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This PDF version does not have an ISBN or ISSN and is not therefore effectively published (Melbourne Code, Art 29.1) The printed version, however, was effectively published on June 2013 Zhang, X C., H P Nooteboom & M Kato 2013 Selaginellaceae Pp 37–66 in Z Y Wu, P H Raven & D Y Hong, eds., Flora of China, Vol 2–3 (Pteridophytes) Beijing: Science Press; St Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press SELAGINELLACEAE 卷柏科 juan bai ke Zhang Xianchun (张宪春)1; Hans P Nooteboom2, Masahiro Kato3 Plants herbaceous, terrestrial, epilithic, or occasionally epiphytic, evergreen or sometimes seasonally green, perennial (rarely annual) Rhizome erect, prostrate, creeping, ascending, or scandent, branched Rootlike rhizophores borne on dorsal (upper) or ventral (lower) side in axils of branches, confined to lower part of rhizome or throughout, simple or branched Roots formed at tip of rhizophore, branched Leaves simple, 1-veined (exceptionally forked), each bearing a ligule in axil on adaxial surface, monomorphic or dimorphic, spirally arranged or in most species arranged in ranks, ranks on dorsal or upper side of stem and branch (called median or dorsal leaves), other ranks on lateral or lower side (called lateral or ventral leaves) Strobili at apex of main stem or branch or lateral to branchlet, compact or lax, tetragonal, complanate or rarely cylindrical; sporophylls arranged in ranks, monomorphic or dimorphic; in dorsiventral strobili with dimorphic sporophylls, dorsal (upper) sporophylls of most species larger than ventral (lower) ones (=resupinate), dorsal sporophylls normally green and firm in texture, while ventral ones paler and somewhat membranous, or dorsal sporophylls smaller than ventral sporophylls (=non-resupinate); in some dorsiventral strobili, dorsal sporophylls bearing outgrowths on lower surface, like a flap, termed “sporophyll-pteryx,” partially covering sporangium proximal to it Sporophylls various, ranging from ovate to ovate-lanceolate, margin denticulate, ciliolate, or entire, apex acute and entire, with ligules distal to sporangia Sporangia single per sporophyll, heterosporangiate (megasporangium and microsporangium) Spores heterosporous, megaspores ca 10 × as large as microspores, megaspores 4, rarely per sporangium, microspores more than 100; spores trilete, tetrahedral-globose, or nearly spheroidal, and often bearing equatorial flange x = 8, 9, 10 One genus and ca 700 species: almost cosmopolitan, with its highest diversity in the tropics; 72 species (23 endemic, one introduced) in China Zhang Xianchun 2004 Selaginellaceae In: Zhang Xianchun, ed., Fl Reipubl Popularis Sin 6(3): 86–219 SELAGINELLA P Beauvois, Prodr Aethéogam 101 1805, nom cons 卷柏属 juan bai shu Lycopodioides Boehmer, nom rej.; Selaginoides Séguier; Stachygynandrum P Beauvois ex Mirbel, nom rej Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family Five subgenera are recognized In a molecular phylogeny (Korall et al., Int J Pl Sci 160: 585–594 1999), the isophyllous Selaginella subg Selaginella (absent from China) and S subg Tetragonostachys Jermy are monophyletic, but the anisophyllous S subg Stachygynandrum Warburg and S subg Heterostachys Warburg are not monophyletic Six uncertain taxa, not included in the following key, are listed at the end of the account 1a Sterile leaves monomorphic, spirally arranged, linear or linear-lanceolate, with long white apical seta 2a Leaves thickly leathery, obtuse at apex S sibirica 2b Leaves thinly leathery, acuminate at apex 3a Apical seta ca 1/3 as long as leaves S vardei 3b Apical seta ca 1/5 as long as leaves S indica 1b Sterile leaves dimorphic, arranged in ranks, dorsal and ventral leaves, rarely nearly monomorphic, without long white apical seta 4a Stems and branches cylindrical, often reddish; sterile leaves nearly monomorphic, adpressed to stems and branches 5a Leaves not white-margined S sanguinolenta 5b Leaves distinctly white-margined S albocincta 4b Branches often compressed; leaves dimorphic, dorsal leaves ascending, ventral leaves spreading 6a Strobili lax, not distinct from sterile stems; sporophylls monomorphic or dimorphic, almost conform with sterile leaves at same rank (non-resupinate) (see also 42b) 7a Strobili cylindrical; sporophylls monomorphic, smaller than ventral leaves S helvetica 7b Strobili rather loosely dorsiventrally compressed; sporophylls dimorphic, nearly conform with sterile leaves at same rank 8a Leaves denticulate at margin S nipponica 8b Leaves shortly ciliolate at margin S pseudonipponica State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, People’s Republic of China Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Section NHN, Leiden University, P.O Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands Department of Botany, National Museum of Nature and Science, Amakubo 4-1-1, Tsukuba 305-0005, Japan 37 38 SELAGINELLACEAE 6b Strobili compact, distinct from sterile stems; sporophylls in ranks, monomorphic or dimorphic (dorsal sporophylls larger than ventral ones, rarely smaller) 9a Strobili tetragonal; sporophylls nearly monomorphic 10a Stems forming rosettes, curling inward when dry 11a Dorsal and ventral leaves denticulate at margin S tamariscina 11b Dorsal leaves reflexed at margin; acroscopic margin of ventral leaves brown, membranous, lacerate 10 S pulvinata 10b Stems not forming rosettes, not curling inward when dry 12a Main stems creeping or prostrate in basal portion to scandent; rhizophores borne throughout stems 13a Main stems scandent, up to 1–2 m or longer 14a Axillary and ventral leaves with large basal auricles; dorsal leaves slightly white-margined; sporophylls ovate, acute or cuspidate; base of rhizophores without spines 11 S willdenowii 14b Axillary and ventral leaves with small basal auricles; dorsal leaves white-margined; sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; base of rhizophores with a few spines 12 S helferi 13b Main stems creeping, decumbent, or scandent, usually less than m 15a Plants xerophytic, curling when dry; leaves ciliolate at margin 16a Dorsal leaves slightly smaller than and overlapping ventral leaves; leaves slightly lacerate and densely long ciliolate at margin 13 S nummularifolia 16b Dorsal leaves much smaller than and not largely overlapping ventral leaves 17a Stems and branches scarlet; ventral leaves reflexed; margin of leaves sparsely toothed and long ciliolate at acroscopic base, entire elsewhere 14 S rossii 17b Stems and branches stramineous; ventral leaves not reflexed; margin of leaves shortly ciliolate throughout 15 S sinensis 15b Plants not xerophytic, not curling when dry; leaves entire or denticulate at margin 18a Leaves entire 19a Dorsal leaves auriculate at basiscopic base 16 S limbata 19b Dorsal leaves not auriculate 20a Sporophylls not carinate on abaxial surface 17 S uncinata 20b Sporophylls carinate on abaxial surface 18 S hainanensis 18b Leaves denticulate or ciliolate at margin 21a Stems not articulate; rhizophores borne on ventral side in axils of branches 22a Leaves not white-margined, leaves on main stems and lateral branches ciliolate at margin, those on ultimate branches often subentire 19 S siamensis 22b Leaves white-margined, denticulate or shortly ciliolate 20 S davidii 21b Stems slightly articulate beneath branching; rhizophores borne on dorsal side in axils of branches 23a Stems with a single vascular bundle 21 S remotifolia 23b Stems with vascular bundles 22 S kraussiana 12b Main stems erect, suberect, or ascending with short prostrate basal portion; rhizophores usually borne on basal to middle portions of main stem 24a Rhizophores borne on basal and middle portions of main stem or sometimes also on upper portion; leaves on main stem dimorphic 25a Plants erect; lateral branches regularly pinnately branched, twice forked, or simple; leaves entire or minutely denticulate at apex 26a Main stems 3–5 mm in diam., apical part black when dry; stomata invisible on dorsal leaves 23 S picta 26b Main stems 2–3 mm in diam., apical part not black when dry; stomata on adaxial surface of dorsal leaves visible 27a Lateral branchlets simple or forked, or basal branchlets often forked; dorsal leaves overlapping distally 24 S delicatula 27b Lateral branchlets simple, sometimes with irregular longer branches; dorsal leaves parallel, not overlapping distally 25 S wallichii 25b Plants erect, suberect, or ascending with prostrate rhizome; lateral branches many times pinnately branched; leaves denticulate 28a Leaves subleathery, shiny when dry; dorsal leaves aristate, arista ca 1/2 as long as leaves or longer 26 S commutata 28b Leaves herbaceous, not shiny when dry; dorsal leaves acuminate to aristate, arista very short 29a Ventral leaves 4.5–7 mm 27 S rolandi-principis 29b Ventral leaves less than 4.5 mm SELAGINELLACEAE 39 30a Ventral leaves ovate-triangular or ovate-lanceolate; dorsal leaves aristate; surface of dorsal and ventral leaves scabrous 28 S scabrifolia 30b Ventral leaves ovate-oblong or oblong-falcate; dorsal leaves acuminate or very shortly aristate; surface of leaves glabrous or that of ventral leaves scabrous 31a Dorsal and ventral leaves glabrous 29 S doederleinii 31b Ventral leaves scabrous 30 S trachyphylla 24b Rhizophores restricted to basal or lower portion of main stem or to prostrate rhizome; leaves on main stem monomorphic 32a Stems and branches pubescent 33a Main stems isotomously branched 31 S pubescens 33b Main stems pinnately branched 34a Plants 45–100 cm high or more; axillary leaves biauriculate at base, ventral leaves auriculate at acroscopic base 35a Leaf portion of main stems and branches pubescent on both sides; main stems zigzag; leaves white-margined 32 S trichoclada 35b Leaf portion of main stems glabrous, ventral side of branches pubescent; main stems not zigzag; leaves not white-margined 33 S pseudopaleifera 34b Plants 10–45 cm high; axillary leaves not auriculate at base 36a Leaves thick, shrunken when dry; leaves on main stems peltate 34 S braunii 36b Leaves thin, not shrunken; leaves on main stems basifixed 35 S biformis 32b Stems and branches glabrous 37a Plants usually more than 50 cm high, main stems robust, up to 4–5 mm in diam.; branches including leaves 5–10 mm wide 36 S superba 37b Plants usually less than 50 cm high, main stems 1–2 mm in diam., not so robust; branches including leaves less than mm wide 38a Leaves on main stems approximate 39a Main stems reddish 37 S stauntoniana 39b Main stems stramineous 38 S involvens 38b Leaves on main stems distant 40a Leaves on main stems peltate at base, not white-margined, ciliolate, very shrunken when dry 39 S mairei 40b Leaves on main stems basifixed, white-margined, denticulate, not shrunken when dry 40 S moellendorffii 9b Strobili dorsiventrally complanate; dorsal and ventral sporophylls dimorphic 41a Strobili non-resupinate, i.e., dorsal sporophylls smaller than ventral ones 42a Strobili rather lax, often forked (see also 6a) 43a Fertile branches short, pinnately branched; leaves up to 3.2 × 1.8 mm, margin denticulate, shortly ciliolate at base 41 S pallidissima 43b Fertile branches erect or ascending, forked; leaves up to 2.3 × 1.2 mm, shortly ciliolate at margin, ciliolate at base 42 S laxistrobila 42b Strobili shortly compact, solitary (or sometimes forked in S prostrata) 44a Leaves denticulate at margin 43 S tama-montana 44b Leaves long ciliolate at margin 45a Strobili less than mm; sporophylls plane 44 S prostrata 45b Strobili usually over mm, up to 25 mm; larger ventral sporophylls navicular 45 S longistrobilina 41b Strobili resupinate, i.e., dorsal sporophylls larger than ventral ones 46a Main stems erect or suberect; rhizophores restricted to basal or lower portion of main stems 47a Plants more than 30 cm high 48a Plants erect, 40–75 cm high; rhizophores restricted to basal portion of main stems 46 S decipiens 48b Plants suberect, 30–40 cm high; rhizophores present in lower part of main stems 47 S bodinieri 47b Plants usually less than 30 cm high 49a Sporophylls strongly dimorphic, ventral sporophylls up to 1/2 as long as dorsal ones 50a Plants up to 30 cm high; main stems robust; dorsal leaves obovate-aristate 48 S pennata 50b Plants 5–15(–25) cm high; main stems thin 51a Ventral leaves up to mm; sporophylls minutely denticulate 49 S leptophylla 51b Ventral leaves up to mm; sporophylls sparsely ciliate 50 S minutifolia 49b Sporophylls not strongly dimorphic, ventral sporophylls ca 2/3 as long as dorsal ones 52a Main stems tuberous at base 51 S chrysocaulos 52b Main stems not tuberous at base 53a Axillary leaves ovate-deltoid 52 S effusa SELAGINELLACEAE 40 53b Axillary leaves ovate-lanceolate 54a Plants erect, main stems simple, branched in upper portion; leaves on stems and branches rather distant; rhizophores restricted to basal portion of main stems; base of ventral leaves shortly ciliolate 53 S labordei 54b Plants ascending to erect, main stems branched in lower and upper portions; leaves on main stems rather approximate; rhizophores on lower portion of main stems; base of ventral leaves long ciliolate 54 S repanda 46b Main stems prostrate or at least lower part prostrate, branches creeping or erect; rhizophores at intermittent intervals 55a Stems long creeping, fertile branches not erect, plants up to 30 cm or more; rhizophores on main stems and branches at intermittent intervals 56a Dorsal leaves obovate, long ciliolate in upper portion 55 S bisulcata 56b Dorsal leaves not as above 57a Ultimate branches including leaves 10–15 mm wide 56 S megaphylla 57b Ultimate branches including leaves less than mm wide 58a Dorsal leaves long aristate; sporophyll-pteryx of dorsal sporophylls not reaching apex (incomplete) 59a Basiscopic margin of ventral leaves entire 57 S ornata 59b Basiscopic margin of ventral leaves ciliolate 58 S amblyphylla 58b Dorsal leaves acuminate or shortly aristate; sporophyll-pteryx of dorsal sporophylls reaching apex or almost so (complete) 60a Leaves glabrous 59 S monospora 60b Leaves scabrous 60 S trichophylla 55b Main stems and branches prostrate or fertile branches suberect, plants usually less than 20 cm, or main stems erect, normally less than 25 cm high; rhizophores on prostrate stems or restricted to basal portion of erect main stems 61a Prostrate stems very short, thin; plants small; fertile stems prominent 62a Sporangia only on ventral side of strobilus; sporophylls denticulate 61 S devolii 62b Sporangia on both sides of strobilus; sporophylls long ciliolate 62 S ciliaris 61b Plants not as above 63a Acroscopic base of ventral leaves not long ciliolate; leaves denticulate or shortly ciliolate at margin 64a Dorsal leaves rounded or obtuse at apex; leaves denticulate at margin 63 S kouytcheensis 64b Dorsal leaves acuminate or aristate; leaves denticulate or shortly ciliolate at margin 65a Fertile branches short, complanate with sterile main stems and branches, creeping or ascending 66a Leaves shortly ciliolate at margin 64 S boninensis 66b Leaves minutely denticulate at margin 65 S heterostachys 65b Fertile branches long, erect 67a Dorsal leaves cordate at base, margin shortly ciliolate 53 S labordei 67b Dorsal leaves not cordate at base, margin minutely denticulate 65 S heterostachys 63b Acroscopic base of ventral leaves long ciliolate 68a Fertile branches erect; ventral leaves involute in dry conditions 69a Basiscopic base of ventral leaves with few long cilia 66 S kurzii 69b Basiscopic base of ventral leaves shortly ciliolate, elsewhere subentire 70a Sporophylls obviously dimorphic 67 S xipholepis 70b Sporophylls slightly dimorphic 68 S vaginata 68b Fertile branches creeping; ventral leaves not involute in dry conditions 71a Ventral leaves oblong-falcate; dorsal leaves ovate-lanceolate 69 S drepanophylla 71b Ventral leaves not oblong-falcate; dorsal leaves ovate or suborbicular 72a Leaves not white-margined, sparsely ciliolate 70 S chaetoloma 72b Leaves distinctly white-margined 73a Ventral leaves denticulate at margin, bearing several long hairs at basal portion 71 S lutchuensis 73b Ventral leaves long ciliolate at margin 72 S albociliata Selaginella sibirica (Milde) Hieronymus, Hedwigia 39: 290 1900 西伯利亚卷柏 xi bo li ya juan bai Selaginella rupestris (Linnaeus) Spring f sibirica Milde, Filic Europ 262 1867; Bryodesma sibiricum (Milde) Soják; S rupestris f manchuriensis Milde; S schmidtii Hieronymus Plants epilithic, xerophytic, summer-green, creeping, 10– SELAGINELLACEAE 25 cm, growing indefinitely, without stolons Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on dorsal side in axils of branches, densely hairy Main stems anisotomously branched throughout, glabrous; leafy branches glabrous, radially symmetrical Leaves spirally arranged on all sides of stem and branches, monomorphic throughout, linear, 1.9–2.2 mm (seta excluded), 0.3–0.4 mm wide, with long apical seta 1/5–1/3 as long as leaves, margin long ciliolate, apex attenuate or obtuse Strobili solitary on erect branchlets, tetragonal, 5–10(–25) × 1.5–2 mm; sporophylls monomorphic, ovate-triangular or ovate-lanceolate Dry cliffs Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol [Korea, Russia; North America] Selaginella vardei H Léveillé, Cat Pl Yun-nan, 172 1917 细瘦卷柏 xi shou juan bai Bryodesma vardei (H Léveillé) Soják; Selaginella vardei var gracilis Ching Plants epilithic, xerophytic, summer-green, creeping, 10– 30 cm, growing indefinitely Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on dorsal side in axils of branches Main stems anisotomously branched throughout, glabrous; leafy branches glabrous, radially symmetrical Leaves spirally arranged on all sides of stem and branches, monomorphic throughout, linear-lanceolate, 1.8–2 mm (seta excluded), 0.3–0.4 mm wide, with long apical seta ca 1/3 as long as leaves, margin shortly ciliolate, apex acuminate Strobili solitary on erect branchlets, tetragonal, 5–15(–20) × 1– 1.5 mm; sporophylls monomorphic, ovate-triangular or ovatelanceolate ● On dry rocks; (900–)1500–3700 m S Gansu, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan Selaginella indica (Milde) R M Tryon, Ann Missouri Bot Gard 42: 52 1955 印度卷柏 yin du juan bai Selaginella rupestris (Linnaeus) Spring f indica Milde, Filic Europ 262 1867; Bryodesma indica (Milde) Soják Plants epilithic, xerophytic, summer-green, creeping, 5–15 cm, growing indefinitely, without stolons Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on dorsal side in axils of branches, densely hairy Main stems anisotomously branched throughout, glabrous; leafy branches glabrous, dorsiventrally flattened Leaves spirally arranged on all sides of stem and branches, monomorphic throughout, linear-lanceolate, 1.8–2.3 mm excluding seta, 0.3–0.5 mm wide, with long apical seta ca 1/5 as long as leaves, margin shortly ciliolate, apex acuminate Strobili solitary on erect branchlets, tetragonal, 5–25 × 1.5–2 mm; sporophylls monomorphic, ovate-triangular or ovate-lanceolate 41 Lycopodium sanguinolentum Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 1104 1753; Lycopodioides sanguinolenta (Linnaeus) Kuntze; L sanguinolenta f kantzensis (H S Kung) H S Kung; Lycopodium boreale Kaulfuss; Selaginella aitchisonii Hieronymus; S borealis (Kaulfuss) Spring; S borealis f ajanensis Milde; S borealis f amurensis Milde; S borealis f camtschatica Milde; S borealis f indica Milde; S jacquemontii Spring; S kansuensis Ching & Y P Hsu; S kashmiriana R D Dixit; S sanguinolenta f aitchisonii (Hieronymus) Alston; S sanguinolenta var brachyclada Kitagawa; S sanguinolenta var compressa Trautvetter & Meyer; S sanguinolenta f kantzensis H S Kung; Stachygynandrum sanguinolentum (Linnaeus) P Beauvois Plants terrestrial or epilithic, xerophytic, seasonally green, creeping, (5–)10–30 cm or more Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, reddish or brown, 0.36–0.74 mm in diam in lower part, stem terete, not sulcate, glabrous; branches many, some basal lateral branches developing into rather long branch systems; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, or times pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2–4 cm apart, ultimate branches 0.7–1.9 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, narrowly oblong, base peltate, obtuse; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, narrowly elliptic or narrowly oblong, 0.8–2.1 × 0.4–0.8 mm, margin lacerate-ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches imbricate, rhomboid-ovate, 0.8–1.5 × 0.4–0.8 mm, carinate to strongly carinate, base oblique, peltate, margin subentire or lacerate-ciliolate, apex apiculate, parallel to axis Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches approximate, slightly ascending, oblong-obovate or obovate, 1–2 × 0.4–0.8 mm, basiscopic base decurrent, lacerate-ciliolate, acroscopic margin subentire, membranous, apex shortly aristate or apiculate Strobili compact, tetragonal, terminal, solitary, 6–30(–80) × 1–1.5 mm; sporophylls similar to sterile leaves, monomorphic, broadly ovate, sharply carinate, not white-margined, margin slightly lacerate, apex acute; megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals, or megasporophylls on lower side; microsporangia suborbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores yellowish orange or orange-red, megaspores pale yellow (sometimes or per sporangium, all or spores equal-sized, or larger, or larger) On rocks (limestone); 1400–3500 m S Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Himalaya, Kashmir, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia (Siberia)] On rocks in open places; 2000–3700 m Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [India] Selaginella sanguinolenta is a very variable species; the leaves are sometimes subentire or entire in very dry conditions, and the leafy stem, as well as the branches with leaves, can then appear tetragonal Selaginella sanguinolenta (Linnaeus) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 135 1843 Selaginella albocincta Ching, Acta Bot Yunnan 3: 251 1981 红枝卷柏 hong zhi juan bai 白边卷柏 bai bian juan bai 42 SELAGINELLACEAE Lycopodioides albocincta (Ching) H S Kung; Selaginella albidocincta Ching Plants terrestrial or epilithic, xerophytic, seasonally green, erect or long creeping; fertile stems erect, 15–30 cm or more Rhizophores restricted to base of erect stems or at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout or from near base or from lower part upward, pinnately branched, stramineous or brown, 0.5–1 mm in diam at lower part, stem terete, not sulcate, glabrous, basal lateral branches sometimes developed into rather long branch systems; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, or times forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 3–5 cm apart, main stem including leaves 0.5–1 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 0.5–1.6 mm wide including leaves Leaves alternate, inconspicuously dimorphic, leathery, shiny, white-margined, veins forked Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, oblong, 0.6–1.8 × 0.2–0.5 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches elliptic, 0.8–1.4 × 0.4–0.7 mm, contiguous or imbricate, strongly embracing stem and covering ventral leaves, apex mucronate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches slightly ascending, elliptic, 0.8–1.5 × 0.2–0.6 mm, apex mucronate; basiscopic base rounded, margin entire (or minutely denticulate), involute; acroscopic margin minutely ciliolate or denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 4–8 × 1.2–1.8 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, monomorphic, broadly white-margined, broadly ovate, margin ciliolate, apex acute; strobili with only megasporophyll at base of lower side, elsewhere with microsporophylls; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores orange-red, megaspores brown ● Rocky slopes in dry warm valleys, under shrubs; 1700–3300 m Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan Selaginella albocincta is endemic to China, and its habit is very close to the Indian S adunca A Braun ex Hieronymus They both exhibit forked veins, which might be an adaptation to their dry habitats Selaginella helvetica (Linnaeus) Link, Fil Spec 159 1841 小卷柏 xiao juan bai Lycopodium helveticum Linnaeus, Sp Pl 2: 1104 1753; Bernhardia helvetica (Linnaeus) Gray; Diplostachyum helveticum (Linnaeus) P Beauvois; Heterophyllium helveticum (Linnaeus) Hieronymus; Lycopodioides helvetica (Linnaeus) Kuntze; L jiulongensis H S Kung, Li Bing Zhang & X S Guo; L mariesii (Baker) Kuntze; Lycopodium radicans Schrank; Selaginella mariesii Baker; Stachygynandrum helveticum (Linnaeus) P Beauvois ex J Saint-Hilaire Plants terrestrial or epilithic, seasonally green, shortly creeping; fertile stems erect, 5–15 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, 0.2–0.4 mm in diam in lower part, stem angulate, sulcate; primary leafy branches 2–5 pairs, simple, forked, or once pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2–3 cm apart, leafy branches and main stems glabrous, dorsiventrally flattened, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 3–3.8 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 2–3.6 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches ± symmetrical, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, 1.4–1.6 × 0.4–0.8 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous or imbricate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.2–1.6 × 0.5–0.8 mm, base obtuse, margin ciliolate, apex long acuminate or aristate, often reflexed Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches spreading or slightly deflexed, oblong-ovate or broadly ovate, 1.6–2 × 0.8–1.2 mm, apex acute or aristate, often bent upward; basiscopic margin ciliolate; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate Fertile branches erect, 3–6 cm including strobili Strobili solitary or forked, terminal, lax, or lax in lower portion and compact in upper part, cylindric, 12–35 × 2–4 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves or similar, uniform, not white-margined, margin ciliolate, apex long acuminate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals; microsporangia elliptic or suborbicular, relatively thick, with relatively large cells at central part; microspores orange-red, megaspores orange or yellowish orange On wet moss-covered cliffs, in rock crevices, usually on damp shaded banks in mixed forests, among moss; (200–)2600–3200(–3800) m S Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [N India, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia; Europe] Selaginella nipponica Franchet & Savatier, Enum Pl Jap 2: 199, 615 1879 伏地卷柏 fu di juan bai Lycopodioides nipponica (Franchet & Savatier) Kuntze; L savatieri (Baker) Kuntze; Selaginella hachijoense Nakai; S savatieri Baker; S shensiensis Christ; Urostachys ihwangensis Nessel Plants terrestrial, seasonally green, creeping; fertile stems erect, 5–12 cm, without stolons, without elongate tuber at base of stem Rhizophores restricted to sterile prostrate stems and branches at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from near base upward, stramineous, 0.2–0.4 mm in diam in lower part, angulate, sulcate; primary leafy branches or pairs, simple or forked or once pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1–2 cm apart, leafy branches and stems glabrous, dorsiventrally flattened, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 4.5–5.4 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 2.8–4.2 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches of sterile stems symmetrical or asymmetrical, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, 1.5–1.8 × 0.8–1 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous or imbricate SELAGINELLACEAE in apical portion, oblong-ovate, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or elliptic, 1.6–2 × 0.6–0.9 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, margin not obviously denticulate, apex acuminate or acute Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches often deflexed, broadly ovate or ovate-triangular, 1.8–2.2 × 1–1.6 mm, apex acute; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, minutely denticulate Fertile branches erect, 2.5–12 cm including strobilus Strobili solitary or once or twice forked (or times forked), terminal, lax, usually dorsiventrally complanate, 18–50 × 2–4.6 mm; sporophylls ± similar to sterile leaves in form and arrangement, dimorphic or slightly dimorphic, usually non-resupinate, not keeled, not white-margined, margin denticulate, apex acuminate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia elliptic, relatively thick, with relatively large cells in central part; microspores orange-red, megaspores yellowish orange Grasslands, on rocks; 100–1300 m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan] Selaginella pseudonipponica Tagawa, Acta Phytotax Geobot 25: 177 1973 拟伏地卷柏 ni fu di juan bai Selaginella helvetica (Linnaeus) Link subsp pseudonipponica (Tagawa) H M Chang, W L Chiou & J C Wang Plants epilithic, seasonally green, creeping; fertile stems erect, 5–15 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, ca 0.2 mm in diam in lower part, angulate, sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches of creeping sterile stems 3–5 pairs, sparsely once pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1–1.7 cm apart, leafy branches and stems dorsiventrally flattened, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 3–4 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3.2–3.4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches usually symmetrical or asymmetrical, 1.2–1.6 × 0.4–0.8 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches oblong-ovate or elliptic, 1.2–1.6 × 0.5–0.8 mm, base obtuse, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate, sometimes reflexed Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches spreading or deflexed, broadly ovate or ovate-triangular, 1.7–2.2 × 0.8–1.3 mm, apex acute; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin irregularly shortly ciliolate Fertile branches erect, 2–4.7 cm including strobili Strobili solitary or forked, terminal, lax in lower portion, compact in upper portion, dorsiventrally complanate, 8–22 × 2.4–4.6 mm; sporophylls similar to sterile leaves in form and arrangement, slightly dimorphic, obscurely non-resupinate, not keeled, not white-margined, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate or slightly aristate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals; microsporangia elliptic, relatively 43 thick, with relatively large cells at central part; microspores orange-red, megaspores sulfur-colored, irregularly reticulate ● On limestone rocks in dry open sunny places; below 100–2300 m Taiwan Selaginella tamariscina (P Beauvois) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 136 1843 卷柏 juan bai Stachygynandrum tamariscinum P Beauvois, Mag Encycl 9(5): 483 1804 [“tamaris sinum”]; Lycopodioides tamariscina (P Beauvois) H S Kung; L tamariscina var ulanchotensis (Ching & W Wang) J X Li; Lycopodium apiculatum Desvaux ex Poiret; L circinale Thunberg (1784), not Linnaeus ex Murray (1774); L tamariscinum (P Beauvois) Desvaux ex Poiret; Selaginella apiculata (Desvaux ex Poiret) Hieronymus (1920), not Alderwerelt (1918); S christii H Léveillé (1911), not Hieronymus (1902); S involvens (Swartz) Spring f minor Milde; S involvens var veitchii (McNab) Baker; S japonica Veitch (1877), not Miquel (1867); S leveillei Kümmerle; S tamariscina var ulanchotensis Ching & W Wang; S veitchii McNab Plants terrestrial or epilithic, xerophytic, “resurrectional”; stems forming rosette, evergreen or seasonally green, stems and roots entangled forming treelike trunk, 5–15(–45) cm Rhizophores restricted to base of stem, 0.5–3 cm, rather thick; roots much forked, forming thick massive rootstock, sometimes up to 20 cm or more Main stems branched at and above middle, pinnately or anisotomously branched, stramineous or brown, stem terete, not sulcate, branches few; primary leafy branches 2–5 pairs, or times pinnately branched, branchlets sparse and regular, leafy branches dorsiventrally flattened, ultimate branches 1.4–3.3 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate, ovate-triangular, or elliptic, 0.8– 2.6 × 0.4–1.3 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate, darkcolored Dorsal leaves imbricate, asymmetrical, elliptic, 1.5–2.5 × 0.3–0.9 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, not peltate, margin denticulate (shortly ciliolate at base), apex aristate, spreading or parallel to axis Ventral leaves slightly ascending, overlapping, asymmetrical, ovate to triangular or oblong-ovate, 1.5–2.5 × 0.5–1.2 mm, apex aristate; basiscopic margin subentire, serrate or ciliolate (at base), revolute; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin lacerate or denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 12– 15 × 1.2–2.6 mm; sporophylls uniform, white-margined and hyaline, ovate-triangular, margin denticulate, membranous, apex acuminate or aristate; megasporophylls ± randomly distributed on both sides of strobilus; microsporangia transversely elliptic, relatively thick; microspores yellowish orange, megaspores pale yellow Common on limestone rocks; (100–)500–1500(–2100) m Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Russia (Siberia), N Thailand] 10 Selaginella pulvinata (Hooker & Greville) Maximowicz, Mém Acad Imp Sci Saint Pétersbourg, Sér 7, 9: 335 1859 垫状卷柏 dian zhuang juan bai 44 SELAGINELLACEAE Lycopodium pulvinatum Hooker & Greville, Hooker’s J Bot Kew Gard Misc 2: 381 1831; Lycopodioides pulvinata (Hooker & Greville) H S Kung; Selaginella tamariscina (P Beauvois) Spring var pulvinata (Hooker & Greville) Alston Plants terrestrial or epilithic, xerophytic, “resurrectional”; stems forming rosette, seasonally green, stems and roots entangled forming treelike trunk, plants 2–10 cm, without creeping rhizomes Rhizophores restricted to base of stem, 2–4 cm, rather thick or slender, much forked at end and forming thick massive rootstock Main stems branched near and above base, pinnately branched, stramineous or brown, main stem ca mm in diam at lower part; primary leafy branches 4–7 pairs, or times pinnately branched, branchlets dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem ca cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 2.2–2.4 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 1.2–1.6 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate to triangular, ca 2.5 × mm, base exauriculate, margin lacerate-ciliolate Dorsal leaves on branches imbricate, obliquely ovate or triangular, 2.8–3.1 × 0.9–1.2 mm, not carinate, base truncate (with a tuft of hairs), margin lacerate, outer margin revolute, apex aristate Ventral leaves slightly ascending, asymmetrical, oblong, 2.9–3.2 × 1.4– 1.5 mm, apex aristate, entire; basiscopic base not auriculate, margin lacerate, lower margin involute; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin lacerate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 10–20 × 1.5–2 mm; sporophylls uniform, not white-margined, margin lacerate-ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion of strobili on lower side, in middle on lower side, or in upper portion on lower side; microspores pale yellow, megaspores white-yellow or dark brown Common in rock crevices on exposed rocky (limestone) ridges; (100–)1000–3000(–4300) m Chongqing, S Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang [N India, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia (Siberia), Thailand, Vietnam] 11 Selaginella willdenowii (Desvaux ex Poiret) Baker, Gard Chron 1867: 950 1867 [“Willdenovii”] 藤卷柏 teng juan bai Lycopodium willdenowii Desvaux ex Poiret in Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl 3: 552 1814 [“Willdenowii”]; Lycopodioides willdenowii (Desvaux ex Poiret) Kuntze Plants terrestrial, evergreen, scandent, 100–200 cm or more Rhizophores restricted to lower part of main stem or up to upper part, with some spinelike protuberances at base (as well as at axes of stems) Main stems branched from near base upward, stramineous or reddish, 2.4–3.5 mm in diam in lower part, angulate, sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches 5–15 pairs, times pinnately branched, ultimate branches simple or forked, branchlets sparse and regular, adjacent primary branches on main stem 6–13 cm apart, ultimate branches 3–7 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems obviously larger than those on branches, oblong, biauriculate (auricles larger than those of Selaginella helferi); axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, oblong or oblong-elliptic, 1.5–2.4 × 1–1.6 mm, base biauriculate, margin entire Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate to imbricate, overlapping at leaf apex, falcate, 0.9–1.4 × 0.4–0.6 mm, not carinate, base obliquely subcordate, margin entire, apex obtusely cuspidate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches slightly ascending or spreading, distant or approximate, oblong-falcate, 2.8–4 × 1–1.5 mm, margin entire, apex obtuse; acroscopic base with rounded auricle, not overlapping stem and branches Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–35 × 1.8–3.8 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, uniform, white-margined, suborbicular, margin entire, apex acute or cuspidate; megasporophylls in middle on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells regular; microspores pale yellow, megaspores whitish Forests, under shrubs; below 100–1000 m Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam] Selaginella willdenowii is cultivated and escaped in scattered localities of the American tropics (Proctor, Ferns Jamaica, 35 1985) 12 Selaginella helferi Warburg, Monsunia 1: 121 1900 攀缘卷柏 pan yuan juan bai Plants terrestrial, evergreen, scandent, 50–200 cm or more Rhizophores restricted to lower part of stem or branched from lower to middle, with some spinelike protuberances at base Main stems branched from lower part, pinnately branched, stramineous, 2.6–3.8 mm in diam in lower part, subquadrangular or angulate, sulcate, glabrous or pubescent at axes; primary leafy branches 5–15 pairs, times pinnately branched, branchlets regular, adjacent primary branches on main stem 5– 16 cm apart, ultimate branches 5–8 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems obviously larger than those on branches, orbicular or reniform, ca × 2.8 mm, biauriculate at base (auricles smaller than those of Selaginella willdenowii); axillary leaves on branches ± symmetrical, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, 1.4–2.5 × 0.8–1.2 mm, base biauriculate, margin entire Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate, overlapping at leaf apex, falcate, 1.2–2.5 × 0.3–1 mm, not carinate, base oblique, not peltate, margin entire, apex cuspidate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches contiguous, spreading, oblong-falcate, 2.3–4.2 × 0.9– 1.8 mm, apex acute or apiculate; basiscopic margin entire; acroscopic base with rounded auricle, not overlapping stem and branches, margin entire Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–14 × 1.6–3.4 mm; sporophylls uniform, whitemargined, ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin entire, apex acuminate; megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals or megasporophylls in middle on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells regular; microspores pale yellow, megaspores pale yellow In clearings of evergreen forests; 100–1200(–1800) m Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [India (Assam), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam] SELAGINELLACEAE 13 Selaginella nummularifolia Ching, Fl Xizang 1: 21 1983 钱叶卷柏 qian ye juan bai Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen or seasonally green, long creeping, 7–30 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, producing axillary branches from dorsal side of stem axis Main stems branched throughout, reddish or brown, 0.5–0.8 mm in diam in lower part, stem terete, branches many, some primary lateral branches developing into long branch systems, or times pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2–2.8 cm apart, ultimate branches 1.7–2.2 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, oblong, base peltate, truncate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, oblong, 1–1.6 × 0.5–0.6 mm, base peltate, margin slightly lacerate-ciliolate Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches imbricate, broadly ovate or suborbicular, 1.1–1.9 × 0.8–1.5 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, peltate, margin slightly lacerate-ciliolate or subentire, apex obtuse, parallel to axis Ventral leaves asymmetrical, brown or reddish, slightly smaller than dorsal leaves, covered by dorsal leaves above, almost overlapping; ventral leaves on branches contiguous, slightly ascending, oblong-ovate, 1–1.5 × 0.6–0.8 mm, margin slightly lacerate-ciliolate, apex obtuse Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, ca 14 × 1–1.2 mm; sporophylls uniform, not white-margined, broadly ovate, sharply carinate, margin slightly lacerate-ciliolate, apex acute; ventral sporophylls brown or reddish, carinate, only one megasporophyll in upper portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia suborbicular, relatively thick; microspores yellowish orange, megaspores yellowish orange ● Betula or Cupressus gigantea relict forests, on limestone rocks; 3100–4200 m Xizang 14 Selaginella rossii (Baker) Warburg, Monsunia 1: 101 1900 鹿角卷柏 lu jiao juan bai Selaginella mongholica Ruprecht var rossii Baker, J Bot (Hooker) 21: 45 1883; Lycopodioides rossii (Baker) Tzvelev Plants epilithic, xerophytic, seasonally green, creeping, 10–25 cm or more Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, on dorsal side in axils of stem branches Main stems branched throughout, reddish, ca 0.2 mm in diam in lower part, terete, not sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches 3–10 pairs, once or twice forked, secondary branches forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2–3 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 4–4.5 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3–4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, ovate, base not peltate, attenuate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, elliptic, narrowly elliptic, or oblong, 1.6–2 × 1–1.2 mm, base exauriculate, margin lacerate-ciliolate (in middle, subentire to base and to apex) Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous or imbricate, ovate-elliptic or rhomboid-ovate, 1.4–1.6 × 0.8–1.1 mm, cari- 45 nate, base attenuate, peltate, margin sparsely and shortly lacerate-ciliolate, apex acuminate or cuspidate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches as distant as width of leaf, usually deflexed, oblong or oblong-obovate, 1.8–2.1 × 0.9–1.2 mm, apex acuminate; basiscopic margin subentire, involute; acroscopic base rounded, overlapping stem and branches, margin lacerate-ciliolate (in basal half) Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–15 × 1–1.5 mm; sporophylls uniform, not white-margined, ovate-triangular, sharply carinate, margin sparsely ciliolate, apex acute; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia reniform, relatively thick; microspores yellowish orange or pale yellow, rugose, megaspores whitish, irregularly papillate In rock crevices, on rocks in forests, on shaded rocks; 200–800 m Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong [Korea, Russia (Far East)] 15 Selaginella sinensis (Desvaux) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 137 1843 中华卷柏 zhong hua juan bai Lycopodium sinense Desvaux, Mém Soc Linn Paris 6: 189 1827; Lycopodioides mongholica (Ruprecht) Kuntze; L sinensis (Desvaux) Satou; Selaginella mongholica Ruprecht Plants terrestrial, xerophytic, seasonally green, creeping, 15–45 cm or more Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, pinnately branched, stramineous, 0.4–0.6 mm in diam in lower part, terete; primary leafy branches many, up to 10–20, 1–3 times forked, secondary branches once or twice forked, tertiary branches forked or simple, branchlets sparse and regular, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1.5–3 cm apart, ultimate branches 2–3 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, oblong-ovate or obovate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, narrowly obovate, 0.7–1.1 × 0.17–0.55 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous, ovate-elliptic, 0.6–1.2 × 0.3–0.7 mm, not carinate, base cuneate, margin long ciliolate, apex acute Ventral leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches, overlapping or imbricate (at apex of branchlets), slightly ascending, 1–1.5 × 0.5–1 mm, apex acute or obtuse; basiscopic base slightly auriculate, margin long ciliolate (at base); acroscopic base not enlarged, not overlapping stem and branches, margin long ciliolate Fertile branches erect Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–12 × 1.5–1.8 mm; sporophylls uniform, white-margined, ovate, carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acute; ventral sporophylls ovate, strobili with only megasporophyll at base of lower side, elsewhere with microsporophylls (megasporophyll very large); microsporangia ellipsoid, relatively thick, cells regular; microspores orange-red, megaspores whitish ● On rocks, soil banks; 100–1000(–2800) m Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi SELAGINELLACEAE 46 16 Selaginella limbata Alston, J Bot 70: 62 1932 具边卷柏 ju bian juan bai Plants terrestrial, seasonally green, long creeping, branches ascending, 50–100 cm or more Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, 0.4–1.4 mm in diam in lower part, subquadrangular or angulate, sulcate, branches many, some primary lateral branches developing into long branch systems; primary leafy branches 2– pairs, or times forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on creeping main stems 4–10 cm apart, leafy branches dorsiventrally flattened, ultimate branches 2.4–5.6 mm wide including leaves All leaves entire and white-margined Axillary leaves on main stems obviously larger than those on branches, suborbicular, base subcordate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, elliptic or broadly elliptic, 1.3–2.8 × 0.8–1.8 mm Dorsal leaves asymmetrical; dorsal leaves on branches imbricate, overlapping at leaf apex, ovate-elliptic, 0.8–1.6 × 0.3–1 mm, not carinate, base uniauriculate at basiscopic side, apex long acuminate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches approximate or contiguous, spreading, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, 1.5–3 × 0.8–1.6 mm, apex acute; basiscopic base slightly dilated; acroscopic base rounded, not overlapping stem and branches Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5– 12 × 1.8–3.3 mm; sporophylls uniform, white-margined, ovate, carinate, margin entire, apex acuminate; megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals or only megasporophyll at base on lower side of strobilus, elsewhere microsporophylls or megasporophylls in middle on lower side; microsporangia cordate or transversely elliptic, relatively thick, marginal cells differentiated, longer; microspores pale yellow, megaspores dark brown, baculate Under shrubs on sunny slopes, forests, common in coastal regions of E China; below 100–1000 m Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang [Japan (Amami Oshima)] Plants of Selaginella limbata found in shade are usually sterile 17 Selaginella uncinata (Desvaux ex Poiret) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 141 1843 翠云草 cui yun cao Lycopodium uncinatum Desvaux ex Poiret in Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl 3: 558 1814; L dilatatum Hooker & Greville; Lycopodioides uncinata (Desvaux ex Poiret) Kuntze; Selaginella eurystachya Warburg Plants terrestrial, evergreen; main stem scandent from erect base, 50–100 cm or more Rhizophores restricted to lower part of stem or at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from near base upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, 1–1.5 mm in diam in lower part, terete and angulate, sulcate, glabrous, apex of main stems flagelliform, branches many; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, twice pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice forked, branchlets dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem 5–8 cm apart, ultimate branches 3.8–6 mm wide including leaves Leaves often iridescent, distinctly white-margined, margin entire Axillary leaves on main stems obviously larger than those on branches, reniform, ca × mm, base slightly cordate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, broadly elliptic or orbicular, 2.2–2.8 × 0.8–2.2 mm, base subcordate, margin entire Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate to imbricate, parallel to axis or overlapping at leaf apex and often reflexed, ovate, 1–2.4 × 0.6–1 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, margin entire, apex long acuminate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches contiguous, spreading, oblong, 2.2–3.2 × 1–1.6 mm, margin entire, apex acute or mucronate; basiscopic base rounded; acroscopic base not enlarged Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–25 × 2.5–4 mm; sporophylls uniform, white-margined, ovate-triangular, carinate, margin entire, apex acuminate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus or megasporophylls in middle or upper portion on lower side; microsporangia transversely elliptic, rather thin, cells regular; microspores pale yellow, megaspores gray-white or dark brown ● Damp ground under shrubs along rivers or on forest floor, also cultivated and sometimes escaped; below 100–1200 m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang 18 Selaginella hainanensis X C Zhang & Nooteboom, Bot J Linn Soc 148: 323 2005 琼海卷柏 qiong hai juan bai Plants terrestrial, seasonally green, long creeping, 35–80 cm or more Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, 0.4–1 mm in diam in lower part, subquadrangular, sulcate; primary leafy branches 5–10 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches forked or once pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 4–9 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 6–7 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3.4–6 mm wide including leaves Leaves entire, distinctly white-margined Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches (often reflexed where rhizophore occurs), broadly ovate or suborbicular, 2.4–3.5 × 1.8–3.6 mm, base attenuate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate, broadly elliptic, or oblong-elliptic, 1.9–2.8 × 1– mm, base exauriculate, margin entire Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems obviously larger than those on branches, 3.2–3.8 × 1.6–2 mm, arista 0.4–0.8 mm; dorsal leaves on branches approximate or imbricate, overlapping at leaf apex or often reflexed, ovate, 2–3 × 1–1.8 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, apex long acuminate or aristate, arista 0.5–1 mm Ventral leaves strongly asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches, 3.4–4.2 × 2.2–3.2 mm; ventral leaves on branches approximate, spreading, ovate, oblong, or oblong-ovate, 2.5–3 × 1–1.6 mm, apex apiculate; basiscopic base with or few cilia, margin entire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin entire Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 7–25 × 4–5 mm; SELAGINELLACEAE 52 Plants terrestrial, evergreen, ascending from decumbent base, 50–100 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to creeping rhizomes and stolons Main stems branched at and above lower part, pinnately branched or anisotomously branched, stramineous, unbranched main stem (5–)15–20 cm tall, main stem 2–2.7 mm in diam at lower part, subquadrangular or angulate, sulcate, glabrous, apex of main stem not blackish or blackish; primary leafy branches 3–5 pairs, times pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice pinnately branched, leafy branches pubescent on ventral side, dorsiventrally flattened, ultimate branches 3–7 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, oblong-elliptic, 1.4–2.2 × 0.5–0.9 mm, margin entire, base biauriculate, auricles narrowly triangular Dorsal leaves on branches contiguous, parallel to axis or overlapping at leaf apex, obliquely ovate, 1–2 × 0.4–0.8 mm, not carinate, base obliquely attenuate, margin entire, apex acuminate Ventral leaves on branches contiguous, slightly ascending, oblongfalcate or falcate, 3–3.6 × 1–1.5 mm, margin entire, apex acute or acuminate; basiscopic base slightly dilated; acroscopic base with triangular auricle, not overlapping stem and branches Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–10 × 1.5–3 mm; sporophylls uniform, not white-margined, ovate-lanceolate, margin entire, apex acuminate; megasporophylls in upper portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells regular; microspores pale yellow, megaspores whitish Evergreen forests; 200–400 m Yunnan [Vietnam] 34 Selaginella braunii Baker, Gard Chron 1867: 1120 1867 布朗卷柏 bu lang juan bai Lycopodioides braunii (Baker) Kuntze Plants terrestrial or epilithic, xerophytic, evergreen or seasonally green, erect, 10–45 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to creeping rhizomes and stolons, very short Main stems branched from middle or upper part, pinnately branched, usually stramineous, unbranched main stem (3–)8–13(–25) cm tall, 0.5–2(–3) mm in diam., usually subquadrangular, often pubescent; primary leafy branches 4–8 pairs, or times pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem (3–)5–8(–11) cm apart, leafy branches pubescent on both sides, dorsiventrally flattened, ultimate branches 2.5–4.5 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches contiguous or imbricate, narrowly elliptic or falcate, 1.6–2.8 × 0.4–1.2 mm, not carinate, base obliquely decurrent, margin subentire, slightly involute when dry, apex acuminate Ventral leaves on branches slightly ascending, ovate-triangular or oblong-falcate, 1.6–2.2 × 1–1.8 mm, apex acute or mucronate; basiscopic base decurrent, margin subentire, involute; acroscopic base rounded, not overlapping stem and branches, margin subentire Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–6 × 1.4–2.3 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, uniform, not white-margined, broadly ovate or suborbicular, margin denticulate, apex acute; megasporophylls throughout lower side of strobili; microsporangia orbicular; microspores yellowish orange or pale yellow, megaspores whitish In rock crevices, usually on limestone rocks; (below 100–)400– 1400(–1800) m Anhui, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Malaysia (Peninsular)] Selaginella braunii is cultivated outside of China, sometimes escaping in widely scattered localities in various parts of the world (Proctor, Ferns Jamaica, 35 1985) 35 Selaginella biformis A Braun ex Kuhn, Forschungsr Gazelle 4(Bot 6): 17 1889 二形卷柏 er xing juan bai Selaginella flagellifera W Bull; S hirticaulis Warburg; S utchinensis Koidzumi Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen, erect or creeping, 15–45 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to creeping rhizomes and stolons Main stems branched in upper part, pinnately branched, stramineous, stem 1–1.5 mm in diam at lower part, angulate or subquadrangular, sulcate, unbranched main stem glabrous or pubescent in leafy branched part, apex of main creeping stems flagelliform; primary leafy branches 4–7 pairs, times pinnately branched, leafy branches dorsiventrally flattened, pubescent on ventral side, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 4–5 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 2–3 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches slightly asymmetrical, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, 1.8–2.4 × 0.8–1.2 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate at base Dorsal leaves on branches contiguous, ovate, 0.8–1.4 × 0.6–0.8 mm, not carinate, base obliquely cordate, margin very ciliolate, apex aristate Ventral leaves on branches contiguous or imbricate, slightly ascending, oblong-falcate or falcate, 1.8–3.2 × 1.2–1.6 mm, apex acute; basiscopic base rounded, margin subentire except base with a few cilia; acroscopic base not enlarged, not overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate to denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–15 × 1.5–2 mm; sporophylls uniform, not white-margined, ovate, sharply carinate, margin denticulate or ciliolate, apex acuminate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobili, or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals, microsporangia elliptic; microspores yellowish orange, megaspores pale yellow, whitish, or dark brown, without equatorial flange, undulate-rugose Shaded places or on rocks in forests; 100–1500 m Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam] Plants of Selaginella biformis are usually of two forms: main stems erect or creeping, creeping plants usually glabrous or less hairy Branches are also flagelliform, forming new plants Dahlen (Bot J Linn Soc 98: 277–302 1988) reported that of 53 strobili of S biformis with megasporangia, only five had mature or senescent megasporangia while the rest had only immature sporangia 36 Selaginella superba Alston, J Bot 52: 70 1932 粗茎卷柏 cu jing juan bai Plants terrestrial, evergreen, erect, (20–)50–70 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to base of stem or to creeping rhizomes and stolons Main stems branched from middle upward, a few lower branches abortive, pinnately branched, stramineous, un- SELAGINELLACEAE branched main stem 20–30 cm tall, main stem 3–5 mm in diam at lower part, subquadrangular, sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches 3–7 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches forked, branchlets dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2.5–9 cm apart, leafy main stem including leaves 10–14 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 5– 8(–10) mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, triangular or ovate-lanceolate, 3.2–5 × 1.1– 1.8(–2.3) mm, base deeply cordate or subcordate, or slightly biauriculate, margin long ciliolate at base, margin elsewhere shortly ciliolate Dorsal leaves contiguous or imbricate, asymmetrical, ovate-elliptic, 2.2–2.8(–3.6) × 1–2 mm, strongly carinate, base obliquely cordate, with few long cilia at base, ciliolate upward, apex aristate Ventral leaves slightly ascending, asymmetrical, oblong-falcate, 4.7–7 × 1.7–2.6 mm, apex acute; acroscopic base rounded, overlapping stem and branches, margin long ciliolate at very base, then shortly ciliolate below middle of leaf, elsewhere entire, cilia 0.2–0.5 mm Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal or lateral to branches, compact, tetragonal, 10–45 × 1.8–3 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, uniform, not white-margined, sharply carinate, margin denticulate, apex acuminate; megasporophylls only in lower portion on lower side, elsewhere with sporophylls, microsporophylls, or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals, or megasporophylls in middle on lower side; microsporangia ellipticoblong, relatively thick, marginal cells differentiated, smaller with thin walls; microspores light pale yellow, megaspores whitish or gray Rain forests in limestone areas; 100–500 m S Yunnan [N Vietnam] Selaginella superba was treated as a synonym of S frondosa Warburg but can be distinguished from the latter by the much larger leaves It is the most beautiful species of the Chinese Selaginella The main stem is very strong and has a bladelike upper part It is found only in Hekou, Yunnan, on the border with Vietnam, where the type was collected The typical form occurs mainly in lowland forests along riverbanks at 100–200 m in elevation, while another form was found only on limestone hills from 300–500 m, in monsoon semi-evergreen rain forests The two forms differ much in branching patterns and leaf shape and margin The two forms could be different species, but they share most of the common important characters, e.g., the stem, leaf, strobilus, and spores Further studies are needed to better ascertain their delimitation 37 Selaginella stauntoniana Spring, Mém Acad Roy Sci Belgique 24: 71 1850 旱生卷柏 han sheng juan bai Lycopodioides stauntoniana (Spring) Kuntze; Selaginella affinis Milde (1867), not A Braun (1865); S pseudoinvolvens Hayata Plants epilithic or xerophytic, seasonally green, erect, 15– 35 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons; leaves on rhizome and stolons scalelike, reddish brown Rhizophores restricted to creeping rhizome Main stems branched in upper part or from lower part, not very regularly pinnately branched, reddish or brown, unbranched main stem 5–28 cm tall, main stem 0.8–2 mm in diam in lower part, stem oval or terete, glabrous; primary leafy branches 3–5 pairs, or times pin- 53 nately branched, higher order branches forked, ultimate branches 1.8–3.2 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves slightly asymmetrical, triangular, 1–1.7 × 0.4–0.9 mm, base exauriculate, margin membranous, lacerate Dorsal leaves imbricate, ovate-elliptic, 0.7–1.7 × 0.3–0.6 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, not peltate, margin entire or subentire, slightly revolute, apex acuminate-aristate, parallel to axis Ventral leaves approximate to overlapping, slightly ascending, obliquely ovate or obliquely oblong, 1.4–2.2 × 0.6–1.2 mm, apex aristate; basiscopic margin entire, except base with cilium; acroscopic base rounded, overlapping stem and branches, margin hyaline and membranous, denticulate Strobili solitary, compact, tetragonal, 5–20 × 1.3–2 mm; sporophylls uniform, ovate-triangular, carinate, margin membranous, lacerate or lacerate-ciliolate, hyaline, apex long acuminate to aristate; megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals, or megasporophylls in middle on lower side, or megasporophylls throughout lower side; microsporangia transversely elliptic, rather thin, cells regular; microspores yellowish orange or orange-red, megaspores yellowish orange, without equatorial flange In limestone rock crevices; 500–2500 m Hebei, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Taiwan [Korea] 38 Selaginella involvens (Swartz) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 136 1843 兖州卷柏 yan zhou juan bai Lycopodium involvens Swartz, Syn Fil 182 1806; Lycopodioides involvens (Swartz) Kuntze; L pennula Kuntze; Lycopodium caulescens Wallich ex Hooker & Greville; L microstachyum Desvaux ex Poiret; Selaginella caulescens (Wallich ex Hooker & Greville) Spring; S caulescens var belulla Hieronymus; S caulescens var brachypoda Baker; S caulescens var gracilis W Bull; S caulescens var japonica Baker; S caulescens var subintegerrima Spring; S microstachya (Desvaux ex Poiret) Hieronymus (1913), not Warburg (1900); S pachystachys Koidzumi; S pseudostauntoniana Pampanini; S warburgii Hieronymus Plants epilithic or xerophytic, evergreen or seasonally green, erect, 15–35(–65) cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons; leaves on rhizome and stolons scalelike, pale yellow Rhizophores restricted to creeping rhizomes and stolons Main stems branched from middle upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, unbranched main stem 5–25 cm tall, 1– 1.5 mm in diam in lower part, terete, not sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches 7–12 pairs, or times pinnately branched, secondary branches or times pinnately branched, tertiary branches forked or once pinnately branched, leafy main stem including leaves 4–6 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 2–3 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves symmetrical, ovate to triangular, 1.1–1.6 × 0.4–1.1 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate Dorsal leaves imbricate, ovatetriangular or ovate-elliptic, 0.6–1.2 × 0.2–0.5 mm, slightly carinate, base cuneate, margin denticulate, apex long acuminate to shortly aristate, parallel to axis Ventral leaves contiguous or overlapping, slightly ascending, ovate to triangular, 1.4–2.4 × 0.4–1.4 mm, apex subacute or apiculate; basiscopic base rounded, margin entire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, 54 SELAGINELLACEAE overlapping stem and branches, margin hyaline, denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–15 × 1–1.4 mm; sporophylls uniform, not white-margined, ovate-triangular, sharply carinate, margin denticulate, apex acuminate, without sporophyll-pteryx; megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals, or megasporophylls in middle on lower side; microsporangia elliptic, rather thin, cells regular; microspores yellowish orange, megaspores whitish or brown, with equatorial flange On rocks in shade or epiphytic on tree trunks in forests; 200–3100 m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam] 39 Selaginella mairei H Léveillé, Sert Yunnan 299 1916 狭叶卷柏 xia ye juan bai Lycopodioides mairei (H Léveillé) H S Kung; Selaginella elephantopus Handel-Mazzetti Plants terrestrial or epilithic, seasonally green, erect, 10– 40 cm high, with creeping subterranean rhizome; leaves on rhizome scalelike, pink, peltate, margin lacerate or fimbriate Rhizophores restricted to creeping rhizome Main stems branched in upper part, pinnately branched, reddish or stramineous, unbranched main stem 2–15 cm tall, 1–2.2 mm in diam in lower part, terete, glabrous; primary leafy branches 4–8 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice forked, ultimate branches 2.5–4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves symmetrical, oblong-elliptic, 1.2–1.6 × 0.3–0.9 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate at basal half Dorsal leaves approximate, obliquely falcate, elliptic-lanceolate, or rhombic, 0.8–1.8 × 0.2–0.6 mm, not carinate, base obliquely decurrent, ± peltate, apex long acuminate or aristate, parallel to axis; basiscopic margin ciliolate; acroscopic margin subentire Ventral leaves distant or approximate, slightly ascending, oblong-falcate or obliquely ovate, 1.4–2 × 0.6–1.2 mm, apex apiculate; basiscopic base slightly dilated, margin subentire or entire, ciliolate at base; acroscopic base not enlarged, not overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–10 × 1.4–2.8 mm; sporophylls uniform, not white-margined, broadly ovate or suborbicular, not keeled, margin ciliolate, apex mucronate; megasporophylls in middle on lower side; microsporangia reniform, rather thin, cells regular; microspores yellowish orange or pale yellow, megaspores whitish or yellowish orange, baculate On rocks under shrubs, open grassy slopes; (300–)1100– 2600(–3000) m Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan [Myanmar] 40 Selaginella moellendorffii Hieronymus, Hedwigia 41: 178 1902 [“Möllendorfii”] 江南卷柏 jiang nan juan bai Lycopodioides filicinum Dillenius; L minus Dillenius; L moellendorffii (Hieronymus) H S Kung; Selaginella hayatana Kümmerle; S subcaulescens Hayata (1918), not Baker (1884) Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen, erect, 20–55 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to base of stem Main stems branched from middle upward, pinnately branched, stramineous or reddish, unbranched main stem (5–)10–25 cm tall, stem 1–3 mm in diam in lower part, terete, glabrous; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, or times pinnately branched, branchlets dense and regular, ultimate branches 2.5–4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves symmetrical, ovate, 1–2.2 × 0.4–1 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate Dorsal leaves imbricate, ovate-orbicular, 0.6– 1.8 × 0.3–0.8 mm, not carinate or slightly carinate, base obliquely subcordate, margin denticulate, apex aristate, parallel to axis or imbricate Ventral leaves contiguous, slightly ascending, ovate-triangular, 1–2.4 × 0.5–1.8 mm, margin denticulate, apex acute; basiscopic base slightly dilated, margin subentire or denticulate at base; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, not overlapping stem and branches, margin denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 5–15 × 1.4–2.8 mm; sporophylls uniform, white-margined, ovate-triangular, carinate, margin denticulate, apex acuminate; megasporophylls in middle on lower side; microsporangia elliptic-oblong, rather thin, cells regular; microspores yellowish orange, megaspores pale yellow, without equatorial flange On rocks, in rock crevices; 100–1500 m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Philippines, Vietnam] 41 Selaginella pallidissima Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 231 1843 平卷柏 ping juan bai Selaginella rubella W M Chu Plants terrestrial or epilithic, seasonally green, creeping, 15–25 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, pinnately branched, stramineous or reddish, 0.3–0.5 mm in diam in lower part, angulate, sulcate; primary leafy branches 6–8 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2.4–3 cm apart, leafy branches and stems dorsiventrally flattened, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 6–7.5 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 4.3–6 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches asymmetrical, ovate, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, base subcordate, margin minutely denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on branches contiguous or imbricate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.6–2.2 × 0.6–1.3 mm, slightly carinate, base subcordate, margin minutely denticulate or ciliolate, apex acuminate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on branches spreading, ovate or ovate-triangular or ovate-lanceolate, 1.8–3.2 × 1.1–1.8 mm, apex acute; basiscopic margin denticulate; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin denticulate or ciliolate in basal portion Strobili solitary or forked, terminal, lax, dorsiventrally complanate, 5–13 × 4–6 mm; sporophylls similar to sterile leaves in form and arrangement, strongly dimorphic, non-resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate, not keeled or slightly carinate, margin shortly ciliolate or denticulate, apex acuminate, without sporophyll-pteryx; ventral sporophylls ovate, oblong-ovate, or SELAGINELLACEAE 55 broadly ovate, not carinate, margin denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular; microspores orange-red, megaspores sulfurcolored or yellowish orange 地卷柏 di juan bai Pinus yunnanensis forests or mixed forests, on ditch banks, exposed places along roadsides on mountain slopes; 2000–2700 m Sichuan, Yunnan [N India, Nepal] Plants epilithic, evergreen, prostrate, 5–15 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, ca 0.2 mm in diam in lower part, terete, slightly sulcate, branches few, branchlets sparse; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 3.6–4.6 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3–4.4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, ovate-lanceolate, base not peltate, obtuse; axillary leaves on branches ± symmetrical, ovate-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 1.2–1.9 × 0.4–0.8 mm, base exauriculate, margin sparsely long ciliolate in basal half, cilia ca 0.2 mm Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems in leafy portion slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches not approximate, contiguous, or imbricate, ovate, broadly ovate, or suborbicular, 1–1.7 × 0.6–1 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, margin sparsely long ciliolate, cilia 0.3–0.4 mm, apex acuminate or aristate, often reflexed Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant, spreading or deflexed, obliquely ovate, 1.6–2.8 × 1–1.4 mm, apex acute or acuminate; acroscopic base rounded, not overlapping stem and branches, margin sparsely ciliolate, cilia 0.2–0.3 mm Strobili solitary or forked, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 4.5–9 × 3–4.8 mm; sporophylls strongly dimorphic, non-resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate, not keeled, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate, without sporophyll-pteryx; ventral sporophylls broadly oblong-ovate; basal sporophylls larger than upper, not carinate, margin ciliolate, with only megasporophyll at base on lower side of strobilus, elsewhere with microsporophylls, or megasporophylls in basal portion of lower side; microsporangia cordate, rather thin, with relatively large cells at central part; microspores orange-red, megaspores pale yellow or orange 42 Selaginella laxistrobila K H Shing, Acta Phytotax Sin 31: 569 1993 松穗卷柏 song sui juan bai Plants terrestrial, evergreen, main stem shortly decumbent, 1–4(–6) cm, producing a few upright stems over a short distance Rhizophores restricted to lower part of stem Main stems branched from near base upward, stramineous, 0.3–0.4 mm in diam in lower part, angulate, sulcate, repeatedly once or twice forked, branchlets sparse, leafy branches and stems dorsiventrally flattened, ultimate branches 3.2–4.2 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, elliptic, 1–1.8 × 0.3–0.7 mm, base exauriculate, margin slightly denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on branches not approximate, ovate, 1.2–1.8 × 0.6–0.8 mm, not carinate, base subcordate or obtuse, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on branches spreading, ovate-triangular, 1.8–2.3 × 0.8–1.2 mm, apex acute; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, slightly overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate Fertile branches erect Strobili solitary or forked, terminal, lax, dorsiventrally complanate, 10–20 × 3–5 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, similar to sterile leaves in form and arrangement, non-resupinate; dorsal sporophylls like dorsal sterile leaves, not white-margined, ovate-lanceolate, margin shortly ciliolate, apex acuminate, without sporophyll-pteryx; ventral sporophylls ovate, margin shortly ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; sporangia only distributed on lower side; microsporangia orbicular; microspores orange-red, megaspores orange or yellowish orange Damp places in mixed forests, under Quercus shrubs, on rocks, soil banks, rare; 2500–3600 m Sichuan, Yunnan [India, Nepal] 43 Selaginella tama-montana Serizawa, J Jap Bot 53: 242 1978 高山卷柏 gao shan juan bai Plants epilithic, evergreen, often becoming reddish, creeping, 5–10 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Stems irregularly branching, 3.5–5 mm wide including leaves, forming mats Dorsal leaves ovate, 1–1.5 × 0.5– 0.8 mm, margin denticulate, apex acuminate Ventral leaves ± asymmetrically ovate, 1.5–2.7 × 0.8–1.7 mm, margin denticulate, apex acute Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, non-resupinate, very short; sporophylls similar to trophophylls, nearly symmetrical ● On rock crevices; above 3000 m Taiwan 44 Selaginella prostrata (H S Kung) Li Bing Zhang, Novon 22: 262 2012 Lycopodioides prostrata H S Kung, Fl Sichuan 6: 76 1988 ● In rock crevices, on moss-covered rocks in forests; 1500–2500 m Guizhou, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan 45 Selaginella longistrobilina P S Wang, X Y Wang & Li Bing Zhang, Novon 22: 260 2012 长穗卷柏 chang sui juan bai Plants epilithic, evergreen, to 15 cm Stem prostrate, stramineous, terete, slightly sulcate, 2.5–4 mm wide including leaves, 1–4 times branched; ultimate branches 2–3 mm wide including leaves Rhizophores borne throughout Ventral leaves patent, ovate, 1.5–1.8 × 1–1.5 mm, base slightly cordate, margin white, ciliate, apex mucronate or cuspidate; dorsal leaves ovate, 0.8–1.3 × 0.4–0.7 mm, base rounded, margin white, ciliate, apex shortly aristate; axillary leaves ovate to lanceolate, 0.7–1.5 × 0.3–0.5 mm, base rounded, apex acuminate, often disappearing with development of rhizophores at approximate positions Strobili compact, (3–)10–15(–25) mm, solitary or paired, strongly dimorphic, non-resupinate Ventral sporophylls sunken adaxially, broadly lanceolate, adaxially 56 SELAGINELLACEAE navicular, base rounded, margin ciliate, apex acuminate; dorsal sporophylls broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, adaxially flattened, base rounded, margin ciliate, apex acuminate Macrosporangia 1–5, at basal portion of strobili, elsewhere with more than 15 microsporangia; microspores ocher, sculpturing verrucate with irregularly sized verrucae, colpi twisted, usually not forked at ends, and reaching equatorial plane of spore; macrospores in each macrosporangium, light orange ● Weathered crust of limestone rocks and among crevices under secondary mixed forests; ca 1500 m C Guizhou (Anshun) 46 Selaginella decipiens Warburg, Monsunia 1: 127 1899 拟大叶卷柏 ni da ye juan bai Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen, erect from decumbent or creeping main stems, 45–75 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to creeping rhizomes and stolons Main stems pinnately branched from middle upward; branches not very regular, some much longer, unequally long, pale green or stramineous; unbranched main stem 15–30 cm tall, 1–2 mm in diam in lower part, angulate, sulcate; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, or times pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice pinnately branched, branchlets regular, adjacent primary branches on main stem 3.5–8 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 6–9 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 4–5 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems obviously larger than those on branches, broadly ovate, 2.5–4.5 × 2.4–3.6 mm, base not peltate, obtuse; axillary leaves on branches strongly asymmetrical, ovate, 3.5–4.2 × 1.9–2.8 mm, base exauriculate, margin slightly denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems obviously larger than those on branches, dorsal leaves on primary branches contiguous or imbricate, oblong-lanceolate, 1.2–2 × 0.4–1 mm, slightly carinate, base truncate, margin denticulate, apex aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on primary branches spreading, ovate-triangular or oblong-falcate, 3–4.6 × 1.4–3 mm, apex subacute or obtuse; basiscopic margin entire; acroscopic base strongly enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin subentire or minutely denticulate Strobili solitary, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 3–6.5 × 1.6–2.5 mm; sporophylls slightly dimorphic, resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, margin denticulate, not keeled, apex acute, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate, carinate, margin denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia transversely elliptic; microspores pale yellow, megaspores whitish or pink Dense forests; 1200–1500 m Guangxi, Yunnan [India (Assam), Vietnam] 47 Selaginella bodinieri Hieronymus, Hedwigia 43: 1904 大叶卷柏 da ye juan bai Lycopodioides omeiensis (Ching ex H S Kung) H S Kung; Selaginella bodinieri var omeiensis (Ching ex H S Kung) W M Chu; S chingii Alston; S omeiensis Ching ex H S Kung; S yunnanensis Hieronymus; S yunnanensis var longiflora Hieronymus Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen, creeping or pendulous from cliffs; upper portion erect or suberect, (15–)30– 40(–50) cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to lower part of stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from lower part or from middle upward, pinnately branched, stramineous; unbranched main stem 5–10 cm tall, 1.5–2 mm in diam in lower part, subquadrangular (carinate in leafy branch portion), sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches or pairs, twice pinnately branched, secondary branches forked or once pinnately branched, branchlets dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2.4–4.8 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 7–8 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 4–6 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches asymmetrical, ovate or triangular, 2–3.2 × 0.9–1.6 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate or ciliolate (in lower half) Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous, obliquely ovate, 2.4–3.4 × 1.2–1.8 mm, not carinate, base obliquely cordate, not peltate, margin denticulate or ciliolate (at base), apex acuminate, aristate, or cuspidate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches contiguous, slightly ascending, oblong-ovate or oblong, 3.4–4.4 × 1.6–2.2 mm, margin entire, apex acute or obtuse; basiscopic base slightly auriculate, margin entire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, not overlapping stem and branches, margin denticulate or ciliolate (in basal portion) Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, slightly dorsiventrally complanate, 4–16 × 1.4–2.4 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, slightly dimorphic, or ± uniform, resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls broadly orbicular-ovate, slightly carinate, margin shortly ciliolate or denticulate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and denticulate; ventral sporophylls broadly ovate, carinate, margin denticulate or ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular; microspores pale yellow, megaspores white-yellow ● On rocks, forests, hanging from walls of limestone caves; (200–)700–1800(–2100) m Chongqing, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan 48 Selaginella pennata (D Don) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 232 1843 拟双沟卷柏 ni shuang gou juan bai Lycopodium pennatum D Don, Prodr Fl Nepal 18 1825; Selaginella blepharostachya Alston ex Knox; S suberosa Spring Plants terrestrial, seasonally green, suberect or ascending from decumbent base, 15–30 cm Rhizophores restricted to lower part of stem Main stems branched from lower part upward, not very regularly pinnately branched, stramineous, shiny, 0.8–2.7 mm in diam in lower part, terete, not sulcate or sulcate in upper part, branches few; primary leafy branches 3–5 pairs, twice pinnately branched, secondary branches forked or once pinnately branched, branchlets regularly long, adjacent primary branches on main stem 3–6 cm apart, leafy portion of SELAGINELLACEAE main stem including leaves 5–7 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3.5–5.7 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate, 1.5–2.3 × 0.6–1.2 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate in basal part, upward subentire, or with or cilia Dorsal leaves approximate, asymmetrical, 1.2– 2.1 × 0.4–0.8 mm, base obliquely cuneate, margin sparsely ciliolate, apex mucronate or aristate with arista curved, up to 1/2–3/4 as long as leaf, 0.5–0.8 mm Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant, slightly ascending, oblong or oblong-ovate, 1.6–3 × 0.7–1.4 mm, apex acute or apiculate; basiscopic margin entire; acroscopic base rounded, not overlapping stem and branches, margin sparsely shortly ciliolate Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 6–12 × 2.5–4.5 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, strongly dimorphic, very basal sporophylls on ventral side of strobilus similar to lateral sterile leaves; dorsal sporophylls oblong-lanceolate, with incomplete sporophyll-pteryx; ventral sporophylls ovate or broadly ovate, not carinate, base dilated, margin lacerate-ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side; microsporangia reniform, relatively thick, marginal cells differentiated, longer; microspores pale yellow, megaspores whitish, gray, or dark brown, baculate Mixed forests on rather dry mountain slopes; 400–1200 m Yunnan [NE India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand] Selaginella pennata is very close to S bisulcata in the shape of the dorsal leaves and the color and ornamentation of the megaspores 49 Selaginella leptophylla Baker, J Bot (Hooker) 23: 157 1885 膜叶卷柏 mo ye juan bai Lycopodioides leptophylla (Baker) Kuntze; Selaginella cristata Warburg; S hayatana Satake (1934), not Kümmerle (1928); S leptophylla var wichurae (Warburg) Tagawa; S satakeana Koidzumi; S stenostachya Hayata; S wichurae Warburg Plants terrestrial, evergreen or seasonally green, erect, (5–) 10–25 cm, without creeping rhizomes or stolons, sometimes very long compared with fertile branches Rhizophores restricted to lower part of stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from near base upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, 0.3–1.2 mm in diam in lower part, terete, sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches forked or once pinnately branched; tertiary ultimate branches simple, sparse and regular; adjacent primary branches on main stem 1.5–3.5 cm apart; ultimate branches 2.4–4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, orbicular or elliptic, base not peltate, attenuate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, elliptic, 1.5–2.2 × 0.5–1.4 mm, base exauriculate, margin slightly denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches, base oblique, margin minutely denticulate, apex aristate; dorsal leaves on branches not approximate, elliptic or narrowly ovate, 0.8–1.5 × 0.2–0.4 mm, base attenuate, not peltate, margin minutely denticulate, apex long aristate (as long as rest of leaf), parallel to axis or often reflexed or 57 apical arista curved Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant, slightly ascending, ovate-lanceolate or oblongovate, 1.7–2.4 × 0.7–1.1 mm, apex acute; basiscopic margin subentire or minutely denticulate; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin minutely denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 4–18 × 1.7–3.2 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, strongly dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls oblong-lanceolate, margin minutely denticulate, not keeled, apex subacute or obtuse, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete (almost up to apex along vein) and denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovatetriangular, not carinate, margin ciliolate, apex long aristate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia suborbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores orange-red, with dense spherules, megaspores reddish brown, finely rugose On rocks or in shaded damp places; below 100–1300(–2100) m Guizhou, Hong Kong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Japan (S Ryukyu Islands), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam] 50 Selaginella minutifolia Spring, Monogr Lycopod 2: 239 1850 小叶卷柏 xiao ye juan bai Plants terrestrial, seasonally green, erect, generally less than 10 cm, stramineous, glabrous Rhizophores restricted to base of stem Main stem pinnately branched, stramineous, branched from lower part, 0.4–0.7 mm in diam in basal part, leaves on lower part of main stems or below leafy portion distant, with single vascular bundle; primary leafy branches 3–5 pairs, forked, branchlets sparse, middle primary branches ca cm, ca cm wide, leafy branches glabrous, dorsiventrally flattened, ultimate branches 1.5–2.5 mm wide including leaves Leaves decussately arranged except on unbranched main stem, dimorphic throughout, herbaceous, white-margined, entire Dorsal leaves asymmetrical; dorsal leaves on branches elliptic, ca 1.2 × 0.4 mm, base cuneate, margin denticulate, apex long acuminate Ventral leaves asymmetrical; ventral leaves on branches ascending, approximate, oblong, ca × 1.5 mm, apex acute; acroscopic base rounded, decurrent, margin denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, ca × 2.5 mm; sporophylls strongly dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls ovate, margin denticulate, apex acute, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete, ciliate; ventral sporophylls ovate, margin denticulate or ciliate; megasporangia usually in basal portion on lower side or megasporangia in basal portion of both sides; microspores orange-red, megaspores yellow On soil banks in shaded forests; 100–1300 m Yunnan [India (Assam), Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam] 51 Selaginella chrysocaulos (Hooker & Greville) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 232 1843 块茎卷柏 kuai jing juan bai Lycopodium chrysocaulos Hooker & Greville, Bot Misc 2: 401 1831; Lycopodioides chrysocaulos (Hooker & Greville) H S Kung; Selaginella hypnoides Spring; S philippina Spring var khasiensis Baker; S rosenstockii Hieronymus SELAGINELLACEAE 58 Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen or seasonally green, erect, (5–)10–15(–25) cm, with stolons at base, with elongate tuber at base of stem, covered by colorless scalelike leaves Rhizophores restricted to base of stem or borne in lower part Main stems branched from near base or from lower part upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, unbranched main stem 1–2(–5) cm tall, 0.5–1 mm in diam in lower part, terete or subquadrangular; primary leafy branches 6–12 pairs, forked or once or twice pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1–3 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 3–5.5 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3–4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches asymmetrical, narrowly ovate or narrowly elliptic, 2–3 × 1–1.4 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate (at base) Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches not approximate, as widely separated as width of leaf, narrowly ovate, 0.6–1 × 0.3–0.5 mm, carinate or not carinate, base subcordate or obliquely cordate, margin denticulate or ciliolate at base, apex acuminate or aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches slightly ascending or spreading, ovate-lanceolate, 1.4–2 × 0.8–1.4 mm, apex acute; acroscopic base not enlarged, not overlapping stem and branches, margin sparsely minutely denticulate or ciliolate at base Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 3–5 × 1–1.5 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, slightly or strongly dimorphic, resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate, margin denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, microspores orange-red, megaspores yellowish orange or brown those on branches, ovate, ovate-triangular, or ovate-elliptic, base not peltate, obtuse; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate-triangular or ovate, 2–3.5 × 1.2–2.8 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate or contiguous, obliquely ovateelliptic, 1.5–3.2 × 0.6–1 mm, carinate, base subcordate or cuneate, not peltate, margin ciliolate, apex aristate, arista curved, 0.8–1.6 mm Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant or approximate, spreading, oblong or oblong-ovate, 2.2–5 × 1–2.2 mm, margin denticulate, apex subacute; basiscopic base decurrent, margin ciliolate at base (elsewhere subentire); acroscopic base enlarged, broader, strongly overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate in basal half (denticulate to apex) Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 6–12 × 1.5–3 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, strongly dimorphic, resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls oblong-lanceolate, sharply carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acute or acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx complete and sparsely shortly ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate-triangular, carinate, margin shortly ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores pale yellow, megaspores white-yellow On damp shaded banks in evergreen and deciduous forests, in grass under shrubs, forming mats; (1400–)1800–2500(–3100) m Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Malaysia (Peninsular), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam] 细叶卷柏 xi ye juan bai Selaginella chrysocaulos is closely related to S labordei but differs in the typical underground tuber and the leaves not white-margined and not very ciliolate 52 Selaginella effusa Alston, J Bot 70: 65 1932 疏松卷柏 shu song juan bai Selaginella liboensis H S Kung & P S Wang Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen or seasonally green, erect, 10–45 cm, without creeping rhizomes or stolons, without elongate tuber at base of stem Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches and to upper part of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from lower part upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, subquadrangular, sulcate, glabrous; primary leafy branches 3–10 pairs, or times pinnately branched; secondary branches once or twice pinnately branched, regularly long; adjacent primary branches on main stem 2–4 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 0.4–0.7 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3.3–6 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than On rocks in shaded places, terrestrial along roadsides in forests; 200–1500 m Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Xizang, Yunnan [Vietnam] Selaginella effusa is similar to S heterostachys but differs in the axillary leaves ciliolate and ovate-triangular 53 Selaginella labordei Hieronymus ex Christ, Bull Acad Int Géogr Bot 11: 272 1902 Lycopodioides labordei (Hieronymus ex Christ) H S Kung; L sichuanica (H S Kung) H S Kung; Selaginella hupehensis Pampanini; S morrisonensis Hayata; S sichuanica H S Kung; S zahlbruckeriana Handel-Mazzetti Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen or seasonally green, erect or ascending from decumbent base, (5–)15–20(–30) cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores restricted to base of stem or borne on creeping rhizomes and stolons Main stems branched from middle or lower part upward, pinnately branched, stramineous or reddish (when alive), 0.4–1.4 mm in diam in lower part, terete, sulcate; primary leafy branches 3–5 pairs, or times pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice pinnately branched, tertiary branches forked or simple, branchlets sparse or dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1–5 cm apart, ultimate branches (2.2–) 3–3.5(–5.5) mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, ovate, base not peltate, truncate; axillary leaves on branches asymmetrical, ovatelanceolate, (1.4–)2–2.4(–2.9) × (0.5–)0.8–1(–1.3) mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate or ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 0.9–2 × 0.3–0.8 mm, carinate or not carinate, SELAGINELLACEAE base subcordate, not peltate, margin denticulate or ciliolate (at base), apex aristate, often reflexed or arista curved Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant, slightly ascending, ovate-lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or triangular, 1.7– 3.2 × 0.6–1.2 mm, apex acute; basiscopic base rounded, denticulate or ciliolate at base (denticulate to apex); acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin shortly ciliolate at base, denticulate to apex Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate or subcomplanate, 5–18 × 1.3–3 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, slightly or strongly dimorphic, resupinate, white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, margin ciliolate or denticulate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and ciliolate or denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate, carinate, margin denticulate or ciliolate, apex aristate or acuminate; megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals or megasporophylls in basal or upper portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores orange-red or red, megaspores pale yellow or yellowish orange Forests, on rocks; (200–)1000–3000(–4000) m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Myanmar] Selaginella labordei differs from S chrysocaulos in the moreciliolate indument of the dorsal leaves and the absence of underground tuberlike rhizomes A small form in shaded, wet, rocky places under waterfalls at Jinfo Shan, Nanchuan, Chongqing, has dorsal leaves with aristae as long as the leaves This form has been named as S sichuanica, but it is only an ecological form 54 Selaginella repanda (Desvaux ex Poiret) Spring in Gaudichaud, Voy Bonite, Bot 1: 329 1844 高雄卷柏 gao xiong juan bai Lycopodium repandum Desvaux ex Poiret in Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl 3: 558 1814; L barbatum Kaulfuss; L tetragonostachyum Wallich ex Greville & Hooker var major Greville & Hooker; Selaginella barbata Warburg; S henryi Koidzumi; S suberecta Baker; S tetragonostachya Spring, p.p Plants terrestrial or epilithic, seasonally green, ascending from decumbent base, 8–30 cm, with creeping subterranean rhizome and stolons Rhizophores borne from base to upper part of main stem or restricted to creeping rhizomes and stolons (sometimes also on lateral branches), on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from near base upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, unbranched main stem 8–15 cm tall, oval or terete, apex of main stem and lateral branches sometimes flagelliform; primary leafy branches 2–6 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice forked, branchlets dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1.5–3 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 4.4–6.6 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3–4.5 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base not peltate, obtuse; axillary leaves on branches ± symmetrical, ovate, 2–3 × 1–1.4 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate 59 Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems in leafy portion slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate, obliquely ovate, 0.7–1.6 × 0.4–0.9 mm, not carinate or slightly carinate, base obliquely subcordate, not peltate, margin long ciliolate (denticulate to apex), apex long acuminate to shortly aristate, parallel to axis or often reflexed Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches approximate, spreading, oblong-falcate, 2.5–3 × 1–1.5 mm, margin minutely denticulate, apex acute; basiscopic base rounded, margin ciliolate with a few long cilia at base, denticulate to apex; acroscopic base rounded, not overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate in basal half (denticulate to apex) Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, subtetragonal or subcomplanate, 3–7 × 1.5– mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, submonomorphic or sometimes dorsal sporophylls longer, not obviously white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate, sharply carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate; ventral sporophylls ovate, margin ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus or ± randomly distributed on both sides; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores orange-red or red, coarsely granular, megaspores yellowish orange, baculate On rocks or under shrubs on soil banks; 100–1300 m Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam] 55 Selaginella bisulcata Spring, Mém Acad Roy Sci Belgique 24: 259 1850 双沟卷柏 shuang gou juan bai Lycopodioides bisulcata (Spring) Kuntze; Selaginella bisulcata var spinulosa Spring Plants terrestrial, evergreen, creeping, 20–35 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from near base upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, main stem 1.2–1.8 mm in diam in lower part, subquadrangular, sulcate; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, 1–3 times pinnately branched, branchlets sparse or dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem 6–10 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 9–12 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 5– mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, elliptic, 3–4.6 × 1.1–1.6 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate or sparsely ciliolate Dorsal leaves contiguous or imbricate, asymmetrical, 1–2.4 × 0.6–1.5 mm, base obliquely cuneate, margin sparsely ciliolate, apex mucronate or aristate with arista curved, up to 1/2–4/5 as long as leaf, 0.4–0.8 mm Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant, slightly ascending or spreading or deflexed (on main stem), oblong, 3.2–5 × 1.2–2 mm, apex apiculate; basiscopic margin entire or subentire, but denticulate at apex, not revolute, not involute; acroscopic base not enlarged, not overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate or denticulate in basal and apical portions, entire in middle Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 6–10 × 3.5–5.5 mm; sporophylls unlike sterile leaves, strongly dimorphic (very basal sporophylls on ventral side similar to lateral sterile leaves), SELAGINELLACEAE 60 resupinate, not obviously white-margined; dorsal sporophylls oblong-lanceolate, carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate or aristate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate-lanceolate or oblong-ovate, carinate or not carinate, base dilated, margin ciliolate or lacerate-ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus, or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals; microsporangia orbicular, relatively thick, cells uniform; microspores pale yellow, megaspores gray or dark brown Terrestrial on rather dry slopes in light shade; 400–2400 m Sichuan, Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Indonesia (Java), Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam] Selaginella bisulcata is very closely related to S pennata but differs in the stems creeping, the rhizophores borne also in distal portion, and the dorsal leaves acute to mucronate at apex 56 Selaginella megaphylla Baker, J Bot (Hooker) 23: 180 1885 宽叶卷柏 kuan ye juan bai Lycopodioides megaphylla (Baker) Kuntze Plants terrestrial, evergreen, long creeping, 50–100 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, 1.3–3 mm in diam in lower part, stem oval or terete, branches many, once pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2–7 cm apart, ultimate branches 10–15 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, ovate-lanceolate or triangular, base not peltate, truncate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate-lanceolate, 3–4 × 1–1.5 mm, base exauriculate, margin slightly denticulate Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on branches imbricate, ovate-elliptic, 2–3.3 × 1.2–1.7 mm, slightly carinate, base obtuse, not peltate, margin denticulate, apex acute, parallel to axis Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on branches distant, approximate, or contiguous, spreading, oblong-falcate, 5–7 mm, apex obtuse; basiscopic margin entire; acroscopic base slightly enlarged, broader, not overlapping stem and branches, margin slightly denticulate Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 4–12 × 1.3–2.6 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin denticulate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate, carinate, margin denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia suborbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores pale yellow, megaspores whitish or brown Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 800–1800 m Xizang [Bhutan, NE India, N Myanmar] Selaginella megaphylla is similar to S ornata but differs in the leaves much longer and the lower margin of ventral leaves entire 57 Selaginella ornata (Hooker & Greville) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 232 1843 微齿卷柏 wei chi juan bai Lycopodium ornatum Hooker & Greville, Bot Misc 3: 108 1833; Selaginella rabenavii Hieronymus; S tonkinensis Baker Plants terrestrial, evergreen, creeping, upper part ascending, 20–40 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from near base upward, stramineous or reddish, main stem 0.7–1.4 mm in diam in lower part; stem oval, flattened, or subquadrangular, sulcate or not, glabrous, with single vascular bundle, apex of main stem blackish (reddish when fresh), branches few or many; primary leafy branches 3–8 pairs, once pinnately branched, secondary branches forked or once pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 4–7 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 0.8–1.2 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 5–8 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, base not peltate, attenuate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 2–3.6 × 0.8–1.6 mm, base exauriculate, margin slightly denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous or imbricate, ovate, 2.1–3.8 × 0.5–1.8 mm, carinate, base obtuse, margin minutely denticulate, apex aristate with arista 1/4–1/3 as long as leaf, parallel to axis Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant or contiguous, spreading, oblong or oblong-falcate, 3.5–5 × 1.2–2.2 mm, apex obtuse; basiscopic base decurrent, margin entire; acroscopic base rounded, overlapping stem and branches, margin denticulate in basal half Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 4–14 × 1.4–3.2 mm; sporophylls strongly dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and denticulate; ventral sporophylls much smaller than dorsal leaves, later colorless, broadly ovate, carinate, margin denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia suborbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores pale yellow, megaspores reddish brown Forests, limestone caves; 500–1500 m Guangxi, Yunnan [Indonesia (Java), Malaysia (Peninsular), Thailand, Vietnam] 58 Selaginella amblyphylla Alston, Bull Fan Mem Inst Biol., Bot 5: 287 1934 钝叶卷柏 dun ye juan bai Plants terrestrial, evergreen or seasonally green, creeping or suberect, up to 35 cm Rhizophores restricted to lower part of stem or at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched from near base or lower part upward, pinnately branched, stramineous, 1–2 mm in diam in lower part, terete, not sulcate; primary leafy branches 5–10 pairs, or times pinnately branched, branchlets dense, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1.5–3 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 5–8 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 4–5 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches asymmetrical, ovate or triangular, 2–3 × 0.6–1.2 mm, base exauric- SELAGINELLACEAE ulate, margin denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous, ovate-lanceolate or ovate, 1.4– 2.2 × 0.4–0.8 mm, not carinate, base obliquely cordate, margin denticulate or ciliolate at base, apex aristate, arista ca mm Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant, spreading, oblong, 2.2–3.5 × 1.6–2 mm, apex obtuse or subacute; basiscopic margin sparsely ciliolate at base, elsewhere subentire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin shortly ciliolate in basal portion, elsewhere entire Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 3.5–10 × 3.2–4.4 mm; sporophylls strongly dimorphic, resupinate, not obviously white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate-triangular, carinate, margin ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores orange-red, megaspores yellowish orange or whitish Forests; (100–)500–1800 m Guangxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Myanmar, Thailand] 61 acute; basiscopic base decurrent, margin subentire or entire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, strongly overlapping stem and branches, margin denticulate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate (sometimes appearing uniform), 3–20 × 1.9–3.2 mm; sporophylls slightly dimorphic, resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls lanceolate, sharply carinate, margin minutely denticulate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx complete and denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, base dilated, margin denticulate; strobili with megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus, or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals, or only megasporophyll at base on lower side, elsewhere with microsporophylls; microsporangia transversely elliptic, rather thin, upper margin cells differentiated; microspores yellowish orange or pale yellow, megaspores whitish On damp banks in forests; (400–)1300–1800(–2600) m Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam] 60 Selaginella trichophylla K H Shing, Acta Phytotax Sin 31: 569 1993 毛叶卷柏 mao ye juan bai 59 Selaginella monospora Spring, Mém Acad Roy Sci Belgique 24: 135 1850 Selaginella monospora Spring subsp trichophylla (K H Shing) X C Zhang 单子卷柏 dan zi juan bai Plants terrestrial, evergreen, creeping, 30–50 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems pinnately branched throughout, stramineous, terete, not sulcate; primary leafy branches 10–15 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches forked or once pinnately branched, tertiary branches forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2–4 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 5–6 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 2.8–3.2 mm wide including leaves All leaves spinose on both surfaces Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate, 1.2–2.5 × 1–2 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous or imbricate, ovate, 1.2–1.8 × 0.5–1 mm, not carinate, base subcordate or obtuse, not peltate, margin ciliolate (more densely ciliolate at base), apex acuminate or shortly aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant, slightly ascending or spreading, ovate-triangular, 2–3.2 × 0.8–1.6 mm, margin denticulate, apex acute; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin denticulate, ciliolate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 6.5–10 × 1.2–2.3 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin denticulate, apex acuminate, with sporophyllpteryx complete and denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia transversely elliptic, rather thin, upper margin cells differentiated; microspores pale yellow, megaspores white-yellow Lycopodioides gorvalensis (Spring) Kuntze; Lycopodium monosporum (Spring) Hooker; Selaginella effusa Alston var medogensis (Ching & S K Wu) W M Chu; S medogensis Ching & S K Wu; S microclada Baker; S plumosa (Linnaeus) C Presl var monospora (Spring) Baker Plants terrestrial, evergreen, long creeping, 35–85 cm or more Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, pinnately branched, stramineous, 1.5–2 mm in diam in lower part, stem oval or terete, not sulcate, branches many, some primary lateral branches developed into long branch systems; primary leafy branches 8–12 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched or or times forked, tertiary branches forked, branchlets dense and regular, adjacent primary branches on main stem 2.5–5.5 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves (5–)8–11 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 4–8 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, ovate or broadly ovate, base not peltate, obtuse; axillary leaves on branches asymmetrical, ovate, narrowly ovate, or narrowly elliptic, 2–3 × 0.8–1.6 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on main stems slightly larger than those on branches, margin denticulate or subentire in ultimate branches, base obtuse, apex shortly aristate; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, 1–1.6 × 0.3– 0.7 mm, carinate or strongly carinate, base obtuse, not peltate, margin denticulate, apex acuminate or shortly aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those on branches, 3.5–5.5 × 1.4–2.3 mm; ventral leaves on branches approximate, slightly ascending or spreading, ovatetriangular or oblong-falcate, 2.6–4.3 × 0.9–1.4 mm, apex sub- ● On rocks in evergreen broad-leaved forests; 1300–1500 m Xizang 62 SELAGINELLACEAE Selaginella trichophylla is known only from the type material It is superficially similar to S effusa and S scabrifolia but differs in the leaves spinose on both surfaces 61 Selaginella devolii H M Chang, P F Lu & W L Chiou, Blumea 56: 21 2011 棣氏卷柏 di shi juan bai Plants prostrate, annual, very small, without erect or ascending stems Rhizophores present along basal branches Stems widely branching with main segments 1–3 cm, 2–2.5(–3) mm wide across microphylls, decumbent or creeping All leaves conspicuously dimorphic, arranged in ranks (2 dorsal and ventral), vein single, prominent on ventral side, usually not reaching apex, margin with or rows of specialized, elongated cells Axillary leaves present at branch forks, inserted at ventral side of stem, broadly ovate to elliptic, sparsely serrulate along margin Dorsal leaves ovate or broadly elliptic, 0.5–0.8 × 0.3–0.6 mm, base rounded or truncate, margin sparsely serrulate, apex acute to rounded Ventral leaves broadly ovate or broadly oblong, rarely ovate, 1–1.3 × 0.7–0.9 mm, base rounded or somewhat cordate, margin usually sparsely serrulate but sometimes entire at basiscopic 2/3, apex rounded or broadly acute Strobili terminal, complanate, 3–10 × 2.5–3 mm; sporangia on ventral side only, megasporangia at basal parts and microsporangia more apically; dorsal sporophylls significantly larger than ventral ones, widely spreading, broadly falcate, 1– 1.3 × 0.5–0.7 mm, sparsely serrulate along margin, apex acute to rounded, single vein bearing a keel-like wing along its basal half on ventrally facing adaxial side, margin of wing toothed; ventral sporophylls pointing forward, shovel-like, ovate or broadly lanceolate, 0.7–0.9 × 0.4–0.5 mm, rounded at base, serrulate along margin apically but toothed nearer base, apex acuminate or acute, vein prominent on ventrally facing abaxial side ● On moist rocky slopes with some shade; 600–1200 m C and S Taiwan Selaginella devolii most resembles young sporophytes of S leptophylla However, the latter has oblong ventral trophophylls and lanceolate dorsal sporophylls that easily distinguish it Selaginella ciliaris, which usually grows together with this new species, is distinguished by its trophophylls and sporophylls with ciliate margins 62 Selaginella ciliaris (Retzius) Spring, Bull Acad Roy Sci Bruxelles 10: 231 1843 睫毛卷柏 jie mao juan bai Lycopodium ciliare Retzius, Observ Bot 5: 32 1789; Lycopodioides ciliaris (Retzius) Kuntze; L exigua (Spring) Kuntze; Lycopodium belangeri Bory; Selaginella belangeri (Bory) Spring; S exigua Spring Plants terrestrial, evergreen or seasonally green, shortly creeping, fertile erect stem 2–5 cm, with creeping or prostrate stems Rhizophores restricted to lower part of erect fertile branches or to middle of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, 0.3–0.4 mm in diam in lower part, terete, not sulcate or sulcate; primary leafy branches or pairs, simple or forked or once pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem ca cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 3–4 mm wide at middle Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical, ovate, 1.2–2 × 0.6–1 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate in basal half, upward denticulate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches contiguous, ovate, 1.2–1.6 × 0.6–1 mm, slightly carinate, base subcordate or obtuse, margin minutely denticulate, apex acuminate or aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical; ventral leaves on branches spreading, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.6–2 × 1.6–2 mm, apex acute; basiscopic margin subentire or minutely denticulate to apex; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 4.5–13 × 2– 4.5 mm; sporophylls strongly dimorphic, resupinate, white-margined; dorsal sporophylls minutely denticulate, with sporophyllpteryx incomplete (ending midway to apex) and ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate-triangular, margin ciliolate, all known sporophylls megasporophylls; megaspores greenish-yellowish orange Grasslands; below 100–900 m Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia (Java), Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia] The presence of only megasporangiate strobili in Selaginella ciliaris suggests that this species may be apomictic 63 Selaginella kouytcheensis H Léveillé, Repert Spec Nov Regni Veg 9: 451 1933 贵州卷柏 gui zhou juan bai Plants evergreen, small, weak, 1.5–6 cm high Main stems suberect, slender, leafy portion once or twice pinnately branched Leaves very thin Axillary leaves oblong, 1.5–2 × 0.6–1.2 mm, margin subentire or minutely denticulate Ventral leaves oblong, 1.5–2 × 0.6–1 mm, base rounded, margin slightly denticulate, apex obtuse Dorsal leaves much smaller than ventral leaves, ovate or elliptic, 0.8–1 × 0.4–0.6 mm, base cuneate, margin minutely denticulate, apex obtuse Strobili solitary, dorsiventrally compressed, 3–5 × 2–3 mm; sporophylls strongly dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls larger, spreading, oblong-lanceolate, up to 1.5 × 0.5 mm, base rounded, margin minutely denticulate, apex acute; ventral sporophylls smaller, ovate, margin minutely denticulate, apex acuminate; megaspores whitish, microspores not found ● Limestone caves; 900–1100 m Guizhou, Yunnan 64 Selaginella boninensis Baker, J Bot (Hooker) 23: 178 1885 小笠原卷柏 xiao li yuan juan bai Lycopodioides boninensis (Baker) Kuntze Plants epilithic, evergreen, creeping, 10–30 cm, fertile stems erect Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, pinnately branched, stramineous, ca mm in diam in lower part, terete, sulcate, branches few, erect fertile stems branched from middle upward; primary leafy branches 5–8 pairs, simple or once pinnately SELAGINELLACEAE branched, secondary branches not forked or basal one or two forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem ca cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 6–8 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3.6–4.5 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate-lanceolate, 2.3–2.5 × 1.2–1.4 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches not approximate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.8–2.5 × 0.8–1 mm, not carinate, base subcordate or cordate, not peltate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate or aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches contiguous or slightly overlapping, spreading, oblong or oblong-ovate, 2.2–3.2 × 1– 1.8 mm, apex acute; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin ciliolate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 6–8 × 2.6–3.3 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, resupinate, not white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, not keeled, margin ciliolate, apex acute, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus or in basal portion on both sides; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores red, megaspores white-yellow Slopes in tropical forests, trailsides, roadsides; 100–500 m S Taiwan [Japan (Bonin Islands)] Selaginella boninensis is similar to S heterostachys and S effusa but differs in the plants always creeping 65 Selaginella heterostachys Baker, J Bot (Hooker) 23: 177 1885 异穗卷柏 yi sui juan bai Lycopodioides heterostachya (Baker) Kuntze; Selaginella hezhangensis P S Wang & X Y Wang; S praticola HandelMazzetti; S recurvifolia Warburg; S tarokoensis Yamamoto Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen, erect or creeping, 10–20 cm, fertile stems erect Rhizophores restricted to lower part of erect fertile branches or at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stem pinnately branched, stramineous, 0.4–1.2 mm in diam in lower part, terete, sulcate, erect fertile stems branched from lower part upward; primary leafy branches 3–5 pairs, once or twice pinnately branched, secondary branches once or twice forked, tertiary branches forked or simple, branchlets sparse and regular, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1.5–6 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 3–6 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 2.4–5.6 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, ovate, base not peltate, subcordate; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate or oblong, 1.4– 2.6 × 0.4–1.2 mm, base exauriculate, margin denticulate Dorsal leaves asymmetrical, those on branches not approximate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1–1.6 × 0.4–0.8 mm, not carinate, base cuneate or obliquely attenuate, not peltate, margin minutely denticulate, apex acuminate or shortly aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem obviously larger than those 63 on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant or approximate, spreading or deflexed, oblong-ovate, 1.8–2.7 × 0.7–1.8 mm, margin denticulate, apex acute; basiscopic base rounded; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 5–25 × 1.5–3.5 mm; sporophylls strongly dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, not keeled, margin ciliolate or denticulate, apex acuminate or aristate, with sporophyll-pteryx complete and ciliolate or denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate (ridge also ciliolate), margin ciliolate, apex long acuminate; megasporophylls in basal portion on both sides or lower side of strobilus, ± randomly distributed on both sides, or throughout lower side, or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals; microsporangia transversely elliptic, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores yellowish orange, megaspores yellowish orange ● On rocks in forests, wet habitats including on moss-covered or wet rocks and walls, occasionally on tree trunks close to streams; 100– 1300(–1900) m Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang 66 Selaginella kurzii Baker, J Bot (Hooker) 23: 249 1885 缅甸卷柏 mian dian juan bai Lycopodioides kurzii (Baker) Kuntze Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen or subterranean rhizomes evergreen and aerial part seasonally green, creeping, creeping stems 10–20 cm, fertile stems erect Rhizophores restricted to lower part of erect fertile branches or at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, pinnately branched; erect fertile stems 5–15(–25) cm high, stramineous, terete, not sulcate; primary leafy branches or pairs, branches once or twice forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1.5–2.5 cm apart, ultimate branches 2–6 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems larger than those on branches, triangular, base not peltate, obtuse; axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1–2.5 × 0.6–1.6 mm, base exauriculate, margin rather long ciliolate at base Dorsal leaves asymmetrical or ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate or imbricate, ovate or ovate-elliptic, 1–1.2 × 0.4–0.8 mm, carinate, base subcordate or obtuse, not peltate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate or aristate, arista 0.3–0.6 mm Ventral leaves strongly asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches distant or approximate, slightly ascending, ovate-triangular, 1.6–3.8 × 0.6– 1.6 mm, margin denticulate, apex acute or acuminate; basiscopic margin entire or with or cilia at base; acroscopic base rounded, overlapping stem and branches, margin rather long ciliolate at base, subentire upward Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, tetragonal, 6–8 × 2–3 mm; sporophylls dimorphic or strongly dimorphic, resupinate, white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, sharply carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acute or acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and SELAGINELLACEAE 64 ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate, carinate, margin ciliolate; megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals, or megasporophylls throughout lower side or in basal portion of lower side of strobilus; microsporangia orbicular, rather thin, marginal cells differentiated, smaller with thin walls; microspores orangered, megaspores sulfur-colored Lycopodioides compta (Handel-Mazzetti) H S Kung; L vaginata (Spring) Kuntze; Selaginella bomiensis Ching & S K Wu; S compta Handel-Mazzetti; S schottmuelleri Warburg [“Schottmülleri”]; S shensiensis Christ, p.p.; S smithii O C Schmidt; S thomsonii Hieronymus; S xishuiensis G Q Gou & P S Wang Forest margins at roadsides; 200–1800 m Yunnan [NE India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam] Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen or seasonally green, creeping, 5–10 cm, fertile stems erect Rhizophores restricted to lower part of erect fertile branches or at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, 0.2–0.4 mm in diam in lower part, terete, sulcate or not, branches few; erect fertile stems pinnately branched throughout, 5–10 cm high, stramineous; primary leafy branches 2–5 pairs, once or twice forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1–2 cm apart, ultimate branches 3–5 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches asymmetrical or symmetrical, ovate-triangular, 1.2–2.5 × 0.5–1.5 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate in basal half, elsewhere subentire Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on branches approximate, contiguous, or imbricate, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or triangular, 0.8–2.4 × 0.4–1.2 mm, slightly carinate, base subcordate, cuneate, or obtuse, not peltate, margin long ciliolate at base, shortly ciliolate upward, apex acuminate or aristate, parallel to axis or often reflexed Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on branches distant, spreading or deflexed, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-falcate, 1.6–3.2 × 0.8–1.5 mm, apex acute; basiscopic base rounded, margin denticulate in basal half, elsewhere subentire, or very shortly ciliolate at base; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin sparsely long ciliolate at base, cilia 0.4–0.6 mm, denticulate upward Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, or sometimes tetragonal, 10–15(–45) × 2–3.5 mm; sporophylls dimorphic or slightly dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, sharply carinate, margin ciliolate or denticulate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx complete and ciliolate or denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin denticulate or ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion or middle on lower side of strobilus, or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals; microsporangia transversely elliptic, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores orange-red, megaspores pale yellow or yellowish orange 67 Selaginella xipholepis Baker, J Bot (Hooker) 23: 155 1885 剑叶卷柏 jian ye juan bai Lycopodioides xipholepis (Baker) Kuntze Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen or seasonally green; creeping stems 5–10 cm; fertile stems erect Rhizophores restricted to lower part of erect fertile branches and at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout; erect fertile stems not very regularly pinnately branched, stramineous, 5–10 cm high, 0.3–0.4 mm in diam in lower part, terete, not sulcate; primary leafy branches or pairs, once or twice forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1.5–2 cm apart, leafy portion of main stem including leaves 4.5–6 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3–4.4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical or asymmetrical, triangular, 1.6–2.5 × 1–1.4 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems slightly larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches approximate or imbricate, ovate, 1.5–2 × 0.5–1.2 mm, carinate, base slightly subcordate, margin long ciliolate at base, shortly ciliolate upward, apex acuminate or aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches spreading, ovate-lanceolate, 2.3–3.2 × 1.3–1.5 mm, apex acute or acuminate; basiscopic margin not entire, denticulate in basal half, elsewhere subentire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, strongly overlapping stem and branches, margin rather long ciliolate at base, denticulate to apex, cilia 0.4–0.6 mm Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 15–22 × 2.2–3 mm; sporophylls dimorphic or slightly dimorphic, resupinate, not obviously white-margined; dorsal sporophylls oblonglanceolate, sharply carinate, margin denticulate, apex long acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx complete and denticulate; ventral sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, sharply carinate, margin denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus or throughout lower side, or megasporophylls and microsporophylls at intervals; microsporangia transversely elliptic, rather thin, cells uniform; microspores yellowish orange, covered with small rounded protuberances, megaspores yellowish orange, verrucate to gemmate ● Creeping and often forming mats on moss-covered rocks; 400– 900 m Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi 68 Selaginella vaginata Spring, Mém Acad Roy Sci Belgique 24: 87 1850 鞘舌卷柏 qiao she juan bai On limestone rocks, open and shaded places; (600–)1000–3100 m Beijing, Chongqing, S Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam] 69 Selaginella drepanophylla Alston, J Bot 70: 66 1932 镰叶卷柏 lian ye juan bai Selaginella xichouensis W M Chu Plants epilithic, evergreen, prostrate, 5–15 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, ca 0.2 mm in diam in lower part, subquad- SELAGINELLACEAE rangular, sulcate; primary leafy branches 3–5 pairs, once or twice forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1–1.5 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 3.5–4.5 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3.5–5 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on main stems obviously asymmetrical, linear-lanceolate, 1.4–1.9 × 0.5–0.8 mm, base exauriculate, margin ciliolate in basal half, elsewhere subentire Dorsal leaves on branches approximate or contiguous, ovatelanceolate, 0.8–1.1 × 0.2–0.7 mm, not carinate, base cuneate or obtuse, margin sparsely ciliolate, apex acuminate, often reflexed Ventral leaves asymmetrical; ventral leaves on branches spreading or deflexed, oblong-falcate, 1.8–2.4 × 0.8–1.4 mm, apex subacute; basiscopic margin subentire, very shortly ciliolate at base, elsewhere denticulate or subentire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, not overlapping or overlapping stem and branches, margin sparsely long ciliolate at base, elsewhere denticulate, cilia 0.4–0.6 mm Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 3–7 × 2.5–3.5 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, resupinate, shortly ciliolate, white-margined; dorsal sporophylls with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and denticulate; megasporophylls in basal portion of lower side of strobilus ● At mouths of caves on rocky cliffs, on shaded rocks, on tree trunks; 600–800 m Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan 70 Selaginella chaetoloma Alston, J Bot 70: 67 1932 毛边卷柏 mao bian juan bai Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen, prostrate, up to 15 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, ca 0.2 mm in diam in lower part, flattened, sulcate; primary leafy branches or pairs, forked or once pinnately branched, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 1–3.5 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 4–4.8 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 3.5–4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical or asymmetrical, elliptic, 1.2–1.4 × 0.6– 0.8 mm, base exauriculate, margin sparsely ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical or asymmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches not approximate or contiguous, broadly ovate or suborbicular, 0.8–1.2 × 0.5–0.7 mm, slightly carinate, base obtuse or obliquely cordate, margin sparsely long ciliolate, apex aristate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches spreading or deflexed, oblong-ovate or oblong, 2–2.3 × 1–1.3 mm, apex acute or apiculate; basiscopic base rounded, margin entire; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin long ciliolate in basal half, cilia 2–3 mm Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 2–5 × 2–2.6 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, resupinate, not obviously white-margined; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and ciliolate; ventral sporophylls ovate, carinate, margin ciliolate; megasporophylls in basal portion on lower side of strobilus; microsporangia elliptic, relatively thick, cells uniform; microspores yellowish orange or pale yellow, verrucate, megaspores orange 65 ● Limestone caves, dense forests, on wet moss-covered limestone rocks; 900–1100 m Guangxi, Guizhou Selaginella chaetoloma is a poorly known tiny species only known from the limestone areas of SE Guizhou and N Guangxi, and it differs from other small species by the broadly ovate dorsal leaves 71 Selaginella lutchuensis Koidzumi, Acta Phytotax Geobot 1: 165 1932 琉球卷柏 liu qiu juan bai Lycopodioides lutchuensis (Koidzumi) Satou Plants terrestrial or epilithic, evergreen, prostrate, 5–10 cm Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of creeping stem and branches, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems irregularly branched throughout, stramineous, 2–3 mm wide including leaves Dorsal leaves white-margined, ovate, margin long ciliolate, apex acute or long caudate Ventral leaves oblong-ovate, 1–1.7 mm, margin denticulate, long ciliolate at base, apex long caudate Strobili solitary, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 3–15 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, resupinate; dorsal sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, less than mm, apex acuminate or long caudate; ventral sporophylls broadly lanceolate, ca 1.5 mm, margin long ciliolate On wet cliffs Taiwan [Japan] 72 Selaginella albociliata P S Wang, J Arnold Arbor 71: 269 1990 白毛卷柏 bai mao juan bai Plants epilithic, evergreen, prostrate Rhizophores at intervals throughout length of main stem, borne on ventral side in axils of branches Main stems branched throughout, stramineous, terete, sulcate; primary leafy branches more than pairs, forked, branchlets sparse, adjacent primary branches on main stem 0.7–1.2 cm apart; leafy portion of main stem including leaves 2–3.4 mm wide at middle, ultimate branches 1.6–2.4 mm wide including leaves Axillary leaves on branches symmetrical, ovate-lanceolate, 1–2 × 0.6–1 mm, base exauriculate, margin long ciliolate Dorsal leaves ± symmetrical, those on main stems not obviously larger than those on branches; dorsal leaves on branches not approximate, ovate, broadly ovate, or suborbicular, 0.8–2 × 0.4–0.8 mm, not carinate, base obtuse, margin long ciliolate, apex aristate or cuspidate Ventral leaves asymmetrical, those on main stem not obviously larger than those on branches; ventral leaves on branches spreading or slightly deflexed, ovate or elliptic, 1.6–2 × 0.8–1.2 mm, apex acute or apiculate; basiscopic base rounded, margin sparsely ciliolate; acroscopic base enlarged, broader, overlapping stem and branches, margin shortly ciliolate, cilia 0.3–0.5 mm Strobili solitary or in pairs, terminal, compact, dorsiventrally complanate, 6–25 × 2–2.5 mm; sporophylls dimorphic, resupinate, white-margined; dorsal sporophylls oblong-lanceolate, carinate, margin ciliolate, apex acuminate, with sporophyll-pteryx incomplete and ciliolate; ventral sporophylls oblong-ovate, carinate, margin long ciliolate; microsporangia elliptic; microspores orange-red, megaspores gray ● On limestone rocks, on cliffs near streams in forests; 400–800 m Guangxi, Guizhou 66 SELAGINELLACEAE Uncertain taxa Selaginella effusa Alston var dulongjiangensis W M Chu (Fl Yunnan 20: 718 2006), described from Gongshan, Yunnan Selaginella somae Hayata (Icon Pl Formosan 7: 101 1918 [“somai”]), described from Taiwan Selaginella jugorum Handel-Mazzetti (Symb Sin 6: 1929; Lycopodioides jugorum (Handel-Mazzetti) H S Kung), described from NW Yunnan Selaginella spinulosovena G Q Gou & P S Wang (Acta Bot Yunnan 27: 145 2005), described from Ziyun, Guizhou Selaginella monospora Spring var ciliolata W M Chu (Fl Yunnan 20: 719 2006), described from Jingdong, Yunnan Selaginella tibetica Ching & S K Wu (Fl Xizang 1: 25 1983), described from Bomi, Xizang = Selaginella hengduanshanicola W M Chu (Fl Yunnan 20: 718 2006), described from Gongshan, Yunnan ...38 SELAGINELLACEAE 6b Strobili compact, distinct from sterile stems; sporophylls in ranks, monomorphic... Ventral leaves 4.5–7 mm 27 S rolandi-principis 29b Ventral leaves less than 4.5 mm SELAGINELLACEAE 39 30a Ventral leaves ovate-triangular or ovate-lanceolate; dorsal leaves aristate;... 52b Main stems not tuberous at base 53a Axillary leaves ovate-deltoid 52 S effusa SELAGINELLACEAE 40 53b Axillary leaves ovate-lanceolate 54a Plants erect, main stems simple, branched
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