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A l - Ja n a h ( P a r a d i se ) I ts DE S CRIP T ION & I ts PE OPL E Compiled By: Marwan Alahiri Published By: The Muslim Students Organization (MSO) of the City College New York Room 101 Baskerville 138 street and convent Avenue New York, NY 10031 Tel: (212): 650-7000x23171 E-mail: Mso@ccny.cuny.edu Website: www.msoccny.org This booklet is for da’wah only and permission is granted to reproduce it in its entirety only, without changes, and with proper referencing to the MSO-CCNY and the author INTRODUCTION All praise is due to Allah, we praise Him, seek His help, and His forgiveness We seek refuge in Him from the evil of our own souls and our wrong doings Whomsoever Allah guides there is none to misguide, and whomsoever is misguided there is none to guide him I publicly testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah alone, no partner has He, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger To Proceed: Allah has created us for a great purpose that is to worship him alone, and only him alone He has created Paradise and prepared it for his servants who act upon what Allah has ordered Paradise is the goal of every believer, for this reason, I have compiled this book “Paradise: Its Description & Its People” I have selected verses about Paradise from the Quraan; each verse is followed by the interpretation (Tafseer) of Ibn Katheer (May Allah shower him with his mercy) I ask Allah to make this small effort for his sake O Allah we ask you by your names and attributes to grant us Paradise and to guide us to all that could lead us to it Ameen PART I: THE DESCRIPTION OF PARADISE FIRST Allah said: ْ ُ َ ‫ت أَن‬ ِ َ ِ ‫َو َ ِ ا ِ َ ءَا َ ُ اْ َو َ ُِ اْ ا ـ‬ ُ ‫َ ـ ٍ َ ْ ِى ِ َ ْ ِ َ ا َ ْ َـ‬ “And give glad tidings to those who believe and righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)” (2:25) IBN KATHEER SAID IN HIS TAFSEER: “Consequently, Allah stated that Paradise has rivers that run beneath it, meaning, underneath its trees and rooms From Hadiths it is learned that the rivers of Paradise not run in valleys, and that the banks of Al-Kawthar (the Prophet's lake in Paradise) are made of domes of hollow pearls, the sand of Paradise is made of scented musk while its stones are made from pearls and jewels We ask Allah to grant Paradise to us, for verily, He is the Most Beneficent, Most Gracious” SECOND Allah said: َ ِ ْ َ ِ ‫ن َ ْ ِى‬ َ ُ ُ ْ ‫َ ُ ا ْ َ ِ ا ِ ُو ِ َ ا‬ ْ‫ا َ ْ َـ ُ ُأ ُآُ َ َد ِ ٌ ِو ِ َ ِ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ا ِ َ ا َ ا‬ ُ‫و ُ ْ َ ا ْ َـ ِ ِ َ ا ر‬ “The description of the Paradise which those who have Taqwa (fear of Allah) have been promised: Underneath it rivers flow, its provision is eternal and so is its shade; this is the end (final destination) of those who have Taqwa, and the end (final destination) of the disbelievers is Fire.” (13:35) IBN KATHEER SAID: “(The description of the Paradise which those who have Taqwa have been promised) meaning its description and qualities (Underneath it rivers flow,) these rivers flow in the various parts and grades of Paradise and wherever its people wish they flow and gush forth for them (Its provision is eternal and so is its shade) for Paradise has foods, fruits and drinks that never end or finish It is recorded in the Two Sahihs (Bukaree & Muslim) that Ibn `Abbas narrated in the Hadith about the Eclipse prayer that the Companions said, "O Allah's Messenger! While you were standing (in prayer), we saw you reach for something with your hand and then you brought it back.'' The Messenger said, (I saw Paradise - or was shown Paradise - and reached for a cluster (of grapes or other fruit), and had I kept it, you would have eaten from it as long as this life remains.) Imam Muslim recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said, (The people of Paradise eat and drink, and they not need to blow their noses, or answer the call of nature, or urinate, for they pass the food excrements in belches, which smell like musk They will be inspired to praise and glorify (Allah) as spontaneously as they breathe.) THIRD Allah said: ِ ‫إِن ا َ ُ ْ ِ ُ ا ِ َ ءَا َ ُ اْ َو َ ُِ اْ ا ـ ِ َـ‬ ِْ َ ِ‫ن‬ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ‫َ ـ ٍ َ ْ ِى ِ َ ْ ِ َ ا ْ َـ‬ ٌ ِ َ َ ِ ْ ُ ُ َ ِ ‫َأ َ ِو َر ِ َذ َه ٍ َوُ ُْ ًا َو‬ “Truly, Allah will admit those who believe and righteous good deeds, to Gardens underneath which rivers flow (in Paradise), wherein they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls and their garments therein will be of silk” (22:23) IBN KATHEER SAID: “(Truly, Allah will admit those who believe and righteous good deeds, to Gardens underneath which rivers flow,) means, these rivers flow throughout its regions, beneath its trees and palaces, and its inhabitants direct them to go wherever they want (Wherein they will be adorned) with jewelry -(with bracelets of gold and pearls) means, on their arms, as the Prophet said in the agreed-upon Hadith: (The jewelry of the believer in Paradise will reach as far as his Wudu’ (ablution) reached.) (And their garments therein will be of silk.) In contrast to the garments of fire worn by the inhabitants of Hell, the people of Paradise will have garments of silk, Sundus and Istabraq (fine green silk and gold embroidery) Please look at this verse (76:21-22) F OURTH Allah Said: ُ ‫إِن ا ِ َ ءَا َ ُ اْ َو َ ُِ اْ ا ـ ِ َـ ِ َ ُ ْ َ ـ‬ ُ ِ َ ْ ‫ َـ ِ ِ َ ِ َ َو ْ َ ا ِ َ ّ ً َو ُه َ ا‬- ِ ِ ‫ا‬ ُ ِ َ ْ‫ا‬ “Verily, those who believe and righteous good deeds, for them are Gardens of Delight To abide therein It is a promise of Allah in truth And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” (31:8-9) IBN KATHEER SAID: “Here Allah mentions the destiny of the righteous in the Hereafter, those who believe in Allah and His Messenger and righteous deeds in accordance with the Laws of Allah (For them are Gardens of Delight.) Means, there they will enjoy all kinds of delights and pleasures, food, drink, clothing, dwelling-places, means of transportation, women, a light of beauty and delightful sounds, which have never crossed the mind of any human being They will stay there forever, never leaving and never desiring change (It is a promise of Allah in truth.) Meaning, this will undoubtedly come to pass, for it is a promise from Allah, and Allah never breaks His promise, because He is the Most Generous Bestower Who does what He wills and is able to all things FIFTH Allah said: ِ ‫ ِإ ِ َ َد ا‬- ‫ن‬ َ َُ ْ َ ْ ُ ‫ن ِإ َ ُآ‬ َ ْ‫َو َ ُ ْ َو‬ ُ ‫ َ َ ِآ‬- ٌ‫ ُأوْ َـ ِ َ َ ُ ْ ِرزْقٌ ُْ م‬- َ ِ َ ْ ُ ْ ‫ا‬ ‫ َ َ ُ ُ ٍر‬- ِ ِ ‫ ِ َ ـ ِ ا‬- ‫ن‬ َ ُ َ ْ ‫َو ُه‬ - ٍ ِ ‫س‬ ٍ ْ َ ِ ْ ِ ْ ََ ‫ف‬ ُ َ ُ - َ ِ ِ ‫َ َـ‬ ْ ‫ َ ِ َ َ ْلٌ َو َ ُه‬- َ ِ ِ ‫َ ْ َ َء َ ٍة ـ‬ ٌ ِ ‫ف‬ ِ ْ ‫تا‬ ُ َ ِ ‫ َو ِ َ ُه ْ َـ‬- ‫ن‬ َ َُ ُ َ َْ ‫ َآ َ ُ َ ْ ٌ ْ ُ ن‬(39 And you will be requited nothing except for what you used to do.) (40 Save the chosen servants of Allah.) (41 For them there will be a known provision,) (42 Fruits; and they shall be honored,) (43 In the Gardens of Delight,) (44 Facing one another on thrones.) (45 Round them will be passed a cup of pure wine) (46 White, delicious to the drinkers.) (47 Neither will they have Ghawl from that nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.) (48 And beside them will be Qasirat-AtTarf with (wide and beautiful) eyes.) (49 as if they were Bayd Maknun.) (37:39-49) IBN KATHEER SAID: “(Save the chosen servants of Allah.) Meaning, they will not taste the painful torment nor will they be brought to account Their evil acts, if there are any, will be overlooked, and each good deed will be rewarded in multiples of between ten and seven hundred, or as much as Allah wills (For them there will be a known provision,) Qatadah and As-Suddi said, "This means Paradise.' (Fruits) meaning, of different kinds (And they shall be honored,) means, they will be served and will live a life of luxury (In the Gardens of Delight, facing one another on thrones.) Mujahid said, "One of them will not look at one another's backs.'' (Round them will be passed a cup of pure wine white, delicious to the drinkers Neither will they have Ghawl from that nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.) This is like the other verse: (Immortal boys will go around them (serving), with cups, and jugs, and a glass of flowing wine, from which they will get neither any aching of the head nor any intoxication.)(56:17-19) Allah refined the wine of Paradise from the bad effects of the wine of this world, which causes headaches and stomach aches which is the meaning of Ghawl causing people to lose their minds completely So He says here: (Round them will be passed a cup of pure wine) meaning, wine from a flowing stream, which they not fear, will ever be cut off or cease (Delicious to the drinkers.) Means, its taste will be as good as its color, and a good taste indicates that it has a good smell, unlike the wine of this world (Neither will they have Ghawl from that) means, it will not have any effects on them such as causing stomachaches This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, (nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.) Mujahid said, "It will not cause them to lose their minds (And beside them will be Qasirat AtTarf) means, chaste females, who will not look at anyone other than their husbands, as Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Zayd bin Aslam, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others said (With (wide and beautiful) eyes) means, with beautiful eyes It was also said that it means with wide eyes, which is connected to the first meaning They are wide-eyed and beautiful, and their eyes are described as being beautiful and chaste Allah says: And beside them will be Qasirat At-Tarf, with (wide and beautiful) eyes.) (As if they were Bayd Maknun.) Their bodies are described as having the most perfect color” SIXTH Allah said: ِ ‫ َـ‬- ‫ب‬ ٍ ‫هَـ َا ِذ ْآ ٌ َوإِن ِ ْ ُ ِ َ َ ُ ْ َ ََـ‬ ‫ن‬ َ ُ ْ َ َ ِ َ ِِ ُ - ‫ب‬ ُ ‫ن َ َ ً ُ ُ ا ْ َا‬ ٍ َْ ‫ت‬ ُ َ ِ ‫ َو ِ َ ُه ْ َـ‬- ‫ب‬ ٍ ‫ِ َ ِ َـ ِ َ ٍ َآ ِ َ ٍة َو َ َا‬ ‫ب‬ ِ َ ِ ْ ‫ن ِ َ ْ ِم ا‬ َ ‫ هَـ َا َ ُ َ ُو‬- ٌ‫ف َأ ْ َاب‬ ِ ْ ‫ا‬ ‫ إِن هَـ َا َ ِزْ ُ َ َ َ ُ ِ َ ٍد‬(49 And verily, for those who have Taqwa (fear of Allah) is a good final return.) (50 `Adn Paradise, whose doors will be opened for them.) (51 Therein they will recline; therein they will call for fruits in abundance and drinks;) (52 And beside them will be Qasirat-at-Tarf, (and) of equal ages.) (53 This it is what you are promised for the Day of Reckoning!) (54 (It will be said to them)! Verily, this is Our provision which will never finish.) (38:49-55) IBN KATHEER SAID: “Allah tells us that His blessed, believing servants will have a good final return in the Hereafter, which means their ultimate destination Then He explains it further, as He says: (`Adn Gardens) meaning, eternal gardens (of Paradise), (whose doors will be opened for them.) means, when they come to them (these gardens), their gates will open for them (Therein they will recline;) It was said that this means that they will sit cross-legged on chairs beneath canopies (Therein they will call for fruits in abundance) means, whatever they ask for, they will find it, and it will be prepared just as they wanted it” (And drinks;) means, whatever kind of drink they want, the servants will bring it to them, (And beside them will be Qasirat-at-Tarf (chaste females)) means, they restrain their glances from anyone except their husbands, and not turn to anyone else ((and) of equal ages.) Means, they will all be of the same age This is the understanding of Ibn `Abbas, May Allah be pleased with him (This it is what you are promised for the Day of Reckoning!) Means, `this that We have mentioned of the features of Paradise is what He has prepared for His pious servants who will reach it after they have been resurrected from their graves and been saved from the Fire.' Then Allah tells us that Paradise will never come to an end or disappear or cease to be SEVENTH Allah said: َ ِْ َ ٌ‫َـ ِ ِ ا ِ َ ا َ اْ َر ُ ْ َ ُ ْ ُ َف‬ ِ ‫ُ َفٌ ْ ِ ٌ َ ْ ِى ِ َ ْ ِ َ ا ْ َـ ُ َو ْ َ ا‬ ‫َ ُ ِْ ُ ا ُ ا ْ ِ َ د‬ “But those who have Taqwa (fear of Allah) of their Lord, for them are built lofty rooms, one above another under which rivers flow (This is) the promise of Allah, and Allah does not fail in (His) promise.” (39:20) IBN KATHEER SAID: “Allah says, `if He has decreed that someone is to be doomed, can you save him from his misguidance and doom' Which means, no one can guide him apart from Allah, because whomever Allah leaves astray cannot be guided, and whomever He guides cannot be led astray Then Allah tells us that His blessed servants will have lofty rooms in Paradise (Are built lofty rooms, one above another), story upon story, solidly constructed, adorned and high `Abdullah bin Al-Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ali, May Allah be pleased with him, said, "The Messenger of Allah said: (In Paradise there are rooms whose inside can be seen from the outside, and the outside can be seen from the inside.) A bedouin asked, `Who are they for, O Messenger of Allah' He said, (For those who speak kindly, feed the hungry and stand in prayer at night whilst the people are sleeping.)'' This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, "Hasan Gharib'' Imam Ahmad recorded from Sahl bin Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said: (The people of Paradise will look towards each other in raised places of Paradise as you look towards the stars on the horizons of the sky.) He said, "I told An-Nu`man bin Abi `Ayyash about that, and he said, `I heard Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, narrate it: (As you see the stars on the horizon of the east or the west.)''' It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs (Bukaree & Muslim) Imam Ahmad said, "Fazarah narrated to us; Fulayh narrated to us; from Hilal bin `Ali, from `Ata' bin Yasar, from Abu Hurayrah, May Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said: (The people of Paradise will look towards each other in the raised places of Paradise as you look at the high, bright stars, which remain on the horizon Such will be the difference in superiority which some of them have over Allah said next, (Who perform the Salah (prayer) and spend out of what We have provided them.) Allah describes the actions of the believers after He mentioned their faith The acts mentioned here include all types of righteous acts, such as establishing prayer, which is Allah's right Qatadah said, "Establishing the prayer requires preserving its times, making ablution for it, bowing down and prostrating.'' Muqatil bin Hayyan said, "Establishing the prayer means to preserve its times, perform perfect purity for it, perform perfect bowings and prostrations, recite the Qur'an during it, sitting for Tashahhud (last supplication in prayer) and reciting the Salah (invoking Allah's blessings) for the benefit of the Prophet.'' Spending from what Allah has granted includes giving the Zakah (charity) and the rest of the what is due from the servant, either what is obligatory or recommended All of the servants are Allah's dependents, and the most beloved among them to Him are the most beneficial to His creation Allah's statement, (It is they who are the believers in truth.) Means, those who have these qualities are the believers with true faith (For them are grades of dignity with their Lord) meaning, they have different grades, ranks and status in Paradise, (They are in varying grades with Allah, and Allah is All-Seer of what they do.) (3:163) Next, Allah said, (and forgiveness), therefore, Allah will forgive them their sins and reward them for their good deeds In the Two Sahihs (Bukaree & Muslim), it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said, (The residents of `Illiyyin (in Paradise) are seen from those below them, just as you see the distant planet in the horizon of the sky.) They said, "O Allah's Messenger! They are the grades of the Prophets that none except them would attain.'' The Prophet said, (Rather, by He in Whose Hand is my soul! They are for men who have faith in Allah and believed in the Messengers.) THIRD Allah said: ُ ‫ِ َ َأ ْ َ ُ اْ ا ْ ُ ْ َ َو ِز َ َدةٌ َو َ َ ْ َه‬ ْ ‫ُو ُ َه ُ ْ َ َ ٌ َو َ ِذ ٌ ُأوْ َـ ِ َ َأ ْ َـ ُ ا ْ َ ِ ُه‬ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ِ َ َـ ِ ُو‬ (26 For those who have done good is the best, and even more Neither darkness nor dust nor any humiliating disgrace shall cover their faces They are the dwellers of Paradise, they will abide therein forever.) (10:26) IBN KATHEER SAID: “Allah states that those who good in this world by having faith and performing righteous deeds will be rewarded with a good reward in the Hereafter Allah said: (Is there any reward for good other than good)(55:60) Then Allah said: (And even more.) the reward on the good deeds multiplied ten times to seven hundred times and even more on top of that This reward includes what Allah will give them in Paradise, such as the palaces, Al-Hur (virgins of Paradise), and His pleasure upon them He will give them what He has hidden for them of the delight of the eye He will grant them on top of all of that and even better, the honor of looking at His Noble Face This is the increase that is greater than anything that had been given They will not deserve that because of their deeds, but rather, they will receive it by the grace of Allah and His mercy The explanation that this refers to looking at Allah's Noble Face was narrated from Abu Bakr, Hudhayfah bin AlYaman, `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, `Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Layla, `Abdur-Rahman bin Sabit, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Amir bin Sa`ad, `Ata', AdDahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Muhammad bin Ishaq, and others from the earlier and later scholars There are many Hadiths that contain the same interpretation Among these Hadiths is what Imam Ahmad recorded from Suhayb that Allah's Messenger recited this Ayah, (For those who have done good is the best and even more.) And then he said: (When the people of Paradise enter Paradise, a caller will say: `O people of Paradise, Allah has promised you something that He wishes to fulfill.' They will reply: `What is it Has He not made our Scale heavy Has He not made our faces white and delivered us from Fire' Allah will then remove the veil and they will see Him By Allah, they have not been given anything dearer to them and more delightful than looking at Him.) Muslim and a group of Imams also related this Hadith Allah then said: (Neither darkness nor dust shall cover their faces ) Meaning, no blackness or darkness will be on their faces during the different events of the Day of Judgment But the faces of the rebellious disbelievers will be stained with dust and darkness (Nor any humiliating disgrace) meaning, they will be covered with degradation and disgrace The believers however will not be humiliated internally or externally, on the contrary, they will be protected and honored For as Allah has said: (So Allah saved them from the evil of that Day, and gave them Nadrah (brightness) and joy.) 76:11﴾ meaning, light in their faces and delight in their hearts May Allah make us among those by His grace and mercy F OUR Allah said: ْ‫ت َوَأ ْ َ ُ ا‬ ِ َ ِ ‫إِن ا ِ َ ءَا َ ُ اْ َو َ ُِ اْ ا ـ‬ َ ِ ْ ‫ِإ َ َر ِ ْ ُأوْ َـ ِ َ َأ ْ َـ ُ ا َ ِ ُه‬ َ ‫َـ ِ ُون‬ 23 Verily, those who believe and righteous good deeds, and humble themselves before their Lord, they will be the dwellers of Paradise to dwell therein forever.) (11:23) IBN KATHEER SAID: “When Allah, the Exalted, mentioned the condition of the wretched, He also commended the people of delight (the believers) They are those who believe and work righteous deeds Thus, their hearts believed and their limbs worked righteous deeds, both in statements and actions This includes their performance of deeds of obedience and their abandonment of evils In this way they are the inheritors of Gardens (of Paradise), which contain lofty rooms and seats arranged in rows Therein they will find bunches of fruit near to them, elevated couches, fair and beautiful wives, various types of fruit, desired kinds of food and delicious drinks They also will be allowed to see the Creator of the heavens and the earth and they will be in this state of pleasure forever They will not die, nor will they grow old They will not experience sickness, nor will they sleep They will not have excrement, nor will they spit or snot Their sweat will be the perfume of musk” FIFTH Allah Said: - َ ‫ن ا ْ ِ َـ‬ َ ُ ُ ِ َ ‫ن ِ َ ْ ِ ا ِ َو‬ َ ُ َُ ِ‫ا‬ َ َ ُ ‫ن َ َأ َ َ ا ُ ِ ِ أَن‬ َ ُِ َ َ ِ ‫وَا‬ - ‫ب‬ ِ َ ِ ‫ن ُ َء ا‬ َ ُ َ َ ‫ن َر ُ ْ َو‬ َ ْ َ ْ َ ‫َو‬ ْ‫وَا ِ َ َ َ ُواْ ا ْ ِ َ َء َو ْ ِ َر ِ ْ َوَأ َ ُ ا‬ ً َ ِ َ َ ‫ا َ َة َوَأ ْ َ ُ اْ ِ َر َز ْ َ ُه ْ ِ ا َو‬ َ ْ ُ ْ ُ َ َ ِ ‫ن ِ ْ َ َ َ ِ ا َ َ ُأوْ َـ‬ َ ‫َو َ ْ َرءُو‬ ْ ِ َ َ َ ْ َ ‫ن َ ْ ُُ َ َ َو‬ ٍ ْ َ ُ ‫ َ ـ‬- ‫ا ا ِر‬ ‫ن‬ َ ُُ ْ َ ُ َ ِ ‫ءَا َ ِ ِ ْ َوَأزْ َو ِ ِ ْ َوذُر ِ ِ ْ وَا َ َـ‬ ْ ُ ْ َ َ َ ِ ُ ْ َ َ ٌ ‫ َ َـ‬- ‫ب‬ ٍ َ ‫ُآ‬ ْ ِ ْ ََ ‫َ ِ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ا ا ِر‬ (20 Those who fulfill, the covenant of Allah and break not the trust.) (21 And those who join that which Allah has commanded to be joined and fear their Lord, and dread the terrible reckoning ) (22 And those who remain patient, seeking their Lord's Face, perform the Salah (prayer), and spend out of that which We have bestowed on them, secretly and openly, and repel evil with good, for such there is a good end.) (23 `Adn Gardens, which they shall enter and (also) those who acted righteously from among their fathers, and their wives, and their offspring And angels shall enter unto them from every gate (saying):) (24."Salamun `Alaykum (peace be upon you) for you persevered in patience! Excellent indeed is the final home!'') (13:20-24) IBN KATHEER SAID: “Allah states that those who have these good qualities will earn the good, final home: victory and triumph in this life and the Hereafter, (Those who fulfill the covenant of Allah and break not the trust.) They are nothing like the hypocrites who when one of them makes a covenant, he breaks it; if he disputes, he is most quarrelsome; if he speaks, he lies; and if he is entrusted, he betrays his trust Allah said next, (And those who join that which Allah has commanded to be joined) they are good to their relatives and not sever the bond of kinship They are also kind to the poor and the needy and generous in nature, (and fear their Lord), in what they or not of actions and statements They remember that Allah is watching during all of this and are afraid of His terrifying reckoning in the Hereafter Therefore, all their affairs are on the straight path and correct, whether they are active or idle, and in all of their affairs, including those that affect others, (And those who remain patient, seeking their Lord's Face,) They observe patience while staying away from sins and evil deeds, doing so while dedicating themselves to the service of their Lord the Exalted and Most Honored and seeking His pleasure and generous reward, (and perform the prayer), preserving its limits, times, bowing, prostration and humbleness, according to the established limits and rulings of the religion, (and spend out of that which We have bestowed on them,) They spend on those whom they are obliged to spend on them, such as their spouses, relatives and the poor and needy in general, (Secretly and openly,) They spend during all conditions and times, whether during the night or the day, secretly and openly, (And repel evil with good) they resist evil with good conduct When the people harm them they face their harm with good patience, forbearing, forgiveness and pardon Allah said in another Ayah (verse), (Repel (the evil) with one which is better, then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend But none is granted it except those who are patient - and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion in this world.)(41:34-35) This is why Allah states here that those who have these good qualities, the blessed ones, will earn the final home, which He explained next, (‘Adn Gardens), where, `Adn, indicates continuous residence; they will reside in the gardens of everlasting life Allah said next, (and (also) those who acted righteously from among their fathers, and their wives, and their offspring.) Allah will gather them with their loved ones, from among their fathers, family members and offspring, those who are righteous and deserve to enter Paradise, so that their eyes are comforted by seeing them He will also elevate the grade of those who are lower, to the grades of those who are higher, a favor from Him out of His kindness, without decreasing the grade of those who are higher up (in Paradise) Allah said next, (And angels shall enter unto them from every gate (saying): "Salamun `Alaykum (peace be upon you) for you persevered in patience! Excellent indeed is the final home!'') The angels will enter on them from every direction congratulating them for entering Paradise The angels will welcome them with the Islamic greeting and commend them for earning Allah's closeness and rewards, as well as, being admitted into the Dwelling of Peace, neighbors to the honorable Messengers, the Prophets and the truthful believers” SIXTH Allah said: ‫َ َ َ َ ِ َ ْ ِ ِه ْ َ ْ ٌ َأ َ ُ اْ ا َـ َة‬ َ ‫ ِإ‬- ً ّ َ ‫ن‬ َ ُ َْ ‫ف‬ َ َْ َ ‫ت‬ ِ َ َ ‫وَا َ ُ اْ ا‬ ‫ن‬ َ ُُ ْ َ َ ِ ‫ب َوءَا َ َ َو َ ِ َ َـ ِ ً َُوْ َـ‬ َ َ ً َْ ‫ن‬ َ ُ َ ْ ُ َ ‫ا ْ َ َ َو‬ (59 Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have lost the Salah (prayer) and have followed lusts So they will meet Ghaiy.) (60 Except those who repent and believe, and work righteousness Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught.) (19:59-60) IBN KATHEER SAID: (Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have lost the Salah (prayer)) "This means that they will not keep up with the proper times of the prayer, because if it meant complete abandonment of the prayer, this would be disbelief.'' It is also reported that it was said to Ibn Mas`ud, "Allah often mentions the prayer in the Qur'an He says, (Those who neglect their Salah (prayer).) (107:5) And He says, (Those who remain constant in their Salah (prayer).) (70:23 And He says, (Who guard their Salah(prayer).)'' (23:9) Then, Ibn Mas`ud said, "This means at its designated times.'' The people said, "We thought that this was referring to the abandonment of the prayer.'' He replied, "That would be disbelief.'' Masruq said, "No one who guards the five daily prayers will be written among the heedless In their neglect is destruction Their neglect is delaying them past their fixed times.'' Al-Awza`i reported from Ibrahim bin Zayd that Umar bin `Abdul`Aziz recited the Ayah, (Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have lost the Salah and have followed lusts So they will meet Ghayy.) Then, he said, "Their loss was not their abandonment of the prayers, but it was by not offering them during their proper and prescribed times.'' Allah said, (So they will meet Ghayy ) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, (So they will meet Ghayy.) "This means loss.'' Qatadah said, "This means evil.'' Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Shu`bah and Muhammad bin Ishaq all reported from Abu Ishaq As-Sabi`i, who reported from Abu `Ubaydah, who reported from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud that he said, (So they will meet Ghayy.) "This is a valley in the Hellfire which is very deep and its food is filthy.'' Al-A`mash reported from Ziyad, who reported from Abu `Iyad, who commented Allah's statement, (So they will meet Ghayy.) He said, "This is a valley in Hell made of puss and blood.'' Allah said, (Except those who repent and believe and work righteousness.) This means, "Except those who recant from giving up the prayers and following the desires, for verily, Allah will accept their repentance, give them a good end and make them of those who inherit the Garden of Delight (Paradise) '' For this reason Allah says, (Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught.) This is because repentance wipes away that which was before it In another Hadith, the Prophet said, (The one who repents from sin is like he who has no sin.) Because of this, those who repent will not lose anything from the (good) deeds that they did They will not be held accountable for what they did before their repentance, thus causing a decrease in their reward for deeds that they after their repentance That is because whatever they did before repenting is lost, forgotten and not taken to account This is an honor from the Most Generous and a kindness from the Most Gentle This is an exception that is made for these people, similar to Allah's statement in Surah Al-Furqan, (And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause ) until Allah's statement, (and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (25:68-70) SEVENTH Allah said: ‫ن‬ َ ُ ُ ْ ‫ُ ْ َأ َذ ِ َ َ ْ ٌ َأمْ َ ُ ا ْ ُ ْ ِ ا ِ َو ِ َ ا‬ َ َ ِ ْ ُ - ‫َآ َ ْ َ ُ ْ َ َ ًء َو َ ِ ًا‬ ً ُ ْ ‫ن َ َ َر َ َو ْ ًا‬ َ ‫ن َـ ِ ِ َ َآ‬ َ ‫َ َ ءُو‬ Say: "Is that better or the Paradise of Eternity which is promised to those who have Taqwa'' It will be theirs as a reward and final destination.) (16 For them there will be therein all that they desire, and they will abide (therein forever) It is upon your Lord a Wa`dan Mas'ula.) (25:15) IBN KATHEER SAID: “Here Allah says: `O Muhammad, this that We have described to you about the state of those who are doomed, who will be dragged on their faces to Hell, which will receive them with a scowling face, with hatred and moans There they will be thrown into their constricted spaces, tied up to their shoulders, unable to move or call for help, and unable to escape their plight - is this better, or the eternal Paradise which Allah has promised to the pious among His servants, which He has prepared for them as a reward and ultimate destiny in return for their obedience to Him in this world' (For them there will be therein all that they desire,) of delights such as food, drink, clothing, dwellings, means of transportation and scenery, and other things that no eye has seen, no ear has heard, nor the heart of anyone can comprehend They will abide therein forever; it will never cease or come to an end, and they will never leave it This is what Allah has promised to those whom He has blessed and to whom He has shown His favor He says: (It is a upon your Lord a Wa`dan Mas'ula) meaning, it must inevitably come to pass Abu Ja`far bin Jarir reported from some of the scholars of the Arabic language that the words (Wa`dan Mas'ula) mean: a binding pledge In this Surah (chapter) Allah mentions Hell, then refers to the situation of the people of Paradise This is similar to the passage in Surat As-Saffat where Allah mentions the status of the people of Paradise, with its beauty and joy.” EIGHTH Allah Said: َ ‫َ ْ َ ِـ َ َـ َ ً َ َ ُ ْ َى ِإ ِ ْ َ َ َو َ ْ َ ِـ‬ َ ِ ‫َذآَـ ٍ َأوْ ُأ ْ َ َو ُه َ ُ ْ ِ ٌ َُوْ َـ‬ ً ِ ‫َـ‬ ‫ب‬ ٍ َ ِ ِ َْ ِ َ ِ ‫ن‬ َ ُ ‫ن ا ْ َ َ ُ ْ َز‬ َ ُُ ْ َ "Whoever does an evil deed, will not be requited except the like thereof; and whosoever does a righteous deed, whether male or female and is a true believer, such will enter Paradise, where they will be provided therein without limit.'') (40:40) IBN KATHEER SAID: “(Whosoever does an evil deed, will not be requited except the like thereof;) means, one like it (And whosoever does a righteous deed, whether male or female and is a true believer, such will enter Paradise, where they will be provided therein without limit.) Means, the reward cannot be enumerated, but Allah will give an immense reward without end And Allah is the Guide to the straight path” NINTH Allah Said: ‫إِن ا ِ َ َ ُ اْ َر َ ا ُ ُ ا ْ َ َـ ُ اْ َ َ َ ُل‬ ْ‫َ َ ْ ِ ُ ا ْ َ َـ ِ َ ُ َأ َ َ ُ اْ َو َ َ ْ َ ُ اْ َوَأ ْ ِ ُوا‬ ِ ْ ‫ َ ْ ُ َأوْ ِ َ ُؤ ُآ‬- ‫ن‬ َ ‫ِ ْ َ ِ ا ِ ُآ ُ ْ ُ َ ُو‬ ِ َ ْ َ َ َ ِ ْ ُ َ ‫ا ْ َ َ ِة ا ْ َ َو ِ ا ِ َ ِة َو‬ ‫ْ َ ُ ٍر‬ ًُُ - ‫ن‬ َ ُ َ َ َ ِ ْ ُ َ ‫َأ ُ ُ ُ ْ َو‬ ٍ ِ‫ر‬ (30 Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is Allah,'' and then they stand firm, on them the angels will descend (saying): "Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised!'') (31 "We have been your friends in the life of this world and are (so) in the Hereafter Therein you shall have (all) that your souls desire, and therein you shall have (all) for which you ask.'') (32 "An entertainment from the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'') (41:30-32) IBN KATHEER SAID: “(Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is Allah,'' and then they stand firm,) means, they good deeds sincerely for the sake of Allah, and they obey Allah, doing what Allah has prescribed for them Ibn Jarir recorded that Sa`id bin `Imran said, "I read this Ayah to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him: (Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is Allah,'' and then they stand firm,) He said, `Those are the ones who not associate anything with Allah.''' Then he reported a narration of Al-Aswad bin Hilal, who said, "Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `What you say about this Ayah: (Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is Allah,'' and then they stand firm,)' They said: ("Our Lord is Allah,'' and then they stand firm,) `They shun sin.' He said, `You have not interpreted it improperly.' They say: `Our Lord is Allah, then they stand firm and not turn to any other god besides Him ''' This was also the view of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and others Ahmad recorded that Sufyan bin `Abdullah Ath-Thaqafi said, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, tell me something that I can adhere to.' He said: (Say, my Lord is Allah, then stand firm.) I said, `O Messenger of Allah, what you fear most for me' The Messenger of Allah took hold of the edge of his tongue and said, (This is.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' Muslim also recorded it in his Sahih, and An-Nasa'i recorded that Sufyan bin `Abdullah Ath-Thaqafi said, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, tell me something about Islam that I will not have to ask anyone about it after you.' He said: (Say: I believe in Allah, then stand firm.)'' then he mentioned the rest of the Hadith (on them the angels will descend) Mujahid, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam and his Zayd's son said, "This means, at the time of death, and they will say, (Fear not) '' Mujahid, `Ikrimah and Zayd bin Aslam said, "This means not to fear "that which you will face in the Hereafter.'' (Nor grieve!) ‘for what you have left behind of worldly things, children, family, wealth and debt, for we will take care of it for you.’ (But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised!) So they give glad tidings of the end of bad things and the arrival of good things This is like what is said in the Hadith narrated by Al-Bara', may Allah be pleased with him: (The angels say to the soul of the believer, "Come out, O good soul from the good body in which you used to dwell, come out to rest, and provision and a Lord Who is not angry.'') It was said that the angels will come down to them on the Day when they are brought out of their graves Zayd bin Aslam said, "They will give him glad tidings when he dies, in his grave, and when he is resurrected.'' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim, and this view reconciles all the opinions; it is a good view and it is true (We have been your friends in the life of this world and are (so) in the Hereafter.) Means, the angels will say to the believers when death approaches: "We have been your friends, i.e., your close companions, in this world, protecting you and helping you by the command of Allah, and we will be with you in the Hereafter, keeping you from feeling lonely in your graves and when the Trumpet is blown; we will reassure you on the Day of Resurrection and will take you across the Sirat (path) and bring you to the Gardens of delight.'' (Therein you shall have (all) that your souls desire,) means, `in Paradise you will have all that you wish for and that will delight you.' (And therein you shall have (all) for which you ask.) Means, `whatever you ask for, it will appear before you as you wish it to be.' (An entertainment from the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) Means, `a welcoming gift and a blessing from the One Who has forgiven your sins and Who is Merciful and Kind towards you, Who has forgiven you, concealed your faults and been Kind and Merciful.' TENTH Allah Said: ً ‫َ ُو‬ ‫ ِإذَا َ ُ ا‬- ً ُ‫إِن ا ِ َـ َ ُِ َ َه‬ َ ِ ‫ ا‬- َ َ ُ ْ ‫ ِإ ا‬- ً ُ َ ُ ْ َ ْ ‫ َوِإذَا َ ُ ا‬ْ ِ َِ ْ ‫ وَا ِ َ ِ َأ‬- ‫ن‬ َ ُ ِ ‫َ َ ِ ِ ْ َد‬ ََ ْ ‫ُه‬ َ ِ ‫ وَا‬- ‫ِ ِ وَا ْ َ ْ ُو ِم‬ - ٌ‫ُْ م‬ َ ‫ب‬ ِ ‫ْ َ َا‬ ‫ وَا ِ َ ُه‬- ِ ‫ن ِ َ ْ ِم ا‬ َ َُ ُ ‫ن‬ ٍ ُ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ْ ِ ‫ب َر‬ َ ‫ إِن َ َا‬- ‫ن‬ َ ُِْ ِ ‫َر‬ ْ ِ ِ ‫ن ِإ ََ َأزْ َو‬ َ ُ ِ ‫وَا ِ َ ُه ْ ِ ُ ُو ِ ِ ْ َـ‬ ِ َ َ َ ِ َُ ُ ْ َ ْ ُ َِ ْ ُ ُ ‫َأوْ َ ََ َ ْ َأ ْ َـ‬ ْ ‫ن وَا ِ َ ُه‬ َ ‫ا ْ َ َ َو َر َء ذِ َ َُوَْـ ِ َ ُه ُ ا ْ َ دُو‬ ِ ِ َ ‫ن وَا ِ َ ُه ْ ِ َ َـ‬ َ ُ ‫َـ َـ ِ ِ ْ َو َ ْ ِ ِه ْ َر‬ ‫ن‬ َ ُ ِ َ ُ ْ ِ َِ َ ََ ْ ‫ن وَا ِ َ ُه‬ َ ُِ َ ‫ن‬ َ ُ َ ْ ٍ ‫ُأوَْـ ِ َ ِ َ ـ‬ (19 Verily, man was created very impatient;) (20 Apprehensive when evil touches him;) (21 And suppressive when good touches him.) (22 Except those who are devoted to Salah (prayer).) (23 Those who with their Salah (prayer) are Da'imun;) (24 And those in whose wealth there is a recognized right.) (25 For the one who asks, and for the deprived.) (26 And those who believe in the Day of Recompense.) (27 And those who fear the torment of their Lord.) (28 Verily, the torment of their Lord is that before which none can feel secure.) (29 And those who guard their private part (chastity).) (30 Except from their wives or their right hand possessions for (then) they are not blameworthy.) (31 But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers.) (32 And those who keep their trusts and covenants.) (33 And those who stand firm in their testimonies.) (34 And those who are with their Salah (prayer), Yuhafizun.) (35 Such shall dwell in the Gardens, honored) (70:19-35) IBN KATHEER SAID: “(Verily, man was created very impatient;) Then, Allah explains this statement by saying, (Apprehensive when evil touches him;) meaning, whenever any harm touches him he is frightful, worried and completely taken back due to the severity of his terror and his despair that he will receive any good after it (And suppressive when good touches him.) Meaning, if he attains any blessing from Allah, he is stingy with it, not sharing it with others He will withhold the right of Allah with that blessing Imam Ahmad said that Abu `Abdur-Rahman informed them that Musa bin `Ali bin Rabah told them that he heard his father narrating from `Abdul-`Aziz bin Marwan bin Al-Hakim that he heard Abu Hurayrah saying, "The Messenger of Allah said, (The worst thing that can be in a man is greedy impatience and unrestrained cowardice.) Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith from `Abdullah bin Al-Jarrah on the authority of Abu `Abdur-Rahman Al-Muqri', and this is the only Hadith through `Abdul-`Aziz with him Then Allah says, (Except those who are devoted to Salah (prayer).) meaning, man is described with blameworthy characteristics except for He whom Allah protects, helps and guides to good, making its means easy for him and these are those people who perform Salah (prayer) (Those who with their Salah (prayer) are Da'imun;) It has been said that this means they guard its times and the elements obligatory in it This has been said by Ibn Mas`ud, Masruq and Ibrahim An-Nakha`i It has also been said that it means tranquility and humble concentration (in the prayer) This is similar to Allah's statement, (Successful indeed are the believers Those who with their Salah (prayer) are Khashi`un.) (23:1-2) This was said by `Uqbah bin `Amir From its meanings is the same terminology used to describe standing (still) water (Al-Ma' Ad-Da'im) This proves the obligation of having tranquility in the prayer For verily, the one who does not have tranquility (stillness of posture) in his bowing and prostrating, then he is not being constant (Da'im) in his prayer This is because he is not being still in it and he does not remain (in its positions), rather he pecks in it (quickly) like the pecking of the crow Therefore, he is not successful in performing his prayer It has also been said that the meaning here refers to those who perform a deed and are constant in its performance and consistent in it This is like the Hadith that has been recorded in the Sahih (Al-Bukaree) on the authority of `A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah said, (The most beloved deeds to Allah are those that are most consistent, even if they are few.) Then Allah says, (And those in whose wealth there is a recognized right For the one who asks, and for the deprived.) Meaning, in their wealth is a determined portion for those who are in need Concerning Allah's statement, (And those who believe in the Day of Recompense.) meaning, they are sure of the Final Return (to Allah), the Reckoning and the Recompense Therefore, they perform the deeds of one who hopes for the reward and fears the punishment For this reason Allah says, (And those who fear the torment of their Lord.) meaning, they are fearful and dreadful (Verily, the torment of their Lord is that before which none can feel secure.) Meaning, no one is safe from it (Allah's torment) of those who understand the command from Allah, except by the security of Allah Himself Then Allah says, (And those who guard their private part (chastity).) meaning, they keep their private parts away from that which is forbidden and they prevent their private parts from being put into other than what Allah has allowed them to be in This is why Allah says, (Except from their wives or their right hand possessions) meaning, from their female slaves (For (then) they are not blameworthy But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers.) The explanation of this has already preceded at the beginning of Surat Al-Mu'minun, (chapter 23 in the Quraan) and therefore does not need to be repeated here Allah said, (And those who keep their trusts and covenants.) meaning, if they are given a trust they not deceit and when they make a covenant they not break it These are the characteristics of the believers which are opposite of the characteristics of the hypocrites This is like what is reported in the authentic Hadith, (The signs of the hypocrites are three When he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise, and when he is given a trust he behaves treacherously (with it).) In another narration it states, (When he speaks he lies, when he makes a covenant he breaks it, and when he argues he is abusive.) Concerning Allah's statement, (And those who stand firm in their testimonies.) This means that they guard their testimonies They not add or decrease from what they testify to nor they conceal their testimonies Allah says in another Ayah, (Who hides it, surely, his heart is sinful.) (2:283) Then Allah says, (And those who are with their Salah (prayer), Yuhafizun.) Meaning, they maintain its proper times, its pillars, its obligations and its recommended acts So Allah begins this discussion (of the believers' attributes) with prayer and He concludes it with prayer This proves the importance of it and the praise of its noble status, just as what preceded at the beginning of Surat (chapter) AlMu'minun It is exactly the same discussion This is why Allah says there (in AlMu'minun), (These are indeed the inheritors Who shall inherit the Firdaws (Paradise) They shall dwell therein forever.) (23:10-11) And He says here, (Such shall dwell in the Gardens, honored.) meaning, they will be honored with various types of pleasures and delights This is the end of the book, and if you have any comments, they will be highly appreciated
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