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TeAM YYeP G Digitally signed by TeAM YYePG DN: cn=TeAM YYePG, c=US, o=TeAM YYePG, ou=TeAM YYePG, email=yyepg@msn.com Reason: I attest to the accuracy and integrity of this document Date: 2005.04.28 08:56:44 +08'00' Biotechnology and Communication The Meta-Technologies of Information Edited by Sandra Braman BIOTECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION The Meta-Technologies of Information LEA’S COMMUNICATION SERIES Jennings Bryant and Dolf Zillmann, General Editors Selected titles include: Berger · Planning Strategic Interaction: Attaining Goals Through Communicative Action Ellis · Crafting Society: Ethnicity, Class, and Communication Theory Greene · Message Production: Advances in Communication Theory Heath/Bryant · Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges, Second Edition Perry · American Pragmatism and Communication Research Salwen/Stacks · An Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and Research For a complete list of titles in LEA’s Communication Series please contact Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers at www.erlbaum.com BIOTECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION The Meta-Technologies of Information Edited by Sandra Braman University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee 2004 LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS Mahwah, New Jersey London Copyright Ó 2004 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microform, retrieval system, or any other means, without the prior written permission of the publisher Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers 10 Industrial Avenue Mahwah, New Jersey 07430 Cover photograph by Graham Murdock Cover design by Kathryn Houghtaling Lacey Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Biotechnology and communication : the meta-technologies of information / edited by Sandra Braman p cm — (LEA’s communication series) Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-8058-4304-3 (alk paper) Biotechnology—Social aspects Communication Information technology Information theory Bioinformatics I Braman, Sandra II Series TP248.23.B56 2004 303.48¢3—dc21 2003059933 CIP Books published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates are printed on acid-free paper, and their bindings are chosen for strength and durability Printed in the United States of America for Anne Wells Branscomb (1928–1997) Contents Introduction Sandra Braman ix Acknowledgments xv I THE TECHNOLOGIES OF BIOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION The Meta-Technologies of Information Sandra Braman II THE CONCEPT OF INFORMATION Information as Metaphor: Biology and Communication David Ritchie Conditional Expectations Communication and the Impact of Biotechnology Steven S Wildman 63 “Are Facts Not Flowers?”: Facticity and Genetic Information Sandra Braman 97 39 vii viii CONTENTS III THE OWNERSHIP OF INFORMATION Justifying Enclosure? Intellectual Property and Meta-Technologies Christopher May 119 Biotechnology, Intellectual Property, and the Prospects for Scientific Communication Leah A Lievrouw 145 IV INFORMATION AND POWER Transborder Information, Local Resistance, and the Spiral of Silence: Biotechnology and Public Opinion in the United States Susanna Hornig Priest and Toby Ten Eyck 175 Biotechnology, Democracy, and the Politics of Cloning Steven Best and Douglas Kellner 197 Popular Representation and Postnormal Science: The Struggle Over Genetically Modified Foods Graham Murdock 227 References 261 Author Index 281 Subject Index 289 284 Keating, P., 29 Keller, E F., 220 Kellner, D., 199, 203, 206, 210, 212, 218 Kelso, P., 241 Kennedy, D., 166 Kennedy, J M., 40–42, 59 Kennedy, M., 152–158, 166–169 Kerbo, H R., 181 Kesselman, M., 158 Kevles, D J., 134 Khan, T., 168 Kiernan, V., 16 King, R T., 167 King, S R., 30 Kittay, E F., 41 Kitzinger, J., 113 Klein, H., 28 Kleinman, D L., 25, 99 Kloppenburg, J., Jr., 10–12, 18, 25, 30, 99, 104, 106, 108 Knorr-Cetina, M., 34 Knudtson, P., 101 Koem, J., 9, 13 Konopka, J., 102–103, 108 Kreps, D., 79–80 Krimsky, S., 4, 12, 16, 21, 25, 27–28, 30, 102–104, 113–114, 154, 157, 166, 168 Kroker, A., 34 Kull, S., 184 L Lacy, L R., 14 Lacy, W B., 14 Laird, S., 30 Lakoff, G., 40–41 Latour, B., 99 Lazonick, W., 99 Le Bon, G., 256 Leahy, P J., 179 Lean, G., 114, 234 Leese, M., 136 Leeuwis, C., 20, 120 Leith, J A., 256 Lessig, L., 34, 36 Levine, I., 43–44 Lewenstein, B V., 159, 180 Lewis, L., 137 Liebes, T., 102 Lievrouw, L A., 159, 161 AUTHOR INDEX Lilly, M D., 147, 166 Lindee, M S., 16–17, 100–101, 103, 145, 229 Litman, J., 146 Locke, J., 97, 122 Longworth, R C., 24 Louis, K S., 165, 167–169, 171 Lueck, D L., 28 Lynch, S., 14 Lyotard, J F., 98 M MacCordy, E L., 166 Mackenzie, M., 29 Macksey, K., 31 Magat, W A., 111 Mamiya, C J., 15, 113 Marcuse, H., 222 Martin, B., 166 Martinson, O B., 106 Maskus, K E., 132, 135 May, C., 120–123, 127–128, 134–135, 138 Mayer, L V., 14, 28, 113 Maynard-Smith, J., 80 Mazur, A., 179 McChesney, R., 14 McCorkle, C M., 99 McCrary, S V., 168 McCulough, L B., 168 McGuigan, J., 251 McHughen, A., 233 McIntire, L V., 155, 166–167 McKibben, B., 14, 18, 24 McKie, R., 235 McLuhan, M., 6, 98 McNally, R., 24 Meek, J., 256 Meikel, J., 240 Melchett, P., 241 Mellon, M., 238 Merges, R P., 135 Merton, R., 165 Michael, M., 190 Miller, D., 140 Miller, H I., 9, 111–112 Minc, A., 19 Misakian, A L., 168 Mitroff, I I., 167 Monbiot, G., 231, 248 Montini, T., 183 285 AUTHOR INDEX Moody, G., 247 Mooney, P R., 19, 25, 107 Moore, A J., 73, 87 Moore, P J., 73, 87 Morgan, O., 142 Mulkay, M., 167, 179 Mumford, L., Murdock, G., 251, 255 Myerson, G., 243, 249, 252 N Naficy, H., 34 Nalebuff, B J., 83 Narayanan, N., 30 Nelkin, D., 16–17, 100–101, 103, 145, 179, 229 Nelson, P., 73, 75, 78 Neuman, W R., 192 Nisbet, M., 159, 180 Noelle-Neumann, E., 178 Nora, S., 19 Norris, K., 87 North, D C., 123 Novak, M., 6, 11 O Oliveira, O S., 113 O’Rourke, K., 168 Oyama, S., 10, 39–40, 52, 54–57, 59–60 P Paez, M L D., 20 Pearton, M., 99 Pence, G., 212 Perri, T J., 78 Peters, J D., 35 Petit, C W., 190 Petts, J., 251 Phillips, M J., 20, 279–280 Plein, L C., 178 Plomin, J., 244 Poindexter, J S., 154, 166 Polanyi, K., 120 Pool, I de S., Posner, E A., 80 Poulter, S., 235 Powell, W W., 14, 21–22 Pride, D J de S., 158, 166 Priest, S H., 175–179, 185, 187, 193 Primrose, S B., 151–153, 163 Purdue, D A., 230, 247 Q, R Quijana, A., 17 Rabin, R., 27–28 Rabinow, P., 16, 18, 153–155, 166 Radford, T., 234, 246 Rahn, W M., 183 Ramey, G., 73, 78 Ramsay, C., 184 Rasmussen, E B., 78 Ravetz, J R., 227, 244 Reagan-Wallin, N L., 73, 87 Reilly, J., 113 Renn, O., 250–251 Richon, A B., 159–160 Rideout, W M III, 56 Ridley, M., 75, 82, 88 Rifkin, J., 112, 114, 207, 227, 246 Riley, J G., 76 Rissler, J., 238 Ritchie, L D., 39, 41, 42, 46–47, 58 Roberts, D F., 47 Roberts, M K., 23 Rogers, C L., 179 Roobeek, A J M., 11, 20 Rosenberg, J A., 171 Rosenzweig, R M., 190 Rudolph, F B., 154, 166–167 Rudolph, T J., 183 Ruppert, D., 30 Rusanen, M., 175–176 Russell, S A., 64 Ruykuyama, F., 34 S Sainbury, D., 245 Sapp, S G., 183 Saracevic, T., 156–158 Scazzieri, R., Schement, J R., 161 Schramm, W., 47, 58 Schuh, G E., 14 Schwaab, R L., 100, 104, 108 286 Schwartz, C M., 23 Scott, T., 49 Sedjo, R A., 28, 30, 132 Sell, S K., 120, 121, 127 Shannon, C., 39, 42–45, 47–49, 55, 57–58 Shaw, G., 99, 106, 114 Shiva, V., 246–247 Siddhanti, S K., 112 Silver, B L., 201–211, 217 Simpson, R D., 28, 30 Simring, F R., 183 Sklair, L., 31 Slovic, P., 177 Smith, J E., 151–153 Smith, S E., 17, 28 Soleri, D., 17, 28 Spence, A M., 73, 75–78, 86 Spitz, P., 105–106 Srinivas, K R., 13 Stape, A., 191 Star, S L., 165 Stelfox, H T., 168 Stephenson, D J., Jr., 30 Steyer, R., 189 Stiglitz, J E., 139 Stohl, M S., 23 Stone, A R., 34–35 Stone, J L., 35 Strobel, G., 102, 118 Sulston, J., 228 Sunderland, N., 10 Suzuki, D., 101 T Targ, H R., 23 Tarrant, J., 106 Taverne, D., 246 Teitelman, R., 15–16, 21–22 Ten Eyck, T A., 175, 177–178, 182–184, 188 Tengelin, V., 18 Thomas, S M., 131, 134–135, 155 Thompson, P B., 111–112, 114, 185 Thorbecke, E., 17, 23, 105–106 Timmins, J., 189 Tirohl, B., 251 Toolis, K., 130 Torgersen, H., 175, 177 Traill, B., 24 Tuchman, G., 188 AUTHOR INDEX Tudge, C., 209 Turkle, S., 33 Turner, M., 41 Turney, J., 235 Tzotzos, G T., 162 V Van Alstyne, M., 168 Van Brundt, J., 132 van Creveld, M., Van Dijck, J., 11 Van Sijk, J., 9, 13 Vaver, D., 126 Vernon, K., 99 Vervaeke, J., 40–42, 59 Vidal, J., 227, 241, 258 Virilio, P., 34 Viscusi, W K., 111 Vonnegut, K., 19, 113 W Waddell, C., 188, 192 Wald, E., 101 Waldron, J., 129 Wallerstein, I., 17 Walzer, M., 140 Warde, I., 155, 157, 167, 169 Watson, J S., 152 Watt, N., 254 Weaver, W., 46, 58 Webster, F., 161 Weil, V., 154, 166 Weinberg, R A., 168 Weiss, R., 191 Wheale, P., 24 Wiegele, T C., 25, 28–29, 99, 101, 113 Wildavsky, A., 18 Wilkie, T., 181, 185 Wilkinson, J., 11, 20, 28, 111 William, J., 237 Williamson, O E., 79 Wilmut, I., 209 Wilson, J Q., 213 Wilson, L K., 34 Winston, B., 228 Woodrum, E., 182 Woodward, K., 35, 101 Wray, N P., 168 287 AUTHOR INDEX Wuethrich, B., 16 Y, Z Yanagimachi, R., 56 Yoxen, E., 21 Zahavi, Amot, 73, 75, 80–82, 84–85, 88 Zahavi, Avishai, 73, 75, 81–82, 84–85 Zavarzadeh, M., 98 Zencey, E., 42, 46, 47 Zittrain, J., 28 Zuckerman, H., 145, 166 Zweiger, G., 154, 159–163, 167, 169 Subject Index A 9/11, 26, 110, 258–259 academia, 22, 27, 99, 130, 145–148, 150–152, 156–159, 162, 165–171, 185, 192, 198, 249 peer review, 26, 145, 147, 157, 159, 168–171 university-based research, 89, 146, 155, 156, 157, 164, 165, 166, 167, 170–171, 178, 228, 250 adulteration, 104–105 accounting North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), 110 Standard Industrial Classification codes (SIC), 110 advertising, 72–73, 75, 78–81, 86, 91, 113, 181, 232–233, 245 advertising campaigns, 79, 94, 113, 126, 139–140, 227, 232–233, 235, 237, 239, 243, 252, 254 agenda-setting, 142, 187–188, 193, 195 agriculture, 7–8, 10, 15, 18–21, 23–26, 27, 32, 103, 105, 108, 111, 113, 149, 156–158, 175, 177, 180, 187, 191, 194, 200 crops, 25, 108–109, 114, 122, 139, 191, 229–230, 232, 235, 238–241, 245, 247–249, 254, 257–258 farmers and farmers’ rights, 13–14, 16–18, 20, 23, 30, 104, 106, 108, 111, 176–177, 185, 189–191, 202–203, 207, 211, 217, 230, 238–239, 255 genetically modified (GM) plants, 23–24, 31–32, 105, 110, 114, 139, 181, 207–208, 227, 229–230, 232–234, 240–241, 243, 253–254, 258 monoculture, 8, 18 “pharming,” 201, 203, 207–208 potato famine, 18 seeds, 4, 10, 15, 18, 20, 24–25, 101–103, 106–110, 191, 230, 246–248, 258 archives, 107–109, 229 Aristotle, 58–60 art, 34, 131 Archimboldo, 252 Blake, William, 239 Borges, Jorge Luis, 49 Chaucer, 11, 102–103 Crimson Tide, 49 Eliot, T S., 58 Gattica, 213 Huxley, Aldous, 213 Kac, Eduardo, 34, 203–204 Moby Dick, 50 Shelley, Mary, 235, 242 Snyder, Gary, 51 Wells, H G., 203, 210, 213 289 290 artificial intelligence (AI), 33, 221, 251 artificial life, 32–33 artificiality, 33, 197 asexual, 12, 104, 107, 131, 200 associations American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 26, 30 American Seed Trade Association (US), 110 B Bacon, Francis, 212 Barthes, Roland, 34, 251 behavior, 64, 67–70, 72, 75, 77, 80, 83, 86–87, 91, 93, 125, 178, 204, 208 biochemistry, 99, 150–152 biodiversity, 18, 24, 28, 198, 230 biology bioreaction, 20 bioscience, 119, 134, 136, 146, 168, 161, 199, 259 computational molecular biology, 160, 164 in silico biology, 162 in vitro biology, 161, 211, 217 microbiology, 150–154, 161–162 molecular biology, 20, 101, 152–154, 159, 161–162, 164–165 bionics, 152 biopolitics, 222 Boyer, Herbert, 153, 155 brain, 252 breeding, 14, 33, 57, 109, 152, 198, 200–201, 204, 206, 210–211, 255 bundling, 248 C cancer, 15, 22, 26, 113, 201, 247, 249, 254 oncogene, 15, 22 oncomouse, 201, 207, 249 capital, 34, 120–121, 156–158, 197, 212, 219, 222, 228, 242–243, 246, 248, 258–259 causality, 46, 77, 90, 98 cell, 31, 51–52, 54–56, 58–59, 92, 107, 153, 161, 182, 185, 200–202, 206, 208, 210, 214–218 cell culture, 20, 152–153, 200, 205 SUBJECT INDEX cell fusion, 153, 201 chance, 41, 45, 58, 74, 86, 89, 131, 214, 234 channel capacity, 42–48, 57–58, 228 cheese, 111, 147–148, 162 chemistry, 14–15, 20, 21, 24, 54–56, 58–59, 87, 111, 113, 148, 150–152, 156, 158, 162, 202, 207, 230, 241, 248 chimera, 201 civil society, 139 class divisions, 22, 137, 141, 143 cloning, 56, 153, 159, 179–181, 185–186, 197–221 code, 25, 42–48, 51, 54–56, 59, 157, 161, 184, 247 codification, 104, 137, 148 decoding, 51, 54–56, 177 encoding, 45, 55 Cohen, Stanley, 153, 155 Columbian Explosion/Encounter, 7, 18, 23, 98 commercialization (commodification), 11–13, 18, 98, 108, 119, 123–124, 126, 137, 165, 170, 178, 198, 201, 206, 211–212, 219, 228, 242, 247 commodity, 120, 146, 149, 160, 165, 170, 180, 246, 249 communism, 26, 253 community, 135, 147, 166, 190 competition, 82–83, 87, 109, 136, 146, 149, 164–165, 167, 169–171, 179, 189, 206, 218, 231, 245, 248 computing bioinformatics, 132, 158, 160, 165–166 biolinux, 13 biological computing, 33, 199 computers, 9, 18, 30, 33, 55–56, 59, 98, 147, 149, 158, 160–162, 164, 170 cryptography, 10, 43, 47 digitization, 8, 11 genetic algorithms, 33 informatization, 7, 19–20 intelligent agents, 33 Linux, 13, 247 neural computing, 33 Unix, 247 conferences Asilomar Conference, 19, 153 First International Conference on the Release of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms, 28 consumers, 72, 163, 181, 185, 189, 192, 203, 227–228, 230, 232, 235, 237, 243, 248, 250 291 SUBJECT INDEX content, 29, 51, 102, 177, 182, 184–185, 187 contracts, 27–28, 146 convergence, 3, 9–10, 31–32, 36, 65 cost, 73–82, 84–88, 111, 114, 120, 123–126, 129, 135–138, 193, 211, 230, 248, 250 costs and benefits, 123, 214 Council for Secular Humanism, 209 Crick, Francis, 152 critical theory, 198–199, 219–221 cyborg, 33–34, 219, 251 D Darwin, Charles, 33, 83, 100, 151 data, 59, 97, 130, 159–164, 166–169, 171, 176–177, 181–182, 184–186, 228, 233–234, 243 data management, 146, 158–159 database, 34, 130, 149, 158–163, 169 democracy, 11, 142, 188–191, 194, 197–199, 212, 218–219, 220–222, 229, 241, 244, 251 deskilling, 11, 20 diffusion, 7, 23, 25, 99, 126 discourse, 10, 41, 181, 186, 198, 250 discovery, 30, 49, 128, 132, 136, 145, 150, 155, 162, 165, 167, 228, 246 dissent, 177, 180–181, 185–188, 192, 194 distribution, 58, 140, 142, 188, 249 distributive principles, 140 DNA, 9–11, 16, 22, 25, 33, 39, 50–57, 59, 92, 99–101, 132–134, 152–154, 159, 163, 200–201, 203, 206, 211–212, 231 junk DNA, 57, 101, 103 recombinant DNA, 5, 9, 18, 114, 153, 155, 186, 188 duality, 54, 57–58, 60, 125–126, 160 ecology, 138, 140, 207–208, 211, 220, 230, 238, 245, 252 environmental concerns, 19, 39, 50–51, 53–59, 64–72, 83, 87–88, 90, 98, 100–104, 108–109, 112–114, 124, 138–152, 170, 179–186, 191, 194–195, 198, 208, 220, 227–233, 238–241, 244–245, 250, 252, 255, 257–258 economic structure monopoly, 126–128, 130, 141, 219, 246–247 oligopoly, 11, 14 vertical integration, 15 editing, 11, 189–190, 193, 207, 236, 249 efficiency, 111, 123–124, 129, 140 engineering, 20, 132, 147, 149, 151, 164, 179, 182–183, 191, 193, 198, 200–203, 206–209, 211–214, 220–221, 231–234, 248–252 entropy, 42–47 epistemology, 39, 58, 194 equality, 221 equilibrium, 77–78, 87, 89 ergonomics, 152 error, 44–46, 48–49, 53, 97, 102, 164, 170, 205, 212, 214 ethics, 93, 135, 137, 151, 165, 167, 179–180, 184–185, 191–192, 198–199, 207, 208–210, 212, 214–217, 219–221, 258 ethnicity, 17 eugenics, 151, 198, 211, 214 European Union, 27, 111–112, 114, 134, 186, 231 evolution, 33, 39–40, 49, 51–57, 61, 66, 80–81, 83–84, 87, 102–103, 183, 194, 197, 203, 206, 212 intergenerational heritage, 39, 52, 57, 59, 100 mutation, 33, 50, 88, 91, 100, 102–103, 113, 161, 205, 211, 220, 235, 253 natural selection, 33, 64, 67, 86 self-evolution, 32 experimentation, 70, 72, 135, 149, 162, 164–166, 170, 178, 180, 198, 202, 204, 206, 210–211, 214–215, 233–234, 238–241, 249, 255, 259 expertise, 179, 185, 188, 192, 194–195, 217, 220, 233, 237, 240 F fermentation, 5, 102, 148, 150–152, 162 fertilization, 200, 211, 217 fitness, 66, 70, 72, 81–82, 84, 88–89, 92–93 food industry, 15, 21, 24–25, 105, 110–113, 124, 151, 176–177, 180–181, 183, 185, 187, 189, 191–192, 236–238, 241–243, 245, 248–249, 251–258 Frankenfood, 6, 175, 198, 228, 232, 235, 242, 252, 256 Foucault, Michel, 34–35 framing, 110, 138, 148, 177–178, 184–186, 188–190, 194, 206–207, 236, 238, 250–251, 254–255 free will, 86, 98, 125, 140 292 G game theory, 80 gatekeeping, 11, 188 Gates, Bill, 20 generation, 24, 34, 53, 56–57, 68, 72, 81–84, 88, 100, 103–104, 125, 161, 165, 245, 249 genes chromosome, 33, 45, 54, 56–57 gene debt, 25 gene drift, 102–104, 238 gene pool, 88 gene sequence, 20, 50, 130–132, 134, 136, 149, 155, 159–160, 163–164, 169, 256 gene therapy, 31, 92 genebanks, 101–103, 107, 109 genotype, 50–54, 56, 100–101, 103, 108, 207, 220 phenotype, 51–56, 100–104, 109, 120 transgenic, 12, 114, 155, 198, 200–204, 209, 220 genetics genetic selection, 66–70, 73, 80–81, 84, 86, 89–91 genetic stability, 53, 58 genetic testing, 100, 137 molecular genetics, 154 genome, 10, 16, 20, 39, 45, 50, 52, 55–59, 65, 72, 88, 103, 130, 136, 158, 160, 162, 197, 199, 206, 209, 214, 216, 221 human genome, 119, 129–130, 133–135, 137, 141, 159–160, 169, 206, 211, 221 Human Genome Project (HGP), 129, 136, 159–160, 169, 191, 199, 221, 228 human genome sciences, 130 Gerbner, George, 140 global warming, 26, 194 globalization, 6, 18, 31, 32, 98, 107, 121, 139–142, 192, 197, 210–211, 214, 219, 228, 244, 259 Golem, 6, 242 government, European Union European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 159 European Parliament, 112 European Patent Office (EPO), 133–134, 136 government, United Kingdom Advertising Standards Authority, 232 Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Process, 230 SUBJECT INDEX Agriculture Minister, 232, 237 Blair, Tony (Prime Minister), 231, 233, 252–253, 257 Cabinet, 237 Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, 155 Department of the Environment, 235, 239 Department of Trade and Industry, 231 English Nature, 108, 239, 258 European Communities Committee, 233 Health and Safety Executive, 239 House of Lords, 233 Parliament, 234, 249 Parliamentary Committee on Science and Technology, 234 Prime Minister, 231, 236, 241, 252–253 Sainsbury, Lord (Minister of Science), 252 Wilson, Harold (Prime Minister), 231, 240 government, United States Bush, George H W (President), 109, 193, 215–216 Cambridge Experimentation Review Board, 188 Clinton, William (President), 231 Congress, 27, 114, 131, 155, 215 Department of Agriculture, 104, 176 Department of Defense, 26 Department of Energy, 159 Department of Justice, 14 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 29, 112, 185, 203, 253 National Archives and Records Administration, 109 National Institute of Health (NIH), 22, 31, 113, 154, 159, 214–215 National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST), 203 National Library of Medicine (NLM), 160 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 155, 182 Patent and Trademark Office (PTO), 104, 107–108, 131–136, 155, 207 presidency, 45, 109, 231 Supreme Court, 107, 131–132 Green Revolution, 23–25 H Haldane, J B S., 151 Hegel, Georg, 122, 140 293 SUBJECT INDEX Heidegger, Martin, 34 Hogben, Lancelot, 151 Human Cloning Foundation, 210 human factors engineering, 152 Huxley, Julian, 151, 201 I Ice Minus bacterium, 19 iconography, 229, 249, 254–255 identity, 16, 34, 98, 122, 129, 177, 213–214 ideology, 194, 257 immune system, 16, 54, 201, 208, 233 indigenous, 17, 24, 30, 191 inequality, 140, 211 information information processing, 4, 30–33, 42, 56, 64 information retrieval, 146, 158, 160 information science, 160, 177 information society, 4, 7–9, 161 information theory, 39–40, 42, 45–47, 49, 52, 54, 57, 59–60, 161 information, access to, 228 information, definition of, 47, 68, 101 informational capacity, 44, 47, 52, 55 informative vs communicative signal, 88–90 infrastructure, 13, 165, 198 innovation, 21, 122–124, 126–129, 131, 139, 141, 150, 158, 165, 167, 228, 244–245, 258 instinct, 65–66, 72, 86 institutional analysis, 123 insurance, 137 intellectual property, 12–14, 24, 27–30, 104, 108, 119, 120–129, 131, 133–135, 138–142, 145–172, 178, 185, 228, 246–271 commons, 13, 119–120, 124–128, 134–135, 137–142, 246, 248 copyright, 17, 108, 122, 124, 126, 128–129, 135, 247 licensing, 29–30, 110, 130, 135, 146, 149, 155–156, 163 moral rights, 122 newness, 131, 132 nonobviousness, 131–132 novelty, 108, 132, 134, 141, 165, 236 originality, 165 patent, 12, 14, 22, 29–31, 104, 107–109, 122, 124, 126–149, 155–156, 161, 163, 167, 200–201, 206–207, 211–212, 219, 222, 246, 248–249 piracy, 122 trade secrets, 135, 164 trademark, 122 uniqueness, 108 usefulness, 131–132 utility, 108, 121, 131–132, 138 intelligence, 64 interferon, 153 international organizations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 13, 29, 141 International Development Bank (IDB), 29 International Seed Testing Association, 103 International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 31 Pan American Health Organization, 24 Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture program (CGIAR), 141 United Nations (UN), 141 United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 29 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 29 World Health Organization (WHO), 29 World Trade Organization (WTO), 120, 122, 141 international trade, 136, 180, 187, 231, 245 comparative advantage, internet, 23, 59, 98, 138, 140–141, 159, 168, 171, 192, 221, 247–249 interpretation, 49, 177–178, 184–185, 193, 251 interspecies, 208 intersubjectivity, 48–49, 220 invention, 30, 107–108, 123–124, 132–133, 135, 145, 149, 155, 165, 207, 246 investment, 11, 15–16, 21, 112–113, 122, 127, 134, 136, 146, 154–155, 157–158, 165, 169, 230, 233, 252 London Stock Exchange, 16 J Johansen, Wilhelm, 100 justice, 125, 126, 129, 136, 140, 142 294 K knowledge, 22, 26, 28–30, 49, 65, 68, 76, 99–100, 103–104, 108–110, 112, 115, 119–131, 134–135, 137–142, 145–172, 176, 182, 199, 203, 219–220, 228–231, 235, 245–249, 259 flows of knowledge, 141, 166, 171, 259 knowledge gap, 22 learning, 65–66, 70, 72, 77 local knowledge, 246 sociology of knowledge, 25, 145–172 tacit knowledge, 104 L labeling, 105, 107, 110–112, 179, 185, 192, 230–232, 235, 237 labor, 117, 120, 122, 124–125, 127, 136, 252, 255 language, 41, 43–45, 48, 52, 57, 110, 134, 161, 231, 236, 250 law, European Union Biotechnology Patent Directive of 1998, 134 European Patent Convention, 133, 136 law, international Biodiversity Convention of 1992, 17, 28 CoCom, 26 Codex Alimentarius (int), 31 Paris Union, 107 Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 120–122, 125, 135 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, 13 Wassenaar Arrangement, 26 law, Japanese Staple Food Control Act, 17 law, United States Bayh-Dole Act, 135, 155 Chakrabarty v Diamond, 107, 132, 155 Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, 157 Export in Arms Regulations (EAR), 26 Federal Seed Act of 1939, 108 Government Patent Policy Act of 1980, 21 Information Technology Arms Regulations (ITAR), 26 Plant Patent Act of 1930, 104, 107–108, 131 SUBJECT INDEX Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970, 104, 107, 108 Le Bon, Gustav, 256 leavening, 148 legitimization, 179, 181, 187 libraries, 22, 49–51, 58, 149, 158, 163 library of Babel, 49 library of Mendel, 50 Locke, John, 97–98, 122–123, 140 logic, 75–76, 80, 84, 86, 91, 128, 135, 197, 219, 245–246 M machinic autonomy, masking, 104 mass production, 149, 151, 162–163, 207, 219 mathematics, 6, 39–40, 47, 58–60, 80, 84 media ecology, 140 medical industry, 24, 30, 55, 92, 114, 137, 151–152, 160, 175, 179, 182–183, 191, 199–200, 202, 208–218, 222, 235 biomedicine, 201 health, 22, 88, 99, 137, 140, 151, 163, 187–189, 193–194, 205, 207, 211, 215, 220, 228, 230, 233–234, 237, 245, 249–250, 255 memes, 51–52 Merton, Robert, 145, 166, 170 metabolism, 150, 153, 203–204 modernity, 4–5, 7, 18, 148–152, 162–164, 170, 220, 227, 242–243, 251, 255 postmodernity, 4–7, 197, 204–206, 209, 212, 217, 219–220 premodernity, 4–5, 163 modification, 63–64, 207, 230–233, 245, 248, 253 morality, 46, 101, 105, 107, 133, 135–136, 180, 182, 198, 206, 209, 212, 215, 218, 222, 257, 259 Morse code, 8, 25, 43–44, 52 mortality rate, 84, 124, 204 Mumford, Lewis, 9, 34, 151 N Nader, Ralph, 181, 186 nanotechnology, 220 national security, 17, 26, 171 295 SUBJECT INDEX network, 21, 138, 140–141, 146–147, 188, 243, 249, 259 news, 27, 97, 113, 154, 176–179, 181–195, 229, 236–237, 241–245, 250–256 local media, 180, 186, 190–191 New World Information Order, 23 tabloids, 175, 235, 251–252 noise, 43, 45–46, 48–49, 57, 159 nonprofit organizations (nongovernmental organizations), 102–103, 230, 239, 256 Environmental Defense Fund, 114 Greenpeace, 230, 240, 254, 258 National Academy of Science, 18, 114 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 160 National Food Processors’ Association, 111 Royal Society (UK), 234–235, 258 Sierra Club, 114 Wistar Institute, 24 nonhuman network intelligence, nonverbal communication, 48 norms, 72, 80, 128, 139, 146–147, 154, 163–164, 166, 170–171, 183, 220 nuclear radiation, 25–26, 49, 102, 176, 194, 200, 240, 250, 253–254 O organism, 20, 24, 27–28, 35, 50, 52–53, 55, 60, 63, 66–68, 88, 92, 99–103, 112, 132, 149–155, 160–162, 200, 205–208, 231, 246 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 29, 157 P parasitism, 84, 95 Park, Robert, 98 Partridge, Eric, 110 Pasteur, Louis, 30, 150 pharmaceutical industry, 14–15, 21–24, 30, 113, 130–131, 151–152, 155–158, 169, 201, 208, 228, 245, 248 drugs, 30, 55, 157, 161–162, 169, 189, 201, 214, 259 photography, 241, 244, 251–252, 254–256 physiology, 152 Plato, 100 Pol Pot, 17 posthuman, 27, 32, 34, 99, 198–199, 206, 219 postnormal science, 7, 15, 25–26, 194, 199, 218–222, 227, 242, 250, 257–259 power, 28, 34–36, 47, 97–98, 104, 106, 127, 176, 187, 191, 195, 207, 212–213, 220, 222, 228, 230, 242–243, 248, 250, 252–254, 258–259 predation, 66–67, 70, 73, 80, 82–86 prediction, 69, 162 preferences, 84 printing press, 5, 7, 98, 200 probability, 39, 46, 48, 58–59, 66–71, 91, 255 professionalization, profiling, 136–137 profit, 65, 79, 81, 121, 123, 130, 198, 200, 202–204, 207, 209–212, 219, 222, 230, 245, 247–249 progressive, 113, 124, 179, 184, 194, 210, 222, 227–228, 235, 242, 244–245 propaganda, 229, 254 public goods, 12–13, 120–121, 124, 126, 128–129, 139, 141, 146 public interest, 13, 113, 228, 240–241, 250 public opinion, 175–176, 178–187, 193–195, 234, 239, 241, 249, 256 spiral of silence, 175, 178–181, 184, 192–193 public relations, 171, 175, 181, 206, 240, 252 public sphere, 222, 251 purity, 101–103 R Rabinow, Paul, 153, 163 radio, 5, 43 randomness, 46, 48, 151 reading, 51, 56, 103, 177, 179 receiver (reception), 42–43, 49, 55, 59, 65, 75, 86–87, 98, 178 redundancy, 43–49, 53, 159 religion, 41, 46, 100, 116, 185, 195, 198, 209, 216–217, 219, 254–255 replication, 56, 102, 200–201, 207–209, 211, 214, 217, 222 reproduction, 102–103, 200, 204, 210–216, 219 research and development (R&D), 21, 25, 32, 113, 122, 156–158, 166, 212 resistance, 175, 177, 185–186, 188–190, 193, 195 resource allocation, 64, 123, 221 rhetoric, 11, 42, 60, 112–114, 138, 192, 251–252, 257, 259 296 Rifkin, Jeremy, 112, 114, 181, 186 rights, 120, 124, 128, 139–140, 145, 155, 163, 165, 167, 170, 185, 191, 206–217, 230, 245–249 risk, 18–19, 26, 81, 91, 111–114, 137, 153, 171, 177, 180, 182, 192, 194, 205, 210–212, 218, 228, 230, 233–245, 249–259 Roslin Institute, 200, 205, 209 Rowson, Martin, 252 S Sauer, Carl, 23 Schramm, Wilbur, 47, 58 Schrodinger, Erwin, 25 secrecy, 146, 149, 164, 166, 170, 229, 247 Seed, Richard, 209 seller, 73, 78–79 semaphores, 43 sensory, 64, 68 sexuality, 12, 84, 90, 92, 104, 107, 131, 214 Shannon, Claude, 40, 42–45, 47–48, 53, 57–58 simulation, 147, 149, 161–165, 170 source, 42, 44–46, 55, 59, 179–180, 186–187, 194, 237, 247 sovereignty, 122 spandrels, 103 species, 11, 65, 68, 101, 107–108, 198, 200–202, 206–207, 209–211, 213, 218–221, 236, 238, 258 speech, 45, 55, 99, 147, 192, 217–218, 229, 234, 249–250, 252, 255–258 stability, 68, 69, 72, 101, 180 Stahl, Georg Ernst, 148 stem cells, 195, 198–200, 205–206, 208–211, 214–221 stereotype, 45 stimulus–response, 66–74, 83, 86, 123–124, 126, 142, 193, 256 survival, 66, 81–88, 102, 151, 205–206, 259 survival of the fittest, 81–83, 151 survival rate, 86, 90, 205 switches, 10 symmetry, 88, 92, 136, 229 syntax, 44–45 synthesis, 141, 149 systems theory, 161 chaos theory, 42 complexity, emergence, 33, 35, 57, 123, 129, 134, 142, 180, 187, 195, 197, 201, 222, 236 SUBJECT INDEX self-organization, 42 T taxation, 106, 157 technical standards, 107, 110–111, 145 technocracy, 194 telegraph, 31, 43, 46, 98 telephone, 19–20, 43, 247 television, 43, 186, 214, 229, 234, 241, 253 terrorism, 257, 259 Thomas, W I., 165 tradition, 30, 72, 106, 180, 185, 255 trait, 63–64, 78–81, 83, 93, 100, 153, 213–214, 238, 247 transcription, 56, 59 translation, 104, 109, 161 transmission, 42–59, 72, 236 trust, 123, 166, 176, 183, 232, 237, 242, 249–251, 257 Turing Machine, 55 U universities Bergen University, 245 Birmingham University, 150 Cambridge University, 228 Carnegie-Mellon University, 152 Cornell University, 246 Harvard University, 156, 249 Michigan State University, 156, 191 Stanford University, 134, 153, 165, 166 Strathclyde University, 150 Technical University of Prague, 151 University of California (system), 157 University of California–Berkeley, 190, 250 University of California–San Diego, 246 University of California–San Francisco, 153 University of Helsinki, 247 University of Miami, 167 University of Washington, 20 Washington University, 156, 190 V value, 78, 128, 141, 146, 156, 166–168, 188, 192, 198, 202, 203, 207–208, 218, 220–222, 228, 239, 241, 244, 246, 256–257 297 SUBJECT INDEX variety, 25, 42, 58, 68, 100, 178, 200, 230, 247, 257–258 landraces, 13, 17, 100 pseudovarieties, 108 Vavilov, Nikolai I., 102 Virilio, Paul, 34 biowarfare, 6, 26, 113 Watson, James, 152 Weaver, Warren, 47, 58 X, Z W war, 9, 18, 22, 25, 31–32, 49, 102, 113, 151, 259 bioterror, 26, 32, 259 xenotransplantation, 202, 207–208 zymotechnology (brewing), 4, 25, 147–148, 150, 162, 164 ...Biotechnology and Communication The Meta-Technologies of Information Edited by Sandra Braman BIOTECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION The Meta-Technologies of Information LEA’S COMMUNICATION SERIES... Acknowledgments xv I THE TECHNOLOGIES OF BIOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION The Meta-Technologies of Information Sandra Braman II THE CONCEPT OF INFORMATION Information as Metaphor: Biology and Communication. .. and the convergence of the biological with the mechanical all reflect and stimulate shifts in the understanding of the nature of life Although the cultural practices of breeding and the use of
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