Romano 25 55 1,050 414 300 690 1,205 420 1,000 Cape San Blas 16 Year - Source - 1981 1982 1983 1993 1993 1994 1995 - ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS - - - 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1999 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS Capri Pass Carl Ross Key Carrabelle Beach 109 90 1993 1994 1995 ISS ISS ISS Casey Key Beach 21 168 34 14 1978 1980 1981 1982 1983 1981 2003 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS CC Causeway Clear Springs Crooked Island Ding Darling NWR Dunedin East of Bay North Englewood FSU Marine Lab Ft Desoto - - - 27 - 1993 1994 - ISS ISS - Ft George Inlet 1,500 2004 B A Harrington, (unpubl data) 174 NO 36 STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY APPENDIX CONTINUED Fall Migration (1 Jul–31 Oct) Location Ft Myers Ft Myers North Ft Pierce Inlet Georgestone State Park Hickory Mound Impound Honeymoon Island (Honeymoon Isl South Beach Hooker’s Point Hugenot State Park, Ward’s Bank Peak Count 351 Year 1999 400 2003 800 1999 2 20 1978 1979 1982 1979 - - 500 40 800 500 1,500 700 400 400 550 1,100 1,750 360 162 1,140 1986 1987 1989 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS 12 200 10 400 2,069 - 1992 1979 1980 1977 1978 1979 1980 - ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS - Island N Bunces Pass Kennedy Space Center Lake Ingraham Lake Woodruff NWR Lanark Reef Lido Beach Little Estero Longboat 1,700 Key 700 1,300 750 250 400 Marco Island, Tigertail Beach Marco River - Source B A Harrington, (unpubl data) B A Harrington, (unpubl data) B A Harrington, (unpubl data) ISS ISS ISS ISS 300 80 - - - - 1977 1979 1981 1982 1983 1999 1974 1975 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS B A Harrington, (unpubl data) ISS ISS Spring Migration (1 Apr–10 Jun) Location F.t Myers Beach Peak Count - Year - Source - Ft Pierce Inlet - - - Georgestone State Park Hickory Mound Impound Honeymoon Island - - - - - - 200 500 250 450 500 450 20 200 350 10 180 240 146 250 1987 1988 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS Hooker’s Point 300 1980 ISS Hugenot State Park, Ward’s Bank 35 1980 ISS Island N Bunces Pass Kennedy Space Center Lake Ingraham Lake Woodruff NWR Lanark Reef Lido Beach Little Estero Longboat Key Marco Island, Tigertail Beach Marco River - - - - - - 2003 ISS 39 60 1981 1982 1983 ISS ISS ISS 258 138 1981 1982 ISS ISS STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al 175 APPENDIX CONTINUED Fall Migration (1 Jul–31 Oct) Peak Location Count Marco River 70 (continued) 120 410 300 216 298 279 247 291 1,211 598 301 282 Mayport Naval Stn., Jetties Beach Mckay Bay, Tampa Merritt Island NWR (10D) N Sarasota Bay Naples 10 Year 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 2003 Source ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS - - - - 1978 ISS 1981 ISS Nassau Sound 15 2004 Nevarre Beach, Pensacola New Smyrna Beach Palm Island Resort Palm Key Passage Key Phipps Preserve Port Orange Spoil Islands Sanibel Island 1977 B A Harrington, (unpubl data) ISS 1975 ISS - - - - - - - - - Sarasota Shell Island Inlet, W Snake Bight S.t Marks NWR St Petersburg St Vincent NWR 292 198 150 1975 1979 2001 ISS ISS B A Harrington, (unpubl data) 550 1981 Harrington and Leddy (1982) - - - 1988 ISS 1993 ISS 800 1981 450 1999 75 1988 Harrington and Leddy 1982 B A Harrington, (unpubl data) ISS Spring Migration (1 Apr–10 Jun) Location Marco River (continued) Mayport Naval Stn., Jetties Beach Mckay Bay, Tampa Merritt Island NWR (10D) N Sarasota Bay Naples Nassau Sound Nevarre Beach, Pensacola New Smyrna Beach Palm Island Resort Palm Key Passage Key Phipps Preserve Port Orange Spoil Islands Sanibel Island Ramada to Lighthouse Peak Count 500 600 474 450 360 353 172 80 Year 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1993 Source ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS - - - - - - 33 - 1981 1982 - ISS ISS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 10 200 109 200 - 1986 1988 1989 1990 1992 - ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS - Shell Island Inlet, W Snake Bight St Marks NWR 1993 ISS - - - - - - St Petersburg - - - Sarasota St Vincent NWR 22 120 1988 2000 2001 ISS ISS ISS 176 NO 36 STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY APPENDIX CONTINUED Fall Migration (1 Jul–31 Oct) Location St George Island Three Rooker Bar Turkey Point Venice West Lake Virginia Key mudflats sewage sewage sewage Yent Bayou Peak Count 25 11 Year 1978 1979 1982 Source ISS ISS ISS 1977 1978 ISS ISS 26 17 12 1984 1985 1986 1984 1985 1986 1994 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Spring Migration (1 Apr–10 Jun) Peak Count Year 1981 1983 Source ISS ISS - 1993 - ISS - West Lake Virginia Key Mudflats 10 1985 ISS Yent Bayou 22 1994 Sprandel et al (1997) Location St George Island Three Rooker Bar Turkey Point Venice STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al 177 APPENDIX PEAK COUNTS OF RED KNOTS DURING WINTER AT VARIOUS SITES IN FLORIDA INTERSTITIAL PERIODS NOT INCLUDED ISS = INTERNATIONAL SHOREBIRD SURVEY Winter (1 Nov –28 Feb) Location Phosphate Mines Alligator Point North Anclote Key South Anclote Key Bald Point Bayway and Ft Desoto Bell Glade Farm North Caladesi Island Dunedin Pass Cape Romano Morgan Beach Cape San Blas Capri Pass Carl Ross Key Carrabelle Beach Casey Key Beach CC Causeway Clear Springs Phosphate Mine Crooked Island Ding Darling NWR Dunedin East of Bay North Englewood FSU Marine Lab Ft Desoto Ft Desoto East and North Peak count 62 42 12 53 20 16 300 165 600 902 1,025 1,625 1,800 2,000 1,410 1,170 650 200 1,550 37 120 30 286 203 114 69 105 24 300 195 6,500 402 365 200 844 20 39 Year 1990 1988 1989 1993 1994 1994 1977 1994 1994 1994 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1987 1988 1989 2003 1993 1988 1993 1993 1994 1993 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1983 1984 1977 1994 Source ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS B A Harrington (unpubl data) ISS ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) 19 1,000 30 35 31 3,000 1,125 400 125 1994 1993 1990 1994 2000 2003 2001 1993 1995 1982 1978 2003 2004 1994 ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS B A Harrington (unpubl data) ISS ISS Harrington and Leddy (1982) ISS B A Harrington (unpubl data) B A Harrington (unpubl data) Sprandel et al (1997) 178 STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY APPENDIX CONTINUED Winter (1 Nov –28 Feb) Location Ft Desoto North Ft George Inlet Ft Myers Lagoon Ft Pierce Inlet Georgestone State Park Hickory Mound Impoundment Honeymoon Island Honeymoon Island north of toll booth Hooker’s Point, Tampa Hugenot State Park, Ward’s Bank Island N Bunces Pass Kennedy Space Center Lake Ingraham Lake Woodruff NWR Lanark Reef Lido Beach Little Estero Longboat Key North Longboat Key Beer Can Island Beer Can Island Marco Island, Tigertail Beach Marco River Peak count Year 1993 Source ISS 30 16 15 10 30 200 100 1,000 1,520 1,500 2,300 1,000 300 400 700 550 300 140 191 1993 1979 1979 1995 1986 1988 1989 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS 402 603 156 500 280 10 122 212 147 241 164 1,400 3,000 2,300 100 2,000 1,000 700 550 140 100 100 25 150 20 1993 1977 1978 1979 1980 1980 1981 1994 1994 1993 1994 1993 1994 1994 1993 1994 1982 2000 2004 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1993 1977 1978 1993 1974 1975 1976 1977 ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) Harrington and Leddy (1982) B A Harrington (unpubl data) B A Harrington (unpubl data) ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS NO 36 STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al APPENDIX CONTINUED Winter (1 Nov –28 Feb) Location Marco River (continued) Mayport Naval Station, Jetties Beach Mckay Bay, Tampa Merritt Island NWR 10D Merritt Island NWR Black Point Dr Merritt Island NWR T10B N Sarasota Bay Naples Nassau Sound Nevarre Beach, Pensacola New Smyrna Beach Palm Island Resort Palm Key Passage Key Phipps Preserve Port Orange Spoil Islands Sanibel Island A Sarasota Shell Key Snake Bight St Marks NWR (Lighthouse) (Lighthouse) St Petersburg St Vincent Island - Indian Pass St.George Island Three Rooker Bar (North) (Southeast) Turkey Point Peak count 100 35 60 130 89 70 25 487 490 800 275 200 140 Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1986 1987 1988 1989 1999 2002 Source ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS 31 164 1993 1994 ISS Sprandel et al (1997) 53 47 19 12 223 22 65 300 42 50 75 900 4,200 200 775 3,000 3,000 120 60 10 10 325 15 80 59 20 - 1999 2000 2002 1999 1981 1982 1993 1994 1993 1994 1994 1993 1993 1980 2004 1981 1981 2004 1994 2000 2001 1993 1994 1989 1988 1993 2004 1994 1978 1982 1983 1994 1994 - ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS ISS B A Harrington (unpubl data) Harrington and Leddy (1982) Harrington and Leddy (1982) B A Harrington (unpubl data) Sprandel et al (1997) B A Harrington (unpubl data) B A Harrington (unpubl data) ISS Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS ISS B A Harrington (unpubl data) ISS ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) Sprandel et al (1997) - 179 180 STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY APPENDIX CONTINUED Winter (1 Nov –28 Feb) Location Venice West Lake Virginia Key Mudflats Yent Bayou Peak count 125 11 56 31 116 81 118 Year 1977 1978 1979 1994 1993 1994 1995 1996 Source ISS ISS ISS ISS ISS Sprandel et al (1997) ISS ISS NO 36 STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al 181 APPENDIX SUMMARY TABLE OF LAND OWNERSHIP AND EXISTING HABITAT PROTECTION FOR POPULATIONS OF RED KNOTS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE Country and province/state Chile Region XIIMagellanes y la Antártica Chilena Argentina Tierra del Fuego Area Ownership Bahía Lomas Federal—Chilean Navy— Dirección del Territorio Marítimo y Marina Mercante Private 100% Río Grande Reserva Costa Atlántica de Tierra del Fuego Private Reserva Costa Atlántica de Tierra del Fuego Private Reserva Urbana Costera del Río Chico Reserva Provincial de Río Chico Para Aves Playeras Migratorias Public Private Public Private Bahía San Antonio Natural Protected Area Provincial Integral Natural Reserve with restricted access Provincial Integral Natural Reserve Rincón de Ajó Campos del Tuyú Private Reserve- Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina Punta Rasa Biological Station—(Argentinean Navy) and the Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina Punta Rasa Traveled Municipal Ecological Reserve 100% Bahía San Sebastián Santa Cruz Río Gallegos Estuary Chubut Bahía Bustamante Península Valdés Río Negro San Antonio Oeste Buenos Aires Bahía Samborombón Brazil Maranhão Baớa de Turiaỗu Baớa dos Lenỗúis Rớo Grande Sul Lagoa Peixe National Park United States Franklin County Florida Yent Bayou Brevard County Florida Carrabelle Beach Lanark Reef Merritt Island NWRBlack Point Drive Kennedy Space Center Anclote Key Pinellas County Florida Approximate percent of habitat under protection Three Rooker Bar Honeymoon Island Caladesi IslandHurricane Pass Protected Environmental Area of Reentrâncias Maranhenses Protected environmental area of Reentrâncias Maranhenses Instituto Brasileiro Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis Municipal- São José Norte, Mostardas and Tavare 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% ~50% ~50% 2,971.44 ha, or 8.6% of total area Private land—part of the Hidden Beaches and Victorian Village developments State and county land State and private land USFWS 0% ~50% 100% NASA Florida Park Service 100% 100% Florida Park Service Florida Park Service Florida Park Service 100% 100% 100% 182 NO 36 STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY APPENDIX CONTINUED Country and province/state Sarasota County Florida Lee County Florida Collier County Florida Monroe County Florida Chatham County Georgia Bryan County Georgia Liberty County Georgia McIntosh County Georgia Glynn County Georgia Camden County Georgia Horray County South Carolina Georgetown County South Carolina Area Caladesi IslandDunedin Pass Courtney Campbell Causeway SE Shell Key Ownership Florida Park Service Approximate percent of habitat under protection 100% Department of Transportation 0% Owned by the state of Florida but leased by Pinellas County Owned by the state of Florida but leased by Pinellas County Pinellas County Pinellas County USFWS Sarasota County ~50% ~50% 100% 0% Palm Island Ding Darling NWRBack bay of Sanibel Is Little Estero Island Capri Pass (Key Island) State and private resort USFWS ~50% ~50% State State and federal 100% ~50% Lake Ingraham- SE end 100% Snake Bite Channel Area NW of Palm Key Little Tybee Island National Park Service (NPS) NPS NPS State government 100% 100% ~50% Wassaw Island Ogeeche River Bar Ossabaw Island Federal government State government State government 100% 100% 100% St Catherines Island 100% St Catherines Bar Grass Island Blackbeard Island Private—St Catherines Island Foundation State State Federal government Sapelo Island Wolf Island Little Egg Island Bar Little St Simons Island State government Federal government State government Private—resort 100% 100% 100% ~50% Sea Island St Simons IslandGould’s Inlet Jekyll Island Little Cumberland Island Cumberland Island Waites Island Private Municipality Island north of Bunces Pass Fort Desoto- NW end Fort Desoto- east end Passage Key Lido Beach Myrtle Beach State Park Huntington Beach State Park North Island Sand/South Island Cedar Island 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 0% 0% State park Private ~50% ~50% Federal government State—coastal Carolina University segment State 100% ~50% State ~50% State—Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) Heritage Preserve State—Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center SCDNR Heritage Preserve State—SCDNR Santee Coastal Reserve 100% ~50% 100% 100% STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al 183 APPENDIX CONTINUED Country and province/state Charleston County South Carolina Colleton County South Carolina Beaufort County South Carolina Jasper County South Carolina Dare County North Carolina Hyde County North Carolina Carteret County North Carolina Rachel Carson Onslow County North Carolina Brunswick County North Carolina Accomack County Virginia Northampton County, Virginia Area Murphy Island Cape/Lighthouse Islands National Raccoon Key Bull Island Capers Island Isle of Palms County Park Folly Beach County Park north end Folly Beach County Park south end Beachwalker County Park at Kiawah Island Botany Bay Island Ownership State—SCDNR Santee Coastal Reserve Federal— Cape Romain Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Federal—Cape Romain NWR Federal—Cape Romain NWR State—SCDNR Heritage Preserve County Approximate percent of habitat under protection 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% ~50% County ~50% County ~50% County ~50% Private—conservation easement held by SC Nature Conservancy State 100% State 100% State—SCDNR State—SCDNR Heritage Preserve State 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Turtle Island State—University of South Carolina Private—conservation easement held by SC Nature Conservancy State—SCDNR Heritage Preserve Pea Island Federal—NWR 100% Clam Shoal Cape Hatteras National Seashore Bird Shoals Private—remote due to remote nature Federal—NPS 100% 100% Botany Bay Plantation (Edisto Island) Edisto Beach State Park Pine Island Otter Island Hunting Island State Park Pritchards Island St Phillips Island State—NC National Estuarine Research Reserve State—NC National Estuarine 100% Research Reserve Cape Lookout Federal—NPS National Seashore Bear Island/Bogue State—NC State Parks Inlet Tubbs Inlet Private—not protected State Assateague Island Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) Wallops Island NASA Assawoman Island CNWR Metompkin Island TNC CNWR Cedar Island CNWR TNC Parramore Island TNC Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VDCR) Hog Island TNC Cobb Island TNC 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% ~50% 100% 100% 100% 100% 80% 100% 95% 100% 184 NO 36 STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY APPENDIX CONTINUED Country and province/state Baltimore County Maryland Talbot County Maryland Worcester County Maryland Kent County Delaware Sussex County Delaware Cumberland and Cape May Counties New Jersey Cape May County New Jersey Atlantic County New Jersey NewYork CityJamaica County New York Middlesex County Connecticut New Haven County Connecticut Fairfield County Connecticut Newport County Rhode Island Washington County Rhode Island Essex County Massachusetts Area Little Cobb Island Wreck Island Ship Shoal Island Myrtle Island Smith Island Fisherman Island Hart-Miller Island Poplar Island Assateague Island Bombay Hook Port Mahon Little Creek Wildlife Area Ted Harvey Wildlife Area Pickering beach Kitts Hummock North Bowers Beach South Bowers Beach Bennetts Pier Big Stone BeachConch Bar Mispillion Inlet Slaughter beach Prime Hook Cape Henlopen Delaware Bay shoreline Approximate percent of habitat under Ownership protection TNC 100% VDCR—Division of Natural Heritage 100% TNC 100% TNC 100% TNC 100% Fisherman’s Island NWR 100% State- Maryland State Park 100% U.S Army Corps of Engineers MD Port Administration Assateague Island National Seashore—NPS Chincoteague NWR Assateague State Park—Maryland Department of Natural Resources Federal—NWR State State 100% 100% 0% 100% State 100% Private—not protected Private—not protected Private—not protected Private—not protected Delaware Wildlands TNC State Private—not protected State and private—not protected Private—not protected 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 75% 100% ~50% 0% 100% 100% 30% Hereford Inlet Federal—NWR State Park Dennis Creek Wildlife Management Area (WMA) Heislerville WMA Egg Island WMA USFWS—Cape May NWR Municipal Brigantine North Brigantine Natural Area 50% Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge ~50% Sandy Point Federal—Gateway National Recreation Area Private Private Milford Point Stewart McKinney NWR 100% Long Beach Private Cockenoe Island Quicksand Pond Private Goosewing Beach Preserve 0% 100% Ninigret Pond Ninigret NWR 100% Napatree Point Plum Island Napatree Point Conservation Area Federal—NWR 100% 75% 0% 0% 0% STATUS OF RED KNOTS—Niles et al 185 APPENDIX CONTINUED Country and province/state Plymouth County Massachusetts Area Newbury Port Scituate Duxbury Beach Plymouth Beach Barnstable County Massachusetts Nauset Coast Guard Beach Sandy Neck South beach Island Rockingham County New Hampshire Washington County Maine Hancock County Maine Waldo County Maine Lincoln County Maine Cumberland County Maine York County Maine Canada Nunavut Monomoy NWR Seabrook Harbor Flats and Beaches Lubec Flats Sprague Neck and Holmes Bay West River (Indian River) Mash Harbor Flat Bay Petit Manan Island and Petit Manan Point Over Point Ship Island Hog Bay Nova Scotia Private—not protected Maine Coastal Island NWR Private—farmland 50% ~50 % 0% 100% 100% 100% 100% 85% 100% 100% 25% 0% 25% 100% 0% 100% 0% Spruce Island Private—not protected Eastern Egg Rock Scarborough Marsh MDIFW—managed by National Audubon Society MDIFW 100% Stratton Island Bluff Island Biddeford Pool National Audubon Society National Audubon Society Private—not protected 100% 100% 0% King William Island Inuit-owned lands (Nunavut Land Claims Agreement)—Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) Inuit-owned lands (Nunavut Land Claims Agreement) CWS—East Bay Bird Sanctuary and Harry Gibbons Bird Sanctuary Unknown Fundy National Park 100% Southampton Island Ontario New Brunswick Ownership Private—municipal (part of Plum Island) Municipal Private Private—Duxbury Beach Reservation, Inc Municipal Private—not protected Municipal National Park Service—Cape Cod National Seashore Private-TNC Municipal—Town of Barnstable Federal—Monomoy NWR Municipal Federal—USFWS County and Municipal Private Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW) U.S Navy Ecological Reserve— Cutler Naval Station Private MDIFW Private—not protected Private MDIFW Federal—Petit Manan NWR Approximate percent of habitat under protection 0% Western James Bay Northern Bay of Fundy-Chignecto Bay Northern Bay of Fundy-Minas Basin Boot Island National Wildlife Area 0% 100% 100% ?% ?% ?% ... hereby grants permission to copy chapters (in whole or in part) appearing in Studies in Avian Biology for personal use, or educational use within one’s home institution, without payment, provided... held up in 2003–2004, but plunged again by nearly 50% in 2005 increasing the likelihood of extinction within the next decade Despite intensive studies, the reasons for the population decline and... may occasionally be replaced Birds wintering in South America may also replace primaries (Harrington 2001) 12 NO 36 STUDIES IN AVIAN BIOLOGY TABLE MEAN WING CHORD HEMISPHERE LOCATIONS AND CULMEN
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