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FABACEAE (LEGUMINOSAE) 豆科 dou ke Xu Langran (徐朗然 Xu Lang-rang)1, Chen Dezhao (陈德昭 Chen Te-chao)2, Zhu Xiangyun (朱相云)3, Huang Puhua (黄普华 Huang Pu-hwa)4, Wei Zhi (韦直)5, Sa Ren (萨仁)3, Zhang Dianxiang (张奠湘)2, Bao Bojian (包伯坚)3, Wu Delin (吴德邻 Wu Te-lin)2, Sun Hang (孙航)6, Gao Xinfen (高信芬)7, Liu Yingxin (刘媖心 Liou Yingxin, Liu Ying-hsin)8, Chang Zhaoyang (常朝阳)9, Li Jianqiang (李建强)10, Zhang Mingli (张明理)3; Dieter Podlech11, Hiroyoshi Ohashi12, Kai Larsen13, Stanley L Welsh14, Michael A Vincent15, Michael G Gilbert16, Les Pedley17, Brian D Schrire18, Gennady P Yakovlev19, Mats Thulin20, Ivan C Nielsen21, Byoung-Hee Choi22, Nicholas J Turland23, Roger M Polhill18, Supee Saksuwan Larsen13, Ding Hou24, Yu Iokawa25, C Melanie Wilmot-Dear18, Gregory Kenicer26, Tomoyuki Nemoto12, J Michael Lock18, Alfonso Delgado Salinas27, Tatiana E Kramina28, Anthony R Brach29, Bruce Bartholomew30, Dmitry D Sokoloff28 Trees, shrubs, or herbs, sometimes climbing or decumbent, very often bearing root-nodules that harbor nitrogen-fixing bacteria Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, pinnate or bipinnate, less often palmately compound or 3-foliolate, seldom 1-foliolate or simple, or modified into narrow phyllodes; petiole present or absent; stipules and stipels present or absent, sometimes stipules developed into spines Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic (Mimosoideae), ± zygomorphic (Caesalpinioideae) to very zygomorphic (Papilionoideae), mostly in racemes, corymbs, spikes, heads, or panicles Sepals (3–)5(or 6), free or connate into a tube, sometimes bilabiate, rarely reduced or obsolete Petals (0–)5(or 6), usually isomerous with sepals, seldom fewer or none, imbricate or valvate, distinct and often highly differentiated into papilionaceous corolla: upper petal (standard) outermost, lateral petals (wings) ± parallel with each other, lower innermost petals usually connate by their lower margins and forming a keel Stamens mostly 10, sometimes fewer or more numerous, distinct or often connate by their filaments to form a closed or open sheath, monadelphous or diadelphous, anther 2-locular, opening lengthwise or by pores, uniform or dimorphic and then alternately basifixed and dorsifixed; pollen simple or compound Gynoecium nearly always of a solitary carpel (rarely or more distinct carpels); ovary superior, 1locular or sometimes transversely, rarely longitudinally septate; ovules to numerous, inserted on adaxial suture Legumes dehiscent by one or both sutures, or indehiscent, sometimes winged, sometimes jointed and breaking up into 1-seeded segments Seeds without or with very scanty endosperm, sometimes strophiolate About 650 genera and ca 18,000 species: distributed worldwide, woody genera mostly in the S Hemisphere and the tropics, herbaceous genera mostly in temperate regions, very numerous in Mediterranean-climate areas; 29 tribes (three or four introduced), 167 genera (one endemic, 32 or 33 introduced), and 1,673 species (690 endemic, 131–134 introduced) in China Northwestern Institute of Botany, Northwestern A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, People’s Republic of China South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510650, People’s Republic of China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, People’s Republic of China Department of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Hexing Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040, People’s Republic of China Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, 10 Jiaogong Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012, People’s Republic of China Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 132 Lanhei Road, Heilongtan, Kunming, Yunnan 650204, People’s Republic of China Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O Box 416, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People’s Republic of China Langzhou Institute of Desert Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 174 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, People’s Republic of China College of Life Sciences, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangwu Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, People’s Republic of China 10 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, People’s Republic of China 11 Botanische Staatssammlung München, Fakultät für Biologie, Systematische Botanik und Mykologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (MSB), Menzinger Straße 67, D-80638 München, Germany 12 Biological Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan 13 Biological Institute, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Building 1540, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark 14 Brigham Young University, 375 MLBM, Provo, Utah 84602-0200, U.S.A 15 Botany Department, Miami University, 79 Upham Hall, Oxford, Ohio 45056, U.S.A 16 Missouri Botanical Garden c/o Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, United Kingdom 17 Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mt Coot-tha, Mt Coot-tha Road, Toowong, Brisbane, Queensland 4066, Australia 18 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, United Kingdom 19 V L Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof Popov Street 2, St Petersburg 197376, Russia 20 Department of Systematic Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC), Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden 21 Biological Institute, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Building 1540, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark (Ivan C Nielsen died on December 2007.) 22 Biology Department, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, South Korea 23 Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O Box 299, Saint Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A 24 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch, P.O Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands (Ding Hou died on September 2008.) 25 Department of Learning Support, Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu City, Niigata Prefecture 943-8512, Japan 26 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20a Inverleith Row, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, United Kingdom 27 Herbario Nacional de México, Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-367, 04510 Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico 28 Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, building 12, Moscow 199991, Russia 29 Missouri Botanical Garden c/o Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138-2094, U.S.A 30 Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118-4503, U.S.A FABACEAE Systematic list of tribes and genera In general, the tribes recognized here and their delimitations follow Lewis, G P et al (eds.) 2005 Legumes of the World Richmond, U.K.: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew ● Indicates endemic genus Cercideae (p 5) Cercis Bauhinia Detarieae (p 22) Lysidice Saraca Afzelia Hymenaea Sindora Tamarindus Cassieae (p 27) Zenia 10 Cassia 11 Senna 12 Chamaecrista Caesalpinieae (p 35) 13 Ceratonia 14 Gymnocladus 15 Gleditsia 16 Acrocarpus 17 Peltophorum 18 Delonix 19 Caesalpinia 20 Pterolobium 21 Haematoxylum 22 Parkinsonia 23 Erythrophleum Mimoseae (p 50) 24 Parkia 25 Adenanthera 26 Entada 27 Neptunia 28 Leucaena 29 Mimosa 30 Desmanthus Acacieae (p 55) 31 Acacia Ingeae (p 60) 32 Calliandra 33 Pithecellobium 34 Falcataria 35 Albizia 36 Enterolobium 37 Archidendron 38 Samanea Sophoreae (p 72) 39 Bowringia 40 Ormosia 41 Ammodendron 42 Sophora 43 Cladrastis 44 ● Salweenia 45 Maackia Euchresteae (p 98) 46 Euchresta 10 Thermopsideae (p 100) 47 Ammopiptanthus 48 Piptanthus 49 Thermopsis 11 Crotalarieae (p 105) 50 Crotalaria 51 Lotononis 52 Rothia 12 Genisteae (p 119) Cultivated only 13 Amorpheae (p 120) 53 Amorpha 14 Dalbergieae (p 121) 54 Dalbergia 55 Pterocarpus 15 Aeschynomeneae (p 131) 56 Aeschynomene 57 Arachis 58 Geissaspis 59 Ormocarpum 60 Smithia 61 Stylosanthes 62 Zornia 16 Indigofereae (p 137) 63 Indigofera 64 Cyamopsis 17 Millettieae (p 165) 65 Derris 66 Paraderris 67 Aganope 68 Antheroporum 69 Afgekia 70 Sarcodum 71 Fordia 72 Millettia 73 Callerya 74 Pongamia 75 Wisteria 76 Craspedolobium 77 Tephrosia 18 Abreae (p 194) 78 Abrus 19 Phaseoleae (p 196) 79 Canavalia 80 Galactia 81 Ophrestia 82 Clitoria 83 Centrosema 84 Apios 85 Cochlianthus 86 Shuteria 87 Mastersia 88 Mucuna 89 Spatholobus 90 Butea 91 Rhynchosia 92 Eriosema 93 Dunbaria 94 Cajanus 95 Flemingia 96 Erythrina 97 Dysolobium 98 Psophocarpus 99 Calopogonium 100 Pachyrhizus 101 Teyleria 102 Dumasia 103 Pueraria 104 Nogra 105 Sinodolichos 106 Amphicarpaea 107 Teramnus 108 Glycine 109 Phylacium 110 Lablab 111 Dolichos 112 Macrotyloma 113 Vigna 114 Macroptilium 115 Phaseolus 20 Desmodieae (p 262) 116 Trifidacanthus 117 Dendrolobium 118 Phyllodium 119 Aphyllodium 120 Ohwia 121 Desmodium 122 Hylodesmum 123 Codoriocalyx 124 Pycnospora 125 Tadehagi 126 Mecopus 127 Uraria 128 Urariopsis 129 Christia 130 Alysicarpus 131 Campylotropis 132 Lespedeza 133 Kummerowia 21 Psoraleeae (p 312) 134 Cullen 22 Sesbanieae (p 313) 135 Sesbania 23 Loteae (p 316) 136 Lotus 24 Robinieae (p 320) 137 Robinia 25 Galegeae (p 322) 138 Phyllolobium 139 Astragalus 140 Oxytropis 141 Chesneya 142 Chesniella 143 Colutea 144 Sphaerophysa 145 Eremosparton 146 Gueldenstaedtia 147 Tibetia 148 Glycyrrhiza 26 Hedysareae (p 512) 149 Corethrodendron 150 Hedysarum 151 Onobrychis 152 Eversmannia 153 Alhagi 154 Calophaca 155 Caragana 156 Halimodendron 27 Cicereae (p 546) 157 Cicer 28 Trifolieae (p 547) 158 Ononis 159 Trifolium 160 Parochetus 161 Melilotus 162 Medicago 163 Trigonella 29 Fabeae (p 560) 164 Vicia 165 Lathyrus 166 Lens 167 Pisum FABACEAE Wu Te-lin, Chen Pang-yu, Wei Chao-fen, Chen Te-chao, Hu Chia-chi, Cheng Hsi-chang & Li Lin-chu 1988 Leguminosae (1) In: Chen Techao, ed., Fl Reipubl Popularis Sin 39: 1–233; Chen Techao, Chen Pangyu, Fang Yunyi, Zheng Chaozong, Chang Rohwei, Ding Chensen, Li Jiaolan, Ma Chiyun & Wei Zhi 1994 Leguminosae (2) In: Wei Zhi, ed., Fl Reipubl Popularis Sin 40: 1–362; Yang Yenchin, Huang Puhua, Fu Peiyun, Li Jiyun, Chen Youan, Lee Shukang, Chang Benneng, Wei Yuetsung, Huang Deai, Wei Chaofen, Wu Telin & Wei Siqi 1995 Leguminosae (3) In: Lee Shukang, ed., Fl Reipubl Popularis Sin 41: 1–405; Fu Kuntsun, Chang Chenwan, He Shanbow, Ho Yechi, Ding Chensen, Liou Yingxen & Li Peichun 1993 Leguminosae (4) In: Fu Kuntsun, ed., Fl Reipubl Popularis Sin 42(1): 1–384; Zhang Zhenwan, Xu Langran, Wei Zhi, Wei Siqi, Huang Yizhi, Xia Zhendai, Cui Hongbin, Li Peiqiong, Li Jiaolan, Yang Chunyu, Wen Hequn & Huang Deai 1998 Leguminosae (5) In: Cui Hongbin, ed., Fl Reipubl Popularis Sin 42(2): 1–467 Key to tribes 1a Flowers actinomorphic, petals valvate in bud, free or united; anthers sometimes with a deciduous gland at apex (subfam Mimosoideae) 2a Stamens 10 or fewer Mimoseae (p 50) 2b Stamens numerous, usually more than 10 3a Filaments free or only connate at base Acacieae (p 55) 3b Filaments connate into a tube Ingeae (p 60) 1b Flowers ± zygomorphic, petals imbricate in bud 4a Flowers slightly zygomorphic; corolla not papilionaceous, uppermost petal overlapped on each side by adjacent lateral petals (when these present); stamens with usually free filaments (subfam Caesalpinioideae) 5a Leaves simple, entire or 2-lobed, sometimes divided and 2-foliolate, palmately nerved Cercideae (p 5) 5b Leaves once pinnate or bipinnate, pinnately nerved 6a Leaves usually bipinnate, if once pinnate (Ceratonia) then petals absent, leaflets 2–4 pairs Caesalpinieae (p 35) 6b Leaves once pinnate 7a Anthers dorsifixed, opening by lateral slits Detarieae (p 22) 7b Anthers basifixed, rarely dorsifixed, opening by apical pores or lateral slits Cassieae (p 27) 4b Flowers strongly zygomorphic (very rarely actinomorphic); corolla papilionaceous, standard outside wings, keel basally connate; stamens diadelphous (9+1) or monadelphous, rarely free (subfam Papilionoideae [Faboideae]) 8a Filaments all free or connate only at base, anthers uniform 9a Leaves imparipinnate (simple leaf only in Bowringia callicarpa and Ormosia simplicifolia); stipules small or absent, stipels present or absent; calyx usually subequally 5-dentate; trees, shrubs, or vines, rarely herbs Sophoreae (p 72) 9b Leaves palmately 3-foliolate (rarely 1-foliolate in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus); stipules usually united with petioles or amplexicaul, stipels absent; calyx usually deeply 5-lobed; shrubs or herbs 10 Thermopsideae (p 100) 8b Filaments partly or almost wholly united to one another, either monadelphous in a closed tube, or diadelphous, in latter case vexillary (adaxial) filament often free or partly free from remainder, anthers uniform or dimorphic 10a Anthers dimorphic, alternately dorsifixed and basifixed, either all equal or alternately longer and shorter 11a Upper part of filaments swollen or expanded; perennial shrublets, often spiny and glandular 28 Trifolieae (Ononis; p 547) 11b Upper part of filaments neither swollen nor expanded 12a Legumes transversely septate and breaking up into 1-seeded joints (sometimes fruit reduced to joint or maturing underground, subtorulose, but not jointed) 15 Aeschynomeneae (p 131) 12b Legumes not transversely septate, or if so then not breaking up into separate joints 13a Filaments all connate into a closed tube 12 Genisteae (p 119) 13b Filaments connate into a sheath split above or vexillary filament free, remainder connate 14a Climbing plants; legumes thick, often clothed with stinging hairs 19 Phaseoleae (Mucuna; p 196) 14b Erect plants; legumes turgid or inflated 15a Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets (3–)5–17 25 Galegeae (Glycyrrhiza; p 322) 15b Leaves digitately 3-foliolate, sometimes simple or 1-foliolate 11 Crotalarieae (p 105) 10b Anthers uniform in size and shape or nearly so, or sterile (Teramnus), not alternately basifixed and dorsifixed, also not alternately longer and shorter 16a Free upper part of all or half of filaments dilated or expanded upward 17a Leaves with white glandular hairs on both sides 27 Cicereae (p 546) 17b Leaves without white glandular hairs on both sides FABACEAE 18a Stipules glandlike; leaflets 5–17(–25), entire, nerves not running into margin 23 Loteae (p 316) 18b Stipules not glandlike; leaflets 3, usually toothed, lateral nerves extended to teeth or margin 28 Trifolieae (p 547) 16b Free upper part of filaments ± filiform, not dilated upward 19a Legumes breaking up into 1-seeded segments when ripe 20a Leaves with stipels 20 Desmodieae (p 262) 20b Leaves without stipels 21a Keel petals often obliquely truncate at apex; wings short or very small, rarely equaling keel petals 26 Hedysareae (p 512) 21b Keel petals obtuse or beaked, incurved; wings often transversely plicate 15 Aeschynomeneae (p 131) 19b Legumes not breaking up into separate segments when mature; seeds to several 22a Plants with indumentum composed mainly of T-shaped hairs 23a Legumes with septa between seeds, but not jointed; anthers tipped by a gland or apiculate 16 Indigofereae (p 137) 23b Legumes without septa between seeds; anthers not tipped by a gland or apiculate 25 Galegeae (Astragalus; p 322) 22b Plants glabrous or without indumentum composed of T-shaped hairs 24a Stamens monadelphous and filaments partly connate into a single ± closed tube, sometimes adaxial filament free at base but connate higher up with remainder 25a Legumes indehiscent, suborbicular or circinate, 1- or 2-seeded; annual or perennial herbs 26 Hedysareae (Onobrychis; p 512) 25b Legumes dehiscent, not suborbicular 26a Trees, lianas, or shrubs, sometimes climbing; stipules not sagittate or absent 17 Millettieae (p 165) 26b Herbs; stipules sagittate 25 Galegeae (Galega; p 322) 24b Stamens diadelphous, mostly vexillary filament free or partly adnate to remainder, or if monadelphous then free at upper part or top 27a Leaves pinnately or digitately 3-foliolate, sometimes 1-foliolate (Tadehagi, Alysicarpus) or primitively simple (Indigofera) 28a Leaves gland-dotted or pellucid punctate below 29a Legumes dehiscent, 1- to several seeded; leaves 3-foliolate or simple (Flemingia) 19 Phaseoleae (Cajaninae; p 196) 29b Legumes indehiscent, 1-seeded; leaves simple 21 Psoraleeae (p 312) 28b Leaves neither gland-dotted nor pellucid punctate below 30a Legumes drupelike, fragile Euchresteae (p 98) 30b Legumes not drupelike and fragile, plano-compressed 31a Leaves ± toothed 28 Trifolieae (p 547) 31b Leaves entire 32a Legumes jointed 20 Desmodieae (p 262) 32b Legumes not jointed 19 Phaseoleae (p 196) 27b Leaves pinnate; leaflets generally numerous, rarely (1 or)2 pairs 33a Leaves gland-dotted; corolla with keel 13 Amorpheae (p 120) 33b Leaves not gland-dotted; corolla regular 34a Legumes indehiscent; stipels absent; leaves imparipinnate 14 Dalbergieae (p 121) 34b Legumes dehiscent, sometimes only so at apex 35a Rachis of leaves ending in a tendril or bristle 36a Stamens 10; flowers solitary, fasciculate or racemose in leaf axils; claw of standard free from staminal sheath 29 Fabeae (p 560) 36b Stamens 9; flowers in terminal or subterminal racemes; claw of standard ± adnate to staminal sheath 18 Abreae (p 194) 35b Rachis of leaves not ending in a tendril or bristle 37a Legumes inflated and bladderlike, sometimes dehiscent only at apex 25 Galegeae (p 322) 37b Legumes compressed 38a Flowers in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes, rarely axillary 17 Millettieae (p 165) 38b Flowers solitary, fasciculate, or in axillary racemes 39a Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets 2–12 pairs 24 Robinieae (p 320) 39b Leaves paripinnate; leaflets 10–30 pairs 22 Sesbanieae (p 313) Tribe CERCIDEAE 紫荆族 zi jing zu Chen Dezhao (陈德昭 Chen Te-chao), Zhang Dianxiang (张奠湘); Kai Larsen, Supee Saksuwan Larsen, Michael A Vincent Leaves alternate, simple, entire or 2-lobed, sometimes parted to base, divided and 2-foliolate Flowers usually bisexual, rarely unisexual (polygamous or plants dioecious), slightly or conspicuously zygomorphic Calyx entire, 5-toothed, spathaceous or valvately 2–5-lobed Petals usually (2–)5(or 6), subequal to greatly unequal, free Perfect stamens 10 or 2–9 reduced to staminodes; anthers dorsifixed, opening lengthwise or by apical pores Ovary stipe free or adnate to receptacle; ovules to numerous Legumes flattened or turgid About five genera and 320–350 species: four genera represented in tropical regions, one in temperate parts of the N Hemisphere; two genera and 52 species (28 endemic, two introduced) in China The concept of the genus Bauhinia as presented here is adopted in the broadest sense 1a Legume narrowly winged along ventral suture; perfect stamens 10; flowers purplish red or pink Cercis 1b Legume without wings; perfect stamens usually or 5, if 10 then flowers white, light yellow, or green Bauhinia CERCIS Linnaeus, Sp Pl 1: 374 1753 紫荆属 zi jing shu Chen Dezhao (陈德昭 Chen Te-chao), Zhang Dianxiang (张奠湘); Supee Saksuwan Larsen, Michael A Vincent Shrubs or trees Leaves alternate, simple, entire, veins palmate, base cordate to truncate or cuneate, apex acute to attenuate or emarginate; stipules caducous, small, scalelike or membranous Flowers zygomorphic, bisexual, purplish red, pink, or white, in solitary racemes or subumbellate clusters on branches of current year or older branches or trunks, flowering before or as leaves expand; bracts scalelike, often imbricate, aggregated at base of racemes; bracteoles minute or absent Calyx shortly campanulate, slightly oblique, apex unequally 5-toothed; teeth broadly triangular Petals 5, appearing papilionaceous, but with standard smallest and inside other petals Stamens 10, free, included; filaments often hairy in lower part; anthers dorsifixed, opening lengthwise Ovary shortly stipitate; ovules 2–10; style filiform; stigma capitate Legumes compressed, narrowly oblong to broadly linear, usually narrowly winged along ventral suture, indehiscent or dehiscent, both ends acuminate or obtuse Seeds to many, compressed, suborbicular, without endosperm Eleven species: four confined to North America, one in E and S Europe, one in C Asia; five species (all endemic) in China Cercis siliquastrum Linnaeus and C canadensis Linnaeus are sometimes cultivated in China 1a Flowers in subumbellate clusters, without peduncles or with short peduncles to mm 2a Legume thin, usually indehiscent, winged, with small curved beak; leaves papery, thinner, abaxially glabrous or puberulent on veins C chinensis 2b Legume thick and hard, dehiscent, valves not winged, twisting upon dehiscence, with thick straight beak; leaves subleathery, thicker, often comose-pubescent on axils of veins at base C chingii 1b Flowers in racemes with conspicuous peduncles 3a Leaves rhombic-ovate, asymmetric on two sides, base obtusely triangular, both surfaces often glaucous C chuniana 3b Leaves broadly ovate, ovate-orbicular, or cordate, symmetric, base cordate or subtruncate, abaxially hairy or glabrous, not glaucous 4a Racemes longer, rachis 2–10 cm; leaves abaxially puberulent, densely hairy on veins; legume basally attenuate, dorsal and ventral sutures equal in length C racemosa 4b Racemes short, rachis less than cm; leaves glabrous or sparsely pubescent in axils of veins; legume basally rounded and obtuse, dorsal and ventral sutures unequal C glabra obtusely triangular, asymmetric, apex long acuminate Racemes 3–5 cm, 7–15-flowered Flower 1–1.3 mm; pedicel 0.8– cm, slender Calyx broadly campanulate, 5–6 mm; teeth 5, shallow Petals rose-pink to whitish pink; filaments hairy only at very base, otherwise glabrous Legume purplish red, becoming reddish brown when dry, very compressed, narrowly oblong, 6–9 × 1.3–1.7 cm, both ends acute, apex with sharp, small beak 2–3 mm; wing narrow, less than mm wide; stipe 4–5 mm; fruiting pedicel 1–1.5 cm Seeds 2–5, blackish brown, compressed, broadly ovoid-orbicular, ca × mm, smooth Fl unknown, fr Sep–Nov Cercis chuniana F P Metcalf, Lingnan Sci J 19: 551 1940 广西紫荆 guang xi zi jing Cercis likiangensis Chun ex Y Chen Trees, 6–27 m tall Trunk to 20 cm d.b.h., bark grayish Young branchlets reddish, becoming brownish red when dry; lenticels numerous, dense, small Petiole 0.9–1.3 cm, slender, both ends slightly inflated; leaf blade rhombic-ovate, 5–9 × 3–5 cm, papery, both surfaces often glaucous especially adaxially, abaxially sparsely puberulent on axils of veins at base, base CERCIDEAE ● Mountain valleys, open or dense forests, by streams; 600–1900 m Fujian, N Guangdong, NE Guangxi, SE Guizhou, SE Hunan, S Jiangxi, ?Zhejiang Cercis racemosa Oliver, Hooker’s Icon Pl 19: t 1894 1889 Fl Zhejiang 3: 279 1993) may represent a distinct species, but too little material was available to be certain This needs further study The name was not validly published because no Latin description or diagnosis was provided and no type was indicated (Vienna Code, Art 36.1, 37.1) Cercis chinensis Bunge, Enum Pl China Bor 21 1833 垂丝紫荆 chui si zi jing Trees, 8–15 m tall Trunk to 27 cm d.b.h., bark dark graybrown Young branchlets dark brown to black, rusty pubescent, lenticels scattered Petiole 2–3.5 cm, moderately stout, glabrous or pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate-orbicular, 6–12.5 × 6.5– 10.5 cm, abaxially puberulent especially on principal veins, adaxially glabrous, principal veins 5, raised abaxially, reticulate veins conspicuous on both surfaces, base truncate or shallowly cordate, apex acute, slightly attenuate Racemes solitary, pendulous, 2–10 cm, 6–20-flowered; peduncle and rachis hairy Flowers 1–1.2 cm; pedicel 0.8–1 cm, slender Calyx ca mm Petals rose-red; standard tinged with deep reddish spots Stamens included; filaments hairy at base Legume slightly curved, compressed, oblong, 5–10 × 1.2–1.8 cm, wing 2–2.5 mm wide, dorsal and ventral sutures subequal in length, basally attenuate, apex acute, with a beak 5–7 mm; stipe 3.5–4 mm; fruiting pedicel 1.3–1.5 cm Seeds 2–9, compressed Fl May, fr Oct ● Dense forests, mountain slopes, roadsides, beside villages; 1000–1900 m W Guizhou, W Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, E Sichuan, NE Yunnan Cercis glabra Pampanini, Nuovo Giorn Bot Ital., n.s., 17: 393 1910 湖北紫荆 hu bei zi jing Cercis funiushanensis S Y Wang & T B Chao; C pubescens S Y Wang; C yunnanensis H H Hu & W C Cheng Trees, 6–20 m tall Trunk to 30 cm d.b.h or more Bark and branchlets grayish black Petiole 2–4.5 cm; leaf blade often purplish red when young, greenish when mature, cordate or triangular-orbicular, 5–12(–20) × 4.5–11.5(–18) cm, thickly papery to subleathery, adaxially shiny, glabrous or comose-pubescent in vein axils, principal veins (5–)7, base shallowly to deeply cordate, rarely truncate, apex obtuse or acute Raceme short; rachis 5–10 mm, 4–12-flowered Flowers light purplish red or pink, 1.3–1.5 cm; pedicel 1–2.3 cm, slender Legume purplish red, broadly linear, (7–)9–15 × 1.2–1.5 cm, wing 2–2.3 mm, sutures unequal (rarely equal), dorsal suture slightly longer, base rounded to acuminate, apex acuminate; stipe 2–3 mm Seeds 1–8, compressed, suborbicular, 6–7 × 5–6 mm Fl Mar– Apr, fr Sep–Nov ● Open or dense forests, mountain slopes, along valleys near roads, on rocks; 600–1900 m Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang Plants called “Cercis gigantea Cheng et Keng f.” (in Wei & He, 紫荆 zi jing Cercis chinensis f alba S C Hsu; C chinensis f pubescens C F Wei; C chinensis f rosea P S Hsu; C pauciflora H L Li Shrubs, 2–5(–8) m tall Bark and branchlets grayish white Leaf blade greenish when young with only petiole slightly purple, suborbicular or triangular-orbicular, 5–10 cm, ca as long as wide or slightly longer than wide, papery, both surfaces usually glabrous, or abaxially puberulent on veins, base shallowly to deeply cordate, margin membranous, transparent when fresh, apex acute Flowers purplish red, pink, or white, 1–1.3 cm, 2– 10-clustered on old branches or especially on trunk; pedicel 3–9 mm; keel tinged with deep purple stripes Ovary glabrous to densely puberulent; ovules 5–8 Legume greenish, becoming stramineous at maturity, compressed, narrowly oblong, 4–8 × 1–1.2 cm, dorsal and ventral suture equal or subequal, wing 1.5–2 mm, base long attenuate, apex acute or shortly acuminate, with slender and curved beak; stipe 2–4 mm Seeds 2–6, blackish brown, shiny, broadly oblong, 5–6 × ca mm Fl Mar–Apr, fr Aug–Oct 2n = 14* ● Dense forests or limestone areas, commonly cultivated Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang Cercis chingii Chun, J Arnold Arbor 8: 20 1927 黄山紫荆 huang shan zi jing Shrubs, 2–6 m tall Bark light gray, smooth Branchlets grayish white at first, blackish brown when dry, with numerous, dense, small lenticels, brownish puberulent when young, glabrescent with age Petiole 1.5–3 cm, slightly thickened at both ends; leaf blade brownish when dry, ovate-orbicular or reniform, 5–11 × 5–12 cm, subleathery, abaxially puberulent on principal veins and in axils of veins at base, principal veins 5, raised abaxially, base cordate or truncate, apex acute with a 5–8 mm mucro or rounded without mucro Flower clusters borne on old branches, light purplish red, becoming whitish Calyx 5.5–6 mm Petals ca cm Legumes 7–8.5 × ca 1.3 cm, thickly leathery, valves twisting upon dehiscence, wing absent, stipe absent; beak robust, ca × mm, hard Seeds 3–6, embedded in thick, slightly white (brown when dry), spongy pulp Fl Feb–Mar, fr Sep–Oct 2n = 14* ● Sparse forests, shrubby areas, roadsides, cultivated in gardens; low elevations Anhui, N Guangdong, Zhejiang BAUHINIA Linnaeus, Sp Pl 1: 374 1753 羊蹄甲属 yang ti jia shu Chen Dezhao (陈德昭 Chen Te-chao), Zhang Dianxiang (张奠湘); Kai Larsen, Supee Saksuwan Larsen Bauhinia sect Lasiobema Korthals; Lasiobema (Korthals) Miquel; Phanera Loureiro; Piliostigma Hochstetter CERCIDEAE Trees, shrubs, or lianas, hermaphroditic, monoecious, andromonoecious, or androdioecious Leaves simple, bilobed or entire, rarely 2-foliolate with a shared upper pulvinus; primary veins 3–15, midvein ending with a free, small point; stipules caducous Inflorescences solitary flowers, or many flowers in racemes, panicles, or corymbs; bracts and bracteoles usually small and caducous Hypanthium cupular, campanulate, or tubular Calyx closed or open with short or linear teeth at apex in bud, at anthesis spathaceous, or regularly or irregularly split into 2–5 lobes Petals 5, subequal to strongly differentiated, subsessile or prominently clawed, white, yellowish orange, pink, or purplish red Stamens 2, 3, 5, or 10; anthers dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent Staminodes present or not Ovary 1- to many ovuled, sessile or with stalk; stigma small or prominent, variously shaped Fruit flat, elliptic, oblong, obovoid, or linear, woody or thinly valved, dehiscent or indehiscent Seeds few to many; endosperm present or not About 300 species: pantropical; 47 species (23 endemic, two introduced) in China The key is based on flowering material as there are too many species for which the mature legumes are not known Bauhinia tianlinensis is known only from fruiting material so could not be included in the key Legumes of China (Zhu et al., 37, 40, 42, 43, 47 2007) listed a further five species not included in this manuscript: B clemensiorum Merrill from Guangxi; B galpinii N E Brown cultivated in Hong Kong; B godefroyi Gagnepain from Yunnan; B lakhonensis Gagnepain from Guangxi; and B strychnoidea Prain ex King from Yunnan 1a Calyx spathaceous, splitting along one side or into unequal lobes; trees or shrubs without tendrils; flowers with or 10 fertile stamens (or with female flowers lacking anthers) (B purpurea with fertile stamens) 2a Petals 0.7–1.2 cm 3a Flowers bisexual with 10 unequal fertile stamens and well-developed ovary; petals yellowish; legume 12–20-seeded B racemosa 3b Flowers unisexual, lacking either functional ovary or fertile anthers; petals white or greenish white; legume 2–10-seeded 4a Inflorescence leaf-opposed, 10–15-flowered; stamens ca 10 mm; legume 6–10-seeded B viridescens 4b Inflorescence terminal, to 50-flowered, sometimes much condensed; stamens 5–6 mm; legume 2–7-seeded B brachycarpa 2b Petals 3–8 cm 5a Fertile stamens 10; petals white; leaf blade ovate-cordate to cordate 6a Leaf blade 3–7 × 4–8 cm, papery, abaxially tomentose B tomentosa 6b Leaf blade 6–11(–16) × 8–12.5 cm, subleathery, abaxially pubescent 7a Young shoots glabrous; leaf bifid to 1/3–2/5; legume sharply ridged near suture B acuminata 7b Young shoots brownish pubescent or hirsute; leaf bifid to 1/4; legume not ridged near suture B hirsuta 5b Fertile stamens or 5; petals pink, purple, or white with pink spots, occasionally all white; leaf blade orbicular, suborbicular, or broadly ovate 8a Fertile stamens 3, staminodes or 6; leaf bifid to 1/3–1/2, lobes slightly acute or rarely rounded at apex B purpurea 8b Fertile stamens 5, staminodes 1–5, sometimes absent; leaf bilobed to 1/4–1/3, lobes rounded or narrowly rounded 9a Petals purplish, 5–8 cm; sterile hybrid not forming fruit B ×blakeana 9b Petals white, often with pink or purple spots, 4–5 cm; legume linear, 15–25 × 1.5–2 cm B variegata 1b Calyx with or ± equal lobes; lianas usually with tendrils (B bohniana an erect shrub 1–2 m high); flowers with or fertile stamens 10a Leaves 2-foliolate, primary veins 3–5 per lobe 11a Shoots hairy; leaf lobes acuminate; receptacle ca mm 37 B carcinophylla 11b Shoots glabrous; leaf lobes obtuse; receptacle 7–12 mm 12a Tendrils solitary; receptacle 10–12 mm; petals white, broadly obovate, ca mm 42 B didyma 12b Tendrils paired; receptacle 7–8 mm; petals pinkish with dark red stripes, spatulate, ca 17 mm 24 B yunnanensis 10b Leaves entire or bifid for up to 1/2 length 13a Leaves entire to shallowly bifid for up to 1/6 length, primary veins 3–9 14a Petals orange or reddish, 25–30 mm 23 B coccinea 14b Petals white or greenish white (color not recorded for B cercidifolia or B wuzhengyii), 2.5–10 mm 15a Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or nearly so 16a Leaf blade 1.5–4 cm; inflorescence a simple raceme, 5–9 cm 20 B venustula 16b Leaf blade 4.6–10 cm; inflorescence a panicle, or if unbranched then more than 10 cm 17a Leaf blade with primary veins 3–5, base attenuate or rounded; petals 4–10 mm; tendrils rare or apparently absent 18a Petals 4–5 mm; leaf base rounded 27 B paucinervata 18b Petals 7–10 mm; leaf base attenuate 31 B wuzhengyii CERCIDEAE 17b Leaf blade with primary veins usually 7–9, base shallowly cordate to truncate; petals 2.5–3 mm; tendrils usually present 19a Fertile stamens 3; petiole 2–4 cm; leaf blade 4–8 cm wide, papery; pedicel 3–4 mm 13 B scandens 19b Fertile stamens 2; petiole 4.5–5 cm; leaf blade 9–11 cm wide, leathery; pedicel ca 18 mm 15 B cercidifolia 15b Leaf blade abaxially pubescent 20a Inflorescence 7–25 cm, pedicels 3.5–15 mm; petals 3.5–6 mm; staminodes 21a Pedicel 3.5–4 mm 19 B lingyuenensis 21b Pedicel 10–15 mm 22a Leaf blade ovate or cordate; petals spatulate 17 B championii 22b Leaf blade suborbicular; petals obovate or oblong 10 B longistipes 20b Inflorescence 3.5–8 cm, pedicels 15–22 mm; petals 6–10 mm; staminodes 7: longer and free, others joined at base (not recorded for B apertilobata) 23a Flower bud ellipsoid with protruding apex; receptacle broadly funnelform; petals spatulate 16 B apertilobata 23b Flower bud ovoid; receptacle cylindric or elongate; petals subrhombic, broadly obovate, or elliptic 24a Leaf blade 5–8 × 4–6.5 cm; receptacle 8–9 mm; petals unequal, rhombic, elliptic, claw 3–4 mm 44 B quinnanensis 24b Leaf blade 3–4 × 2–3 cm; receptacle ca 15 mm; petals subrhombic, broadly obovate, or elliptic, claw 6–8 mm 46 B ovatifolia 13b Leaves bifid for more than 1/5 length, primary veins 7–13 25a Erect shrubs, tendrils absent; petals pink 25 B bohniana 25b Lianas, tendrils present; petals white or light yellowish, rarely with pink veins or reddish base, or red or golden yellow (sometimes pale pink in B hainanensis) 26a Ovary glabrous 27a Leaf blade bifid for more than 1/2 length 28a Inflorescence ca cm; bracts and bracteoles ca mm; petals white with pink veins; legume 10–25 cm 41 B corymbosa 28b Inflorescence 10–30 cm; bracts and bracteoles 5–9 mm, brushlike in young inflorescences; petals yellow or whitish yellow; legume 5–8 cm 29a Flower buds ovoid; staminodes 2; floral disk annular 11 B comosa 29b Flower buds conical; staminodes 4; floral disk U-shaped 12 B esquirolii 27b Leaf blade bifid for 1/5–1/2 length 30a Fertile stamen filament 25–30 mm; receptacle 3–5 mm; leaf blade 8–18 cm 31a Pedicel 1–1.5 cm; calyx lobes not reflexed, one free, others in adnate parts, ca mm; staminodes 28 B hainanensis 31b Pedicel 2–2.8 cm; calyx lobes reflexed at anthesis, ovate, ca 10 mm; staminodes 5–7 21 B chalcophylla 30b Fertile stamen filament 8–12 mm; receptacle 7–15(–30) mm; leaf blade 4–6(–9) cm 32a Shoots glabrous; calyx lobes 5; legume 12–15 cm 45 B damiaoshanensis 32b Shoots reddish pubescent when young; calyx lobes or 3; legume 18–25 cm 40 B glauca 26b Ovary hairy, at least on sutures 33a Leaf blade abaxially glabrous 34a Stems glabrous; leaf blade with yellowish margin 29 B japonica 34b Stems hairy at least when young; leaf blade uniformly green 35a Leaf blade 10–15 cm wide, bifid for up to 1/5 length; pedicel ca 1.5 cm 30 B wallichii 35b Leaf blade 5–10 cm wide, bifid for at least 1/2 length; pedicel 4–5 cm 36 B erythropoda 33b Leaf blade abaxially hairy at least on veins 36a Leaf blade 9–18(–20) cm wide, abaxially tomentose when young 37a Leaf blade abaxially thickly golden tomentose, primary veins 15–17; inflorescence conical; pedicel 0.9–1 cm 33 B hypochrysa 37b Leaf blade abaxially rusty or yellow-brown tomentose, primary veins 9–13; inflorescence ± flat-topped to rounded; pedicel 2–5 cm CERCIDEAE 38a Petiole 8–11 cm; bracts persistent 39 B ornata 38b Petiole 1.2–7 cm; bracts caducous 39a Leaf blade 12–18(–23) cm 35 B aurea 39b Leaf blade 9–12.5 cm 34 B rubrovillosa 36b Leaf blade 3.5–9(–12) cm wide, abaxially pubescent when young 40a Petals red or golden yellow 26 B khasiana 40b Petals white, sometimes reddish at base or tinged yellow or green 41a Petals 4–6 mm 42a Leaf blade bifid to 1/6–1/5 of length; bracts 6–9 mm; lower pedicels to 20 mm 43 B touranensis 42b Leaf blade bifid to 1/3–1/2 of length; bracts 3–4 mm; lower pedicels 3–5 mm 43a Flower bud ca mm; leaf blade and legume valves leathery 14 B delavayi 43b Flower bud ca mm; leaf blade papery; legume valves woody 18 B hypoglauca 41b Petals 15–30 mm 44a Calyx lobes or 3; petals to 15 mm, apex acute 38 B calciphila 44b Calyx lobes 5; petals 20–30 mm, apex emarginate 45a Inflorescence conical; pedicel 0.7–3 cm; calyx lobes not reflexed 32 B pyrrhoclada 45b Inflorescence ± flat-topped; pedicel 4–5 cm; calyx lobes reflexed 46a Calyx lobes ca 12 mm; filaments 15–17 mm, lower part pubescent 36 B erythropoda 46b Calyx lobes 25–30 mm; filaments ca 35 mm, glabrous 22 B nervosa Bauhinia acuminata Linnaeus, Sp Pl 1: 376 1753 白花羊蹄甲 bai hua yang ti jia Shrubs or small trees, to m tall Young branches zigzag, glabrous Petiole 2.5–4 cm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate-cordate to cordate, 9–12 × 8–12.5 cm, subleathery, abaxially grayish pubescent, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 9–11, secondary and higher order veins protruding, base cordate, apex bifid to 1/3–2/5, lobes acuminate or slightly acute at apex or rarely rounded Inflorescence a raceme, with few (3–15) flowers, axillary, appearing cymose; peduncle short, pubescent as inflorescence axis; bracts and bracteoles linear, pubescent Flower buds ca 2.5 cm, acutely tapering and ending in linear calyx teeth ca mm Hypanthium tubular Calyx spathe open on one side, shortly 5-toothed Petals white, obovate-elliptic, 3.5–5 × ca cm, sessile Fertile stamens 10 in whorls, subequal, 1.5–2.5 cm, pubescent on lower 1/3; anthers yellow, oblong Ovary prominently stalked, pubescent or almost glabrous; style 15– 20 mm; stigma peltate, ca mm in diam Legume straight or slightly curved, linear-oblanceolate, compressed, 6–12 × ca 1.5 cm, with stalk ca cm, apex acuminate, beaked; valves leathery, glabrous, sharply ridged near suture Seeds 5–12, compressed, 8–10 mm in diam Fl Apr–Jun, fr Jun–Aug Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam] Bauhinia ×blakeana Dunn, J Bot 46: 325 1908 红花羊蹄甲 hong hua yang ti jia Trees Branches numerous; branchlets slender, pubescent Petiole 3.5–4 cm, brownish pubescent; leaf blade orbicular or suborbicular, 8.5–13 × 9–14 cm, leathery, abaxially puberulent, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 11–13, base cordate or truncate, apex bilobed to 1/4–1/3, lobes rounded or narrowly rounded Inflorescence racemose, terminal or axillary, or several racemes together forming a panicle, pubescent; bracts and bracteoles triangular, ca mm Floral buds fusiform Hypanthium tubular Calyx spathe ca 2.5 cm, with greenish or light reddish ridges Petals purplish, lanceolate, 5–8 × 2.5–3 cm, shortly clawed Fertile stamens 5, with longer Staminodes 2– 5, threadlike Ovary prominently stalked, pubescent Legume not produced Fl Nov–Mar Frequent in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, and Yunnan [widely cultivated] This is a hybrid between Bauhinia purpurea and B variegata First collected from a garden in Hong Kong, it is now widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental tree Bauhinia hirsuta Weinmann in Hornschuch, Syll Pl Nov 2: 1825 粗毛羊蹄甲 cu mao yang ti jia Bauhinia acuminata Linnaeus var hirsuta (Weinmann) Craib Shrubs, to m tall Young branches brownish pubescent or hirsute Stipules linear or spinelike, ca cm; petiole 2–5 cm, ridged; leaf blade broadly ovate or cordate, 6–11(–16) × 6–11 cm, subleathery, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 9, base shallowly cordate, apex bifid to 1/4, lobes obtuse at apex Inflorescence a short raceme, few (2–5) flowered, axillary or terminal; bracts and bracteoles linear, 3–6 mm, pubescent Flower buds narrowly fusiform, pubescent, acuminate at apex, tapering into linear, pubescent teeth 2–5 10 CERCIDEAE mm Hypanthium tubular Calyx spathe open on one side Petals white, ovate-oblong, 3–3.5 × ca 1.5 cm, subsessile Fertile stamens 10 in whorls, subequal, to cm, pubescent at base; anthers yellow, oblong Ovary stalked, pubescent only near base and on margin; style to cm, glabrous; stigma peltate, small Legume straight or slightly curved, linear-oblanceolate, 6–9 × ca 1.5 cm, compressed, beaked; valves leathery, glabrous, without ridges on suture Seeds 3–10, compressed, ca mm in diam Fl Apr, fr Jun–Aug Yunnan [from SE Asia and Peninsular Malaysia to Indonesia (Java)] Bauhinia purpurea Linnaeus, Sp Pl 1: 375 1753 羊蹄甲 yang ti jia Trees or erect shrubs, 7–10 m tall Bark grayish to dark brownish, thick, smooth; branches puberulent when young, later glabrous Petiole 3–4 cm; leaf blade suborbicular, 10–15 × 9–14 cm, stiffly papery, abaxially almost glabrous, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 9–11, secondary and higher order veins protruding, base shallowly cordate, apex bifid to 1/3–1/2, lobes slightly acute or rarely rounded at apex Inflorescence a raceme with few flowers, or a panicle with up to 20 flowers, axillary or terminal Flower buds fusiform, 4- or 5-ridged, with an obtuse apex Pedicel 7–12 mm Calyx open as a spathe into lobes, one with teeth and other 3-toothed Petals light pink, oblanceolate, 4–5 cm, clawed Fertile stamens 3; filaments ca as long as petals Staminodes or 6, 6–10 mm Ovary stalked, velvety; style curved; stigma slightly enlarged, peltate Legume linear, flat, 12–25 × 2–2.5 cm; valves woody Seeds compressed, suborbicular, 12–15 mm in diam Fl Sep–Nov, fr next Feb–Mar 2n = 28 Widely cultivated as ornamental trees Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [probably only native from Nepal through continental monsoon Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)] Bauhinia variegata Linnaeus, Sp Pl 1: 375 1753 洋紫荆 yang zi jing Trees, deciduous, to 15 m tall Bark dark brownish, nearly smooth; branches gray puberulent when young, later glabrous Petiole 2.5–3.5 cm; leaf blade suborbicular or broadly ovate, 5– × 7–11 cm, subleathery, abaxially almost glabrous, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 9–13, secondary and higher order veins protruding, base shallowly to deeply cordate, apex bifid to 1/3, lobes rounded at apex Inflorescence a raceme, few flowered, sometimes corymblike, axillary or terminal Flower buds fusiform, smooth, subsessile Calyx open as a spathe into lobes Petals white, or with pink or purplish spots, obovate or oblanceolate, 4–5 cm, clawed Fertile stamens 5; filaments ca as long as petals, slender Staminodes 1–5 and small, or ?absent Ovary stalked, puberulent; style curved; stigma small Legume linear, flat, 15–25 × 1.5–2 cm; valves woody Seeds 10–15, compressed, suborbicular, ca 10 mm in diam Fl Feb–May, fr Mar–Jul 2n = 28 Tropical forests, also cultivated; 1000–1500 m Native in S Yunnan (Xishuangbanna); widely cultivated in S China [Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics] 1a Petals with colored spots 5a var variegata 1b Petals white 5b var candida 5a Bauhinia variegata var variegata 洋紫荆(原变种) yang zi jing (yuan bian zhong) Bauhinia variegata var chinensis Candolle; Phanera variegata (Linnaeus) Bentham Petals with colored spots Staminodes 1–5 Tropical forests, also cultivated; 1000–1500 m Native in S Yunnan (Xishuangbanna); widely cultivated in S China [Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics] 5b Bauhinia variegata var candida (Aiton) Voigt, Hort Suburb Calcutt 253 1845 白花洋紫荆 bai hua yang zi jing Bauhinia candida Aiton, Hort Kew 2: 49 1789; B variegata var alboflava de Wit Petals white Staminodes ?absent 2n = 28* ● Tropical forests, also cultivated Native in S Yunnan (Xishuangbanna); widely cultivated in S China Two of us (Larsens) note that the absence of staminodes needs to be checked on Chinese materials as this is not the case for the species in SE Asia Bauhinia viridescens Desvaux, Ann Sci Nat (Paris) 9: 429 1826 绿花羊蹄甲 lü hua yang ti jia Bauhinia laui Merrill; B polycarpa Wallich ex Bentham; B viridescens var laui (Merrill) T C Chen Shrubs or small trees, to m tall, dioecious Young branches pubescent; older branches whitish Stipules narrowly triangular and tapering, ca mm; petiole 2–3.5 cm; leaf blade suborbicular, 5–9 × 6–10 cm, papery, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 7–9, base truncate or shallowly cordate, apex bifid to 1/2, lobes obtuse at apex Inflorescence a raceme, 4–8 cm, 10–15-flowered, opposite with leaves; bracts 2–3 mm, pubescent Flower buds narrowly fusiform, 6–10 mm Hypanthium turbinate, short Calyx spathe open on one side Petals greenish white, obovate-lanceolate, 7–12 mm, shortly clawed Male flower: fertile stamens 10 in whorls, subequal, ca 10 mm; anthers oblong, 1–2 mm Female flower: reduced stamens present; ovary shortly stalked, 6–8 mm; style short; stigma peltate, small Legume straight or slightly curved, linear, compressed, 5–7 × 0.7–1 cm, beaked; valves leathery, glabrous Seeds 6–10, green, ellipsoid, slightly compressed, ca mm in diam Fl Mar–Jul, fr May–Jan Open forests; low elevations Hainan, Yunnan [Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam] Bauhinia brachycarpa Wallich ex Bentham in Miquel, Pl Jungh 261 1852 鞍叶羊蹄甲 an ye yang ti jia FABEAE canescens Maximowicz; V cracca var canescens (Maximowicz) Franchet & Savatier; V cracca subsp heteropus Freyn; V cracca var japonica Miquel Herbs perennial, 40–150 cm tall Stem climbing or trailing, hairy (sometimes densely gray-white villous) or glabrescent Leaves paripinnate; stipules semihastate; leaflets 5– 12-paired, linear, linear-lanceolate, or oblong, 11–30 × 2–4 mm, margin entire, apex rounded or acute, mucronate; lateral veins sparse, not obvious; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme subequaling leaf, 10–40-flowered Calyx campanulate Corolla purple, blue-purple, or purple-red, 8–13(–15) mm; standard violinshaped, equaling wings and longer than keel, limb (distal part) of standard subequaling claw (proximal part) Ovary stalked; ovules 4–7 Legume oblong or oblong-rhomboid, 20–25 × ca mm, apex beaked Seeds 3–6 Fl (Dec), Apr–Sep, fr May– Oct 2n = 12, 14, 21, 22, 24, 28 Forest margins, thickets, scrub, hill slopes, valleys, grasslands, meadows, streamsides, wet sandy land, alluvium, fields, roadsides; below 4200 m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan (?introduced), Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, N Vietnam; SW Asia, Europe; introduced and naturalized elsewhere] Vicia lilacina Ledebour, Fl Altaic 3: 348 1831 阿尔泰野豌豆 a er tai ye wan dou 563 3-branched Raceme 15–30 cm, 20–30-flowered, densely hairy Calyx shortly campanulate Corolla purple, rarely white, 12–18 mm; standard violin-shaped, ca 14 × mm, equaling wings and longer than keel, limb (distal part) of standard longer than claw (proximal part) Ovary linear; ovules 5–9 Legume oblong-lanceolate, 18–30 × 3–7 mm, both ends acuminate Seeds 4–7 Fl and fr Jun–Sep 2n = 12, 14, 24 Forests, dry grasslands, slopes Xinjiang [Afghanistan, N India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, N Mongolia, Nepal, N Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam; NW Africa, SW Asia, Europe] Vicia megalotropis Ledebour, Fl Altaic 3: 344 1831 大龙骨野豌豆 da long gu ye wan dou Ervum megalotropis (Ledebour) Trautvetter; Vicia humilis Rong He (1994), not Kunth (1824); V megalotropis f stenophylla Franchet Herbs perennial, erect, 50–80 cm tall Leaves paripinnate; stipules lanceolate or semihastate, 5–8 mm, margin 1- or 2toothed proximally; leaflets 7–12-paired, linear to lanceolate, 20–35(–40) × 1.5–4(–6) mm, appressed hairy, apex obtuse or acute; lateral veins dense; tendril branched, 1–3 cm Raceme subequaling leaf, densely 10–20-flowered Calyx campanulate; lower tooth longer Corolla purple-red, 12–15 mm; standard longer than wings and keel Legume rhomboid or oblong, 20– 25 × ca mm Seeds 3–6 Fl and fr Mar–Jul 2n = 14 Ervum cracca (Linnaeus) Trautvetter var lilacinum (Ledebour) Trautvetter; Vicia cracca Linnaeus f lilacina (Ledebour) Krylov; V cracca var lilacina (Ledebour) Krylov Rocky or sandy land; 600–1000 m Gansu, Hebei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia (Siberia)] Herbs perennial, 50–100 cm tall Stem erect, white puberulent Leaves paripinnate, 13–14 cm; stipules semihastate, bifid; leaflets 6- or 7-paired, oblong-ovate, 25–45 × 5–8 mm, apex obtuse or acuminate, mucronate; lateral veins not obvious; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme ca 15 cm, slightly longer than leaf, sparsely ca 15-flowered Calyx campanulate, hairy outside Corolla blue-purple; standard violin-shaped, 11–12 mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel, limb (distal part) of standard subequaling claw (proximal part) Ovary fusiform, glabrescent; ovules ca Legume not seen Fl Jun–Sep 察隅野豌豆 cha yu ye wan dou Xinjiang [Russia (Siberia)] This taxon is perhaps not distinct from the very variable and widespread Vicia cracca Vicia tenuifolia Roth, Tent Fl Germ 1: 309 1788 细叶野豌豆 xi ye ye wan dou Ervum tenuifolium (Roth) Trautvetter (1875), not Lagasca y Segura (1816); Vicia brachytropis Karelin & Kirilov; V cracca Linnaeus subsp tenuifolia (Roth) Gaudin; V cracca var tenuifolia (Roth) Beck Herbs perennial, to 100 cm tall Stem erect, strong, puberulent Leaves paripinnate; stipules semihastate, bifid; leaflets 6–13-paired, linear or linear-lanceolate, 10–30 × 2–6 mm, subleathery, abaxially white hairy, adaxially glabrous, margin entire, apex obtuse, mucronate; lateral veins sparse; tendril 2- or Vicia bakeri Ali, Bot Not 120: 52 1967 Vicia longidentata Z D Xia Herbs annual, (30–)60–80 cm tall Stem puberulent, rarely villous Leaves paripinnate, (5–)10–15 cm; stipules semitriangular or triangular-hastate, 2–4(–10) × 6–10 mm, margin 3or 4-toothed; leaflets (5–)7–11-paired, narrowly oblong to elliptic or obovate, (14–)16–25 × (4–)5–7 mm, membranous, abaxially hairy, rarely both surfaces villous, margin sometimes thickened, apex obtuse or truncate, mucronate; lateral veins dense, obvious; tendril branched Raceme subequaling (rarely obviously longer than) leaf, (6–)10–14 cm, (8–)10–14-flowered Calyx campanulate or obliquely so, unequally toothed Corolla purple or light purple; standard oblong, 11–12 × 4–6 mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary fusiform or nearly so; ovules 4(–6) Legume linear, 40–42 × 8–9 mm, glabrous Seeds or Fl Apr–Sep, fr Jul–Sep Forests, bush woods, among shrubs, hill slopes, grasslands, roadsides; 2300–3600 m Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [N India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh), Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan] Plants in Sichuan with stem shorter (30–70 cm), villous, leaves smaller (5–8 cm), leaflets fewer (5–9 paired), narrowly oblong to elliptic, slightly smaller (1.4–1.8 × 0.4–0.6 cm), villous on both surfaces, and raceme shorter (6–10 cm, longer than leaf) have been called Vicia longidentata (misspelled as “V longicuspis” in FRPS 42(2): 233, 239, 240, 455 1998) These characters overlap considerably with those of V bakeri, with which it seems best, therefore, to unite V longidentata FABEAE 564 Vicia villosa Roth, Tent Fl Germ 2(2): 182 1793 长柔毛野豌豆 chang rou mao ye wan dou Herbs annual, 30–150 cm tall, villous or sericeous, or puberulent to glabrous Stem climbing, much branched Leaves paripinnate, 3–6 cm; stipules lanceolate to semitruncate or bifid to semihastate, 7–12 mm; leaflets 4–12-paired, linear to oblong or lanceolate, 10–30 × 3–7 mm, apex obtuse, acute, or acuminate, mucronate; lateral veins dense or not obvious; tendril 2or 3-branched Raceme shorter than to slightly longer than leaf, 10–30-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate, unequally toothed; lower teeth equaling or longer than tube or all teeth shorter than tube Corolla purple-blue, purple, light purple, light red, light blue, or rarely white, 10–18 mm; standard linear or oblong, constricted at middle; wings shorter than standard and longer than keel Legume oblong or oblong-rhomboid, 20–40 × 4–12 mm, apex beaked Seeds 2–8, globose or oblate-globose, ca mm in diam Fl and fr Apr–Oct 2n = 14, 28 Cultivated and possibly naturalized; scrub, streamsides, farms, fields and field margins, roadsides; near sea level to 1800 m Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Zhejiang [native to N Africa, C and SW Asia, N Atlantic islands (Canary Islands), and Europe; widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere] 1a Plants villous or sericeous; lower calyx teeth equaling or longer than calyx tube; raceme subequaling or slightly longer than leaf 7a subsp villosa 1b Plants puberulent to glabrous; all calyx teeth shorter than calyx tube; raceme usually shorter than or equaling leaf 7b subsp varia Atlantic islands (Canary Islands), and Europe; widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere] Vicia pseudo-orobus Fischer & C A Meyer, Index Sem Hort Petrop 1: 41 1835 大叶野豌豆 da ye ye wan dou Ervum pseudo-orobus (Fischer & C A Meyer) Trautvetter; Vicia pseudo-orobus f albiflora (Nakai) P Y Fu & Y A Chen; V pseudo-orobus var albiflora Nakai; V pseudo-orobus f breviramea P Y Fu & Y C Teng; V pseudo-orobus var semistipulata Handel-Mazzetti Herbs perennial, 50–150(–200) cm tall Stem erect or climbing, green or yellow with black-brown spots, puberulent when young, later glabrescent Leaves paripinnate, 2–17 cm; stipules hastate, 8–15 mm, margin toothed; leaflets 2–5-paired, elliptic or lanceolate, often narrowly so, 20–60(–100) × 10–35 mm, membranous, abaxially pilose or glabrescent, adaxially glabrous, apex obtuse or acuminate, mucronate; lateral veins obvious; tendril well-developed, 2- or 3-branched Raceme unbranched, longer than leaf, 5–18 cm, rarely branched and very short, 15–30-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate, shortly toothed Corolla blue-purple, purple, pink, pale yellow, or white, 10–15 mm; standard subequaling wings and keel Ovary glabrous; ovules 2–6 Legume brown-yellow, oblong, flat, 20–35 × 6–8 mm Seeds 2–6 Fl Jun–Sep, fr Jul–Oct 2n = 12, 14 7a Vicia villosa subsp villosa Forests, forest margins, thickets, scrub, hill slopes, sunny slopes, valleys, ravines, meadows, pastures, dry limestone areas, fields; 400– 3000 m Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, E Siberia)] 长柔毛野豌豆(原亚种) chang rou mao ye wan dou (yuan ya zhong) Vicia amoena Fischer ex Seringe in Candolle, Prodr 2: 355 1825 Ervum villosum (Roth) Trautvetter (1875), not Pomel (1874); Vicia villosa var alba Y Q Zhu 山野豌豆 shan ye wan dou Plants villous or sericeous Raceme subequaling or slightly longer than leaf Calyx: lower teeth equaling or longer than tube Fl and fr Apr–Oct 2n = 14, 28 Cultivated and possibly naturalized; streamsides, field margins; near sea level to 1800 m Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Xinjiang, Zhejiang [native to SW Asia and Europe, but exact native distribution uncertain; widely cultivated and naturalized] 7b Vicia villosa subsp varia (Host) Corbière, Nouv Fl Normandie, 181 1894 欧洲苕子 ou zhou tiao zi Vicia varia Host, Fl Austriac 2: 332 1831 Plants puberulent to glabrous Raceme usually shorter than or equaling leaf Calyx: all teeth shorter than tube Fl and fr Jun–Aug 2n = 14, 28 Cultivated and possibly naturalized; scrub, farms, fields, roadsides Guangdong, Shandong, Taiwan [native to N Africa, SW Asia, N Ervum amoenum (Fischer ex Seringe) Trautvetter; Vicia amoena f albiflora P Y Fu & Y A Chen; V amoena var angusta Freyn; V amoena var lanata Franchet & Savatier; V amoena var macrophylla Litvinov ex B Fedtschenko; V amoena var oblongifolia Regel; V amoena subsp sericea (Kitagawa) Kamelin & Gubanov; V amoena var sericea Kitagawa Herbs perennial, 30–100(–180) cm tall, pilose, rarely densely white sericeous Stem much branched, slender Leaves subsessile, paripinnate, 5–12 cm; stipules semihastate, 8–20 mm, margin 3- or 4-toothed; leaflets 4–7-paired, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, rarely oblong or lanceolate, 13–40 × 5–18 mm, adaxially appressed villous, apex rounded and retuse; lateral veins obvious; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme usually longer than leaf, densely 10–20(–30)-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate, unequally toothed Corolla blue, blue-purple, redpurple, or white; standard obovate, 10–16 × 5–6 mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary glabrous; ovules ca Legume oblong, 18–28 × 4–6 mm, glabrous, both ends acuminate Seeds 1–6 Fl Apr–Sep, fr Jul–Oct 2n = 12, 14, 24 FABEAE Forests, forest margins, woods, bush woods, scrub, dry slopes with Juniperus, grasslands, hills, hill slopes, riverbanks, sides of irrigation ditches, dry rocky banks, fixed sand dunes, fields, abandoned fields, wastelands, roadsides; near sea level to 4000 m Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, Siberia)] 10 Vicia tibetica Prain ex C E C Fischer, Bull Misc Inform Kew 1938: 285 1938 西藏野豌豆 xi zang ye wan dou Herbs perennial, 10–250 cm tall Stem branched, puberulent or glabrescent Leaves paripinnate, 4–7 cm; stipules triangular, margin 3–5-toothed; leaflets 3–6-paired, oblong, (4–)10– 20 × (1.5–)3–7 mm, apex obtuse and mucronate; veins dense, raised on both surfaces; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme 6–7.5 cm, longer than leaf, sparsely 4–13-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate, ca mm, unequally toothed, rarely villous Corolla red, through purple, to blue, or paler, sometimes with deeper venation and orange in throat, 10–11 mm; standard constricted at middle, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary fusiform, ca mm; ovules 2–6 Legume oblong, flat, ca 20 × mm, glabrous, both ends narrowed Seeds 1–4, oblong Fl Apr–Sep, fr May–Sep Forests, scrub, under Juniperus on limestone ridges, hill slopes, open meadows and pastures, ravines, rocky places, along irrigation channels, cultivated land, margins of cultivation; 1300–4300 m Qinghai, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India] 11 Vicia perelegans K T Fu, Fl Tsinling 1(3): 449 1981 精致野豌豆 jing zhi ye wan dou Herbs perennial, 20–40 cm tall, pilose Stem much branched, puberulent Leaves paripinnate, 2–6 cm; stipules small, bifid; leaflets 5–8-paired, narrowly oblong or narrowly ovate-elliptic, 5–17 × 3–5 mm, subleathery, abaxially hairy along midrib, apex truncate or rounded, mucronate; lateral veins 8–15-paired; petiolules ca mm; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme subequaling leaf, 4–7 cm, sparsely 7–10-flowered; pedicels hairy Calyx obliquely campanulate, ca mm, pilose Corolla purple or blue, 10–11 mm; standard oblong or narrowly obovate, ca 10 × mm, slightly longer than wings and shorter than keel, apex retuse Ovary glabrous; ovules or Legume oblong, ca 25 × mm, both ends acute Seeds or Fl Apr– May, fr Jul–Oct ● Hill slopes, valleys, grasslands, roadsides; 800–1300 m Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan 12 Vicia amurensis Oettingen, Trudy Bot Sada Imp Yur’evsk Univ 6: 143 1906 黑龙江野豌豆 hei long jiang ye wan dou Vicia amurensis f alba H Ohashi & Tateishi; V amurensis var pratensis (Komarov) H Hara; V amurensis f sanheensis Y Q Jiang & S M Fu; V amurensis var silvatica (Komarov) H Hara; V japonica A Gray subsp amurensis (Oettingen) Kitamura; V japonica var pratensis Komarov; V japonica var silvatica Komarov; V pallida Turczaninow var pratensis (Komarov) Nakai; V vaniotii H Léveillé 565 Herbs perennial, 50–100 cm tall, glabrescent Stem climbing Leaves subsessile, paripinnate, 5–15 cm; stipules semihastate, bifid, margin 3–5-toothed; leaflets 3–6-paired, oblong-ovate to elliptic, 16–30 × 9–16 mm, puberulent at first, later glabrescent, apex retuse and entire; lateral veins dense; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme subequaling leaf, densely 15– 30-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate, unequally toothed Corolla blue-purple or white, rarely purple; standard oblong or nearly obovate, ca 10 × mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary glabrous; ovules 1–6 Legume rhomboid or suboblong, 15–25 mm Seeds 1–5 Fl Jun–Sep, fr Aug–Sep 2n = 12, 14 Forests, forest margins, hill slopes, grasslands, meadows, sandy land along rivers, weed communities; 400–800 m Beijing, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, E Siberia)] 13 Vicia latibracteolata K T Fu, Fl Tsinling 1(3): 449 1981 宽苞野豌豆 kuan bao ye wan dou Vicia latibracteolata var acerosa K T Fu Herbs perennial, 60–120 cm tall Stem erect, few branched, pilose Leaves paripinnate, 9–11 cm; stipules semihastate, rhomboid to lanceolate, bifid, 5–12 mm; leaflets usually 9-paired, linear-lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, 12– 27 × 7–11 mm, apex rounded or acuminate, mucronate; lateral veins 9–13-paired, joined at margin; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme obviously shorter than leaf, 6–10 cm, densely 10–20flowered; bracts present Calyx subcampanulate, unequally toothed, pilose Corolla purple, purple-red, or light purple with some pink; standard oblong, ca 14 × mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary linear, ca mm, glabrous; ovules ca Legume narrowly oblong, 20–25 mm, apex beaked Seeds 3–6 Fl and fr Jun–Aug ● Hill slopes, grasslands, riverbanks; 900–2800 m Gansu, Henan, Ningxia, Shaanxi 14 Vicia multicaulis Ledebour, Fl Altaic 3: 345 1831 多茎野豌豆 duo jing ye wan dou Ervum megalotropis (Ledebour) Trautvetter var multicaulis (Ledebour) Trautvetter; Vicia megalotropis Ledebour var multicaulis (Ledebour) Krylov; V nervata Siplivinsky Herbs perennial, 10–60 cm tall Stem much branched, puberulent or glabrescent Leaves paripinnate; stipules semihastate, 3–6 mm; leaflets 4–8-paired, linear to oblong, 10–20 × ca mm, abaxially pilose, apex mucronate; lateral veins very obvious; tendril unbranched or branched Raceme longer than leaf, 14- or 15-flowered; bracts absent Calyx campanulate, unequally toothed Corolla purple or blue-purple, 13–17 mm; standard oblong-obovate, constricted at middle, longer than wings and keel Ovary linear Legume flat, 30–35 mm, apex beaked Seeds dark brown, oblate-spheroid Fl and fr Jun–Sep 2n = 12, 24 Scrub, mountain summits, dry and hilly slopes, grasslands, clay cliffs, gravels, sandy land; below 4300 m Beijing, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Tianjin, Xinjiang, Xizang [Japan, E Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia (European part, Siberia)] 566 FABEAE 15 Vicia japonica A Gray, Mem Amer Acad Arts, n.s., 6: 385 1858 东方野豌豆 dong fang ye wan dou Ervum amoenum (Fischer ex Seringe) Trautvetter var pallidum Trautvetter; Vicia amurensis Oettingen var pallida Kitagawa; V japonica var comosa Boissier; V japonica var laxiracemis Ohwi; V japonica subsp pallida Voroschilov; V japonica var pallida H Hara; V pallida Turczaninow (1842), not Hooker & Arnott (1833); V pallida Turczaninow var japonica (A Gray) Matsumura; V woroschilovii N S Pavlova Herbs perennial, 60–120 cm tall Stem climbing or trailing, yellow-white hairy at first, later glabrescent Leaves paripinnate, 5–15 cm; stipules linear or linear-lanceolate, 5–7 × ca mm, margin toothed; leaflets 5–8-paired, not markedly discolorous, lanceolate-ovate to ovate or elliptic, rarely narrowly lanceolate-elliptic, 10–30 × 6–14 mm, abaxially puberulent, adaxially glabrous, apex obtuse and retuse, mucronate; lateral veins sparsely 7–9-paired; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme subequaling or slightly longer than leaf, 7–15-flowered, villous; bracts absent Calyx campanulate, unequally toothed, villous Corolla blue or purple; standard oblong, 10–14 mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel, apex retuse Ovary linear, 6–12 mm; ovules 2–7 Legume oblong-rhomboid, 15–25 mm, apex beaked Seeds 1–3, oblate-spheroid Fl and fr Jun– Sep 2n = 12, 14, 24 Forest margins, hill slopes, valleys, meadows, riverbanks; 600– 3700 m Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, E Siberia)] 16 Vicia chinensis Franchet, Pl Delavay 177 1890 华野豌豆 hua ye wan dou Lathyrus hupehensis (Pampanini) E Peter; L sargentianus Craib; Orobus hupehensis (Pampanini) Stankevicz; Vicia hupehensis Pampanini Herbs perennial, 150–200 cm tall Stem branched from base, slender, sparsely pilose or glabrescent Leaves subsessile, paripinnate, 8–16 cm; stipules semihastate, bifid, margin entire or toothed; leaflets 4–7-paired, markedly discolorous, abaxially pale green, adaxially green, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolateovate, 10–45 × 7–15 mm, leathery, both surfaces sparsely villous or glabrescent, apex obtuse or retuse, mucronate; tendril 2or 3-branched Raceme 6–17 cm, subequaling or longer than leaf, 5–25-flowered, puberulent or glabrous; bracts absent Calyx subcampanulate, shortly and unequally toothed Corolla blue-purple to purple-red, red, yellow, or pale yellow, 10–13 mm; standard slightly longer than keel Ovary stalk ca mm; ovules 3–6 Legume fusiform, 28–37 × 8–9 mm, glabrous Seeds or 3, dark brown, oblate, ca mm in diam Fl Jun– Aug, fr Aug–Sep ● Thickets, scrub, valleys; 600–3300 m Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan Lathyrus sargentianus and Vicia hupehensis are here treated as synonyms of V chinensis They were treated as synonyms of L dielsianus in Fl Xizang (2: 765–766 1985), where the plant described and illustrated is in fact V chinensis 17 Vicia kioshanica L H Bailey, Gentes Herb 1: 32 1920 确山野豌豆 que shan ye wan dou Ervum kioshanicum (L H Bailey) Stankevicz Herbs perennial, 20–80 cm tall Stem much branched Leaves paripinnate, 5–9 cm; stipules semihastate, bifid, margin toothed; leaflets 3–7-paired, abaxially brownish, narrowly elliptic-oblong, 12–40 × 5–13 mm, leathery, adaxially densely villous or both surfaces glabrous, apex rounded or acuminate, mucronate; lateral veins densely 10–13-paired; tendril unbranched or branched Raceme curved, to 20 cm, obviously longer than leaf, sparsely 6–16(–20)-flowered Calyx campanulate, unequally toothed, very sparsely pilose; teeth narrowly oblong, apex acuminate Corolla purple or purple-red, 7–8(–14) mm, strongly bent upward at middle forming a 90° angle; standard 10–11 × ca mm, longer than wings; wings longer than keel Ovary stalked, linear; ovules or Legume dark brown or reddish brown, rhomboid or oblong, 20–25 mm, glabrous Seeds 1–4, black, oblong-cuboid, 4–5 mm Fl Apr–Jun, fr Jun–Sep ● Hill slopes, valleys, wet grasslands, farms, field margins, roadsides, stone walls; 100–1000 m Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang 18 Vicia sinogigantea B J Bao & Turland, nom nov 大野豌豆 da ye wan dou Replaced synonym: Vicia gigantea Bunge, Enum Pl China Bor 19 1833, not Vicia gigantea Hooker, Fl Bor.-Amer 1: 157 1831; Ervum giganteum Stankevicz Herbs perennial, 40–100 cm tall Stem much branched, persistently white pilose Leaves paripinnate; stipules bifid; leaflets 3–6-paired, elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 15–30(–35) × 6– 17(–20) mm, both surfaces persistently white pilose, apex obtuse, mucronate; lateral veins 7- or 8-paired; tendril 2- or 3branched, or unbranched Raceme longer than leaf; sparsely 6–16-flowered Calyx campanulate, 2–2.5 mm, hairy Corolla white, pink, or purple; standard obovate, ca mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel, apex retuse Ovary long stalked, glabrous; ovules or Legume oblong or rhomboid, 10–20 × 4–5.5 mm, both ends acute Seeds or 3, reniform Fl Jun– Aug, fr Jul–Oct ● Forests, scrub, hedges, grasslands, slopes, stony land; 600–3000 m Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan Vicia ramosissima Franchet (J Bot (Morot) 4: 305 1890), described from Beijing (Baihua Shan), was said in the protologue to be close to Bunge’s V gigantea If the two entities proved to be conspecific, then V ramosissima would be the earliest legitimate (and correct) name for the species However, the present authors have not examined the type of Franchet’s name and therefore cannot confirm its identity 19 Vicia taipaica K T Fu, Fl Tsinling 1(3): 448 1981 太白野豌豆 tai bai ye wan dou Herbs perennial, 60–100 cm tall, glabrous Stem thick Leaves paripinnate, 7–16 cm; stipules 5–9 mm, margin entire; leaflets 3–5-paired, elliptic to ovate-oblong, 15–50 × 6–15 mm, papery, apex obtuse, mucronate; lateral veins 8–15-paired; tendril 3- or 4-branched Raceme longer than leaf, sparsely 5–15- FABEAE flowered; rachis slender Calyx obliquely campanulate, shortly and unequally toothed Corolla yellow or brown-yellow; standard narrowly obovate-oblong, constricted at middle, ca 13 mm, apex retuse; wings and keel ca cm Ovary long stalked; ovules or Legume oblong-rhomboid, 20–30 × ca mm Seeds 2–5, oblong Fl and fr Jul–Oct ● Forests, hill slopes, valleys; 1100–2000 m Shaanxi 20 Vicia dichroantha Diels, Notes Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh 5: 246 1912 二色野豌豆 er se ye wan dou Vicia mairei H Léveillé; V tenera Wallich ex Bentham var yunnanensis Franchet Herbs perennial, 60–300 cm tall, densely brownish villous on youngest growth (stems, leaves, and raceme before expansion) Stem erect, climbing, pilose Leaves paripinnate, 8–12 cm; stipules fan-shaped or lanceolate, margin 2- or 3-toothed; leaflets 4–6-paired, linear to linear-lanceolate, 25–50 × 6–9 mm, papery, apex rounded or obtuse, mucronate; lateral veins 7- or 8-paired; petiolules densely hairy; tendril present Raceme 6–16 cm, obviously longer than leaf, 20–25-flowered; rachis strong and straight Calyx obliquely campanulate, hairy Corolla yellow, dark yellow, or dull orange, marked purple at apex of standard, or at first pale greenish cream with violet veins on inner surface of standard; standard oblong, 7–12 × ca mm, subequaling wings and slightly longer than keel Ovary stalked; ovules 4–6 Legume stalked, falcate, 35–40 × 7–9 mm Seeds 2–4, oblate-spheroid Fl and fr May–Sep ● Forests, thickets, scrub, grassy slopes, grasslands, limestone gullies, riverbanks, wastelands at roadsides; 1600–3600 m Sichuan, Yunnan 21 Vicia ternata Z D Xia, Acta Phytotax Sin 34: 425 1996 三尖野豌豆 san jian ye wan dou Herbs perennial, 60–80 cm tall, hairy Stem few branched Leaves paripinnate, 7–11 cm; stipules hastate, bifid in distal part, margin 3- or 4-toothed; leaflets 3–7-paired, oblong to elliptic, 13–23 × 8–10 mm, both surfaces hairy when young, apex truncate, 3- or 4-toothed, and mucronate; lateral veins dense but not obvious; tendril 2- or 3-branched Raceme obviously longer than leaf, 15–20-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate, 5–7 mm, unequally toothed, villous Corolla blue; standard oblong, 10–12 × 5–6 mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary shortly stalked, linear, ca mm; ovules ca Legume brown, linear, 20–25 × ca mm, subleathery Seeds or 3, terete Fl May–Jun, fr Jul–Aug ● Forests, bush woods, among shrubs, hill slopes, grasslands; 2200–3000 m Sichuan, Yunnan “Vicia nummularia var macrophylla” (P C Li in W T Wang et al., Vasc Pl Hengduan Mts 1: 1001 1993) belongs here according to X Y Zhu et al (Legumes China, 224 2007) but was not validly published because no Latin description or diagnosis was provided and no type was indicated (Vienna Code, Art 36.1 and 37.1) 22 Vicia wushanica Z D Xia, Acta Phytotax Sin 34: 430 1996 五山野豌豆 wu shan ye wan dou 567 Herbs perennial, 60–70 cm tall Stem erect or climbing, few branched Leaves paripinnate, to 15 cm; stipules hastate or lanceolate, 3–5 × 2–5 mm, margin unequally toothed; leaflets 6–10-paired, oblong-lanceolate, 17–27 × 5–8 mm, puberulent, apex acuminate, mucronate; lateral veins not obvious; tendril branched Raceme branched from base, 3–4.5 cm, obviously shorter than leaf, 6–10-flowered Flowers 15–17 mm Calyx subcampanulate, unequally toothed, hairy Corolla white with fine purple-blue veins; standard oblong, shortly clawed, ca 13 × mm, subequaling auriculate wings and longer than keel Ovary stalked, linear, ca mm; ovules ca Legume unknown Fl May ● Hill slopes; ca 1600 m S Gansu (Wushan) 23 Vicia nummularia Handel-Mazzetti, Symb Sin 7: 577 1933 西南野豌豆 xi nan ye wan dou Herbs perennial, 15–50(–100) cm tall, pilose Stem much branched Leaves paripinnate, 3.5–8 cm; stipules semihastate, margin 2–4-toothed; leaflets 2–7-paired, elliptic, 4–13(–20) × 2–6 mm, abaxially densely hairy, adaxially sparsely papilliferous, apex obtuse or truncate, mucronate; lateral veins 7–12paired, not obvious; tendril branched, slender Raceme 2–4 cm, shorter than or subequaling leaf, 6–9(–12)-flowered Calyx campanulate Corolla yellow; standard ca mm, subequaling wings and keel, apex retuse Ovary shortly stalked, linear, glabrous; ovules 2–6 Legume oblong-rhomboid, 20–25 × 4–7 mm, both ends acute Seeds 2–4 Fl Jun–Sep, fr Jul–Oct ● Forests, Pinus-forested steppes on schistose clay, thickets, grassland slopes, sandy riverbanks; 1400–3700 m Gansu, N and SW Sichuan, Xizang, NW Yunnan 24 Vicia costata Ledebour, Icon Pl 2: 1830 新疆野豌豆 xin jiang ye wan dou Ervum costatum (Ledebour) Trautvetter; Vicia sinkiangensis H W Kung Herbs perennial, 20–80 cm tall Stem suberect, climbing, much branched, puberulent or glabrescent Leaves paripinnate; stipules semihastate, both surfaces with raised veins; leaflets 3– 8-paired, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 6–18(–35) × 1–5 mm, abaxially pilose, adaxially glabrous, apex obtuse or acute, mucronate; lateral veins obvious; tendril present Raceme obviously longer than leaf, 3–11-flowered Calyx campanulate, unequally toothed, pilose or glabrescent Corolla yellow, light yellow, or white; standard obovate, constricted at middle, subequaling wings and longer than keel, apex retuse Ovary linear; ovules 1–5 Legume linear, 26–35 × 5–8 mm Seeds 1–4 Fl and fr Jun–Aug 2n = 12 Hill slopes, gravels, sandy land, deserts; 500–3700 m Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang, Xizang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia (Altai, Tuva)] 25 Vicia kulingana L H Bailey, Gentes Herb 1: 33 1920 牯岭野豌豆 gu ling ye wan dou Herbs perennial, 50–90 cm tall Stem erect Leaves paripinnate, 2–3.5 cm; stipules semihastate or lanceolate, 8–13 × 3– mm, margin toothed; leaflets 2- or 3(–5)-paired, lanceolate to 568 FABEAE narrowly elliptic, 40–85 × 15–35 mm, both surfaces puberulent, apex often acuminate, mucronate; lateral veins 5–8-paired, extending to margin; tendril absent, replaced by a mucro Raceme unbranched, 2–5 cm, subequaling or longer than leaf, 5–18flowered; pedicels ca 1.5 mm; bracts persistent at base of pedicels Flowers ca 15 mm Calyx obliquely campanulate Corolla purple-red, purple, or blue; standard violin-shaped or suboblong, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary long stalked, linear; ovules ca Legume oblong, 40–50 × 7–8 mm, both ends acuminate Seeds 1–4 Fl Apr–Aug, fr Jun–Sep 2n = 14* apex acute, mucronate; lateral veins 8–10-paired, obvious; tendril absent, replaced by a mucro Raceme unbranched, slightly longer than leaf, densely 6–12-flowered; bracts absent or caducous; pedicel ca mm, hairy Calyx cylindric, 10–12 mm Standard ovate-oblong, slightly constricted at middle, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary stalked, linear; ovules or Legume unknown Fl May–Jul ● Bamboo thickets, valleys, grassy places, damp banks, wet places, sandy land; 200–1200 m Henan, Hunan, Jiangxi, ?Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang 28 Vicia venosa (Willdenow ex Link) Maximowicz, Bull Acad Imp Sci Saint-Pétersbourg 18: 395 1873 The inclusion of Liaoning in the distribution is based on a specimen from “Ts’ienshan: Fengtien,” which may refer to Fengtian, an old name for Liaoning province or a prefecture that included Shenyang city “Vicia edentata” (W T Wang & Tang, Ill Treatm Princ Pl China (Leguminosae), 607 1955) belongs here but was not validly published because no Latin description or diagnosis was provided (Vienna Code, Art 36.1) Vicia fauriei Franchet (Bull Soc Philom Paris, sér 7, 10: 139 1886, “fauriae”; Orobus fauriei (Franchet) Stankevicz; V venosa (Willdenow ex Link) Maximowicz var fauriei (Franchet) Okuyama), described from N Japan, somewhat resembles V kulingana in having leaflets 2- or 3-paired and bracts persistent at the base of the pedicels 26 Vicia deflexa Nakai, Bot Mag (Tokyo) 37: 12 1923 弯折巢菜 wan zhe chao cai Herbs perennial, 30–100 cm tall Stem erect, zigzagged Leaves paripinnate, 3–7.5 cm; stipules triangular or lanceolate, 3–6 × 1–3 mm; leaflets 3- or 4-paired, narrowly oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 30–65 × 11–20 mm, margin repand; lateral veins obvious; tendril absent, replaced by a mucro Raceme unbranched, 2–7 cm, subequaling leaf, 7–10-flowered; bracts absent or caducous; pedicels ca mm Flowers 15–20 mm Calyx subcampanulate, very shortly toothed Corolla dark purplered or light purple; standard oblong, ca 15 mm, subequaling wings and keel Ovary linear, ca mm Legume oblong-rhomboid, 25–40 × ca mm, leathery Seeds 2–6 Fl Jun–Oct Forests, bamboo thickets, valleys, riverbanks, along streams; 200– 1400 m Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang [Japan] Vicia deflexa may be better treated within V venosa, as was done by H Ohashi and Y Endo (in Iwatsuki et al., Fl Japan IIb: 229 2001) 27 Vicia chianschanensis (P Y Fu & Y A Chen) Z D Xia, Acta Phytotax Sin 34: 431 1996 [“chianshanensis”] 千山野豌豆 qian shan ye wan dou Vicia ramuliflora (Maximowicz) Ohwi f chianschanensis P Y Fu & Y A Chen, Fl Pl Herb Chin Bor.-Orient 5: 177 1976 Herbs perennial, 40–60 cm tall Stem erect, straight, unbranched or few branched, slightly hairy Leaves paripinnate, 4–5 cm; stipules obliquely ovate, 12–15 × 6–8 mm, margin entire; leaflets 2-paired, ovate, 20–40 × 18–20 mm, glabrous, ● Mixed forests, hill slopes, roadsides Liaoning, Shandong This species is provisionally maintained here Further study is needed to ascertain its appropriate position and rank 柳叶野豌豆 liu ye ye wan dou Orobus venosus Willdenow ex Link, Enum Hort Berol Alt 2: 236 1822; O venosus var willdenowianus Turczaninow; Vicia venosa var willdenowiana (Turczaninow) Maximowicz Herbs perennial, 40–80 cm tall Stem erect, pilose at first, later glabrescent Leaves paripinnate; stipules semihastate, 10– 15 × 3–5 mm, margin toothed, apex long acuminate; leaflets 2– 6-paired, linear to narrowly lanceolate, those on upper part of stem often broader (sometimes to lanceolate) than those on lower part, 40–65(–90) × 3–13(–25) mm, abaxially slightly hairy, apex acuminate or long caudate, mucronate; tendril absent, replaced by a mucro Raceme 2- or 3-branched, 3–7 cm, subequaling or longer than leaf, 4–9-flowered Calyx campanulate Corolla red, purple-red or blue; standard obovate-oblong, ca 13 mm, longer than wings and keel, apex retuse Ovary glabrous; ovules or Legume oblong, flat, 25–33 mm, both ends acuminate Seeds 3–6 Fl Jun–Sep, fr Jul–Sep 2n = 12, 24 Mixed forests, grasslands on hill slopes, meadows; 600–1800 m Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, E Siberia)] 29 Vicia ramuliflora (Maximowicz) Ohwi, J Jap Bot 12: 331 1936 北野豌豆 bei ye wan dou Orobus ramuliflorus Maximowicz, Prim Fl Amur 83 1859; ?O baicalensis (Turczaninow ex Maximowicz) Stankevicz & Roskov; O venosus Willdenow ex Link var albiflorus Turczaninow; ?O venosus var baicalensis Turczaninow ex Maximowicz; ?O venosus var latifolius Turczaninow; O venosus var ramuliflorus (Maximowicz) Stankevicz; ?Vicia baicalensis (Turczaninow ex Maximowicz) B Fedtschenko; V ramuliflora f abbreviata P Y Fu & Y A Chen; ?V ramuliflora f baicalensis (Turczaninow ex Maximowicz) P Y Fu & Y A Chen; V venosa (Willdenow ex Link) Maximowicz var albiflora (Turczaninow) Turczaninow; ?V venosa var baicalensis (Turczaninow ex Maximowicz) Turczaninow; ?V venosa var latifolia (Turczaninow) Turczaninow Herbs perennial, 40–100 cm tall Stem puberulent or glabrescent Leaves paripinnate, 5–8 cm; stipules semihastate, obliquely ovate, or oblong, 8–12(–16) × 10–13 mm, margin FABEAE entire or toothed at base; leaflets (2 or)3(or 4)-paired, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 25–80 × 10–30 mm, abaxially hairy along midrib, apex acuminate or long caudate; tendril absent, replaced by a mucro Raceme usually 2- or 3-branched, 4–5 cm, shorter than leaf (rarely caespitose or capitate on a much-reduced peduncle), sparsely 4–9-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate Corolla blue, blue-purple, or purple-red, rarely white; standard oblong or long obovate, constricted at middle, 11–14(–18) mm, subequaling wings and keel, apex retuse Ovary shortly stalked, linear; ovules or Legume oblong-rhomboid, 25–50 × 5–7 mm, both ends acuminate Seeds 1–4, elliptic Fl and fr Jun– Sep 2n = 12, 14 Forests, forest margins, bush woods, among shrubs, hill slopes, grasslands, meadows, along rivers, weed communities; 200–1600 m Anhui, Beijing, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shandong [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, E Siberia)] 30 Vicia unijuga A Braun in A Braun et al., Index Sem Hort Berol 1853: 22 1853 歪头菜 wai tou cai Orobus lathyroides Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 728 1753, not Vicia lathyroides Linnaeus (1753); Ervum unijugum (A Braun) Alefeld; Lathyrus messerschmidii Franchet & Savatier; Vicia unijuga f albiflora Nakai; V unijuga var angustifolia Nakai; V unijuga var breviramea Nakai; V unijuga var ciliata H Léveillé; V unijuga var integristipula H Léveillé; V unijuga var kaussanensis H Léveillé; V unijuga var lobata Seok & B H Choi; V unijuga subsp minor (Nakai) Y N Lee; V unijuga f minor Nakai; V unijuga var ouensanensis H Léveillé Herbs perennial, (15–)40–100(–180) cm tall Stem subshrubby, pilose when young Leaves paripinnate; stipules hastate or sublanceolate, 8–20 × 3–5 mm, margin unequally toothed; leaflets 1-paired, ovate to lanceolate or rhombic-elliptic, (15–)30–90(–115) × (6–)15–40(–50) mm, both surfaces pilose, apex sometimes acuminate; tendril rarely present, usually replaced by a mucro Raceme rarely branched, ± cylindric, 4.5– cm, usually obviously longer than leaf, densely 8–20-flowered Calyx campanulate or obliquely so, glabrescent Corolla deep or light blue to purple to red, rarely white; standard violinshaped, constricted at middle, 11–15 mm; wings 13–14 mm, longer than keel Ovary linear, glabrous; ovules 2–8 Legume oblong, flat, 20–35 × 5–7 mm, glabrous, apex beaked Seeds 3– 7, oblate-spheroid Fl Feb (in S Yunnan), Jun–Sep, fr Jul–Oct 2n = 12, 14, 24 Forests, forest margins, thickets, scrub, hedges, mountain and hill slopes and summits, damp valleys, pastures, grassy places, river and stream banks, ravines, rocky places on slopes, roadside banks, field margins; below 4000 m Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, Siberia)] Vicia unijuga may be the commonest species of Vicia in China, or at least it is the most often collected The morphological variation is considerable Several specimens from Hubei are distinctive in having leaflets lanceolate, large (55–115 × 25–45 mm), with a long-acuminate apex (A Henry 6596, BM!, E!, K!; E H Wilson 1230, K!; E H Wilson 2036, E!; E H Wilson 3486, BM!, E!, K!; and Silvestri 1185, K!) A specimen apparently from the Beijing area (“Fl Pekinensis,” Bret- 569 schneider 209, K!) is similar, as is one from S Korea (Chung In-Cho’s collector 9555, E!) Two specimens from Shandong ([German name] 218, K!; E Faber 245, K!) have leaflets narrowly elliptic and unusually narrow (30–50 × 6–12 mm) A specimen from S Yunnan (J F Rock 2548, K!) has leaves approaching this narrowness Vicia unijuga var trifoliolata Z D Xia (Acta Phytotax Sin 34: 433 1996; V unijuga f trifoliolata (Z D Xia) Y Endo & H Ohashi), described from Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Sichuan, was diagnosed in the protologue as “A typo foliolis cirrho 4–5 cm longo, floribus minoribus laxioribusque differt” (differs from the type [by having] leaflets with tendril 4–5 cm long, with flowers smaller and laxer) Further study is needed to ascertain its status “Vicia unijuga var waldeniana” (S Y Hu in B M Walden & S Y Hu, Wild Fl Yunnan Centr China, 131 2000) belongs here but was not validly published because no type was indicated (Vienna Code, Art 37.1) 31 Vicia ohwiana Hosokawa, J Soc Trop Agric 5: 288 1933 头序歪头菜 tou xu wai tou cai Orobus ohwianus (Hosokawa) Stankevicz & Roskov; Vicia unijuga A Braun var apoda Maximowicz; V unijuga var ohwiana (Hosokawa) Nakai Herbs perennial, ca 70 cm tall Stem erect, unbranched or few branched, puberulent Leaves subsessile, paripinnate; stipules ovate-lanceolate, margin entire; leaflets 1-paired, broadly ovate to subrhomboid, 40–70(–100) × 35–50(–170) mm, glabrous or pilose at margin and along veins, apex acute; tendril absent, replaced by a mucro Raceme abbreviated to capitate, shorter than leaf, densely flowered Calyx campanulate, 8–10 mm, villous Corolla purple, rarely white; standard oblong-obovate, 10–14 mm, equaling wings and longer than keel Legume obliquely oblong, 25–30 × ca mm, glabrous, apex beaked Fl and fr Jul–Sep 2n = 12, 24 Forests, forest margins, bush woods, among shrubs, hill slopes, sunny slopes, grasslands, meadows; below 4000 m Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East, Siberia)] 32 Vicia geminiflora Trautvetter, Trudy Imp S.-Peterburgsk Bot Sada 3(1): 42 1875 索伦野豌豆 suo lun ye wan dou Herbs perennial, 25–50 cm tall Stem slender, hairy when young Leaves paripinnate; stipules linear-lanceolate; leaflets 2– 5-paired, linear, 25–30 × 2–3 mm, apex mucronate; lateral veins not obvious; tendril unbranched Raceme longer than leaf, 2- or 3(or 4)-flowered; rachis 7–8 cm Calyx campanulate Corolla blue-purple or purple, 16–26 mm; standard obovate-oblong, longer than wings and keel, apex retuse Ovary long stalked; ovules many Legume not seen Fl Jun–Jul 2n = 14 Grasslands on riverbanks Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol [Mongolia, Russia (E Siberia)] 33 Vicia tetrantha H W Kung, Contr Inst Bot Natl Acad Peiping 3: 391 1935 四花野豌豆 si hua ye wan dou Vicia multijuga Z D Xia (1996), not (Boissier) K H Rechinger (1951) FABEAE 570 Herbs perennial, 60–120 cm tall Stem slender, glabrous or pilose Leaves paripinnate, 5–11 cm; stipules hastate to lanceolate or elliptic, 3–7 × 1–5 mm; leaflets 8–11-paired, narrowly oblong or narrowly lanceolate, 12–27 × 3–6 mm, glabrous or hairy, apex acuminate, mucronate; tendril unbranched or branched Raceme shorter than leaf, 2–7-flowered; bracts caducous; pedicels hispidulous Calyx campanulate or subcampanulate, 4.5–6 mm, sometimes tomentose Corolla blue-purple or purple; standard violin-shaped or oblong, 10–12 × ca mm, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary stalked, fusiform, glabrous; ovules ca Legume oblong, ca 23 × mm, glabrous Seeds 1–5, spheroid Fl Jun–Sep, fr Aug–Sep ● Hill slopes, hill grasslands, roadsides; 1000–2500 m Gansu, Hubei, Shaanxi Plants with pilose stem and long (15–27 mm), hairy leaflets have been called Vicia multijuga Z D Xia, which is a later homonym and therefore illegitimate 34 Vicia bungei Ohwi, J Jap Bot 12: 330 1936 大花野豌豆 da hua ye wan dou Vicia tridentata Bunge, Enum Pl China Bor 19 1833, not Gaterau (1789), nor Schweinitz (1824); V americana Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var bungei (Ohwi) Stankevicz; V americana var sinensis C R Gunn Herbs annual or short-lived perennial, 15–50 cm tall Stem climbing or trailing, much branched, glabrescent Leaves paripinnate; stipules semihastate, 3–7 mm, margin toothed; leaflets 3–5-paired, linear-oblong, oblong, or narrowly oblong-oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, 10–25 × 2–8 mm, abaxially pilose, apex usually emarginate and mucronate, thereby often appearing 3-toothed, sometimes truncate or rounded, rarely distal margin also toothed; tendril branched Raceme subequaling or longer than leaf, 2–4(or 5)-flowered Calyx campanulate, pilose Corolla red-purple, blue-purple, or pale violet, sometimes white on keel; standard obovate-lanceolate, longer than wings Ovary long stalked, sericeous along sutures Legume oblong, 25–35 mm, glabrous Seeds 2–8, spheroid Fl Apr–Jul, fr May– Aug 2n = 24, 26, 42 Forests, mountain and hill slopes, valleys, grasslands, meadows, banks above lakes, streamsides, steep rocky sides of river gorges, walls, fields and field margins, wastelands, roadsides, sandy and rocky seashores; sea level to 4200 m Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Korea] 35 Vicia tetrasperma (Linnaeus) Schreber, Spic Fl Lips 26 1771 四籽野豌豆 si zi ye wan dou Ervum tetraspermum Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 738 1753 Herbs annual, 20–60 cm tall Stem climbing, much branched, slender, puberulent Leaves paripinnate, 2–4 cm; stipules sagittate or semitriangular, 2–3 mm; leaflets 2–6-paired, oblong or linear, 6–7 × ca mm; tendril present Raceme ca cm, 1- or 2-flowered Calyx obliquely campanulate Corolla pale blue, pale violet, pale rose, or white, 4–8 mm; standard oblong-obovate; wings subequaling keel Ovary stalked, oblong, 3–4 mm; ovules Legume oblong, 8–12 × 2–4 mm, glabrous Seeds 4, oblate-spheroid Fl Feb–Aug, fr Mar–Aug 2n = 14 Hill slopes, valleys, grasslands, fields, cultivated areas, open ground, wastelands, roadsides; near sea level to 2900 m Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, N India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, N Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; N Africa, C and SW Asia, N Atlantic islands, Europe; widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere] 36 Vicia hirsuta (Linnaeus) Gray, Nat Arr Brit Pl 2: 614 1821 小巢菜 xiao chao cai Ervum hirsutum Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 738 1753; Vicia coreana H Léveillé; V hirsuta var hefeiana J Q He; V taquetii H Léveillé; Vicioides hirsuta (Linnaeus) Moench Herbs annual, 15–90(–120) cm tall Stem climbing, slender, glabrescent Leaves paripinnate; stipules semisagittate or lanceolate, margin 2- or 3-toothed at base; leaflets 4–8-paired, linear or narrowly oblong, 5–15 × 1–3 mm, glabrous; tendril branched Raceme obviously shorter than leaf, densely 2–4(–7)flowered at apex of rachis Calyx campanulate Corolla white to light purple, rarely pink, 2–4(–5) mm; standard elliptic, subequaling wings and longer than keel Ovary sessile, densely rigidly hairy; ovules Legume oblong-rhomboid, 5–10 × 2–5 mm, hirsute Seeds 2, oblate-spheroid Fl Feb–Jun, fr Feb– Aug 2n = 12, 14 Valleys, grassy slopes, grasslands, creek banks, along streams, farms, fields and field margins, villages, gardens, cultivated areas, roadsides; sea level to 2900 m Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangsu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, N India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, N Pakistan, Russia, Turkmenistan; Africa, C and SW Asia, N Atlantic islands, Europe; introduced and naturalized elsewhere] “Ervum filiforme” (Wallich, Numer List, no 5955 1831) belongs here but is a nomen nudum and was therefore not validly published 37 Vicia sepium Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 737 1753 野豌豆 ye wan dou Vicioides sepium (Linnaeus) Moench Herbs perennial, 30–100 cm tall Stem erect or climbing, slender, pilose Leaves paripinnate, 7–12 cm; stipules semihastate, margin 2–4-toothed; leaflets 5–7-paired, oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 6–30 × 4–13 mm, pilose, apex obtuse or truncate, mucronate; tendril branched Flowers 2–4(–6) in axillary fascicles Calyx campanulate Corolla pale violet-purple, red, or nearly purple to pink, 10–15 mm; standard nearly violinshaped; wings shorter than standard; keel curved inward Ovary shortly stalked, linear, glabrous; ovules ca Legume broadly oblong to subrhomboid, slightly curved, 20–40 × 5–7 mm, apex beaked Seeds 5–7, oblate-spheroid Fl Mar–Jun, fr Mar–Aug 2n = 12, 14 Forest margins, hedges, hillocks, hill slopes, grasslands, fields, roadsides; 1000–2200 m Gansu, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan; SW Asia (Caucasus, E Turkey), Europe; introduced and naturalized in temperate regions elsewhere] FABEAE 38 Vicia pannonica Crantz, Stirp Austr Fasc., ed 2, 2: 393 1769 褐毛野豌豆 he mao ye wan dou Herbs annual, 20–60(–100) cm tall, densely yellow to brown villous Stem 2–4-branched from base, erect Leaves paripinnate; stipules ovate-lanceolate or semihastate, small; leaflets 6–9-paired, linear or oblong-linear, 10–15 × 2–3 mm, apex mucronate; lateral veins not obvious; tendril 2- or 3branched Flowers 1–3 in axillary fascicles Calyx obliquely campanulate, ca 11 mm, densely yellow villous Corolla white or yellow-white; standard 15–16 mm, equaling wings and longer than keel, abaxially villous Ovary shortly stalked, villous Legume broadly oblong to subrhomboid, 20–35 × 7–11 mm, densely brown villous, apex beaked Seeds 2–8, suboblate-spheroid Fl and fr Jul–Sep 2n = 12 Cultivated Almost throughout China [native to SW Asia and Europe; introduced and naturalized elsewhere] The Chinese plants correspond to Vicia pannonica subsp pannonica, characterized by a white or yellow-white corolla, with limb of standard shorter than claw, and black seeds Vicia pannonica subsp striata (M Bieberstein) Nyman has a dirty purple corolla, with limb of standard subequaling claw, and black seeds marbled with brown 39 Vicia sativa Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 736 1753 救荒野豌豆 jiu huang ye wan dou Herbs annual, 15–100 cm tall Stem unbranched to much branched, decumbent or climbing, puberulent or pilose Leaves paripinnate, 2–10 cm; stipules hastate, semisagittate, or lanceolate, ca 1.5 mm, 2–5-toothed, puberulent; leaflets 2–7-paired, linear to oblong-cuneate to obcordate, 9–25 × 2–10 mm, hairy, apex acute, obtuse, truncate, or emarginate, mucronate; lateral veins not obvious; tendril 2- or 3-branched Flowers or 2(–4) in axillary fascicles Calyx campanulate, hairy; teeth shorter than to longer than tube Corolla blue-purple or purple to red, (8–)10–30 mm; standard long obovate or obovate, constricted at middle, subequaling or longer than wings; wings longer than keel Ovary shortly stalked, linear or fusiform, puberulent or hairy; ovules 5–8 Legume black, brownish black, brown, or yellow-brown, linear or linear-oblong, slightly curved, contracted or not contracted between seeds, 25–70 × (2.5–)3–11 mm, pubescent to glabrous, apex beaked Seeds 4–8, spheroid Fl Jan–Aug, fr Feb–Sep 2n = 10, 12, 14 Wild or cultivated and possibly naturalized, forests, hedges, hill slopes, valleys, grasslands, dry pastures, damp grassy places, river and creek banks, river beds, farms, orchards, fields, cultivated land, margins of cultivation, wastelands, roadsides; sea level to 3700 m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Nei Mongol, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Africa, SW Asia, N Atlantic islands, Europe; widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere] 1a Corolla 18–30 mm; calyx teeth equaling or longer than calyx tube; legume brown or yellow-brown, contracted between seeds, 571 35–70 × 6–11 mm, usually hairy; leaflets oblong-cuneate to obcordate, apex truncate or emarginate 39a subsp sativa 1b Corolla (8–)10–18 mm; calyx teeth shorter than calyx tube; legume black or brownish black, not contracted between seeds, 25–55 × (2.5–)3–6 mm; usually glabrous; leaflets linear to oblong-cuneate, apex acute, obtuse, or truncate 39b subsp nigra 39a Vicia sativa subsp sativa 救荒野豌豆(原亚种) jiu huang ye wan dou (yuan ya zhong) Vicia sativa var ecirrhosa J Q He Leaflets oblong-cuneate to obcordate, apex truncate or emarginate Calyx: teeth equaling or longer than tube Corolla 18–30 mm Legume brown or yellow-brown, contracted between seeds, 35–70 × 6–11 mm, usually hairy Fl Jan–Aug, fr Feb–Sep 2n = 10, 12 Cultivated and possibly naturalized, forests, hedges, hill slopes, grasslands, dry pastures, creek banks, farms, orchards, fields, cultivated land, margins of cultivation, wastelands, roadsides; sea level to 3000 m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Nei Mongol, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [exact native distribution uncertain; widely cultivated and naturalized] 39b Vicia sativa subsp nigra Ehrhart, Hannover Mag 15: 229 1780 窄叶野豌豆 zhai ye ye wan dou Vicia sativa var angustifolia Linnaeus, Fl Suec., ed 2, 255 1755; V angustifolia Linnaeus; V pilosa M Bieberstein; V sativa subsp angustifolia (Linnaeus) Battandier; V sativa var nigra Linnaeus, nom illeg superfl Leaflets linear to oblong-cuneate, apex acute, obtuse, or truncate Calyx: teeth shorter than tube Corolla (8–)10–18 mm Legume black or brownish black, not contracted between seeds, 25–55 × (2.5–)3–6 mm, usually glabrous Fl Mar–Jul, fr Mar– Sep 2n = 10, 12, 14 Damp grassy places, valleys, riverbanks and beds, farms, fields, open wastelands, roadsides; 200–3700 m Fujian, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Africa, SW Asia, Europe; introduced and naturalized in temperate regions elsewhere] 40 Vicia faba Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 737 1753 蚕豆 can dou Faba vulgaris Moench Herbs annual, 30–120 cm tall Stem erect, thick, glabrous Leaves paripinnate; stipules hastate or triangular-ovate, 10–25 mm, margin slightly toothed; leaflets 1–5-paired, oblong, elliptic, or obovate, 40–60(–100) × 15–40 mm, glabrous, apex mucronate; tendril absent, replaced by a mucro Flowers 2–4(–6) in axillary fascicles Calyx campanulate, unequally toothed Corolla white with purple veins, 20–35 mm; standard con- 572 FABEAE stricted at middle, longer than wings; wings longer than keel Ovary sessile, linear; ovules 2–4(–6) Legume stout, 50–100 × 20–30 mm, tomentose Seeds 2–4(–6), oblong, compressed, 8– 30 mm Fl and fr Mar–Sep 2n = 12, 14 Cultivated; near sea level to 3700 m Throughout China [widely cultivated elsewhere; of cultivated origin] The seeds (broad beans, fava beans) are edible 165 LATHYRUS Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 729 1753 山黧豆属 shan li dou shu Bao Bojian (包伯坚); Gregory Kenicer Herbs annual or perennial Stem erect or climbing by means of tendrils, winged or wingless Leaves paripinnate, with rachis terminating in a branched or simple tendril or a bristle, rarely phyllodic or reduced to modified stipules; stipules sagittate or semisagittate, usually smaller than leaflets, sometimes large and leaflike; leaflets 1- to many paired, elliptic, ovate, ovate-oblong, lanceolate, or linear; veins parallel, pinnate, or reticulate Inflorescence an axillary, pedunculate, 1- to many flowered raceme Calyx campanulate, unequally or equally toothed; teeth not leaflike, at least teeth less than × as long as tube Corolla purple, pink, yellow, or white, sometimes crimson, brick red, or orange Staminal tube not oblique at apex; filaments filiform or distally dilated Style linear or distally dilated, dorsally compressed, pubescent on upper side Legume laterally compressed, dehiscent Seeds to many About 160 species: mainly in Asia, Europe, and North America, with some South American endemics; 18 species (three endemic, three introduced) in China The yellow-flowered species of SE China are a particularly difficult and poorly understood group, represented by only limited gatherings 1a Leaves without tendril at apex (aristate) 2a Stem slightly winged; leaflets with 3(–5) parallel veins 13 L komarovii 2b Stem wingless; leaflets with reticulate veins 3a Corolla purple-red; stipules linear or spurlike (subulate) L vaniotii 3b Corolla orange-yellow or yellow; stipules leaflike (more than mm wide) 4a Leaflets ovate or elliptic L gmelinii 4b Leaflets linear to linear-lanceolate L krylovii 1b Leaves with simple or branched tendril at apex 5a Stem winged (more than mm) 6a Leaves with pair of leaflets; style twisted 7a Raceme 5–15-flowered 17 L latifolius 7b Raceme 1–3(or 4)-flowered 8a Leaflets ovate-oblong or elliptic; corolla 20–30 mm; legume wingless 16 L odoratus 8b Leaflets lanceolate to linear; corolla 12–15(–24) mm; legume winged at sutures 15 L sativus 6b Leaves with more than pair of leaflets; style not twisted 9a Stipules similar to leaflets, 35 mm or longer; leaflets oval to oblong L pisiformis 9b Stipules less than 35 mm; leaflets linear, linear-lanceolate, or elliptic-lanceolate 10a Leaflets with pinnate or subparallel veins, stipules without reflexed basal spur 11 L palustris 10b Leaflets with prominent parallel veins, stipules with reflexed basal spur 12 L quinquenervius 5b Stem wingless 11a Leaves with pair of leaflets 12a Corolla yellow; stipules sagittate 18 L pratensis 12b Corolla purple-red; stipules semisagittate 14 L tuberosus 11b Leaves with more than pair of leaflets 13a Stipules large, subequaling or equaling leaflets; leaflets ovate to broadly ovate L davidii 13b Stipules obviously smaller than leaflets 14a Leaflets large, 9–12 cm, ovate-lanceolate, strongly caudate at apex L caudatus 14b Leaflets less than cm, not strongly caudate at apex 15a Stem procumbent; stipules sagittate L japonicus 15b Stem erect; stipules semisagittate 16a Longest calyx tooth equaling tube 11 L palustris 16b Longest calyx tooth shorter than tube 17a Leaflets narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate; corolla yellow 10 L anhuiensis 17b Leaflets elliptic, ovate, or oblong; corolla pink or purple 18a Plant 20–30 cm high; raceme 2–5-flowered L humilis 18b Plant 80–100 cm high; raceme 9–11(–13)-flowered L dielsianus FABEAE 573 Lathyrus davidii Hance, J Bot 9: 130 1871 中华山黧豆 zhong hua shan li dou 大山黧豆 da shan li dou Lathyrus davidii Hance var roseus C W Chang; L wilsonii Craib Herbs perennial, with tuberous roots, 1–1.8 m tall Stem strong, erect or decumbent, glabrous, wingless, hollow in lower parts Leaves with strong, branched tendrils; stipules large, often similar to leaflets, semisagittate, ovate, 40–60 mm, entire or sometimes dentate at base; leaflets (2 or)3- or 4(or 5)-paired, usually ovate, 40–70 × 50–110 mm, glabrous, with reticulate veins, margin entire, apex mucronate Raceme subequaling leaf, 10–40-flowered Calyx campanulate, ca mm, glabrous, shortly toothed Corolla yellow, maturing to orange, 1.5–2 cm; standard elliptic, with claw; wings subequaling standard, auriculate at base Ovary linear, glabrous Legume orange-brown, linear, 8–15 cm Seeds purple-brown, broadly oblong, smooth Fl May–Jul, fr Aug–Oct Forest margins, scrub forests, slopes; below 1800 m Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Russia] Lathyrus pisiformis Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 734 1753 大托叶山黧豆 da tuo ye shan li dou Herbs perennial, to m tall Stem erect, glabrous, winged Leaves with branched tendril at apex; stipules large, ovate or elliptic, 35–65 mm, glabrous, often with dentate basal lobe; leaflets 3–5-paired, narrowly ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or ellipticlanceolate, 55–90 × 20–30 mm, glabrous, with subparallel veins Raceme 8–14-flowered Calyx campanulate, ca 12 mm, glabrous, unequally toothed Corolla red-purple; standard ca 13 mm, retuse at apex, often with darker venation; wings auriculate at base; keels ca 12 mm Ovary linear, glabrous Legume dark brown, ca 4.5 × 5.5 mm Seeds light yellow, oblatespherical, smooth Fl May–Jun, fr Jul–Aug Forests, valleys, riverbanks; 1100–1500 m Xinjiang [Russia; C and E Europe] Lathyrus humilis (Seringe) Sprengel, Syst Veg 3: 363 1826 矮山黧豆 shan li dou Orobus humilis Seringe in Candolle, Prodr 2: 378 1825; Lathyrus altaicus Ledebour Herbs perennial, 20–30 cm tall Stem slender, erect, sometimes branching, puberulent, wingless Leaves paripinnate; tendril weakly branched or simple; stipules foliose, semisagittate, 10–16 mm, dentate; leaflets (2 or)3- or 4-paired, ovate or elliptic, 15–30(–50) × 10–20 mm, glabrous or abaxially puberulent, with reticulate veins Raceme shorter than leaf, 2–5-flowered Calyx campanulate; longest tooth ca 1/2 length of tube Corolla purple-red, 1.5–2 cm; standard orbicular, with claw; wings and keels auriculate at base Ovary linear, glabrous Legume linear, 4.3–5 cm Seeds red-brown, elliptic, smooth Fl May–Jul, fr Aug–Sep Herbs perennial, 80–100 cm tall Stem erect, glabrous, wingless Leaves with simple or branched tendril; stipules obliquely ovate, toothed, on upper leaves often lanceolate, entire; leaflets (2 or)3- or 4(or 5)-paired, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 35–55(–65) × 13–20(–35) mm, glabrous, with reticulate veins Raceme shorter than or subequaling leaf, 9–11(–13)-flowered Calyx campanulate, 7–8 mm, glabrous, shortly toothed; longest tooth shorter than tube, 1.5–2 mm Corolla pink or purple, 1.8– 1.9 cm; standard orbicular, with claw; wings obovate, auriculate at base Ovary linear, glabrous Legume brown, linear, 5.5–8 cm Seeds elliptic, ca mm, smooth Fl May–Jun, fr Jul–Aug ● Forests, slopes, riverbanks Chongqing, Hubei, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan Lathyrus japonicus Willdenow, Sp Pl 3: 1092 1802 海滨山黧豆 hai bin shan li dou Pisum maritimum Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 727 1753; Lathyrus aleuticus (Greene ex T G White) Pobedimova; L japonicus var aleuticus (Greene ex T G White) Fernald; L japonicus subsp maritimus (Linnaeus) P W Ball; L japonicus var maritimus (Linnaeus) Kartesz & Gandhi; L japonicus f pubescens (Hartman) H Ohashi & Tateishi; L japonicus subsp pubescens (Hartman) Korobkov; L japonicus var pubescens (Hartman) Karlsson; L maritimus Bigelow (1824); L maritimus (Linnaeus) Fries (1835); L maritimus var aleuticus Greene ex T G White; L maritimus f pubescens (Hartman) Saelán; L maritimus subsp pubescens (Hartman) C Regel; L maritimus var pubescens (Hartman) X Y Zhu; L maritimus var velutinus Fries; P maritimum var pubescens Hartman Herbs perennial, 15–50 cm tall Stem stoloniferous, creeping, wingless Leaves with branched or simple tendril; stipules sagittate, 10–30 mm, glabrous; leaflets 3–5-paired, long elliptic or obovate, 25–33 × 11–18 mm, glabrous, with reticulate veins visible on both surfaces Raceme shorter than leaf, 2– 5-flowered Calyx campanulate, 9–10(–12) mm, glabrous; teeth unequal, longest tooth 5–6 mm Corolla purple, ca 21 mm; standard orbicular, with claw; wings narrowly obovate, occasionally white Ovary linear, glabrous or rarely hairy Legume brown or purple-brown, compressed, ca cm, glabrous or puberulent Seeds subglobose Fl May–Jul, fr Jul–Aug Seashores Hebei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang [widely distributed on coasts of temperate Asia, Europe, North America, and South America (Chile)] Plants glabrous or slightly hairy have been called Lathyrus japonicus f japonicus, whereas plants obviously hairy have been called L japonicus f pubescens The two forms are sympatrically distributed in China and elsewhere Although widely recognized, they appear to intrograde, so they are not formally recognized in this account Plants with white wings and keels have been described as L japonicus f albiflorus Miyabe & Tatewaki (Trans Sapporo Nat Hist Soc 14: 185 1936) Forest margins, scrub forests, hill grasslands; below 2500 m Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Korea, Mongolia, Russia] Lathyrus gmelinii (Fischer ex Candolle) Fritsch, Sitzungsber Kaiserl Akad Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss Cl., Abt 1, 104: 516 1895 Lathyrus dielsianus Harms, Bot Jahrb Syst 29: 417 1900 新疆山黧豆 xin jiang shan li dou FABEAE 574 Orobus gmelinii Fischer ex Candolle, Prodr 2: 378 1825; Lathyrus laevigatus (Waldstein & Kitaibel) Grenier subsp gmelinii (Fischer ex Candolle) Hendrych; L luteus (Linnaeus) Moench var gmelinii (Fischer ex Candolle) Reichenbach Herbs perennial, 60–150 cm tall Stem erect, glabrous, wingless Leaves aristate at apex; stipules foliose, semisagittate, 15–30 × 4–10 mm, glabrous, toothed; leaflets 3- or 4-paired, ovate, elliptic, or long elliptic, rarely lanceolate, 30–60(–90) × 10–50 mm, glabrous, with pinnate veins Raceme longer than leaf, 7–12-flowered, glabrous Calyx campanulate, ca cm, glabrous; longest tooth ca mm Corolla orange-yellow, 2.5–3 cm; standard ovate, with claw; wings obovate, auriculate at base Ovary linear, ca 1.8 cm, glabrous Legume brown, linear, 6–8 cm Seeds light brown, smooth Fl May–Jul, fr Jul–Aug Forests, riverbanks; 1400–2400 m Xinjiang [Russia] This and a number of other Eurasian taxa may represent entities in Lathyrus laevigatus, from which they are poorly distinguished Lathyrus krylovii Sergievskaya, Sist Zametki Mater Gerb Krylova Tomsk Gosud Univ Kuybysheva 1933(3–4): 1933 狭叶山黧豆 xia ye shan li dou Lathyrus laevigatus (Waldstein & Kitaibel) Grenier subsp krylovii (Sergievskaya) Hendrych Herbs perennial, 60–80 cm tall Stem erect, glabrous, wingless Leaves aristate at apex; stipules semisagittate, lanceolate or linear, 10–25 × 3–7 mm; leaflets 2–4-paired, linear to linearlanceolate, 50–130 × 3–16 mm, glabrous, with pinnate veins Raceme longer than leaf, 2–4-flowered Calyx campanulate, ca mm, glabrous; longest tooth ca 1.5 mm Corolla yellow, 2–5 cm; standard orbicular, ca 2.7 cm, with claw; wings narrowly obovate, auriculate at base Ovary linear, glabrous Legume brown, linear, 8–9 cm Seeds elliptic, 3–4 mm Fl Jun–Jul, fr Aug–Sep Hill forests; ca 1800 m Xinjiang [Russia] Lathyrus vaniotii H Léveillé, Repert Spec Nov Regni Veg 7: 230 1909 东北山黧豆 dong bei shan li dou Herbs perennial, 40–70 cm tall Stem erect, glabrous, wingless Leaves aristate at apex; stipules semisagittate, subulate, occasionally linear, falcate with a short (ca mm) basal spur, 5–15 × 1–3 mm; leaflets glaucous-gray abaxially, dark green adaxially, (2 or)3- or 4(–6)-paired, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate on lower stem leaves, narrowly ovate, rarely oblong on upper stem leaves, 40–60 × 15–25 mm, glabrous, with reticulate veins, apex shortly mucronate Raceme 4–8-flowered Calyx campanulate, ca 11 mm, glabrous; longest tooth ca mm Corolla purple-red, 1.8–2.5 cm; standard ca 21 mm, with claw; wings equaling standard, ovate Ovary linear, glabrous Fl May–Jun Forested slopes Heilongjiang, Jilin [Korea] Lathyrus caudatus Z Wei & H P Tsui, Bull Bot Res., Harbin 4(1): 49 1984 尾叶山黧豆 wei ye shan li dou Herbs perennial, to 120 cm tall Stem strong, erect, branched, sparsely glandular, wingless Leaves with simple or weakly branching tendril; stipules semisagittate, linear-lanceolate, 12–18 × 1.5–2 mm; leaflets 4- or 5-paired, ovate-lanceolate, 90–120 × 25–40 mm, glabrous, with prominent veins, strongly caudate at apex Raceme ca 10 cm, many flowered Calyx campanulate; teeth unequal, longest tooth ca mm Corolla light yellow, 1.8–2 cm; standard orbicular, with claw; wings slightly shorter than keels Ovary linear, glabrous, brown glandular Legume linear, 6–8 cm, brown glandular Seeds 8– 12 ● Scrub forests; 100–200 m Zhejiang (Jiande) This species is known only from the type gathering 10 Lathyrus anhuiensis Y J Zhu & R X Meng, Acta Phytotax Sin 24: 402 1986 安徽山黧豆 an hui shan li dou Lathyrus henanensis S Y Wang Herbs perennial, 80–120 cm tall Stem erect, much branched, glabrous, wingless Leaves 10–30 cm, mucronate or with a simple tendril at apex; stipules semisagittate, 8–15 × 2–5 mm; leaflets 3–8-paired, narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate, 30–70 × 10–30 mm, glabrous, with pinnate veins, margin entire Raceme subequal or shorter than leaf, ca 10-flowered Calyx campanulate, unequal; longest tooth ca 1/5 length of tube Corolla yellow, 14–18 mm; standard broadly obovate, with claw; wings shorter than standard, obovate, subequaling keel Ovary linear, ca 11 mm, purple-brown glandular hairy; style curved inward Legume light brown, linear, 6–8 cm Seeds brown, oblong Fl May–Jul, fr Jun–Sep ● SE Anhui (Xuancheng), Henan This species is known from few gatherings: from the type gatherings of the species and its synonym Lathyrus henanensis (neither of which were available for this revision) Two incomplete specimens collected by Augustine Henry may represent additional gatherings of this: Aug Henry 6595 (BM) and a specimen dated 1889 (K) 11 Lathyrus palustris Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 753 1753 欧山黧豆 ou shan li dou Herbs perennial, 15–100 cm tall Stem climbing, branched, pubescent or glabrous, winged or unwinged Leaves with simple or branched tendril at apex; stipules semisagittate, 12–25(– 30) × 2–10 mm; leaflets 2–4-paired, linear to broadly lanceolate, without reflexed basal spur, 30–60 × 4–10(–15) mm, pubescent, veins pinnate or subparallel, abaxially prominent Raceme longer than leaf, (2 or)3- or 4(–10)-flowered Calyx campanulate, unequally toothed; longest tooth equaling tube Corolla purple, 13–15(–20) mm; standard obovate, with claw; wings shorter than standard, obovate and longer than keels Ovary linear Legume linear, 3–4 cm, beaked at apex Fl and fr Jul–Sep Marshes, wet meadows, a weed of rice fields; sea level to 3500 m Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America] FABEAE Lathyrus palustris is widely distributed in the N temperate zone in Europe, Russia, E Asia, and North America It is a highly variable taxon with many entities described from it, although few of these stand up to scrutiny East Asian specimens are often referred to L palustris subsp pilosus, but this is based purely on pubescence, a character with no other correlates Consequently, we treat pubescent individuals at the varietal level This species is often confused with L quinquenervius See under that species for the distinguishing characters 1a Stem wingless (subsp exalatus H P Tsui) 11c var exalatus 1b Stem winged (subsp palustris) 2a Leaves with branched tendril; leaflets 2–4-paired; raceme (2 or)3- or 4(or 5)-flowered; plants pubescent 11a var pilosus 2b Leaves with unbranched, short tendril; leaflets 1- or 2(or 3)-paired; raceme 1- or 2(–4)-flowered; plants puberulent or glabrous 11b var linearifolius 11a Lathyrus palustris var pilosus (Chamisso) Ledebour, Fl Ross 1: 686 1843 毛山黧豆 mao shan li dou Lathyrus pilosus Chamisso, Linnaea 6: 548 1831; L palustris subsp pilosus (Chamisso) Hultén Plants pubescent Stem winged Leaves with branched tendril; stipules semisagittate; leaflets 2–4-paired Raceme (2 or)3or 4(or 5)-flowered Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia] Glabrous plants with the characteristics of Lathyrus palustris var pilosus can be referred to the typical variety, Lathyrus palustris var palustris, but such individuals have not been reported from China 11b Lathyrus palustris var linearifolius Seringe in Candolle, Prodr 2: 371 1825 线叶山黧豆 xian ye shan li dou Plants puberulent or glabrous, 10–40 cm tall Stem usually narrowly winged Leaves with short, simple tendril at apex; stipules linear; leaflets 1- or 2(or 3)-paired, linear, rarely ellipticlanceolate Raceme 1- or 2(–4)-flowered ● Sichuan, Yunnan Plants of Lathyrus palustris from the mountains of Sichuan and Yunnan appear as depauperate specimens of the European L palustris var palustris, having reduced numbers of leaflets and flowers This is morphologically consistent with Seringe’s L palustris var linearifolius from Denmark and Switzerland, but it is unclear if these are convergent traits or represent a genuine disjunction Pending molecular evidence, we treat these SW Chinese specimens under L palustris var linearifolius Specimens of L quinquenervius are sometimes labeled L palustris var linearifolius, but L quinquenervius is a far larger plant with parallel veins in the leaflets and linear, acute stipules with a falcate basal spur 11c Lathyrus palustris var exalatus (H P Tsui) X Y Zhu in X Y Zhu et al., Legumes China, 204 2007 575 无翅山黧豆 wu chi shan li dou Lathyrus palustris subsp exalatus H P Tsui, Bull Bot Res., Harbin 4(1): 54 1984; L palustris f exalatus H P Tsui; L palustris f pubescens H P Tsui; L palustris var pubescens (H P Tsui) X Y Zhu Plants glabrous to pubescent Stem wingless Stipules large, 12–25(–30) × 2–8 mm; leaflets usually broadly lanceolate, 30–60 × 5–10(–15) cm, veins subparallel Raceme lax, (2 or)3–8(–10)-flowered ● Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan Pubescent plants have been separated at the form and varietal levels, but close observation shows a continuum from glabrous to puberulent to pubescent individuals, with no clear separation into two groups Consequently, we treat this as a single variety under the subspecies 12 Lathyrus quinquenervius (Miquel) Litvinov in Komarov & Alissova-Klobukova, Opred Rast Dal’nevost Kraia 2: 683 1932 山黧豆 shan li dou Vicia quinquenervia Miquel, Ann Mus Bot LugdunoBatavi 3: 50 1867 Herbs perennial, 20–80 cm tall Stem erect or clambering over surrounding vegetation, rarely branched, winged Leaves with simple tendril; stipules linear, with reflexed basal spur, often falcate, 7–23 × 0.2–2 mm; leaflets 1- or 2(or 3)-paired, elliptic-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 35–80 × 5–8 mm, pubescent, with stiff, prominent parallel veins, rigid when dry Raceme 5–8-flowered Calyx campanulate, pubescent; longest tooth equaling tube Corolla purple-blue or purple, sometimes with white wings and keel, (12–)15–20 mm; standard orbicular, with claw; wings narrowly obovate, auriculate at base Ovary densely hairy Legume linear, 3–5 cm Fl May–Jul, fr Aug– Sep Forests, hill slopes, roadsides; below 2500 m Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan [Japan, Korea, Russia] This species is often confused with Lathyrus palustris but can be distinguished by the five strong, parallel veins in long, slender leaflets The linear, acute stipules with a reflexed basal spur, the strong wings on the stems, and the simple tendrils also aid in identification Herbarium specimens are often mislabeled as Lathyrus palustris var linearifolius 13 Lathyrus komarovii Ohwi, J Jap Bot 12: 329 1936 三脉山黧豆 san mai shan li dou Orobus alatus Maximowicz, Prim Fl Amur 83 1859; Lathyrus alatus (Maximowicz) Komarov (1904), not Tenore (1811), nor Smith (1813); O vernus Linnaeus var alatus (Maximowicz) Regel Herbs perennial, 40–70 cm tall Stem erect, rarely branched, glabrous, narrowly winged Leaves aristate at apex; rachis narrowly winged; stipules semisagittate, 15–25 × 3– 8(–12) mm, rarely dentate; leaflets (2 or)3–5-paired, narrowly ovate to oblanceolate, glabrous, with 3(–5) parallel veins raised FABEAE 576 abaxially and sunken adaxially, apex acuminate Raceme shorter than leaf, 3–8-flowered; bracts membranous, persistent Calyx campanulate, glabrous; longest tooth ca mm, equaling tube Corolla purple, 13–18 mm; standard orbicular, with claw; wings shorter than standard, auriculate at base Ovary linear, glabrous Legume black-brown, linear, 3.7–4.5 cm, glabrous Seeds brown, subglobose, smooth Fl May–Jun, fr Jun–Aug Forests, grasslands Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol [Korea, Russia] 14 Lathyrus tuberosus Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 732 1753 玫红山黧豆 mei hong shan li dou Herbs perennial; rhizomes bearing small tubers Stem 30– 120 cm tall, erect, glabrous, wingless Leaves with simple or branched tendril at apex; stipules semisagittate, 5–20 × 1–4 mm; leaflets 1-paired, elliptic, oblong, or obovate, glabrous, with parallel veins Raceme 2–7-flowered Calyx campanulate, 6–7 mm; longest tooth shorter than tube Corolla purple-red, 1.5–2 cm; standard subovate, with claw; wings obovate, auriculate at base Ovary linear; style twisted Legume brown, linear, 2–4 cm, glabrous Seeds brown, elliptic, tuberculate Fl Jun– Aug, fr Aug–Sep Water meadows, riverbanks; 500–2400 m Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Russia; Europe] Annual herbs, 50–200 cm tall Stem climbing, much branched, somewhat hairy, winged Leaves with branched tendril at apex; rachis winged; stipules semisagittate; leaflets 1paired, ovate-oblong or elliptic, 20–60 × 7–30 mm, with pinnate veins, rarely subparallel veins, margin entire Raceme longer than leaf, 1–3(or 4)-flowered Calyx campanulate, equally toothed and longer than tube Corolla usually purple, or other colors, 20–30 mm Ovary linear; style twisted Legume brown-yellow, linear, 5–7 cm, pubescent Seeds smooth Fl and fr Jun–Sep Widely cultivated in China and worldwide as an ornamental and cut flower [native to Italy (Sicily)] 17 Lathyrus latifolius Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 733 1753 宽叶山黧豆 kuan ye shan li dou Herbs perennial, to m tall Stem erect, quadrangular, pubescent or glabrous, winged Leaves with branched tendril at apex; stipules semisagittate, lanceolate to ovate; leaflets 1paired, elliptic to elliptic-orbicular, or ovate to linear, (30–)40– 150 × 3–50 mm, with parallel veins Raceme 5–15-flowered Calyx campanulate, ca mm, equally 5-toothed Corolla purple to pink, (15–)20–30 mm Style twisted Legume brown, 5– 11 cm, glabrous Seeds 10–15 15 Lathyrus sativus Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 730 1753 Cultivated in Shaanxi [native to C and S Europe; cultivated worldwide in temperate areas as an ornamental and fodder crop] 家山黧豆 jia shan li dou 18 Lathyrus pratensis Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 733 1753 Annual herbs, 30–50(–70) cm tall Stem suberect, glabrous, winged Leaves with tendril at apex; rachis winged; stipules semisagittate, 18–25 × 2–5 mm; leaflets 1-paired, lanceolate to linear, 18–25 × 2–5 mm, with parallel veins, margin entire Raceme 1(or 2)-flowered; rachis 3–6 cm Calyx campanulate, subequally toothed, 2–3 × as long as tube Corolla white, blue, or pink, 12–15(–24) mm Ovary linear; style twisted Legume subelliptic, 2.5–3.5(–4) cm, 2-winged along sutures Seeds smooth Fl Jun–Jul, fr Aug Cultivated as a fodder crop in N China, casual elsewhere [widely cultivated and naturalized; of uncertain origin] 16 Lathyrus odoratus Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 732 1753 香豌豆 xiang wan dou 牧地山黧豆 mu di shan li dou Herbs perennial, 30–120 cm tall Stem decumbent or climbing, wingless Leaves with simple or branched tendril at apex; stipules sagittate, (5–)10–45 × 3–10(–15) mm; leaflets 1paired, elliptic, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, 10–30(–50) × 2–9(–13) mm, puberulent, with parallel veins Raceme 3–6 × as long as leaf, 5–12-flowered Calyx campanulate, pubescent; longest tooth longer than tube Corolla yellow, 12–18 mm; standard orbicular, ca 14 mm, with claw; wings slightly shorter than standard Legume black, linear, 2.5–4.5 cm Seeds yellow or brown, orbicular, smooth Fl Jun–Aug, fr Aug–Oct Forests, hill slopes, roadsides Gansu, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [Asia, Europe] 166 LENS Miller, Gard Dict Abr., ed 4, [765] 1754, nom cons 兵豆属 bing dou shu Bao Bojian (包伯坚); Nicholas J Turland Herbs annual Stem erect or procumbent Leaves paripinnate with rachis terminating in a tendril or mucro; stipules obliquely lanceolate; leaflets 2- to many paired, obovate, obovate-oblong, or obovate-lanceolate, margin entire Inflorescence a 1- to manyflowered raceme Flowers small Calyx deeply divided into equal teeth at least × as long as tube Corolla white or otherwise colored; standard obovate; wings and keel with claw and auricle Stamens diadelphous; staminal tube oblique at apex; filaments filiform Ovary shortly stalked or subsessile; style dorsally compressed, pubescent on upper side Legume short, strongly compressed Seeds or 2, brown, lenticular Four to six species: Mediterranean region to C Asia, extending to the Canary islands and tropical Africa: one species (introduced) in China FABEAE Lens culinaris Medikus, Vorles Churpfälz Phys.-Öcon Ges 2: 361 1787 兵豆 bing dou Ervum lens Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 738 1753; Lens esculenta Moench; Vicia lens (Linnaeus) Cosson & Germain; V pisicarpa H Léveillé Plants 10–50 cm tall Stem branched from base, pubescent Leaves: stipules 3–7 mm, white villous; leaflets sessile, 4–12- 577 paired, 6–20 × 2–5 mm, both surfaces villous Raceme 1–3flowered; rachis densely white hairy Calyx densely villous Corolla white or blue-purple, 4.5–6.5 mm Ovary shortly stalked, glabrous Legume yellow, oblong, inflated, 10–15 mm Fl Apr–Sep, fr May–Sep 2n = 14, 21, 26 Cultivated; 800–3600 m Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [widely cultivated elsewhere; of cultivated origin] The seeds (lentils) are edible 167 PISUM Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 727 1753 豌豆属 wan dou shu Bao Bojian (包伯坚); Nicholas J Turland Herbs annual or perennial Stem often climbing by means of tendrils, terete, glabrous Leaves paripinnate with rachis terminating in a tendril; stipules leaflike, cordate, larger than leaflets (to 10 cm); leaflets 1–3-paired, ovate to elliptic, margin entire or dentate Inflorescence a 1- to many flowered raceme Calyx campanulate; teeth ± leaflike, at least teeth less than × as long as tube Corolla white or otherwise colored; standard obovate Stamens diadelphous; staminal tube not oblique at apex; filaments distally slightly dilated Ovary subsessile; ovules many; style curved inward, distally dilated and margin recurved forming a laterally compressed body, longitudinally grooved, hairy on upper side Legume long elliptic, inflated, apex acute Seeds many, spheroid Two or three species: Mediterranean region to SW Asia, one species cultivated in temperate regions worldwide, including China Pisum sativum Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 727 1753 豌豆 wan dou Pisum arvense Linnaeus; P sativum subsp arvense (Linnaeus) Ascherson & Graebner; P sativum var arvense (Linnaeus) Poiret Herbs annual, 0.5–2 m tall, glabrous Stem climbing Leaves: stipules to 10 × cm, margin toothed; leaflets ovate, 2– × 1–4 cm Raceme 1–3-flowered Corolla variable in color, usually white and/or purple, 15–35 mm Ovary glabrous; style flat Legume 2.5–12 × 1–2.5 cm Seeds 2–10 Fl Feb–Sep, fr Feb–Sep 2n = 14 Cultivated, sometimes persisting as a relic or escape from cultivation; sea level to 3800 m Throughout China [cultivated in temperate regions worldwide; of cultivated origin] The seeds (peas) are edible, as are the young legumes of some cultivars (snow pea, mange-tout) ... 10.5 cm, abaxially puberulent especially on principal veins, adaxially glabrous, principal veins 5, raised abaxially, reticulate veins conspicuous on both surfaces, base truncate or shallowly cordate,... cm, papery, both surfaces often glaucous especially adaxially, abaxially sparsely puberulent on axils of veins at base, base CERCIDEAE ● Mountain valleys, open or dense forests, by streams; 600–1900... imparipinnate (simple leaf only in Bowringia callicarpa and Ormosia simplicifolia); stipules small or absent, stipels present or absent; calyx usually subequally 5-dentate; trees, shrubs, or vines,
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