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www.downloadslide.net Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net Thirteenth Edition Principles of Information Systems Ralph M Stair Professor Emeritus, Florida State University George W Reynolds Instructor, Strayer University Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net Principles of Information Systems, Thirteenth Edition Ralph M Stair & George W Reynolds Vice President, General Manager, Science, Technology and Math: Balraj Kalsi © 2018, 2016 Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, except as permitted by U.S copyright law, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner Senior Product Director: Kathleen McMahon Senior Product Team Manager: Joe Sabatino Product Team Manager: Kristin McNary Associate Product Manager: Kate Mason Senior Director, Development: Julia Caballero For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com Content Development Manager: Leigh Hefferon Associate Content Developer: Jonathan Gross Senior Content Developer: Michelle Ruelos Cannistraci Art and Cover Direction, Production Management, and Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc Intellectual Property Analyst: Brittani Morgan Project Manager: Kathy Kucharek Manufacturing Planner: Ron Montgomery Cover Image(s): everything possible/ Shutterstock.com Library of Congress Control Number: 2016941569 ISBN: 978-1-305-97177-6 Cengage Learning 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with employees residing in nearly 40 different countries and sales in more than 125 countries around the world Find your local representative at www.cengage.com Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd To learn more about Cengage Learning Solutions, visit www.cengage.com Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com Unless otherwise noted all items â Cengage Learningđ Printed at EPAC, Mexico, 11-16 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net For Lila and Leslie — RM S To my grandchildren: Michael, Jacob, Jared, Fievel, Aubrey, Elijah, Abrielle, Sofia, Elliot, Serena, and Kendall —G W R Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net Brief Contents PART Information Systems in Perspective Chapter An Introduction to Information Systems Chapter Information Systems in Organizations PART Information Technology Concepts Chapter Hardware and Mobile Devices 83 84 Chapter Software and Mobile Applications Chapter Database Systems and Big Data Chapter Networks and Cloud Computing PART Business Information Systems Chapter Electronic and Mobile Commerce Chapter Enterprise Systems 44 136 192 238 295 296 344 Chapter Business Intelligence and Analytics 382 Chapter 10 Knowledge Management and Specialized Information Systems 408 PART Planning, Acquiring, and Building Systems Chapter 11 Strategic Planning and Project Management Chapter 12 System Acquisition and Development 455 456 502 v Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net vi BRIEF CONTENTS PART Information Systems in Business and Society Chapter 13 Cybercrime and Information System Security 559 560 Chapter 14 Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues of Information Systems 598 Glossary 636 Subject Index Company Index 647 657 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net Contents Preface PART 1 xv Information Systems in Perspective An Introduction to Information Systems Part 1: Information Systems in Perspective An Introduction to Information Systems Information Systems in Organizations Part 2: Information Technology Concepts 11 Hardware and Mobile Devices 11 Software and Mobile Applications 12 Database Systems and Big Data 13 Networks and Cloud Computing 15 Part 3: Business Information Systems 18 Electronic and Mobile Commerce 20 Enterprise Systems 21 Business Intelligence and Analytics 25 Knowledge Management and Specialized Information Systems Part 4: Planning, Acquiring, and Building Systems Strategic Planning and Project Management System Acquisition and Development 28 26 27 Part 5: Information Systems in Business and Society 29 Cybercrime and Information System Security 30 Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues of Information Systems 31 CASE ONE: Connecting Patient Monitoring Devices to EHRs CASE TWO: BMW: Automaker Competes on the Digital Front 25 41 41 Information Systems in Organizations 44 Organizations and Information Systems Virtual Teams and Collaborative Work Change in the Organization 46 50 51 Innovation 52 Reengineering and Continuous Improvement 53 Outsourcing, Offshoring, and Downsizing 54 Organizational Culture and Change 56 Lewin’s Change Model 57 Lewin’s Force Field Analysis 57 Leavitt’s Diamond 59 User Satisfaction and Technology Acceptance Diffusion of Innovation Theory 61 60 vii Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net viii CONTENTS Careers in Information Systems 62 Roles, Functions, and Careers in IS 66 Typical IS Titles and Functions 67 IS-Related Roles outside the IS Organization Certification 71 Other IS Careers 72 Working in Teams 72 Finding a Job in IS 72 70 CASE ONE: Railroads Struggle to Implement Positive Train Control 79 CASE TWO: Nordstrom’s Innovation Efforts Recognize the Importance of the Soft Side of Implementing Change 80 PART Information Technology Concepts 83 Hardware and Mobile Devices 84 Anatomy of a Computer 86 Processor 87 Memory 91 Secondary Data Storage Devices Enterprise Storage Options 97 Input and Output Devices 100 Output Devices 107 Computer System Types 93 111 Portable Computers 113 Thin Clients, Desktops, and Workstations 114 Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers 116 Server Farms, Data Centers, and Green Computing 119 Server Farms 119 Data Center 120 Green Computing 122 CASE ONE: ARM 130 CASE TWO: Vivobarefoot Upgrades Technology Infrastructure 131 Software and Mobile Applications 136 An Overview of Software 138 Software Sphere of Influence Systems Software 139 141 Operating Systems 141 Utility Programs 155 Middleware 158 Application Software 160 Overview of Application Software 160 Personal Application Software 163 Workgroup Application Software 170 Enterprise Application Software 171 Application Software for Transaction Processing, Business Analytics, and Competitive Advantage 173 Programming Languages 173 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CONTENTS Software Issues and Trends 176 Software Bugs 176 Copyrights and Licenses 177 Freeware and Open-Source Software Software Upgrades 180 Global Software Support 180 177 CASE ONE: Société de transport de Montréal (STM) Implements Innovative Mobile App 187 CASE TWO: FIMC Launches Mobile App to Provide Enhanced Roadside Assistance Services Database Systems and Big Data 192 Data Fundamentals 194 Hierarchy of Data 195 Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys The Database Approach 197 195 Data Modeling and Database Characteristics Data Modeling 199 Relational Database Model Data Cleansing 204 199 201 Relational Database Management Systems (DBMSs) 206 SQL Databases 206 Database Activities 207 Database Administration 212 Popular Database Management Systems 213 Using Databases with Other Software 214 Big Data 215 Characteristics of Big Data 216 Sources of Big Data 216 Big Data Uses 217 Challenges of Big Data 218 Data Management 219 Technologies Used to Process Big Data 222 Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Lakes NoSQL Databases 224 Hadoop 226 In-Memory Databases 227 222 CASE ONE: WholeWorldBand: Digital Recording Studio 234 CASE TWO: Mercy’s Big Data Project Aims to Boost Operations 235 Networks and Cloud Computing 238 Network Fundamentals 241 Network Topology 241 Network Types 242 Client/Server Systems 244 Channel Bandwidth 244 Communications Media 245 Communications Hardware 251 Communications Software 251 The Internet and World Wide Web How the Internet Works ix 253 255 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 188 www.downloadslide.net FIGURE 6.26 Cloud computing Cloud computing uses applications and resources delivered via the Web Helder Almeida/Shutterstock.com 280 PARTInformation Technology Concepts developed its iCloud service to allow people to store their documents, music, photos, apps, and other content on its servers.35 In addition to its social networking features, Facebook offers users the ability to store personal photos in the cloud—as does Flickr and a dozen other photo sites Pandora delivers music, and Hulu and YouTube deliver movies via the cloud Apache OpenOffice, Google Apps, Microsoft Office 365, Zoho, and others provide Webdelivered productivity and information management software Communications, contacts, photos, documents, music, and media are available to you from any Internet-connected device with cloud computing Cloud computing offers many advantages to businesses With cloud computing, organizations can avoid large, up-front investments in hardware as well as the ongoing investment in the resources that would be required to manage that hardware Instead, they can provision just the right type and size of information system resources from their cloud computing provider, pay for it on an ongoing basis, and let the service provider handle the system support and maintenance In most cases, the cloud computing service provider provides access to state-of-the-art technology at a fraction of the cost of owning it and without the lengthy delays that can occur when an organizations tries to acquire its own resources This can increase the speed and reduce the costs of new product and service launches For example, Spotify offers its users instant access to over 16 million licensed songs The company faces an ongoing struggle to keep pace with the rapid release of new music, adding over 20,000 tracks to its catalog each day Emil Fredriksson, operations director for Spotify, explains why the company employs cloud computing, “Spotify needed a storage solution that could scale very quickly without incurring long lead times for upgrades This led us to cloud storage.” While establishing new storage previously required several months of preparation, it can now be obtained instantly through cloud computing.36 Cloud computing can be deployed in several different ways The methods discussed thus far in this chapter are considered public cloud services Public cloud computing refers to deployments in which service providers offer their cloud-based services to the general public, whether that is an individual using Google Calendar or a corporation using the Salesforce.com application In a private cloud deployment, cloud technology is used within the confines of a private network Since 1992, The College Network and its partner universities have provided accessible educational programs for individuals seeking degrees or professional certificates, entirely through distance learning The College Network Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CHAPTER • Networks and Cloud Computing 281 chose EarthLink to provide a customized private cloud with dedicated servers Conversion to the private network reduced the capital required for computer hardware and software, increased systems availability and avoided outages, and reallocated its valuable IT resources while EarthLink resources troubleshoot any systems issues.37 Many organizations are turning to cloud computing as an approach to outsource some or all of their IT operations This section defines cloud computing and its variations and points out some of its advantages as well as some potential issues, including problems associated with cost, scalability, security, and regulatory compliance Public Cloud Computing In a public cloud computing environment, a service provider organization owns and manages the infrastructure (including computing, networking, and storage devices) with cloud user organizations (called tenants) accessing slices of shared hardware resources via the Internet The service provider can deliver increasing amounts of computing, network, and storage capacity on demand and without requiring any capital investment on the part of the cloud users Thus, public cloud computing is a great solution for organizations whose computing needs vary greatly depending on changes in demand Amazon, Cisco Systems, IBM, Microsoft, Rackspace, Verizon Communications Inc., and VMWare are among the largest cloud computing service providers These firms typically offer a monthly or annual subscription service model; they may also provide training, support, and data integration services.38 Public cloud computing can be a faster, cheaper, and more agile approach to building and managing your own IT infrastructure However, since cloud users are using someone else’s data center, potential issues with service levels, loss of control, disaster recovery, and data security should not be overlooked Data security in particular is a key concern because when using a public cloud computing service, you are relying on someone else to safeguard your data In addition, your organization’s data may reside on the same storage device as another organization’s (perhaps even a competitor’s) data All of the potential issues of concern must be investigated fully before entering into a public cloud computing arrangement Organizations subject to tight regulation and complex regulatory requirements (e.g., financial, healthcare, and public utility organizations) must ensure that their own processes and applications as well as those of the cloud provider are compliant A major start-up issue is the effort of getting your organization’s data moved to the cloud in the first place That introduces an issue of vendor lockin—meaning once an organization’s servers and data are hosted with one cloud provider, it is not likely to be willing to go through the time-consuming migration process a second time to move to a different provider in the future So choose your cloud provider wisely, as it is a business relationship that you and your business will likely need to live with for the foreseeable future Cloud computing can be divided into three main types of services (see Figure 6.27) infrastructure as a service (IaaS): An information systems strategy in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support its data processing operations, including servers, storage devices, and networking components ● ● Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is an information systems strategy in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support its data processing operations, including servers, storage devices, and networking components The service provider owns the equipment and is responsible for housing, running, and maintaining it The outsourcing organization may pay on a per-use or monthly basis Software as a service (SaaS) is a software delivery approach that provides users with access to software remotely as a Web-based service SaaS pricing is based on a monthly fee per user and typically results in lower Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net 282 PARTInformation Technology Concepts Cloud users– smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops IaaS–Virtual machines, servers, storage devices, network devices The cloud computing environment PaaS–Operting system, programming language, database, Web server Cloud computing can be divided into three main types of services: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS), and platform as a service (PaaS) platform as a service (PaaS): An approach that provides users with a computing platform, typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database services, and Web server ● Helder Almeida/Shutterstock.com SaaS–Customer relationship Management, email, collaboration FIGURE 6.27 costs than a licensed application Another advantage of SaaS is that because the software is hosted remotely, users not need to purchase and install additional hardware to provide increased capacity Furthermore, the service provider handles necessary software maintenance and upgrades Platform as a service (PaaS) provides users with a computing platform, typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database services, and a Web server The user can create an application or service using tools and/or libraries from the provider The user also controls software deployment and configuration settings The PaaS provider provides the networks, servers, storage, and other services required to host the consumer’s application PaaS enables application developers to develop, test, and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software Organizations contemplating moving to the cloud are advised to proceed carefully, as almost one in three organizations encounter major challenges during the transition Frequent problems include complex pricing arrangements and hidden costs that reduce expected cost savings, performance issues that cause wide variations in performance over time, poor user support, and greater than expected downtime.39 Condé Nast, publisher of Vogue, The New Yorker, and Wired magazines, among many others, decommissioned its 67,000-square-foot data center and migrated its data and processing capacity to Amazon Web Services (AWS) Over a period of just three months in 2014, the firm migrated 500 servers; petabyte of storage; 100 database servers; 100 switches, routers, and firewalls; and all of its mission-critical applications to AWS According to Condé Nast, operating costs have been cut by 40 percent and performance has improved by 30 percent to 40 percent since the transition, which created a dynamic environment that can adjust as the company needs it to The old data center facilities were eventually put on the market and sold.40 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CHAPTER • Networks and Cloud Computing 283 Private Cloud Computing private cloud environment: A single tenant cloud A private cloud environment is a single tenant cloud Organizations that implement a private cloud often so because they are concerned that their data will not be secure in a public cloud Private clouds can be divided into two distinct types Some organizations build their own on-premise private cloud, and others elect to have a service provider build and manage their private cloud (sometimes called a virtual private cloud) A general rule of thumb is that companies that spend $1 million or more per month on outsourced computing are better off implementing an on-premise private cloud.41 Many complications must be overcome—and deep technical skills and sophisticated software are needed—to build and manage a successful private cloud An organization might establish several private clouds with one for finance, another one for product development, and a third for sales, for example Each private cloud has a defined set of available resources and users, with predefined quotas that limit how much capacity users of that cloud can consume Revlon is a global cosmetics, hair color, fragrance, and skin-care company with recent annual sales exceeding $1.9 billion.42 The firm implemented an on-premises private cloud that includes 531 applications and makes up 97 percent of the company’s computing power The private cloud has helped reduce application deployment time by 70 percent and, as a result of virtualization and consolidation, reduced data center power consumption by 72 percent In addition, the company achieved a net dollar savings of $70 million over a two-year period.43 Hybrid Cloud Computing hybrid cloud: A cloud computing environment is composed of both private and public clouds integrated through networking Many IT industry observers believe that the desire for both agility and security will eventually lead organizations to adopt a hybrid cloud approach.44 A hybrid cloud is composed of both private and public clouds integrated through networking Organizations typically use the public cloud to run applications with less sensitive security requirements and highly fluctuating capacity needs, but run more critical applications, such as those with significant compliance requirements, on the private portion of their hybrid cloud So a hospital may run its Web conferencing and email applications on a public cloud while running its applications that access patient records on a private cloud to meet Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and other compliance requirements Autonomic Computing autonomic computing: The ability of IT systems to manage themselves and adapt to changes in the computing environment, business policies, and operating objectives Critical Thinking Exercise An enabling technology for cloud computing is autonomic computing or the ability of IT systems to manage themselves and adapt to changes in the computing environment, business policies, and operating objectives The goal of autonomic computing is to create complex systems that run themselves, while keeping the system’s complexity invisible to the end user Autonomic computing addresses four key functions: self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, and self-protecting.45 As cloud computing environments become increasingly complex, the number of skilled people required to manage these environments also increases Software and hardware that implement autonomic computing are needed to reduce the overall cost of operating and managing complex cloud computing environments While this is an emerging area, software products such as Tivoli from IBM are partially filling the need Should Heel Swaps Move to the Cloud? Heel Swaps is a Chicago-based start-up that sells a stretchable high heel shoe cover that contains a slip resistant out-sole, comes in a variety of sizes, colors and patterns, and slips on in seconds The product enables you to transform your heels to match different outfits and is sold online at www.heelswaps.com Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net 284 PARTInformation Technology Concepts The firm is just three weeks away from debuting its advertising on the popular Steve Harvey show with some million viewers per episode Sales and product demand are expected to skyrocket Unfortunately, management at Heel Swaps has just realized that the firm’s Web site does not have the processing capacity to serve the expected increase in shoppers An IT consulting firm was hired to confirm the need for additional capacity and to make recommendations on how to proceed Their recommendation is that the current Web site platform be moved to Amazon Web Services (AWS) with elastic load This service is capable of automatically scaling its request handling capacity to meet the demands of application traffic Review Questions What advantages will moving the Web site to the cloud provide for Heel Swaps? What form of cloud computing is best for Heel Swaps—public, private, or hybrid? Why? Critical Thinking Questions What common start-up problems should the IT consulting firm advise Heel Swaps to avoid? What future changes and developments should be planned for the Heel Swaps Web site as the volume of business grows? Summary Principle: A network has many fundamental components, which—when carefully selected and effectively integrated—enable people to meet personal and organizational objectives A computer network consists of communications media, devices, and software connecting two or more computer systems or devices Communications media are any material substance that carries an electronic signal to support communications between a sending and a receiving device The computers and devices on the networks are also sometimes called network nodes The effective use of networks can help a company grow into an agile, powerful, and creative organization, giving it a long-term competitive advantage Networks let users share hardware, programs, and databases across the organization They can transmit and receive information to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency They enable geographically separated workgroups to share documents and opinions, which fosters teamwork, innovative ideas, and new business strategies Network topology indicates how the communications links and hardware devices of the network are arranged The three most common network topologies are the star, bus, and mesh A network can be classified as personal area, local area, metropolitan, or wide area network depending on the physical distance between nodes on the network and the communications and services it provides The electronic flow of data across international and global boundaries is often called transborder data flow A client/server system is a network that connects a user’s computer (a client) to one or more server computers (servers) A client is often a PC that requests services from the server, shares processing tasks with the server, and displays the results Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CHAPTER • Networks and Cloud Computing 285 Channel bandwidth refers to the rate at which data can be exchanged measured in bits per second Communications media can be divided into two broad categories: guided transmission media, in which a communications signal travels along a solid medium, and wireless media, in which the communications signal is sent over airwaves Guided transmission media include twisted-pair wire cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor Wireless communications involves the broadcast of communications in one of three frequency ranges: microwave, radio, and infrared Wireless communications options include near field communications, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and a variety of 3G and 4G communications options Networks require various communications hardware devices to operate, including modems, fax modems, multiplexers, private branch exchanges, front-end processors, switches, bridges, routers, and gateways Network management includes a wide range of technologies and processes that monitor the network and help identify and address problems before they can create a serious impact A network operating system (NOS) controls the computer systems and devices on a network, allowing them to communicate with one another Network-management software enables a manager to monitor the use of individual computers and shared hardware, scan for viruses, and ensure compliance with software licenses Mobile device management (MDM) software manages and troubleshoots mobile devices remotely, pushing out applications, data, patches, and settings Software-defined networking (SDN) is an emerging approach to networking that allows network administrators to manage a network via a controller that does not require physical access to all the network devices Principle: Together, the Internet and the World Wide Web provide a highly effective infrastructure for delivering and accessing information and services The Internet is truly international in scope, with users on every continent It is the world’s largest computer network Actually, it is a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information The Internet transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another The set of conventions used to pass packets from one host to another is known as the Internet Protocol (IP) Many other protocols are used with IP The best known is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) TCP is so widely used that many people refer to the Internet protocol as TCP/IP, the combination of TCP and IP used by most Internet applications Each computer on the Internet has an assigned IP address for easy identification A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a Web address that specifies the exact location of a Web page using letters and words that map to an IP address and a location on the host People can connect to the Internet backbone in several ways: via a LAN whose server is an Internet host, or via a dial-up connection, high-speed service, or wireless service An Internet service provider is any company that provides access to the Internet To connect to the Internet through an ISP, you must have an account with the service provider and software that allows a direct link via TCP/IP The Internet and social media Web sites have emerged as important new channels for learning about world events, protesting the actions of organizations and governments, and urging others to support one’s favorite causes or candidates On the other hand, Internet censorship, the control or suppression Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net 286 PARTInformation Technology Concepts of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet, is a growing problem The Web was designed to make information easy to find and organize It connects billions of documents, which are now called Web pages, stored on millions of servers around the world Web pages are connected to each other using hyperlinks, specially denoted text or graphics on a Web page, that, when clicked, open a new Web page containing related content The pages are accessed and viewed using Web client software called a Web browser Many Web sites use CSS to define the design and layout of Web pages, XML to define the content, and HTML to join the content (XML) with the design (CSS) Internet companies, including Amazon, eBay, and Google, use Web services to streamline and simplify communication among Web sites XML is also used within a Web page to describe and transfer data between Web service applications Today’s Web development applications allow developers to create Web sites using software that resembles a word processor The software includes features that allow the developer to work directly with the HTML code or to use auto-generated code The use of social media in business is called Enterprise 2.0 Enterprise 2.0 applications, such as Salesforce’s Chatter, Jive Software’s Engage Dialog, and Yammer, enable employees to create business wikis, support social networking, perform blogging, and create social bookmarks to quickly find information Social journalism provides important news not available elsewhere; however, its sources may not be as reliable as mainstream media sources Today, schools at all levels provide online education and training The Web is also an excellent source of job-related information A search engine is a valuable tool that enables you to find information on the Web by specifying words or phrases known as keywords, which are related to a topic of interest Search engine optimization (SEO) is a process for driving traffic to a Web site by using techniques that improve the site’s ranking in search results Instant messaging is online, real-time communication between two or more people who are connected via the Internet Twitter is a Web application that allows users to send short text updates (up to 140 characters) from a smartphone or a Web browser to their Twitter followers Internet technologies support real-time online conferencing where participants dial into a common phone number to share a multiparty phone conversation and, in many cases, live video of the participants A Web log, typically called a blog, is a Web site that people that people and businesses use to share their observations, experiences, and opinions on a wide range of topics A podcast is an audio broadcast you can listen to over the Internet Content streaming is a method of transferring large media files over the Internet so that the data stream of voice and pictures plays more or less continuously as the file is being downloaded The Internet and the Web have made music more accessible than ever, with artists distributing their songs through online radio, subscription services, and download services Television and movies are expanding to the Web in leaps and bounds Online services such as Amazon Instant Video, Hulu, and Netflix provide television programming from hundreds of providers, including most mainstream television networks Video games have become a huge industry with worldwide annual revenue projected to exceed $100 billion by 2017 You can buy almost anything via the Web, from books and clothing to cars and sports equipment Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CHAPTER • Networks and Cloud Computing 287 Travel Web sites help travelers find the best deals on flights, hotels, car rentals, vacation packages, and cruises They have profoundly changed the travel industry and the way people plan trips and vacations An intranet is an internal corporate network built using Internet and World Wide Web standards and products Employees of an organization can use an intranet to access corporate information A growing number of companies offer limited network access to selected customers and suppliers Such networks are referred to as extranets, which connect people who are external to the company Principle: Organizations are using the Internet of Things (IoT) to capture and analyze streams of sensor data to detect patterns and anomalies—not after the fact, but while they are occurring—in order to have a considerable impact on the event outcome The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects or “things” embedded with sensors, processors, software, and network connectivity capability to enable them to exchange data with the manufacturer of the device, device operators, and other connected devices There can be many issues with simply receiving and recognizing usable sensor data resulting in missing data or sensor data lacking time stamps indicating when the reading occurred One of the first things developers of IoT applications should focus on is building in security from the start Principle: Cloud computing provides access to state-of-the-art technology at a fraction of the cost of ownership and without the lengthy delays that can occur when an organization tries to acquire its own resources Cloud computing refers to a computing environment in which software and storage are provided as an Internet service and can be accessed by users with their Web browser Computing activities are increasingly being delivered over the Internet rather than from installed software on PCs Cloud computing offers many advantages to businesses By outsourcing business information systems to the cloud, a business saves on system design, installation, and maintenance Employees can also access corporate systems from any Internet-connected computer using a standard Web browser Cloud computing can be deployed in several different ways, including public cloud computing, private cloud computing, and hybrid cloud computing Public cloud computing refers to deployments in which service providers offer their cloud-based services to the general public, whether that is an individual using Google Calendar or a corporation using the Salesforce.com application In a private cloud deployment, cloud technology is used within the confines of a private network Organizations that implement a private cloud often so because they are concerned that their data will not be secure in a public cloud A hybrid cloud is composed of both private and public clouds integrated through networking Organizations typically use the public cloud to run applications with less sensitive security requirements and highly fluctuating capacity needs, but run more critical applications, such as those with significant compliance requirements, on the private portion of their hybrid cloud Autonomic computing is an enabling technology for cloud computing that enables systems to manage themselves and adapt to changes in the computing environment, business policies, and operating objectives Cloud computing can be divided into three main types of services: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS), and platform as a service (PaaS) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net 288 PARTInformation Technology Concepts Organizations contemplating moving to the cloud are advised to proceed carefully, as almost one in three organizations encounter major challenges in their move Frequent problems include complex pricing arrangements and hidden costs that reduce expected cost savings, performance issues that cause wide variations in performance over time, poor user support, and greater than expected downtime Key Terms autonomic computing metropolitan area network (MAN) Bluetooth broadband communications mobile device management (MDM) software near field communication (NFC) bus network Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) network operating system (NOS) network topology channel bandwidth network-management software client/server architecture cloud computing personal area network (PAN) platform as a service (PaaS) communications medium computer network podcast private cloud environment content streaming search engine Extensible Markup Language (XML) hybrid cloud search engine optimization (SEO) software-defined networking (SDN) hyperlink Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) star network tag infrastructure as a service (IaaS) instant messaging Uniform Resource Locator (URL) virtual private network (VPN) Internet backbone Web 2.0 Internet Protocol (IP) Internet service provider (ISP) Web browser Web log (blog) IP address local area network (LAN) wide area network (WAN) Wi-Fi Long Term Evolution (LTE) wireless communication mesh network Chapter 6: Self-Assessment Test A network has many fundamental components— which, when carefully selected and effectively integrated—enable people to meet personal and organizational objectives Communications media can be divided into two broad categories a infrared and microwave b fiber optic and cable c packet switching and circuit switching d guided and wireless refers to the rate at which data can be exchanged and is measured in bits per second a Communications frequency b Channel bandwidth c Communications wavelength d Broadband indicates how the communications links and hardware devices of the network are arranged a Communications protocol b Transmission media Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CHAPTER • Networks and Cloud Computing 289 c Network topology d None of the above Twisted-pair wire, cable, coaxial cable, and fiber optic cable are all examples of guided communications media True/False Systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows them to communicate with one another is called a network operating system b mobile device management software c network-management software d software-defined networking 11 A(n) is an internal corporate network built using Internet and World Wide Web standards and products Organizations are using the Internet of Things (IoT) to capture and analyze streams of sensor data to detect patterns and anomalies—not after the fact, but while they are occurring—in order to have a considerable impact on the event outcome 12 There can be many issues with simply receiving and recognizing usable sensor data resulting in sensor data lacking time stamps indicating when data the reading occurred or in 13 One of the first things developers of IoT applications should focus on is building in from the start a redundancy and backup b cost controls c security d disaster recovery Together, the Internet and the World Wide Web provide a highly effective infrastructure for delivering and accessing information and services The Internet transmits data in packets from one computer to another using a set of communications conventions called the Every computer on the Internet has an assigned IP address for easy identification True/False is a Web address that specifies A the exact location of a Web page using letters and words that map to an IP address and the location on the host a Universal Resource Locator b Uniform Reference Locator c Universal Web address d Uniform Resource Locator Many Web sites use CSS to define the design and layout of Web pages, and XML to define the content, and HTML to join the content with the design True/False 10 The use of social media in business is called a social journalism b blogging c business wikis d Enterprise 2.0 Cloud computing provides access to stateof-the-art technology at a fraction of the cost of ownership and without the lengthy delays that can occur when an organization tries to acquire its own resources 14 Cloud computing is a computing environment in which software and storage are provided as an Internet service and accessed by users with their a Web browser b mobile computing device such as a smartphone or tablet c search engine d Virtual Private Network (VPN) is an enabling technology for cloud 15 computing that enables systems to manage themselves and adapt to changes in the computing environment, business policies, and operating objectives Chapter 6: Self-Assessment Test Answers d b c True a Internet protocol or TCP/IP True d 10 11 12 13 14 15 True d intranet missing c a Autonomic computing Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net 290 PARTInformation Technology Concepts Review Questions Define the term “computer network.” Define the term “network topology,” and identify three common network topologies in use today What is meant by client/server architecture? Describe how this architecture works Define the term “channel bandwidth.” Why is this an important characteristic of a communication channel? Identify the names of the three primary frequency ranges used for wireless communications What is Bluetooth wireless communication? Give an example of the use of this technology What advantage does a communications satellite have over a terrestrial microwave system? What role does a network operating system play? What is software-defined networking (SDN), and what advantages does it offer? 10 What is Internet censorship? Identify some countries in which this is a major issue 11 What comprises the Internet backbone? 12 What is an IP address? What is a Uniform Resource Locator, and how is it used? 13 What is XML, and how is it used? 14 What are CSS, and are how are they used? 15 What are Web services? Give an example of a Web service 16 What is Enterprise 2.0 and how is it used? 17 What is the Internet of Things (IoT), and how is it used? 18 What is cloud computing? Identify three approaches to deploying cloud computing 19 What is autonomic computing, and how does it benefit cloud computing? Discussion Questions Briefly discuss the differences between the star, bus, peer-to-peer, and mesh network topologies Briefly discuss the differences between a personal area network, a local area network, a metropolitan area network, and a wide area network Identify and briefly discuss three common guided transmission media types Describe how near field communications works, and give an example of the use of this technology Describe how a Wi-Fi network works Describe how a terrestrial microwave system works Summarize the differences among 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G wireless communications systems Discuss the role of network-management software— including mobile device management software Provide a brief history of the Internet 10 Briefly describe how the Internet works 11 Identify and briefly describe five different ways to access the Internet 12 Briefly describe how the World Wide Web works 13 Discuss the role of Hypertext Markup Language and HTML tags 14 What is search engine optimization, and how is it accomplished? 15 Identify some of the issues and concerns associated with connecting devices to the Internet of Things (IoT) 16 Identify and briefly discuss four problems frequently encountered by organizations moving to the cloud 17 One of the key issues associated with the development of a Web site is getting people to visit it If you were developing a Web site, how would you inform others about it and make it interesting enough that they would return and tell others about it? 18 Keep track of the amount of time you spend on social networking sites for one week Do you think that this is time well spent? Why or why not? 19 Briefly summarize the differences in how the Internet, a company intranet, and an extranet are accessed and used Problem-Solving Exercises Develop a spreadsheet to track the amount of time you spend each day on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, and other social networks Record your times on each network for a two-week period How much of this time would you consider informative and worthwhile? How much time is just entertainment? Do research to learn about the Amazon Web Services, Google Compute Engine, and Windows Azure cloud computing services Write a paragraph summarizing each service Prepare a spreadsheet to compare the three services based on ease of use, cost, and other key criteria of your choosing Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CHAPTER • Networks and Cloud Computing 291 Think of a business that you might like to establish Use a word processor to define the business in terms of what product(s) or service(s) it provides, where it is located, and its name Go to www.godaddy.com, and find an appropriate domain name for your business that is not yet taken Shop around online for the best deal on Web site hosting Write a paragraph about your experience finding a name, why you chose the name that you did, and how much it would cost you to register the name and host a site Team Activities Form a team to identify IoT sensors in high demand in the medical device/pharma/bio-med industry How are these sensors being used? What companies manufacture them? What they cost if purchased in large quantities? Write a summary of your team’s findings Plan, set up, and execute a meeting with another team wherein you meet via the use of a Web service such as GoToMeeting or WebEx What are some of the problems you encountered in setting up and executing the meeting? How would you evaluate the effectiveness of the meeting? What could have been done to make the meeting more effective? Try using the Chinese search engine Baidu to find information on several politically sensitive topics or people Write a brief summary of your experience Web Exercises Do research on the Web to identify the three to five countries that exercise the greatest amount of Internet censorship on its citizens Briefly document each country’s censorship practices Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers should be required to treat all Internet traffic running over their wired and wireless networks the same—without favoring content from some sources and/or blocking or slowing (also known as throttling) content from others The debate over net neutrality raises questions about how best to keep the Internet open and impartial while still offering Internet service providers sufficient incentive to expand their networks to serve more customers and to support new services Do research to find out the current status of net neutrality in the United States Write a report summarizing your findings Do research to identify the top ten social networks in terms of number of worldwide active accounts Which of these networks appears to be the fastest growing, slowest growing? Can you find a reason for the difference in growth rates? Write a report summarizing what you found Career Exercises View the movie The Social Network or read the book The Boy Billionaire, which offers insights into Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook How did Zuckerberg recognize the potential of social networking? How was he able to turn this basic idea into a billion dollar organization? What background, education, and experiences did he have that helped him in this endeavor? Identify a social networking organization that interests you Do research to identify current job openings and the qualifications needed to fill open positions at the firm Do any of these positions appeal to you? Why or why not? Explore LinkedIn, a social media network for professional networking Use some of its features to find former students of your school or coworkers at your place of employment What are some of the advantages of using such a Web site? What are some of the potential problems? Would you consider joining LinkedIn? Why or why not? Case Studies Case One Cloud Helps Fight Cancer Each minute one person in the United States dies from cancer—over half a million deaths per year Thousands of scientists and physicians are working around the clock to fight cancer where it starts—in our DNA DNA is a molecule present in our cells that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net 292 PARTInformation Technology Concepts The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) Human DNA consists of about billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people The complete set of DNA instructions is called your genome, and it comes packaged into two sets of chromosomes, one set from your mother and one set from your father Sometimes those instructions are miscoded or misread, which can cause cells to malfunction and grow out of control—resulting in cancer Doctors now routinely use patient genetic data along with personal data and health factors to design highly personalized treatments for cancer patients However, genome sequencing is a highly complex effort—it takes about 100 gigabytes of data to represent just a single human genome Only a few years ago, it was not even feasible to analyze an entire human genome The Human Genome Project (HGP) was the international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings The HGP took over 15 years and cost in the neighborhood of $3 billion, but the result was the ability to read the complete genetic blueprint for humans It takes a computer with powerful processing power and prodigious amounts of storage capacity to process all the patient data required to sequence their genome Most researchers simply not have the in-house computing facilities equal to the challenge As a result, they turn to cloud computing solutions, such as the Amazon Web Services public cloud system Thanks to cloud computing and other technical advances, sequencing of a human genome can now be done in about 40 hours at a cost of under $5000 Researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio invented Churchill, a software application that analyzes gene sequences very efficiently Using cloud computing and this new algorithm, researchers at the hospital are now able to analyze a thousand individual genomes over the period of a week Not only does this technology enable the hospital to help individual patients, it also helps large-scale research efforts exploring the genetic mutations that cause diseases Using the cloud also enables doctors and researchers worldwide to share information and collaborate more easily The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a research program supported by the National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute, whose goal is to identify genomic changes in more than 20 different types of human cancer TCGA researchers compare the DNA samples of normal tissue with cancer tissue taken from the same patient to identify changes specific to that cancer The researchers hope to analyze hundreds of samples for each type of cancer from many different patients to better understand what makes one cancer different from another cancer This is critical because two patients with the same type of cancer can experience very different outcomes and respond very differently to the same treatment Researchers hope to develop more effective, individualized treatments for each patient by connecting specific genomic changes with specific outcomes Critical Thinking Questions: What advantages does cloud computing offer physicians and researchers in their fight against cancer? Estimate the amount of data required to analyze the human genome of 100 patients for each of 20 different types of cancer Physicians must abide by HIPAA regulations when transmitting data back and forth to the cloud The penalties for noncompliance are based on the level of negligence and can range from $100 to $50,000 per violation (or per record) Violations can also carry criminal charges, resulting in jail time What measures can be taken when using cloud computing to ensure that patient confidentiality will not be violated? SOURCES: Gaudin, Sharon, “How The Cloud Helps Fight Cancer,” Computerworld, May 20, 2015, www.computerworld.com/article /2923753/cloud-computing/how-the-cloud-helps-fight-cancer.html; “Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fact Sheet,” www.genome.gov/25520880, accessed December 7, 2015; “Cancer Genomics What Does It Mean to You?,” The Cancer Genome Atlas, http//cancergenome.nih.gov/Publish edContent/Files/pdfs/1.1.0_CancerGenomics_TCGA-Genomics-Bro chure-508.pdf; “TCGA on AWS,” http//aws.amazon.com/public-datasets/tcga, accessed December 7, 2015; “An Overview of the Human Genome Project,” National Human Genome Research Institute, www genome.gov/12011238, accessed December 10, 2015 Case Two Globacom Invests in Its Mobile Network Infrastructure in Africa Approximately 46 percent of the world’s population now has access to the Internet—a key factor in encouraging economic activity and expanding educational opportunities However, Internet access in Africa continues to trail that of the rest of the world The continent contains 16 percent of the world’s population, but represents only about 9.8 percent of the world’s Internet users Affordability and logistical barriers still prevent the vast majority of Africa’s population from accessing the wealth of information and services available online Increasingly, however, people in Africa—and around the globe—are breaking down those barriers by using mobile devices to gain access to the Internet In 2015, there were an estimated billion mobile broadband subscriptions worldwide, and that number is growing by almost 25 percent each year As the world’s dependence on mobile technologies grows, telecommunications companies are increasing their investment in the networks that support those technologies Globacom Limited is one of the fastest-growing mobile communications companies in the world, operating mobile networks in Nigeria and several other West African countries under the GLO brand The company is the second largest mobile network operator in Nigeria, where mobile devices account for over 76 percent of Web traffic (more than double the world average of 33 percent) In order to provide reliable Internet access to its mobile subscribers, Globacom invests heavily in its network infrastructure In 2011, the company became the first to lay a high-capacity, fiber-optic submarine cable from the United Kingdom to Nigeria The large-scale project, which also connects points in Ghana, Senegal, Mauritania, Morocco, Portugal, and Spain, cost the company more than $800 million The underwater cable system allowed Globacom to Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net CHAPTER • Networks and Cloud Computing 293 expand its network, boost capacity, and increase Internet upload and download speeds For Globacom’s mobile subscribers in Nigeria, the new cable also represented a significant jump in international connectivity—considered to be one of the critical requirements for the development of the Internet in any country Globacom also makes use of big data capabilities to improve its network performance and enhance the quality of the customer service it provides its subscribers The company recently implemented Oracle’s Big Data Appliance platform, a hardware and software package that allows the company to analyze both structured and unstructured data related to issues such as terminated networks, event times and durations, event cost, quality of service, and overall network performance Globacom’s IT staff uses the Oracle platform to capture and analyze more than billion call-data records per day—the equivalent of gigabytes of user-traffic information per second According to Jameel Mohammed, Globacom’s group chief operating officer, the Oracle platform “enables us to capture, store, and analyze data that we were unable to access before We now analyze network events 40 times faster.” With a reduction in average query response time for network events from three minutes to five seconds, Globacom’s call center agents are better able to provide subscribers fast and reliable information regarding network performance The company has significantly increased its “first-call resolution rate,” saving the company more than 13 million call center minutes, or the equivalent of 80 fulltime customer service employees, annually For subscribers, Globacom’s investment in its network infrastructure along with its big data initiatives translate into improved network coverage and reliability, better customer service, and, perhaps most importantly, easier and more consistent access to the Internet—including a wide range of modern communications services, such as online banking and payment services, teleconferencing, distance learning, and telemedicine Critical Thinking Questions What incentives does a mobile network operator have to make ongoing, expensive investments in its network infrastructure? What have been some of the benefits to Globacom’s subscribers of the company’s investment in its mobile network? Big data applications and techniques allow network operators to make use of large quantities of networkrelated data, which was previously discarded due to the time and resources required to effectively analyze the data What are some data points that you think would be most useful for a communications company to analyze when looking for ways to improve their network performance? What data points related to network activity and performance might be useful from a customer service or marketing standpoint? Do research online to learn about some of the other factors that have impeded Internet access for most of the population in Africa and other parts of the world What factors besides the level of network infrastructure investment might affect Internet access rates in a given country? SOURCES: “Ericsson Mobility Report,” Ericsson, www ericsson.com/res/docs/2016/mobility-report/ericsson -mobility-report-feb-2016-interim.pdf, accessed February 20, 2016; “ICT Facts & Figures: The World in 2015,” International Telecommunication Union, www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics /Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2015.pdf, May 2015; “Internet Users in the World by Region, November 2015” Internet World Stats, www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm, accessed February 20, 2016; “Internet Goes Mobile: Country Report Nigeria,” Ericsson www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2015 /consumerlab/ericsson-consumerlab-internet-goes-mobilenigeria.pdf, accessed February 21, 2016; “Globacom Saves Over 35,000 Call-Processing Minutes Daily and Improves Data for Decision-Making and Customer Service,” Oracle, www.oracle.com/us/corporate/customers/customersearch /globacom-1-big-data-ss-2207715.html, accessed February 20, 2016; Banks, Roland, “There Are Now Billion Internet Users Worldwide in 2015,” Mobile Industry Review, January 26, 2015, www.mobileindustryreview.com/2015 /01/3billion-internet-users-2015.html; “Africa’s 50 Richest: #7 Mike Adenuga,” Forbes, accessed February 21, 2016 Notes Ignatescu, Adrian, “Most Popular Instant Messaging Apps in 2014-Review & Infographic,” Techchangers (blog), March 30, 2014, www.techchangers.com /instant-messaging-apps-review-most-popular-2014 -top10 Claburn, Thomas, “Walmart Jumps into Crowded Mobile Payment Market,” Information Week, December 10, 2015, www.informationweek.com/mobile/mobile-appli cations/walmart-jumps-into-crowded-mobile-payment -market/d/d-id/1323518 Hamblen, Matt, “Levi’s Stadium App Makes Use of Aruba Beacons to Help 49ers Fans Get Around,” Computerworld, November 4, 2014, www.computerworld.com /article/2842829/levis-stadium-app-makes-use-of -aruba-beacons-to-help-49ers-fans-get-around.html Wohnoutak, Bill, “Childhood Burn Care: A Telemedicine Success Story,” Dermatology Times, February 18, 2015, dermatologytimes.modernmedicine.com/dermatology -times/news/telemedicines-role-childhood-burn-care? page=full “Saudi Telecom Company Deploys High-Capacity International Mesh Network Powered by Ciena,” Investors.com, October 21, 2015, news.investors com/newsfeed-business-wire/102115-141851937-saudi -telecom-company-deploys-high-capacity-international -mesh-network-powered-by-ciena.aspx “PIONIER-Polish Optical Internet,” PIONIER, http://blog pionier.net.pl/sc2013/pionier, accessed January 6, 2014 “About Chi-X Japan,” Chi-X Japan, www.chi-x.jp/ABOUT US.aspx, accessed February 19, 2016 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 www.downloadslide.net 294 PARTInformation Technology Concepts “Iridium Everywhere,” Iridium, www.iridium.com, accessed December 11, 2015 Cheng, Roger, “Verizon to Be First to Field-Test CrazyFast 5G Wireless,” CNET, September 8, 2015, www.cnet com/news/verizon-to-hold-worlds-first-crazy-fast-5g -wireless-field-tests-next-year 10 “PRTG Network Monitor Helps Small, Family-Owned IT Consulting Business Provide World-Class Reliability,” Paessler, www.paessler.com/company/casestudies/covell_ group_uses_prtg, accessed December 16, 2015 11 Higginbotham, Stacy, “Google Launches Andromeda, a Software Defined Network Underlying Its Cloud,” Gigaom, April 2, 2014, https://gigaom.com/2014/04/02 /google-launches-andromeda-a-software-defined-net work-underlying-its-cloud 12 “Internet World Stats,” Internet World Stats, www.internet worldstats.com/stats.htm, accessed December 13, 2015 13 Alexandrova, Katerina, “Using New Media Effectively: An Analysis of Barack Obama’s Election Campaign Aimed at Young Americans,” Thesis, New York 2010, www.academia.edu/1526998/Using_New_Media_Effecti vely_an_Analysis_of_Barack_Obamas_Election_ Campaign_Aimed_at_Young_Americans 14 “Electronic Weapons: Syria Shows the Way,” StrategyPage, January 13, 2014, www.strategypage.com/htmw /htecm/articles/20140113.aspx 15 Smith, Charlie, “Jimmy Wales on Censorship in China,” The WorldPost, September 4, 2015, www.huffingtonpost com/charlie-smith/jimmy-wales-on-censor ship_b_8087400.html 16 Howard, Alexander, “In Saudi Arabia, Embracing New ‘Freedom’ on Social Media May Come with Serious Risks,” Huffington Post, May 26, 2015, www.huffington post.com/2015/05/26/saudi-arabia-social-media_n _7444742.html 17 Naím, Moisés and Bennet, Phillip, “The Anti-Information Age,” The Atlantic, February 16, 2015, www.theatlantic com/international/archive/2015/02/government-censor ship-21st-century-internet/385528 18 “AWS Case Study: Airbnb,” Amazon Web Services, http:// aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/airbnb, accessed December 13, 2015 19 Schnuer, Jenna, “Meet the Winners of Our Entrepreneur of 2014 Awards,” Entrepreneur, January 20, 2015, www entrepreneur.com/slideshow/240844 20 “Transforming Tyco with Yammer,” Yammer, https:// about.yammer.com/customers/tyco, accessed January 13, 2014 21 “About Khan Academy,” Khan Academy, www.khana cademy.org/about, accessed December 13, 2015 22 “About Us,” NPower, www.npower.org/Our-Purpose /Our-Purpose.aspx, accessed December 13, 2015 23 Ignatescu, “Most Popular Instant Messaging Apps in 2014.” 24 “Addison Fire Saves $5K Yearly Using GoToMeeting with HDFaces Video Conferencing,” Citrix, http://news citrixonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Addision -Fire-District_G2M_ss.pdf, accessed January 30, 2014 25 “Rhapsody Music Service Now Has Million Paying Subscribers,” Variety, July 22, 2015, http://variety.com /2015/digital/news/rhapsody-music-service-now-has-3 -million-paying-subscribers-1201545576 26 Newman, Jared, “Popcorn Time Users Sued again, This Time for Streaming 2015’s Survivor,” PC World, September 2, 2015, www.pcworld.com/article/2979681/soft ware-entertainment/popcorn-time-users-sued-again -this-time-for-streaming-2015s-survivor.html 27 “YouTube Statistics,” YouTube, www.youtube.com/yt /press/statistics.html, accessed January 21, 2014 28 Takahashi, Dean, “Mobile Gaming Could Drive Entire Video Game Industry to $100 Billion in Revenue by 2017,” Gamesbeat, January 14, 2014, http://venturebeat com/2014/01/14/mobile-gaming-could-drive-entire -game-industry-to-100b-in-revenue-by-2017 29 “Groupon Announces Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 2015 Results,” Groupon, February 11, 2016, http://inves tor.groupon.com/releasedetail.cfm?releaseid=954580 30 “4 Real-World Stories about the Interactive Intranet,” Jive (blog), June 18, 2015, www.jivesoftware.com/blog/real -world-stories-about-interactive-intranet 31 Romeo, Jim, et al, “A Practical Guide to the Internet of Things,” Tech Target, (c) 2015 32 Kepes, Ben, “The Internet of Things, Coming Soon to an Airline near You,” Runway Girl Network, March 14, 2015, www.runwaygirlnetwork.com/2015/03/14/the -internet-of-things-coming-soon-to-an-airline-near-you 33 van Zyl, Gareth, “Internet of Everything Helps Prevent Dubai Crane Collisions,” Web Africa, June 4, 2014, www itwebafrica.com/cloud/516-africa/233009-internet-of -everything-helps-prevent-dubai-crane-collisions 34 “Reducing Costs with a Converged Roadway Network,” Cisco, www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral /industry-solutions/Aegean-Motorway-voc-case-study pdf, accessed January 4, 2015 35 “iCloud,” Apple, www.apple.com/icloud, accessed January 8, 2014 36 “AWS Case Study: Spotify,” Amazon Web Services, aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/spotify, accessed December 17, 2015 37 “The College Network,” www.slideshare.net/EarthLink Business/private-cloud-case-study-the-college-network -earth-link-business, accessed January 9, 2014 38 “Cloud Computing Options,” PC Today, June 2014 39 Ramel, David, “New Research Shows ‘Staggering’ Failure Rates for Cloud Projects,” Enterprise Systems, June 26, 2014, http://esj.com/articles/2014/06/26/cloud-projects -fail.aspx 40 Olavsrud, Thor, “Why a Media Giant Sold Its Data Center and Headed to the Cloud,” CIO, July 15, 2014, www.cio com/article/2453894/data-center/why-a-media-giantsold-its-data-center-and-headed-to-the-cloud.html 41 Ovide, Shira and Boulton, Clint, “Flood of Rivals Could Burst Amazon’s Cloud,” The Wall Street Journal, July 25, 2014, www.wsj.com/articles/storm-clouds-over-amazon -business-1406328539?mg=id=wsj 42 “Revlon Fact Sheet,” Revlon, www.revlon.com/about /fact-sheet, accessed February 21, 2016 43 “Revlon, Inc Moves to the Cloud with Juniper Networks to Increase Global Business Agility,” Juniper Networks, www.juniper.net/assets/us/en/local/pdf/case-studies /3520444-en.pdf, accessed October 6, 2014 44 “Cloud Computing Options,” PC Today, June 2014 45 “Autonomic Computing,” IBM, www.ibm.com/developer works/tivoli/autonomic.html, accessed October 7, 2014 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part WCN 02-200-203 ... Software 13 8 Software Sphere of Influence Systems Software 13 9 14 1 Operating Systems 14 1 Utility Programs 15 5 Middleware 15 8 Application Software 16 0 Overview of Application Software 16 0 Personal... 11 9 Server Farms 11 9 Data Center 12 0 Green Computing 12 2 CASE ONE: ARM 13 0 CASE TWO: Vivobarefoot Upgrades Technology Infrastructure 13 1 Software and Mobile Applications 13 6 An Overview of Software... Introduction to Information Systems Information Systems in Organizations Part 2: Information Technology Concepts 11 Hardware and Mobile Devices 11 Software and Mobile Applications 12 Database Systems
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