Pathology Quick Review and MCQs[Ussama Maqbool] (1)

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PATHOLOGY Quick Review and MCQs Based on Textbook of Pathology 6th Edition For free online Web Images and Web Tables cited in the text, access on www.jaypeeonline.in Scratch pin number available in the main textbook PATHOLOGY Quick Review and MCQs THIRD EDITION Based on Textbook of Pathology 6th Edition Harsh Mohan MD, MNAMS, FICPath, FUICC Professor & Head Department of Pathology Government Medical College Sector-32 A, Chandigarh-160 031 INDIA E-mail: drharshmohan@gmail.com ® JAYPEE BROTHERS MEDICAL PUBLISHERS (P) LTD St Louis (USA) • Panama City (Panama) • New Delhi • Ahmedabad • Bengaluru Chennai • Hyderabad • Kochi • Kolkata • Lucknow • Mumbai • Nagpur Published by Jitendar P Vij Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd Corporate Office 4838/24 Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India, Phone: +91-11-43574357, Fax: +91-11-43574314 Registered Office B-3 EMCA House, 23/23B Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India Phones: +91-11-23272143, +91-11-23272703, +91-11-23282021,+91-11-23245672 Rel: +91-11-32558559 Fax: +91-11-23276490, +91-11-23245683 e-mail: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com, Website: www.jaypeebrothers.com Branches  2/B, Akruti Society, Jodhpur Gam Road Satellite Ahmedabad 380 015 Phones: +91-79-26926233, Rel: +91-79-32988717 Fax: +91-79-26927094 e-mail: ahmedabad@jaypeebrothers.com  202 Batavia Chambers, Kumara Krupa Road, Kumara Park East Bengaluru 560 001 Phones: +91-80-22285971, +91-80-22382956, +91-80 22372664 Rel: +91-80-32714073 Fax: +91-80-22281761 e-mail: bangalore@jaypeebrothers.com  282 IIIrd Floor, Khaleel Shirazi Estate, Fountain Plaza, Pantheon Road Chennai 600 008 Phones: +91-44-28193265, +91-44-28194897, Rel: +91-44-32972089 Fax: +91-44-28193231 e-mail: chennai@jaypeebrothers.com  4-2-1067/1-3, 1st Floor, Balaji Building, Ramkote Cross Road Hyderabad 500 095 Phones: +91-40-66610020, +91-40-24758498, Rel:+91-40-32940929 Fax:+91-40-24758499, e-mail: hyderabad@jaypeebrothers.com  No 41/3098, B & B1, Kuruvi 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anjulav@jaypeebrothers.com Central America Office Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc., City of Knowledge, Bld 237, Clayton, Panama City, Panama, Ph: 507-317-0160 Pathology Quick Review and MCQs © 2010, Harsh Mohan All rights reserved No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher This book has been published in good faith that the material provided by author is original Every effort is made to ensure accuracy of material, but the publisher, printer and author will not be held responsible for any inadvertent error(s) In case of any dispute, all legal matters are to be settled under Delhi jurisdiction only First Edition : 2000 Second Edition : 2005 Third Edition : 2010 Assistant Editors: Praveen Mohan, Tanya Mohan, Sugandha Mohan ISBN: 978-81-8448-778-7 Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit Printed at Ajanta Press    He whose deeds are virtuous, is rewarded with purity and knowledge   The actions done with passion cause misery,  while he whose deeds are dark is cursed with ignorance    (The Bhagvadgita, Chapter XIV: Verse 16)    To all those who matter so much to me: My family—wife Praveen and daughters Tanya, Sugandha and All students and colleagues—former and present, with whom I had occasion to share and interact Preface The release of the Third Revised Edition of Pathology Quick Review and MCQs simultaneous to the release of the Sixth Edition of its parent book, Textbook of Pathology, marks the completion of 10 years since its first launch The satisfied users of this ancillary handy learning material during the decade have surely encouraged me and the publisher to continue the convention of providing the baby-book as a package with the mother-book Besides, with this edition, a third learning resource has been added for the benefit of users—the buyer of the package now gets free access to the highly useful website containing all the images and tables included in the main textbook which can be used as an additional learning tool by the students for self-assessment and quick review of the subject while teachers may use the downloadable figures and tables for inclusion in their lectures The companion book is the abridged version of sixth revised edition of my textbook and has been aimed to serve the following twin purposes as before: For beginner students of Pathology who have undertaken an in-depth study of the main book earlier may like to revise the subject in a relatively short time from this book and may also undertake self-test on the MCQs given at the end of each chapter For senior students and interns preparing for their postgraduate and other entrance examinations who are confronted with revision of all medical subjects besides pathology in a limited time, this book is expected to act as the main source material for quick revision and also expose them to MCQs based on essential pathology Pathology Quick Review book has the same 30 chapters divided into sections as in the main textbook—Section I: Chapters 1-11 (General Pathology and Basic Techniques), Section II: Chapters 12-14 (Haematology and Lymphoreticular Tissues), Section III: Chapters 15-30 (Systemic Pathology) and an Appendix containing essential Normal Values Each major heading in the small book has crossreferences of page numbers of the 6th edition of my textbook so that an avid and inquisitive reader interested in simultaneous consultation of the topic or for clarification of a doubt, may refer to it conveniently Self-Assessment by MCQs given at the end of every chapter which keeps this book apart from other similar books, has over 100 new viii Pathology Quick Review questions raising their number to over 700 MCQs in the revised edition, besides modifying many old ones While much more knowledge has been condensed in the babybook from the added material in the main textbook, effort has been made not to significantly increase the volume of this book It is hoped that the book with enhanced and updated contents continues to be user-friendly in learning the essential aspects of pathology, while at the same time, retaining the ease with which it can be conveniently carried by the users in the pocket of their white coats Preparation of this little book necessitated selection from enhanced information contained in the revised edition of my textbook and therefore, required application of my discretion, combined with generous suggestions from colleagues and users of earlier edition In particular, valuable suggestions and help came from Drs Shailja and Tanvi, Senior Residents in the department, which is gratefully acknowledged I thank profusely the entire staff of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd for their ever smiling support and cooperation in completion of this book in a relatively short time, just after we had finished the mammoth task of revision work of sixth edition of the main textbook Finally, although sincere effort has been made to be as accurate as possible, element of human error is still likely; I shall humbly request users to continue giving their valuable suggestions directed at further improvements of its contents Government Medical College Harsh Mohan Sector-32 A MD, MNAMS, FICPath, FUICC Chandigarh-160 031 Professor and Head INDIA Department of Pathology E-mail: drharshmohan@gmail.com Contents SECTION I: GENERAL PATHOLOGY AND BASIC TECHNIQUES 10 11 Introduction to Pathology 01 Techniques for the Study of Pathology 06 Cell Injury and Cellular Adaptations 14 Immunopathology Including Amyloidosis 41 Derangements of Homeostasis and Haemodynamics 63 Inflammation and Healing 92 Infectious and Parasitic Diseases 131 Neoplasia 145 Environmental and Nutritional Diseases 185 Genetic and Paediatric Diseases 203 Basic Diagnostic Cytology 212 SECTION II: HAEMATOLOGY AND LYMPHORETICULAR TISSUES 12 Introduction to Haematopoietic System and Disorders of Erythroid Series 226 13 Disorders of Platelets, Bleeding Disorders and Basic Transfusion Medicine 266 14 Disorders of Leucocytes and Lymphoreticular Tissues 281 SECTION III: SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 The Blood Vessels and Lymphatics The Heart The Respiratory System The Eye, ENT and Neck The Oral Cavity and Salivary Glands The Gastrointestinal Tract The Liver, Biliary Tract and Exocrine Pancreas The Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract The Male Reproductive System and Prostate The Female Genital Tract The Breast The Skin The Endocrine System The Musculoskeletal System Soft Tissue Tumours The Nervous System 322 346 385 425 440 455 500 545 587 603 628 641 659 692 717 727 APPENDIX: Normal Values 750 Index 757 A AA protein, 55, 56, 57 Abscess, 105 Bartholin’s, 603 brain, 29, 732 Brodie’s, 694 cold, 434, 694 crypt, 659 liver, 517 lung, 396 pyaemic, 105 tubo-ovarian, 615 Absolute values, 754 Accumulations, intracellular, 24-26 glycogen, 26 proteins, 26 Acetyl choline receptors (AChRs), 488, 713 Achalasia, 455 Achondroplasia, 695 Acid-base balance, 63 Acinus, lung, 385 Acoustic neuroma, 432, 746 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 46-50 Acrochordons, 604, 649 Acromegaly, 661 ACTH, 663 Actinic keratosis, 650 Actinomycosis, 121 Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), 270 Acute transforming viruses, 174 Adaptations, cellular, 34-37 Addison’s disease, 665-66 Addisonian anaemia, 246 Adenocarcinoma, colon, 492-95 Adenocarcinoma, kidney, 577-78 Adenocarcinoma, oesophagus, 459 Adenocarcinoma, stomach,470-72 Adenocarcinoma, prostate, 598-600 Adenocarcinoma salivary gland, 452 Adenolymphoma, 451 Adenoma, adrenocortical, 666-67 bronchial, 418 cortical, kidney, 578 hepatocellular, 530 monomorphic, 451 parathyroid, 680 pituitary, 662-63 pleomorphic, 450-51 rectum, 491 thyroid, 675 tubular, 491 tubulovillous, 491 villoglandular, 491 villous, 491 Adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon, 493-94 Adenomyosis, 612 Adenosis, sclerosing, 631 ADH, 660, 662 Adhesion molecules, 16-17 Adipose tissue, tumours of, 722 Adnexal (appendageal) tumours, 652-53 Adrenal gland, 663-68 tumours of, 666-68 Adrenocortical hyperfunction (hyperadrenalism), 664-65 Adrenocortical insufficiency, 665-66 Adrenogenital syndrome, 665 Adult T cell leukaemia-lymphoma (ATLL), 174-75, 312 Aeroembolism, 85 Aging, cellular, 37-38 Air-dried smears versus wet-dried smears, 220, 221 Air pollution, 185 AL protein, 55, 56, 57 Albinism, 26 Albright syndrome, 699 Alcoholic hyalin, 23, 522 Alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis, 520-23 Alcoholism, 187-88, 521 Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, cirrhosis in, 528 emphysema, 398-99 Alpha-foetoprotein (AFP), 181, 591 Alpha-protease inhibitor, 398, 526 Alport’s syndrome, 565 Alternate pathway disease, 554 Alveolar soft part sarcoma, 724 Alzheimer’s disease, 739 Ameloblastoma, 447-48 Ames’ test, 167-68 Amniotic fluid embolism, 86 Amyloidosis, 55-60 primary, 57 secondary, 57-58 Anaemia, aplastic, 261-62 Anaemia, blood loss, 234 Anaemia, chronic disorders, 240-41 Anaemia, classification of, 233-34 757 Index Index 758 Pathology Quick Review Anaemia, Cooley’s, 259 Anaemia, Fanconi’s, 261 Anaemia, general considerations, 230-34 Anaemia, haemolytic, 247-61 acquired (extracorpuscular), 248-51 autoimmune (AIHA), 248-50 classification of, 247 cold antibody, 249-50 drug-induced AIHA, 250 general features of, 247-48 hereditary (intracorpuscular), 251-61 isoimmune, 250, 278 microangiopathic, 250 red cell morphology in, 232 warm antibody, 248-49 Anaemia, hypochromic, 234-38 Anaemia, iron deficiency, 234-38 Anaemia, Mediterranean, 259 Anaemia, megaloblastic, 241-47 Anaemia, microcytic hypochromic, 233, 234 Anaemia, myelophthisic, 262 Anaemia, normocytic and normochromic, 233 Anaemia, pernicious, 245-46 Anaemia, sideroblastic, 238-39 Anal canal, tumours of, 495 Anaplasia, 148 Anasarca, 55 Aneuploidy, 149, 205 Aneurysmal bone cyst, 700 Aneurysms, 335-37 Berry, 335, 737 Angiitis, 330-35 Angina pectoris, 354-55 Angiofibroma, nasopharyngeal, 434-35 Angiogenesis, bacillary, 342 Angiomyolipoma, 576 Angioplasty, 381 Angiosarcoma, 342 Anitschkow cells, 363 Ann Arbor staging, 307 Annexin V, 31 Anthracosis, 28, 405 Anthrax, 133-34 Anti-endothelial cell antibody, 332, 555 Anti-GBM disease, 554 Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), 555 Anti-oncogenes, 161-62 Antioxidants, 22 Antoni A and B, 746 Aortic atheroma versus syphilitic aortitis, 331 Aortic valve, insufficiency, 372 stenosis, 352, 371-72 Apoptosis, 30-32 Appendicitis, 485-86 Appendix, 485-86 Arachidonic acid metabolites, 98 Argentaffin cells, 473 Arias-Stella reaction, 611 Armanni-Ebstein lesions, 565 Arnold-Chiari malformation, 729 Arteriolosclerosis, 323 Arteriosclerosis, Mönckeberg’s, 323 Arteritis, 330-35 Arthritis, gouty, 710-11 osteoarthritis, 708 rheumatoid, 708-10 suppurative, 710 tuberculous, 710 Asbestos disease, 407-09 Aschoff cells, 363 Ascites, 59, 529 Aspiration, bone marrow, 227 Asthma, 401-02 Astrocytoma, 741-42 Atelectasis, 389 Atheroma, 324, 329-30 Atheromatous plaques, 329-30 Atherosclerosis, 324-30 Atmospheric pollutants, 185 Atrial septal defect (ASD), 351 Atrophy, 34-35 brown, 28 testicular, 587 Atypical lymphocytes, 290 Australia antigen, 511 Autoimmune diseases, 52-55 Autopsy pathology, Azotaemia, 547 B Bacterial diseases, 132-36 Bacterial endocarditis, 367-70 Bactericidal mechanisms, 96-97 Balanitis xerotica obliterans, 596 Balanoposthitis, 595 Ballooning degeneration, 514 Banding techniques, 204-05 Banti’s spleen (fibrocongestive splenomegaly), 72, 318 Bantu’s siderosis, 27 Barr body, 204, 218 Barrett’s oesophagus, 457-58 Bartholin’s cyst and abscess, 603 Basal cell carcinoma, 651-52 BCG vaccination, 111 Buccal smear, 204, 218 Budd-Chiari syndrome (hepatic vein thrombosis), 509 Buerger’s disease, 334 Burkitt’s lymphoma, 172, 311 Bypass, coronary, 381 C Cadherins, 16, 153 Caisson’s disease, 85 Calcific aortic stenosis, 352, 371 Calcification, pathologic, 33-34 Calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, 652 Calcinosis cutis, 648 Calcitonin, 669, 677 Calculi, gallbladder, 533-35 Calculi, urinary, 574-75 Call-Exner bodies, 622 Callender classification, 429-30 Callus formation, 126-27 CAMs, 16-17 Cancer, definition of, 145 Cancer cervix, invasive, 25, 609-10 Candidiasis, 136, 605 Caplan’s syndrome, 406 Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 181 Carcinogenesis, 158-75 biologic, 169-75 chemical, 164-68 molecular basis, 158-64 physical, 168-69 viral, 169-75 Carcinoid heart disease, 372 Carcinoid syndrome, 485 Carcinoid tumour, 418, 484-85 Carcinoma, acinic cell, 452 Carcinoma, adenoid cystic, 452 Carcinoma, adrenal cortex, 667 Carcinoma, breast, 633-38 Carcinoma, cervix, 609-10 cytology of, 215-16, 607-09 Carcinoma, colorectal, 492-95 Carcinoma, embryonal, testis, 592-93 Carcinoma, endometrium, 613-14 Carcinoma, fibrolamellar, 532 Carcinoma, gallbladder, 536-37 Carcinoma, hepatocellular, 530-32 Carcinoma in situ, 157 breast, 634-35 bronchus, 414 cervix, 215, 607 oral cavity, 443-44 urinary bladder, 581 Carcinoma, kidney, 577-78 Carcinoma, liver, 530-32 759 Index BCL2, 163 Bence Jones’ proteins, 315 Berger’s disease, 562 Beriberi, 198 Berylliosis, 409 Beta fibrillosis, 55 Beta-amyloid protein, 56, 58 Beta-catenin mechanism, 493 Beta-2 microglobulin, 56, 58 Bethesda system, 215, 609 Biliary atresia, 507-08 Biliary system, 533-38 Bilirubin, 27, 504-05 conjugated versus unconjugated, 504-06 Bilirubin metabolism, 504 Biotin, 200 Birefringence, 59 Bittner milk factor, 174, 634 Blackwater fever, 142, 251 Blast crisis in CML, 295 Blastomas, 156, 209 Bleeding disorders, 266-76 Bleeding, GI, 495 Blood group antigens and antibodies, 276 Blood transfusion, 276-77 complications of, 277 Blood vessels, 322-43 Bones, 692-707 tumour-like lesions of, 699-701 tumours of, 701-07 Bone marrow, 226-28 aspiration versus trephine,227-28 Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, 606, 723 Botulism, 136 Bowen’s disease, 596, 650 Bowenoid papulosis, 596 Brain, metastatic tumours, 744-45 Branchial cyst, 437 BRCA gene, 162, 633 Breast, 628-40 cancer, 633-38 fibrocystic change in, 629-31 tumours of, 632-38 Brenner’s tumour, ovary, 620 Broders’ grading, 651 Bronchiectasis, 402-03 Bronchitis, chronic, 398-99 Broncho-(lobular) pneumonia, 393-94 versus lobar pneumonia, 394 Bronchogenic carcinoma, 413-18 Brown atrophy, heart, 28 Brown induration, lung, 72 Brown tumour of hyperparathyroidism, 679, 697 Bubos, 133 760 Pathology Quick Review Carcinoma, lung, 413-18 Carcinoma, mucoepidermoid, 451-52 Carcinoma, nasopharyngeal, 435 Carcinoma, oesophagus, 172, 458-59 Carcinoma, oral cavity, 444 Carcinoma, pancreas, 540-41 Carcinoma, parathyroid, 680 Carcinoma, penis, 596-97 Carcinoma, prostate, 598-600 Carcinoma, sinonasal, 434 Carcinoma, skin, 650-52, 654-55 Carcinoma, stomach, 470-72 Carcinoma, thyroid, 675-78 Carcinoma, transitional cell, 581-82 Carcinoma, urinary bladder, 581-82 Carcinoma, vagina, 606 Carcinoma, vulva, 605 Cardiac oedema, 67-68 Cardiac transplantation, 382 Cardiomyopathy, 375-78 Caries, dental, 445-46 Caries, spine, 694 Carotid body tumour, 437 Cartilage-forming tumours, 703-05 Caruncle, urethral, 583 Caseous necrosis, 30, 112 Castleman’s disease, 283 Cat-scratch disease, 141 Cavitary lesions of lung, 415 CD markers, 42, 43, 287 Cell aging, 37-38 Cell cycle, 17-18 Cell death, 20, 29 Cell injury, 18-38 Cellular adaptations,34-37 Cellular swelling, 22-23 Cementum, 445 Central nervous system (CNS), 727-45 Cerebral infarction, 736 Cerebral oedema, 69 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 729, 753 cytology of, 217 Cerebrovascular disease, 734-37 Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 215, 607 Cervicitis, 606-07 Cervix, 606-10 carcinoma of, 609-10 Chalazion, 426 Chancre, 119-20 Charcot-Leyden crystals, 402 Chemical carcinogenesis, 164-68 Chemical mediators of inflammation, 97-100 Chemodectoma, 437 Chemotaxis, 95 Chickenpox, 645 Childhood tumours, 156, 209-10 Chloasma, 26 Cholangiocarcinoma, 532 Cholangitis, 517 primary sclerosing, 524 Cholecystitis, 535-36 Cholelithiasis (gallstones), 533-35 Cholestasis, 505-06 Cholesterolosis, 536 Choline, 200 Chondroma, 704 Chondroblastoma, 704 Chondromyxoid fibroma, 704 Chondrosarcoma, 704-05 Chordoma, 707 Choriocarcinoma, gestational, 625 nongestational, 622 testis, 593 versus mole, 625 Choristoma, 146, 210 Choroid plexus papilloma, 743 Christmas disease, 273 Chromaffin tumour, 667 Chronic inflammation, 106-22 Chronic ischaemic heart disease, 359-60 Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, 309-10 Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), 294-96 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 397-403 Chronic restrictive pulmonary disease, 403-13 Chronic venous congestion (CVC), 71-72 CIN, 215, 607 Circle of Willis, 737 Cirrhosis, liver, 520-27 Clear cell sarcoma, 725 Clear cell tumours, ovary, 620 Clostridial disease, 135-36 Clotting system, 79, 100, 268-69 CNS tumours, 741-45 Coagulation disorders, 272-75 Coagulation system, 79, 100, 268-69 Coagulation tests, 268 Coagulative necrosis, 29 Coal-workers’ pneumoconiosis, 405-06 Coarctation of aorta, 352 Codman’s triangle, 702 Coeliac disease, 483 Coeliac sprue, 483 Coelomic epithelium, ovarian tumours of, 618-20 Cold agglutinin disease, 249 Colitis, ulcerative, 477-79 pilar (trichilemmal and sebaceous), 650 radicular, 446 sebaceous, 650 simple renal, 552 thyroglossal, 436-37 trichilemmal, 650 Cytogenetics, 10, 204 Cytohormonal evaluation, 213 Cytokines, 17, 99 Cytology, diagnostic, 212-25 exfoliative, 213-20 fine needle aspiration (FNAC), 220-23 fluids, 216-18 Pap smear, applications of, 213-14 D Dane particle, 511 Darier-Pautrier abscess, 656 Dawney cells, 290 Decompression sickness, 85-86 Degenerations, 22-24 Degenerations, peripheral nervous system, 745-46 Degenerative joint disease, 708-10 Delayed hypersensitivity, 52, 110 Demyelinating diseases, 738-39 Dengue fever, 138 Denver classification, 14 DeQuervain’s thyroiditis, 672 Dermatitis (eczema), 642-43 Dermatitis herpetiformis, 647 Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 656, 721 Dermatomyositis-polymyositis, 54 Dermatoses, 642-49 Dermoid cyst ovary, 621 Desmoid tumours, 720-21 Desmoplasia, 150, 635 Desmoplastic small cell tumour, 496 Developmental defects, 217-18 Diabetes mellitus, 681-87 Diabetic ketoacidosis, 684-85 Diabetic microangiopathy, 685 Diabetic nephropathy, 564-65, 685 Diabetic neuropathy, 685 Diabetic retinopathy, 426-27, 685 Diagnosis of cancer, 179-82 Diet and cancer, 201 Differentiation of neoplastic cells, 148 Diphtheria, 434 Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), 275-76 Disseminated sclerosis, 739 Diverticulosis coli, 488 DNA oncogenic viruses, 171-74 761 Index Collagen diseases, 52-55 Collagen vascular disease, lung, 411-12 Collapse lung, 389 Colloid carcinoma, breast, 636 Colorectal, polyps, 489-92 Components, blood, 277-78 Computers in pathology lab,12 Concentration and dilution tests, kidney, 547 Conchoid bodies, 122 Condyloma acuminatum, 596, 604 Congenital heart diseases, 350-53 Congestive heart failure (CHF), 347 Congo red, 59 Conjugated versus unconjugated bilirubin, 505-06 Coronary artery disease (CAD), 324, 355-59 Coronary syndromes, acute, 354 Councilman (acidophil) body, 514 Craniopharyngioma, 663 Crescents, 558 CREST syndrome, 54 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 734 Crigler-Najjar syndrome, 506 Crohn’s disease, 477-79 Crypt abscess, 479 Cryptorchidism, 587-88 CSF, source and circulation of, 729 Curling’s ulcers, 465 Curschmann’s spiral, 402 Cushing’s syndrome, 664 Cyanmethaemoglobin method, 231 Cystic diseases of kidney, 549-52 Cystic fibrosis, pancreas, 538 Cystic hygroma, 341, 437 Cystic hyperplasia, endometrium, 613 Cysticercosis, 142-43, 734 Cystitis, 579-80 Cystosarcoma phyllodes, 632-33 Cysts, Bartholin’s, 603 bone, 700 branchial (lymphoepithelial), 437 dentigerous, 447 dermoid, 437, 621 echinococcal, 518-19 epidermal, 125, 649 follicular, 617 ganglion, 712 jaw, 446-47 kidney, 549-52 lateral cervical, 437 luteal, 617 lymphoepithelial, 437 midline cervical, 436-37 neck, 436-38 odontogenic, 447 762 Pathology Quick Review DNA, structure of, 4, 14-15 Donovan bodies, 134 Down’s syndrome, 205 Downey cells, 290 Dubin-Johnson syndrome, 506-07 Dukes’ staging, 495 Duodenal ulcer, 465-69 Dupuytren’s contracture, 720 Dwarfism, achondroplasia, 695 hypothyroid, 669 pituitary, 662 Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), 611 Dysgerminoma ovary, 621-22 Dyslipidaemia, 324-25 Dysplasia, 37 bronchopulmonary, 388-89 cervical, 607 fibromuscular, artery, 337 Dystrophic calcification, 33 Dystrophy, muscular, 714 E Ear, 430-32 tumours and tumour-like lesions of, 431-32 Eccrine tumours, 653 Echinococcosis, 518-19 Ectopia vesicae (exstrophy), 579 Ectopic hormone production, 179 Ectopic tubal pregnancy, 616 Eczema, 642-43 Effusions, pleural, 216-17, 419 Electron microscope, Elephantiasis, 66 Elliptocytosis, 252 Embden-Meyerhof pathway, 230, 253 Embolism, 81-86 Embryoma, 532-33 Embryonal carcinoma testis, 592-93 Embrynal rhabdomyosarcoma, 606, 723 Embryonal tumours, brain, 743-44 Emphysema, 398-401 Empyema, gallbladder, 536 thoracis, 419 Encephalitis, bacterial, 732 fungal, 734 HIV, 733 protozoal, 734 viral, 733 Encephalocele, 728 Encephalomyelitis, acute disseminated, 739 Encephalomyelitis, perivenous, 739 Encephalopathy, hepatic, 508, 529 Encephalopathy, global ischaemic-hypoxic, 735-36 spongiform, 734 Enchondroma, 704 End-stage kidney, 562-63 Endocarditis, non-rheumatic, 366-70 rheumatic, 364-65 vegetations in, 364 Endodermal sinus tumour, ovary, 622 testis, 593 Endometrioid tumours, 620 Endometriosis, 612 Endometritis, 611 Endomyocardial biopsy, 381 Enteric fever, 480-81 Environmental chemicals, 190 Ependymoma, 742-43 Epididymo-orchitis, 588 Epithelioid cells, 111-12 Epithelioid sarcoma, 725 Epstein-Barr virus, 172-73 Epulis, 442 Erdheim’s disease, 336 Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), 117 Erythropoiesis, 228-30 Erythropoietin, 228-29 Eumycetoma, 136 Ewing’s sarcoma, 706-07 Extracellular matrix, 125 Exudate versus transudate, 55 Eye, 425-30 F FAB classification, acute leukaemia, 300 myelodysplastic syndrome, 298-99 Fabry’s disease, 565 Fallopian tube, 615-16 Fallot’s tetralogy, 352 Familial polyposis coli syndrome, 492 Fatty liver, 24-25, 522 Fibrocystic change, breast, 629-31 Fibrohistiocytic tumours, 721-22 Fibroma, 719-20 Fibromatosis, 720 Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), 220-23 Flavonoids, 200-01 Floppy valve syndrome, 372-73 Flu, 139-40 bird, 139-40 swine, 140 Fluorescent microscope, 8-9 G Gallstones, 533-35 Gamna-Gandy bodies, 72 Ganglion cyst, 712 Ganglioneuroma, 668 Gangrene, 32-33 Gastric analysis, 460-61 Gastric canal, 460 Gastric carcinoma, 470-72 Gastric ulcer, 465-69 benign versus malignant, 468 versus duodenal ulcer, 465-69 Gastrinoma, 687-88 Gastritis, 462-65 Gastrointestinal tract, 455-99 Gaucher’s disease, 208 Genetic diseases, 203-09 Germ cell tumours, ovary, 620-22 testis, 591-95 Ghon’s complex, 112-13 Giant cell tumour of bone, 705-06 Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, 711-12 Giant cells, 103-04 Gigantism, 661 Gilbert’s syndrome, 506 Gleason’s staging, prostate, 600 Glioblastoma multiforme, 742 Gliomas, 741-43 Glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 546 Glomerular diseases, 552-65 Glomerular injury, pathogenesis of, 553-55 Glomerulonephritis (GN), 552-63 Glomerulosclerosis, 561 diabetic, 564 Glomus tumour (glomangioma), 341 Glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency,253-54 Glucose tolerance test (GTT), 686-87 Glucosuria, 686 alimentary (lag storage), 686 renal, 686 Gluten-sensitive enteropathy, 483 Glycogen storage diseases, 207-08 Glycosaminoglycans, 126 Glycosylated Hb (Hb A1c), 687 Goitre, 673-75 Goodpasture’s syndrome, 557 Gout and pseudogout, 710-11 G-proteins, 17 Grading of tumours, 154, 719 Granulomatous inflammation, 109 actinomycosis, 121 leprosy, 115-18 sarcoidosis, 121-22 syphilis, 119-20 tuberculosis, 109-15 Granulopoiesis, 284-85 Granulosa cell tumour, ovary, 622-23 Graves’ disease, 669 Growth factors, 160 receptors for, 160-61 Gynaecomastia, 631 H 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (HT), 98 Haemangioblastoma, 743 Haemangioendothelioma, 342 Haemangioma, 340-41, 530 Haemangiopericytoma, 342 Haematemesis, of gastric origin, 469 of oesophageal origin, 457, 529 Haematin, 27 Haematogenous spread of tumours, 151-52 Haematological values, 754-56 Haematoma, 73 dissecting, 336 epidural, 738 subdural, 738 Haematopoiesis, 226 Haematoxylin bodies of Gross, 367 Haemochromatosis, 27, 524-25 Haemodynamic derangements, 71-90 Haemoglobin, 231 Haemoglobinopathies, 254-61 Haemoglobinuria, 247 cold, 249 march, 250 paroxysmal nocturnal (PNH), 251 Haemolysis, general features of, 247-48 Haemolytic uraemic syndrome, 269, 271 Haemophilia, 272-73 Haemoptysis, causes of, 417 Haemorrhage, 73 intracerebral, 737 intracranial, 737 subarachnoid, 737 763 Index Fluorosis, skeletal, 698 Fordyce’s granules, 440 Fracture healing, 126-27 Free radicals, 21-22, 99 Fungal diseases, 136-37 Fungal infections, lungs, 397 skin, 645 764 Pathology Quick Review Haemorrhagic diatheses, 266-72 coagulation disorders, 272-76 Haemorrhagic disease of newborn (HDN), 278-79 Haemorrhoids, 489 Haemosiderosis, 27, 524-25 Haemostatic function, tests for, 266-65 Hair follicle, tumours of, 662 Hairy cell leukaemia, 311-12 Ham’s test, 248, 251 Hamartoma, 146, 210 Hand-Schuller-Christian disease, 317 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, 670-72 HbsAg, 512 hCG, 591, 625 HDL, 325 Head injury, 738 Healing, 122-28 Heart, 346-84 blood supply of, 347 brown atrophy of, 28 congenital diseases of, 350-53 Heart failure cells, 72 Heat shock proteins, 17 Helicobacter pylori, 169, 464, 466 Henoch-Schonlein’s purpura, 269 Hepatic failure, 508 Hepatisation, lung, 392 Hepatitis, viral, 510-17 Hepatoblastoma, 532-33 Hepatocellular carcinoma, 530-32 Hepatorenal syndrome, 508 Hepatotoxicity, 519 Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, 269 Hereditary hyperbilirubinaemia, 506-07 Herpes virus, 140, 173, 645 Hirschsprung’s disease, 487-88 Histiocytoma, malignant fibrous, 721-22 Histochemistry, 7-8 HIV, structure of, 46-47 HLA system, 44 Hodgkin’s disease, 304-08 versus non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 308 Howell-Jolly bodies, 232 Human herpes virus (HHV), 140, 173, 645 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 46-47 Human papilloma virus (HPV), 171, 596, 608 Human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV), 174, 293 Hyaline membrane disease, 386-88 Hybridisation, in situ, 11 Hydatid disease liver, 518-19 Hydatidiform mole, 624 versus choriocarcinoma, 625 Hydrocephalus, 729-30 Hydronephrosis, 575-76 Hydropic change, 22-23 Hydrostatic pressure, 64 Hyperaemia, 71 Hyperbilirubinaemia, 505-07 Hypercalcaemia, 33, 699 Hypercholesterolaemia, 324-25 Hyperglycaemia, 681-87 Hyperlipidaemia, 324-25 Hypernephroma, 577-78 Hyperparathyroidism, 679 Hyperpigmentation, 26 Hyperpituitarism, 661 Hyperplasia, 35-36 breast, epithelial, 630-31 endometrial, 612-13 prostate, 598 thyroid, primary, 669 Hyperprolactinaemia, 661 Hypersensitivity reactions, 50-52 Hypersplenism, 318 Hypertension, portal, 528-29 Hypertension, pulmonary, 389-91 Hypertension, systemic, 570-73 Hypertensive heart disease, 360-61 Hypertensive retinopathy, 427 Hypertensive vascular disease, 323 Hyperthyroidism, 669 Hypertrophy, 35 cardiac, 349-50 Hyperuricaemia, 575, 710-11 Hypoaldosteronism, 664-65 Hypoparathyroidism, 680 Hypopigmentation, 26 Hypopituitarism, 661-62 Hypothyroidism, 669-70 Hypoxic cell injury, 19-22 Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, 735-36 I Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 412 Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), 270-71 IgA nephropathy, 562 Immotile cilia syndrome, 402, 588 Immune complex disease, kidney, 553-54 Immunofluorescence, 8-9 Immunohistochemistry, 9-10 Immunologic lung disease, 409-10 Immunology of cancer, 176-78 Immunosurveillance of cancer, 176-78 J Jamshidi needle, 227 Janeway’s spots, 370 Jaundice, 27, 504-07 Jaw, lumpy, 121 cysts of, 446-47 Joints, disease of, 707-12 Jones’ criteria, modified, 366 Juvenile (retention) polyps, 480 K Kaposi’s sarcoma, 173, 343 Karyorrhexis, 20 Kawasaki’s disease, 334 Keloid, 125 Ketoacidosis, diabetic, 684-85 Kidney, diseases of, 545-78 short contracted, 572 Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions, 564 Klinefelter syndrome, 205 Koch’s phenomenon, 111 Krukenberg tumour, 152, 623-24 Kulchitsky cells, 473 Kviem test, 122 L Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), 21, 359 Langerhans’cell, histiocytosis, 317 Langhans’ giant cells, 102, 108 Larynx, 435-36 Laser microdissection, 12 LE cell phenomenon, 53 Lead poisoning, 188-89 Legionnaire’s disease, 395 Leiomyoma, 614-15 Leiomyosarcoma, 615 Lepra reaction, 117 Lepromin test, 117 Leprosy, 115-18 Lethal midline granuloma, 312, 433 Letterer Siwe disease, 317 Leucocytes in health and disease, 283-89 Leucocytosis, 286-89 Leucoerythroblastic reaction, 262 Leucopenia, 286-89 Leucoplakia, oral cavity, 443-44 Leukaemias, acute lymphoid (ALL), 308-09 acute myeloid (AML), 299-302 chronic myeloid (CML), 294-96 chronic lymphoid (CLL), 309-10 hairy cell (HCL), 311-12 Leukaemoid reaction, 291 Lewis experiment, 93 Leydig cell tumour, 594, 613 Lichen planus, 440, 648 Lines of Zahn, 80 Linitis plastica, 471 Lipofuscin, 28 Lipogranuloma, 25, 522 Lipoma, 722 Lipooxygenase pathway, 98 Liposarcoma, 722 Liver, 500-33 Liver cell necrosis, types of, 510 Liver function tests, 501-03 Löeffler’s endocarditis, 377 Löeffler’s syndrome, 274, 377, 410 Lukes-Collins classification, 303 Lung, 385-419 Lupus nephritis, 53, 563-64 Lupus, nose, 433, 645 Lupus vulgaris, 645 Lymph nodes, normal and reactive, 281-83 Lymphadenitis, reactive, 281-83 Lymphadenopathy, 282 765 Index Immunopathology, 41-62 Infarction, 88-90 Infections, 131-44 Infectious mononucleosis, 289-91 Infestations, 141-43 Inflammation, acute, 92-106 Inflammation, chronic, 106-22 granulomatous, 109-22 Inflammatory bowel disease, 477-79 Inflammatory cells, 101-04, 285-89 In situ hybridisation, 11 Insulinoma, 687 Integrins, 16 Interferon, 17, 99 Interleukin, 17, 99 Intermediate filaments, 15 Interstitial lung disease (ILD), 403-13 Intestinal biopsy, 483-84 Intestine, large, 487-95 Intestine, small, 473-85 Intracellular accumulations, 24-26 Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, 591 Intrinsic factor (IF), 241, 461 Intussusception, 475 Involucrum, 694 Ionising radiation, 22, 182-83, 204-05 Iron metabolism, 234-35 Irreversible cell injury, 20-21 Ischaemia, 86-88 Ischaemic bowel disease, 475-77 Ischaemic brain damage, 735-36 Ischaemic heart disease (IHD), 353-59 chronic, 359-60 Islet cell tumours, 687-88 766 Pathology Quick Review Lymphangioma, 341 Lymphatic obstruction, 66, 339-40 Lymphoblast, 285 Lymphocytes, 42-43, 287 Lymphocytosis, 287 Lymphoedema, 66, 339-40 Lymphomas, 292-317 CNS, 310 Hodgkin’s, 304-08 non-Hodgkin’s (NHL), 308-17 Lymphopenia, 287 Lymphopoiesis, 285 Lysosomal components, 98-99 Lysosomal storage diseases, 207-09 M M-band, 315 MacCallum’s patch, 364 Macrophage, 43, 287 Madura foot, 136 Maffucci’s syndrome, 704 Malabsorption syndrome, 482-84 Malakoplakia, 580 Malaria, 142 Malignant melanoma, 429-30, 654-55 Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST), 747 Mallory hyaline, 23, 522 Maltoma, 297, 572-73 Mammary duct ectasia, 629 Mammary dysplasia, 629-31 Mantoux test, 111 Marasmus, 193 Marble bone disease, 695-96 Marfan syndrome, 336, 372 Marjolin’s ulcer, 651 Mastitis, 628-29 Meckel’s diverticulum, 473-74 Medial calcific sclerosis, 323-24 Medial necrosis, cystic, Erdheim’s, 336 Medullary sponge kidney, 551 Megacolon, 487 Meigs’ syndrome, 623 Melanoma, 429-30, 654-55 Melanosis coli, 488 MEN syndrome, 688 Mendelian disorders, 206-07 Ménétrier’s disease, 465 Meningioma, 744-45 Meningitis, 730-32 CSF in, 753 Meningocele, 728 Mercury chloride nephropathy, 566-67 Mesonephroid tumour, ovary, 620 Mesothelioma, 420-21 Metaplasia, 36-37 Metastasis, 150-52 mechanisms of, 152-53 Metastatic calcification, 33-34 Michaelis-Gutmann bodies, 580 Microalbuminuria, 572 Microarrays, 12 Microangiopathy, thrombotic, kidney, 573 MicroRNAs, 164 Microsatellite instability, 494 Microscopy, 8-9 Mikulicz syndrome, 450 Milroy’s disease, 66, 338 Minimal change disease, 558-59 Mitral stenosis and insufficiency, 370-71 Mitsuda reaction, 117 Mixed salivary tumour, 450-51 malignant, 452 MMTV, 174, 634 Molecular pathogenesis of cancer, 158-64 Molecular pathology, 10-11 Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis, 323-24 Monocyte-macrophage series, 43, 102-03 Morphometry, 12 Mostofi classification, 581 Mucinous tumours of ovary, 619 Mucocele, appendix, 486 gallbladder, 535 oral cavity, 432 Mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 451 Mucopolysaccharidoses, 208 Mucormycosis, 397 Multiple myeloma, 313-15 Mumps, 449 Munro abscess, 648 Muscular dystrophies, 714 Mutations, 206 Mutator genes, 163-64 Myasthenia gravis, 320, 713 Mycetoma, 136 Mycosis fungoides, 312, 656 Mycosis, superficial, skin, 645 Myeloblast, 270 Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 298-99 Myelogram, 756 Myeloid metaplasia, 297-98 Myeloid series, 284 Myelolipoma, 677 Myeloma, 313-16 kidney, 569 multiple, 313-15 Myeloproliferative disorders, 294-302 N Naevi, naevocellular, 653-54 Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 435 Neck, 436-38 Necrosis, 29-30 bridging, 514 zonal, liver, 510 Necrotising enterocolitis, 136, 477 Necrotising papillitis, 568 Neonatal hepatitis, 507 Neoplasia (also see under Tumours), 145-84 Nephritic syndrome, 552 Nephritis, hereditary, 565 Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, 565, 567 Nephroblastoma, 578 Nephrocalcinosis, 569 Nephrolithiasis, 574-75 Nephroma, 576 Nephropathy, diabetic, 564-65 IgA, 562 lupus, 563-64 Nephrosclerosis, 572-73 Nephrotic syndrome, 553 Nerve sheath tumours, 746-47 Nervous system, 727-49 central, 727-45 peripheral, 745-47 Neurilemmoma, 746 Neuroblastoma, 667-68 Neurofibroma, 746-47 Neuropathy, peripheral, 746 Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP), 291 Neutrophilia, 286 Neutrophils, 43, 101, 285-86 Nexus, 16 Niacin, 199 Niemann-Pick disease, 208-09 Nitric oxide mechanism, 99 Nodular fascitis, 720 Nodule, vocal, 436 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), 308-17 Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis, 527-28 Nonossifying fibroma, 700 Normal values, 750-56 Normoblasts, 237 Nose and paranasal sinuses, 422-24 Notochord, 707 Nutmeg liver, 72 Nutritional diseases, 191-201 O Oat cell carcinoma, lung, 416 Obesity, 192-93 Ochronosis, 26 Odontogenic tumours, 447-49 Oedema, 64-70 Oesophagitis, 457-58 Barrett’s, 457-58 Oesophagus, 455-59 Oligodendroglioma, 742 Oncocytoma, 451 Oncogenes, 160-61 Oncogenic viruses, 169-75 DNA, 171-74 RNA, 174-75 Oncomirs, 164 Oncotic pressure, 64 Opportunistic infections, 47, 49, 131 Opsonisation, 96 Oral soft tissues, 440-44 Orchitis, 588-89 Osler’s nodes, 369 Osmotic pressure, 64 Osteitis deformans, 698-99 Osteitis fibrosa cystica, 679, 697 Osteoarthritis, 708-10 Osteoblastic tumours, 701-03 Osteoblastoma, 701 Osteochondroma, 703 Osteoclastoma, 705-06 Osteodystrophy, renal, 697-98 Osteoid osteoma, 701 Osteomalacia, 196, 696 Osteomyelitis, 693-94 Osteonecrosis, avascular, 694 Osteopetrosis, 695-96 Osteophytes, 708 Osteoporosis, 696-97 Osteosarcoma, 701-03 Otitis media, 431 Ovalocytosis, 252 Ovarian tumours, 617-24 Ovaries, 616-24 P p53 gene, 161 P-component, 56 Paediatric diseases, 209-10 Paediatric tumours, 156, 209-10 Paget’s disease, of bone, 698-99 of nipple, 637 of vulva, 604-05 Pancarditis, rheumatic, 364-65 Pancreatitis, 539-40 767 Index Myoblastoma, granular cell, 443, 724-25 Myocardial infarction, 355-59 Myocarditis, 373-75 Myositis ossificans, 725 Myxoedema, 69, 670 768 Pathology Quick Review Pancytopenia, 247 Pannus formation, 709 Papanicolaou’s (Pap) smear, 219-21 stain, 220 Papilloma, breast, intraductal, 633 choroid plexus, 743 larynx, 436 mouth, 442 nose and paranasal sinuses, 433 skin, 649 urinary bladder, 581 Papilloma viruses, 171-72, 596, 608 Papovaviruses, 171-72 Pappenheimer bodies, 24 Paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS), 178-79 Parasitic diseases, 141-43 Parathyroid gland, 678-80 Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), 251 Parvoviruses, 262 Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), 351 Peliosis hepatis, 342, 509 Pellagra, 199 Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), 615-16 Pemphigoid, 441, 647 Pemphigus, 440, 647 Penis, 595-97 Peptic ulcer, 465-69 Pericarditis, 378-70 Periodontal disease, 446 Peritoneum, 495-96 Peritonitis, 495-96 Permeability, vascular, 93-94 Pertussis, 134 Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, 490 Phagocytosis, 96-97 Pharynx, 434-35 Pheochromocytoma, 667 Philadelphia chromosome, 149, 294 Phyllodes tumour, 632-33 Physaliphorous cells, 707 Pigments, 26-29 Pilomatricoma, 652 Pituitary gland, 660-63 Placenta, 624-25 Plague, 132-33 Platelets, 78-79, 266 Pleomorphic adenoma, salivary gland, 450-51 Pleura, 419-21 Pleuritis, (pleurisy), 419 Pneumoconiosis, 404-09 Pneumonias, 391-96 Pneumothorax, 420 Podocytes, 559 Poisoning, aluminium phosphide, 190 carbon monoxide, 189 cyanide, 190 lead, 18-89 mercuric chloride, 566-67 Pollutants,185 Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), 332 Polycystic kidney disease, 550-51 adult, 550 infantile, 550-51 Polycystic ovary disease, 617 Polycythaemia vera, 296 Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, 688 Polymyositis-dermatomyositis, 54 Polyploidy, 205 Polyps, antrochoanal, 433 aural, 431 cervical, 607 colorectal, 489-92 endometrial, 604 fibroepithelial, 604, 649 hamartomatous, 490 hyperplastic, 489-90 inflammatory, 490 juvenile, 490 lymphoid, 490 nasal, 433 metaplastic,490 otic, 431 Peutz Jeghers, 490 rectal, 489-90 stomach, 469 Porphyrins, 28 Portal hypertension, 528-29 Pott’s disease, 694 Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), 706-07 Prion proteins, 734 Prostate, 597-600 Pulmonary embolism, 82-83 Pyelonephritis, 53-55 Pyloric stenosis, 462 Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency, 254 Q Quick’s one stage method, 268 Quinacrine banding, 204 R Radicals, free, 21-22, 99 Radiolysis, 22, 168-69 Rappaport classification, 288, 302 Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon, 334-35 RB gene, 161, 430 REAL classification, 303 S Salivary glands, 449-52 Sarcoidosis, 121-22 Sarcoma, definition, 145 Sarcoma, botryoides, 606, 723 SARS, 139-40 Schaumann bodies, 122 Schiller Duval body, 622 Schilling test, 245 Schwannoma, 746 Selectins, 17 Seminoma, testis, 591-92 classic, 591-92 spermatocytic, 592 Sequestrum, 694 Serous tumours of ovary, 618-19 Sex chromatin, 218, 232 Sex chromosomes, 14, 218 Sex cord-stromal tumours, ovary, 622-23 testis, 594 Sezary syndrome, 312, 656 Shock, 73-77 Shock kidney, 77, 566 Shock lung, 77, Shunts, heart, 351-52 Sialadenitis, 449-50 Sickle syndrome, 254-56 Sideroblasts, 238 Siderocytes, 238 Signal transduction proteins, 160 Silicosis, 406-07 Sinus histiocytosis, 283 Sjögren’s syndrome, 54 Skeletal muscles, structure of, 712-14 Skeletal system, 692-716 Skin, 641-58 dermatoses, 642-56 tumours of, 649-56 Small cell carcinoma lung, 416 Small contracted kidney, 572 Smoking, 185-86, 398, 412-13, 414 Soft tissue tumours, 717-26 Southern blot, 11 Special stains, Spermatic granuloma, 589 Spherocytosis, hereditary, 252 Spina bifida, 204, 728 Spleen, 317-19 CVC of, 72, 318 Splenectomy, effects of, 319 Splenic rupture, 319 Splenic tumour, 319 Splenomegaly, 318 congestive, 72, 318 Squamous cell carcinoma, cervix, 609-10 lung, 416 oesophagus, 459 oral cavity, 444 penis, 596-97 skin, 650-51 vulva, 605 Squamous metaplasia, 36, 414, 607 Staging of tumours, 154, 719 Enneking, 719 AJC, 154 TNM, 154 Staphylococcal infections, 134-35 Stein-Leventhal syndrome, 617 Stevens-Johnson syndrome, 441 Stomach, 459-73 cancer of, 470-72 tumours and tumour-like lesions of, 469-73 Stomatocytosis, 252 Stones, gallbladder, 533-35 Stones, kidney, 574-75 Storage diseases, 207-09 Storiform pattern, 718, 721 Streptococcal infections, 135 Stroke syndrome, 734 Struma ovarii, 621 Struvite (staghorn) stone, 574 Surgical pathology, protocol, 6-7 Synovial sarcoma, 724 769 Index Red blood cell, 228-30 Red cell membrane, 229 Reed-Sternberg (RS) cell, 305 Reidel’s struma, 672 Reiter’s syndrome, 55 Renal failure, 533-35 Renal function tests, 546-47 Renal osteodystrophy, 697-98 Reperfusion injury, 21-22 Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 386-88 Response-to-injury hypothesis, 327-28 Reticulocyte, 228 Retinoblastoma, 430 Retinopathy, diabetic, 426, 685 hypertensive, 427 Reversible cell injury, 19-20 Reye’s syndrome, 508 Rhabdomyosarcoma, embryonal, 606, 723 Rhesus system, 276 Rheumatic fever and RHD, 361-66 Rheumatoid arthritis, 708-10 Rheumatoid factor, 708 Rhinosporidiosis, 433 Ridley-Jopling classification, 117 Rye classification, 304 770 Pathology Quick Review Synovitis, villonodular, 711-12 Syphilis, 119-20 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 53-54 kidneys in, 563-64 heart in, 366 lung in, 411 Systemic sclerosis, 54 T Tabes dorsalis, 733 Tabes mesenterica, 480 Takayasu’s arteritis, 333-34 Tamm Horsfall protein, 315 Telepathology, 12 Telomerase, 37, 163 Teratoma, ovary, 620-21 sacrococcygeal, 210 testis, 579-80 Testicular tumours, 590-95 Testis, 587-95 Tetralogy of Fallot, 352 Thalassaemias, 256-61 Thrombocythaemia, essential, 297 Thrombocytopenias, 269-71 immune, 270-71 thrombotic, 271 Thrombocytosis, 271-72, 297 Thrombophlebitis, 336-37 Thrombophlebitis migrans, 339 Thrombopoiesis, 266 Thrombopoietin, 266 Thrombosis, 77-81 Thrombospondin, 79, 266 Thrombotic microangiopathy, kidney, 573 Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), 271 Thymoma, 320 Thymus, 319-20 Thyroid cancer, 675-78 Thyroid gland, 668-78 Thyroiditis, 670-72 Thyrotoxicosis, 669 Tobacco smoking, 185-86, 398, 412-13, 414 Trace elements, 201 Transfusion of blood, 276-78 complications of, 277-78 Transitional cell carcinoma, nasopharynx, 435 urinary bladder, 581-82 Transplant rejection, 45 Transthyretin, 55 Transudate versus exudate, 65 Trauma to brain, 738 Trephine biopsy, 227 Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), 357 Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, 288, 377, 410 Troponins, cardiac, 359 Trousseau’s syndrome, 339 Tubercle, 111-12 Tuberculoma, brain, 732-33 Tuberculosis, pulmonary, 109-15 Tuberculous meningitis, 731-32 Tubular necrosis, acute (ATN), 565-67 Tubulointerstitial disease, 567-70 Tumoral calcinosis, 648 Tumour lysis syndrome, 178 Tumour markers, 181 Tumours, soft tissue, 717-26 Turner’s syndrome, 205 Typhoid fever, 480-81 Typhoid ulcers, 480 U Ubiquitin, 17 UICC staging, 154 Ulcer, amoebic, 141 Curling’s, 465 Cushing’s, 465 peptic, 465-66 rodent, 651-52 stress, 465-66 Ulcerative colitis, 477-79 Ultraviolet light, 168 Urachal abnormalities, 579 Uraemia, 547-49 Urate nephrolithiasis, 575 Urethral caruncle, 583 Uric acid stones, 575 Urinary bladder, 578-83 tumours of, 581-83 Urinary cytology, 216, 219 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 567, 579-82 Urine analysis, 547 Urolithiasis, 574-75 Uropathy, obstructive, 573-75 Urothelial tumours, 581-83 Uveal melanoma, 429-30 V Vagina, 605-16 tumours of, 605-06 Vaginal smear, 213-16 Vaginitis, 605 Valvulitis, rheumatic, 364 Varices, 457, 529 Varicocele, 589-90 Varicosities, 338 W Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia, 315-16 Warthin’s tumour, 451 Warts, 644 Wegener’s granulomatosis, 332-33, 412 Weights and measurements, normal organs, 750-51 Wilms’ tumour, 578 Wilson’s disease, 525 Working formulation for clinical usage, 303 Wound healing, 124-25 X X-linked disorders, 207 Xanthogranuloma, 721 Xanthomas, 656 Xeroderma pigmentosum, 164, 642 Y Y-chromatin, 218 Yellow atrophy, acute, 516-17 Yellow fever, 137-38 Yolk sac tumour, ovary, 622 testis, 593 Z Zenker’s degeneration, 23 Ziehl-Neelsen staining, 109, 15 Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, 687-88 Zonal necrosis, liver, 510 Zoster virus infection, 140, 173, 645 771 Index Vascular disorders, haemostasis, 269 Vasculitis, 330-35 Vegetations, heart, 364, 367, 369 Veins, 337-39 Ventricular septal defect (VSD), 351 Verocay bodies, 746 Verrucae, heart, 364, 367, 369 Verrucous carcinoma, 444 Villous atrophy, 483 Viral hepatitis, 510-17 Virchow cells, 118 Virchow’s sign, 472 Virtual microscopy, 12 Viruses and human cancer, 175 Viruses, diseases caused by, 137-41 Viruses, oncogenic, DNA, 171-74 RNA, 174-75 Vitamins, 193-200 Vitellointestinal duct, 473-74 Vitiligo, 26 Vocal nodules, 436 Volvulus, 475 von Gierke’s disease, 207 von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, 577 von Recklinghausen’s disease, 746-47 von Willebrand’s disease, 273-74 Vulva, 603-05 ... techniques: a) Giemsa banding or G-banding, the most commonly used b) Quinacrine banding or Q-banding c) Constitutive banding or C-banding d) Reverse staining Giemsa banding (or R-banding) Microscopic... Watson and Crick C Tijo and Levan D Ruska and Lorries Structure of DNA of the cell was described by: A Watson and Crick B Tijo and Levan C Ruska and Lorries D Barbara McClintock Flexibilty and dynamism... Praveen and daughters Tanya, Sugandha and All students and colleagues—former and present, with whom I had occasion to share and interact Preface The release of the Third Revised Edition of Pathology
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