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Helvetas Vietnam – Swiss Association for International Cooperation ETSP – Extension and Training Support Project for Forestry and Agriculture in the Uplands 218 Doi Can Street, GPO Box 81, Hanoi, Vietnam; phone: +84 832 98 33, fax: +84 832 98 34 e-mail: etsp.office@hn.vnn.vn web site ETSP: http://www.etsp.org.vn, web site Helvetas Vietnam: http://www.helvetas.org.vn Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Forestry Department (MARD) Forest Sector Support Program and Partnership (FSSP-P) Result Area No Extension and Training Support Project (ETSP) Forestry Research, Education, Training and Extension (RETE) Situation Analysis, Needs Assessment and Recommendations for the National Forestry Strategy 2006 to 2020 Final Draft (RETE_EN_final draft_Sept2005.doc/pdf) Ha Noi, September 01, 2005 i Acknowledgements This study was undertaken by Mr Doan Diem1 and Mr Edwin Shanks2 (consultants), together with Mr Nguyen The Bach3, Coordinator of the Extension and Training Support Project (ETSP, http://www.etsp.org.vn) The authors would like to thank the many people who have participated in the study This includes members of the Reference Group including representatives from the MARD Forestry Department, Organization and Personnel Department, Science and Technology Department, National Extension Center, Forest Sciences Institute, Forest Inventory and Planning Institute, Management Training School No and Xuan Mai Forestry University Our thanks are also extended to the representatives of the province extension centers, forestry training schools, universities, and research centers whom we visited and who made such valuable contributions to the study (these organizations are listed in the Introduction Section) Our particular thanks are extended to Mr Pierre-Yves Suter (Chief Technical Adviser to ETSP) who provided essential guidance and inputs throughout the study, and to Ms Nguyen Kim Phuong and Ms Nguyen Thu Thuy from the ETSP office who provided kind and valuable assistance on the field work visits Email: doandiem@hn.vnn.vn Email: edwin@fpt.vn Email: the.bach@socialforestry.org.vn ii Abbreviations CPV EFA DAES DARD ETSP FD FDI FIPI FPD FMB FSIV FSSP&P GSO HRD ITTO MARD MOET MOLISA MPI NAEC NGO NTFP ODA OPD PAEAC PAEC PFPD PPA Program 661 RETE SFE SFSP SME VHLSS WTO Communist Party of Vietnam Education for All Action Plan (2003) District Agricultural Extension Station Department for Agriculture and Rural Development Extension and Training Support Project for Upland Agriculture and Forestry Forestry Department Foreign Direct Investment Forest Inventory and Planning Institute Forest Protection Department Forest Management Board Forest Sciences Institute of Vietnam Forest Sector Support Program & Partnership Government Statistics Office Human Resources Development International Tropical Timber Organization Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry of Education and Training Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs Ministry of Planning and Investment National Agricultural Extension Centre Non-Governmental Organization Non-Timber Forest Products Official Development Assistance Organization and Personnel Department Provincial Agricultural Extension Advisory Council Province Agriculture Extension Centre Province Forest Protection Sub-Department Participatory Poverty Assessment Five Million Hectares Afforestation Program Research, Education, Training and Extension State Forest Enterprise Social Forestry Support Program Small- and Medium Sized Enterprise Vietnam Household and Living Standards Survey World Trade Organization iii List of Contents Acknowledgements i Abbreviations ii List of Contents iii Executive Summary 1 Introduction 1.1 Scope and objectives of the study 1.2 Participants and fieldwork 1.3 Introduction to forestry RETE in Vietnam .8 1.4 Stakeholder groups and analytical approach 1.5 Content of the report 10 Sector development trends and challenges for RETE .12 2.1 Strategic objectives of the sector 12 2.2 Global integration and national priorities .12 2.3 The production sub-sectors 13 2.3.1 Rapid growth in the wood processing sub-sector 14 2.3.2 Future directions in the plantation economy 15 2.3.3 Craft villages in the forest production and processing economy 16 2.4 Forest protection, co-management and benefit-sharing 16 2.4.1 Multiple-use forest management systems for protection forest areas 17 2.4.2 Local participation in bio-diversity conservation 18 2.4.3 Environmental services 19 Human resource development priorities 20 3.1 Current situation and main challenges in HRD 20 3.2 Encouraging new recruits into the sector 21 3.3 Upgrading the knowledge and skills of in-service staff 22 3.4 Forestry laborer training 23 3.5 Increasing the contingent and capacity of forestry extension workers 24 3.6 Improving the capacity of forestry researchers, educators and trainers 25 RETE linkages and network analysis 27 4.1 Overall considerations 27 4.1.1 Building on formal and informal linkages .27 4.1.2 Factors of supply and demand in the provision of RETE services 28 4.1.3 Patterns of increasing diversification of services at the local level 28 4.2 Main strengths and weaknesses in the system 30 4.2.1 Linkages within the education and training system .30 4.2.2 Linkages between forestry research and other parts of the system 31 4.2.3 Linkages with the province training schools and extension systems .32 4.2.4 Linkages with the forest production and processing sub-sectors 33 4.2.5 Linkages with the SFEs and Forest Management Boards .33 4.3 Institutional constraints 34 4.3.1 Investment in science, technology and training .34 4.3.2 Planning and financing constraints 35 Solutions and Recommendations .37 5.1 Overall vision and strategy .37 5.1.1 Sub-program objectives 37 5.2 Measures to improve the integration, relevance and effectiveness of RETE 39 5.2.1 Promoting practical networking arrangements 39 5.2.2 Promoting institutional partnerships 41 5.2.3 Enhancing the demand-driven approach to forestry research 42 5.2.4 Strengthening the education and training system 44 iv 5.2.5 5.2.6 Building capacities in forestry extension .45 Financing and cost-norms 47 Annex Description of the RETE system 49 Annex Guiding questions used in the fieldwork 56 Annex Terms of Reference for the Study 58 Annex Examples of traditional forest industries in transition 62 Executive Summary The aim of this study is to provide an analytical foundation for development of a shared vision and strategy for future Research, Education, Training and Extension (RETE) in the forestry sector in Vietnam The study has been carried out as one of the main activities and outputs of the Forest Sector Support Program and Partnership (FSSP) Action Plan for 2004 (Collaborative Action D1), and it has been supported by the Extension and Training Support Project (ETSP) under the Forestry Department (FD) of MARD The specific objectives of the study are as follows: To undertake a situation analysis and needs assessment of research, education, training and extension in the forestry sector together with key stakeholders and service providers at national, regional and provincial levels; To make recommendations for steps that can be taken to enhance the complementarity and integration between the forestry research, education, training and extension subsectors and to improve the collaborative linkages between RETE organizations; To provide an input to the formulation of the new National Forestry Strategy for the period 2006 to 2020, particularly with respect to the priorities for Human Resources Development (HRD) The Situation Analysis and Needs Assessment begins in Section by highlighting some of the major development trends in the forestry sector and challenges for the future National Forestry Strategy (2006-2020) And it assesses the implications of these challenges for the forestry research, education, training and extension system This is no means a fully comprehensive sector analysis Rather, the aim here is to identify issues that have particular relevance for Human Resources Development with respect to the professional knowledge and skills that will be required by forestry planners, managers, technicians, researchers, trainers and forest producers etc in the coming years These HRD priorities for the National Forestry Strategy are examined in detail in Section and can be summarized as follows: • First, how to maintain a sufficient number and quality of new recruits coming into the sector at professional technical and degree course levels, particularly for the forest production and protection sub-sectors; • Second, how to upgrade the knowledge and skills of the large number of existing professional staff in the localities and in different agencies including, particularly, staff of the FPD, SFEs and local administrations; • Third, how to provide effective vocational training for the large numbers of forestry workers (mostly untrained farmers) on the scale required to meet the target set by the CPV Central Committee of having 25% of trained workers by 2010 and 50% by 2020; • Fourth, how to increase the number and capacities of forestry extension workers on the ground, particularly in forest-dependent areas (districts and communes) in the uplands; • Fifth, how to up-grade the qualifications, skills and capacities of staff of the forestry researchers, educators and trainers so they are able to adequately support these efforts and to improve the quality of education and training Section then provides an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses in the existing (horizontal and vertical) linkages between the different RETE Service Providers and RETE Client Groups This looks at both the formal (institutional) and informal aspects of these linkages in the system, as assesses factors of ‘supply’ and ‘demand’ in the provision of these services Leading on from this, Section also makes an assessment of the regulatory framework in the current Forest Development Strategy (2002-2010), and it identifies a number of institutional constraints that influence the extent that RETE organizations can effectively collaborate In particular, a number of critical investment and financing constraints are identified, and solutions to these constraints are proposed Section makes proposals for the future vision and main strategic directions of the RETE system in the new National Forestry Strategy, together with a set of concrete recommendations for how to improve the organizational linkages, integration and complementarity between the sub-sectors These proposals are formulated in such a way that they could form a collaborative program of activities that could be adopted and financed through the FSSP and/or by specific forestry projects The proposed long-term vision is as follows: RETE Vision 2020: To improve the quality and efficiency of forestry training and education, extension, and science and technology based on future needs, to develop the human resources with high quality for the sector, and to link research activities, training and extension with forestry businesses, in order to fulfil national development objectives (towards industrialization and modernization of the sector) and implementation of the National Forestry Strategy 2006-2020 The special focus is on the forest sector’s contribution, both direct and indirect, to the national economy, environmental protection, and achieving better living standards for forest-dependent people The proposed main strategic priorities of the RETE sub-programs are as follows: Research sub-program • Finalize the forestry research strategy for 2006-2020 on the basis of MARD’s National Forestry Development Strategy for 2006-2020 • Concentrate more on demand-driven research projects that help those farmers involved in forest management and protection to support themselves with the income derived from forestry-related production and employment • Conduct more research on sustainable plantation and natural forest management, with a strong focus on selected industrial plantations that have commercial high-yield crops for export and domestic consumption purposes To put more investment into technology to ensure the supply of 90% of wood for local consumption and 80% for export by 2020 • Improve processing technologies and facilities, support small-scale and industrial processing enterprises to find new domestic and export markets, and enhance the competitive advantages of the forest industries with respect to international integration • Enhance research capacities and facilities, adopt improved research approaches that integrate more fully with training and extension, and develop human resources for effective implementation of forest sector development programs • Align research institutes, forestry extension and training schools with forestry-related businesses and production establishments • Provide the scientific basis for development of policies that serve essential needs for the forest sector (in the socialization of forestry sector, development of a stable forest area, environmental values etc.) • Enhance international collaboration in order to improve the capacity of researchers and to transfer technologies especially in high yielding plantations Forestry extension sub-program • Provide forest-dependent farmers and communities with technical know-how necessary to make their own agro-forestry business plans, to apply advanced technologies to improve productivity, forest quality, environmental and ecological protection, thus resulting in better living standards for forest-dependent people • Introduce special forestry extension measures for forest-dependent communities (communes, villages and population groups) that have large forest areas, through community forestry management practices, farm forestry and market development • Enhance the socialization of agriculture and forestry extension • Increase the contingent and capacity for forestry extension workers at the grass-roots level systematically to assist farmers, particularly those in forest-dependent areas • Improve forestry extension methods, develop and update training curricula, and focus more on short-term training courses that farmers can afford and grasp; module-based training must be standardized The content of extension work should focus on forest plantations, natural forest management, processing, product trading and agro-forestry • Link forestry extension agencies, research centers and farmers to forestry-related businesses and production units • Coordinate and disseminate more widely the many existing extension and training methods and materials that are already developed by different RETE organizations and projects • Help to create closer linkages between management staff, researchers, businesses and producers • Provide vocational and advanced trainings for traditional wood processing and craft villages in order to maintain and increase the quality of the products to meet the increasing demand of both, domestic and international markets Education and training sub-program • Change comprehensively the training system including the structure, curricula, content, teaching methods and management mechanisms to improve training quality Focus on short-course modules for farmers, enterprise workers and craft villages, and refresher training for in-service staff, especially with policies to give incentives for staff working in remote areas • Provide formal trainings for around 10’000 students/year (of which 160 are post graduates, 1’650 graduates, 900 from colleges, 1’900 mainly from technical training schools and 5’100 from vocational training schools) • Increase the number of trained workers in the sector to 25% by 2010 and 50% by 2020 by delivering high-quality training services driven by market demands, and focus more on short-term training courses (with an annual increase of 80%) • Strengthen the socialization of training • Meet the sectoral requirements in the international integration process Encourage them to study and undertake research by themselves, build up their practical experience, to learn foreign languages and computer skills • Clarify and strengthen the respective tasks and functions of the different forestry education and training organizations, with respect to their major target groups, standardized curricula, and provision of regular and contract-based training services • Enhance the linkages between the forestry training schools and the provincial training schools and extension system at province, district and commune levels • Enhance international collaboration in forestry education and training, and access to advanced training standards of the world, with some institutions achieving international standards in the forest sector by the year 2015 The main recommendations for improving the linkages, integration and complementarity between the RETE sub-sectors and organizations are as follows: Establish stronger networking arrangements between RETE organizations that focus on fulfilling practical tasks and assignments related to implementation of the National Forest Strategy, and which have clear benefits for each participating organization Encourage the formation of more intensive ‘institutional partnerships’ and ‘twinning arrangements’ between RETE organizations (research, education and training centers) and forestry production, protection and processing units Encourage the further development of specialized ‘research and development units’ and ‘training service centers’ under RETE organizations that provide out-reach services, but only in such a way that will not lead to institutional fragmentation Develop policies and mechanisms to encourage a wider set of private sector agencies and socio-economic organizations to become more actively involved in forestry research, training and socialization of extension services For the forestry research system – establish mechanisms and clear guidelines (‘codes-ofpractice’) to ensure that the strategic direction and content of research is based on wellinformed assessments of demand, and that there is effective follow-up and dissemination of results For the education and training system – clarify and strengthen the respective tasks and functions of the different forestry education and training organizations with respect to their major target groups, updated and standardized curricula, and provision of regular and contract-based training services Concentrate on developing modular-based training systems and courses that can be utilized in different training contexts (as part of regular training programs and for shortcourse / in-service training), which are jointly prepared by different RETE organizations, and which provide the focal point for up-dating curricula nationwide For the extension system – strengthen the contingent and capacity of forestry extension at all levels, but particularly to increase the number and skills of forestry extension staff working in forest-dependent rural areas in the uplands In the longer term perspective, move towards more integrated forms of in-service training and extension training that utilize modern Information Communications Technology, mass media channels, and the development of distance learning systems in order to obtain the required out-reach 10 Revise and up-date the system of cost-norms for research, training and extension activities to reflect current sector priorities, current costs for different types of work, and to provide better incentives for people to work in remote forest areas in particular 49 Annex Description of the RETE system A) Research This section draws on information provided in the draft Forestry Research Strategy38 which also gives more details on the future organizational development priorities in the research system Reference can also be made to the proposed re-organization of the science and technology system under MARD39 which considers in particular the alignment between the national and regional research institutes Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV) FSIV is the leading agency in forestry research, which was established in 1988 It is one of National Research Institutes under MARD with the other five being in crop sciences, water resources, animal husbandry, agricultural engineering and post-harvest technology, and agriculture and rural development policies and strategies These National Research Institutes, as well as Regional Research Institutes, operate under the overall guidance of the Committee of Science and Technology of MARD The tasks and responsibilities of FSIV are: to conduct science and technology research on silviculture, forest industries and economics serving the sector; to develop and implement socio-economic and technology programs of the sector; to develop economic management policies and regulations and procedures, processes and forestry technical and economic standards; to train post-graduates in silviculture and forest product processing; to strengthen the capacity of science and technology staff in the sector; and to implement international cooperation on science and technology of the Sector FSIV is headed by a Scientific Council and the organization includes both regional and disciplinary research centers and functional units There are 480 civil servants in FSIV, and around 3,000 hectares of forest for research activities under management of FSIV The organization of FSIV including regional and disciplinary sub-centers is as follows: - FSIV Headquarters in Ha Noi - FSI Sub-Institute in Ho Chi Minh City Disciplinary centers based in Ha Noi but working throughout the country - Seed Center - Center for Ecology and Environment - Center for Non-Timber Forest Products - Center for Forest Industry Regional sub-centers 38 - Center for Northwest Region in Son La - Center for Central Northern Region in Cau Hai, Phu Tho - Center for Northeast Region in Dai Lai, Vinh Phuc MARD 2004 Vietnam Forestry Research Strategy to 2020 (Draft) MARD 2004 Submission to the Prime Minister on proposal for reorganization of the science and technology system under MARD 39 50 - Center for North Central Coast Region in Dong Ha, Quang Tri - Center for Tropical Forestry for the Central Highlands Region in Pleiku, Gia Lai - Center for Lam Dong Province in Da Lat City - Center for Mekong Delta Region in Trang Bom, Dong Nai - Center for Mangrove Research in Ca Mau Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (FIPI) Founded in 1961, the tasks and responsibilities of FIPI include: to organize and implement forestry inventory and planning activities nationwide; to monitor changes of forestry resources and environment; to develop and maintain a database on forest resources; to carry out baseline surveys on forest fauna and flora, forest environment, and to make this data and information periodically available; to participate in developing forest resources and environmental management; to develop policies, procedures and technical standards in forest inventory; to provide consultancy services on techniques of forest inventory and planning for development projects and programs FIPI has a total staff of around 730, and there are three main components in the organizational structure including management (including remote sensing, computing, mapping and specimen analysis units) The organization of FIPI including its regional sub-centers is as follows: - FIFI Headquarters in Ha Noi - FIPI Center for Natural Resources and Environment in Ha Noi - FIFI Center for Informatics and Technology in Ha Noi - Sub-Institute for Northeast Region in Bac Ninh - Sub-Institute for Northwest Region in Ha Noi - Sub-Institute for North Central Region (three provinces – Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh) located in Vinh City - Sub-Institute for North Central Region (five provinces – Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien-Hue, Da Nang City and Quang Nam) located in Hue City - Sub-Institute for South Central and Central Highland Region in Quy Nhon City - Sub-Institute for Southern Vietnam (South-East Region and Mekong Delta Region) located in Ho Chi Minh City Other agencies in the sector conducting research • Forestry University (Xuan Mai) In addition to the primary task of providing graduate and post-graduate education, the Forestry University conducts many aspects of forestry research The university also intends to strengthen this capacity in the future, with a current proposal to establish specialized centers (in forest industries, forestry development, and socio-economics and rural development) to be responsible for links between research, education and training and technology transfer • Technical Center for Forestry Protection No (Quang Ninh Province) and Technical Center for Forestry Protection No (Thanh Hoa Province) the major tasks of which are to conduct research in forest pest and disease prevention and protection 51 • National Parks (such as Cuc Phuong, Tam Dao, Ba Vi, Ben En, Nam Cat Tien and Cat Ba) all of which are involved in research activities, focusing mainly on assessment of natural resources, biodiversity conservation and protection of endangered habitats • Other Universities including those with forestry faculties (Thai Nguyen, Hue, Thu Duc and Tay Nguyen universities), Agriculture University No and the Pharmaceutical University in Hanoi etc which are also involved in research activities related to forestry • Central Forestry Seed Company and Phu Ninh Forestry Research Centre which conduct research on seed and seedling production technologies, as well as species trials for plantations and pulp and paper • Non-governmental organizations such as the Vietnam Forestry Science Association, Vietnam Natural and Environment Protection Association, that are involved substantially in forestry research activities • International organist ions that have established linkages with organizations in Vietnam to conduct forestry-related research including: FAO, CIFOR, ACIAR, CSIRO, DANIDA, JICA, SIDA, SAREC, UNDP, IUCN, Fauna and Flora International (FFI), and Tropenbos International etc B) Education and Training This section draws on information provided in the Forest Sector Manual40 which gives a detailed description and analysis of the forestry education and training system and of human resources in the sector, and a review of the forestry vocational training system from 200141 State management of the forestry education and training system is divided into: • The Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) is in charge of overall state management of the education and training system In addition, MOET manages the universities that have Faculties of Agriculture and Forestry (Thu Duc, Tay Nguyen, Thai Nguyen and Hue) • The General Department for Vocational Training (within MOLISA) is responsible for overall state management of the vocational training system • MARD is responsible for managing 13 organizations providing forestry education and training including: research institute (FSIV); University (Xuan Mai), Management Schools; College, Forestry High Schools; and Technical Vocational Schools • The Province People’s Committees are managing 12 training organizations including: 10 Agriculture and Forestry Technical High Schools42; College (in Thanh Hoa); and Forestry Technical Vocational School (in Cai Bang) The forestry education and training organizations under MARD are as follows: • Management School No (in Thanh Tri, Hanoi) and Management School No (in Ho Chi Minh City) are primarily responsible for providing in-service and short-course training for staff in the administrative system Both Management Schools have recently 40 Forest Sector Manual / Chapter (Administration and Organization) / Part (Human Resources Development) FSSP, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 41 Phung Huu Can 2001 Forestry Vocational Training System: current status and prospects Social Forestry Support Program, Hanoi 42 Located in: Nghe An, Binh Duong, Pu Yen, Son La, Quang Nam, Phu Tho, Yen Bai, Tuyen Quang, Thanh Hoa and Quang Ninh provinces 52 established sub-departments in extension and are expanding the provision of shortcourse training in extension topics and methods In 2001 the Management School No also established a centre for training of forest protection staff in the north • Forestry University (in Xuan Mai) has been assigned to provide under-graduate and postgraduate training in forestry, including 12 graduate specializations in: forestry, silviculture, rural and mountainous industries, forest economics, urban forestry, management and protection of forest resources and environment, mechanization in forest products, ecotourism, technology and forest product processing, social forestry, land management, and business management • Forest Sciences Institute of Vietnam which was assigned from 1982 to provide postgraduate training in forestry with specializations in: forest planting and seed selection, inventory and planning, silviculture, forest land use and protection, technology and mechanization, and wood processing technologies • Central Forestry High School No in Yen Hung District, Quang Ninh Province, with specializations in silviculture, agro-forestry extension, forest protection and accounting • Central Forestry High School No in Thong Nhat District, Dong Nai Province, with the same specializations as High School No plus crop cultivation In 2001 this school also established a centre for training of forest protection staff in the south • Forestry School of the Central Highlands located in Pleiku Town, Gia Lai Province, with the same specializations as High School No plus industrial tree crop plantations, land management, business in production units, and plant protection • Central Technical Vocational School No in Lang Son Province, which has specializations in silviculture, wood processing and carpentry, car and heavy-vehicle driving instruction, vehicle repair and maintenance etc • Central Technical Vocational School No in Quy Nhon City, Binh Dinh Province, with the same specializations as School No • Central Technical Vocational School No in Binh Duong Province, with the same specializations as School No plus wood carving • Central Technical Vocational School No in Phu Tho Province, with the same specializations as School No plus small-scale agro-forestry business management • Central Technical School for Wood Processing in Phu Ly Town, Ha Nam Province, with specializations in carpentry, wood carving, wood composites • College of Agriculture and Forestry located in Bac Giang Province C) Extension The national agriculture, forestry and fisheries extension system was established in Vietnam following promulgation of Decree No 13 of the Government in 1993 For a description of the extension system as it has developed since then, reference can be made to papers presented at a recent workshop on sharing experiences in agriculture extension43; to a review of the 43 Tong Khiem 2004 Organization and activities of the agricultural extension system in Vietnam Paper presented at the workshop on sharing experiences in agricultural extension Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Thai Nguyen, December 16-17 2004 53 forestry extension system conducted in 200144; and a detailed review and analysis conducted by the NGO working group on extension in 200345 Recently, Decree No 5646 from April 2005 has superseded the earlier Decree No 13 and has set out some important new directions for extension in the coming years Following Decree No 13 in 1993, the system of agricultural and forestry extension was established throughout the country from central to local levels As of now, the main characteristics of this organization are as follows: • At national level – following Decree No 86/2003/ND-CP of the Government, a National Agricultural Extension Center (NAEC) was established under MARD in 2003 with the role of providing a focal point to realize all extension programs in Vietnam including extension activities on crop and livestock production, forestry, salt production, rural industries, irrigation, and cooperatives Extension was formerly under the Department of Agriculture and Forestry Extension • At provincial level – Province Agricultural Extension Centers (PAEC) have been established under the DARD in all 64 provinces and cities nationwide A recent initiative is the establishment of Provincial Agricultural Extension Advisory Councils (PAEAC) in each province, which is a new institution aimed at generating better coordination between the different agencies involved in extension related activities and support services To date, these councils have been established on a pilot basis in Phu Tho and Ninh Thuan Provinces in 2004, and will be extended to 20 more provinces from 2005, and an additional 20 provinces from 2006 • At district level – District Agricultural Extension Stations (DAES) have been established in 520 of a total 637 districts nationwide (81%) These stations variously consist of to staff specializing in agriculture, forestry and fisheries A number of different organizational models are applied at this level: in 30 provinces the DAES are directly under the PAEC; in 21 provinces the DAES are directly under the District People’s Committee; in 12 provinces the DAES belong to the District Agriculture and Rural Development Sections; and in province the DAES is combined with the veterinary station and plant protection station to become an agricultural service center In all districts the plant protection and veterinary stations have related extension functions • At commune and village levels – composition of the grassroots extension network was not mandatory under the Government’s regulations (in Decree No 13) and is more developed in some provinces than in others The incentive mechanisms for grassroots extension workers also vary considerably between provinces Using local resources, some provinces have put-in-place networks of commune extension workers and village extension collaborators who receive a regular allowance or who are contracted on an annual or seasonal basis In addition, many voluntary extension organizations (Farmer Groups and Extension Clubs) are established at commune and village levels by individuals and communities The mass associations are also active in extension, 44 Nguyen Viet Khoa 2001 The forestry extension system: current status and prospects Social Forestry Support Program, Ha Noi 45 Hoang Xuan Thanh & Nguyen Viet Khoa 2003 Agriculture extension services for the poor; a documentation review NGO Working Group on Extension, Ha Noi 46 Decree No.56/2005/ND-CP (dated 26 April 2005) of the Government on agriculture promotion and fisheries promotion 54 combined with organizational models developed through donor and NGO supported projects and programs • At all levels, the Government has increasingly promoted the socialization of extension activities, including the involvement of extension units of research and training organizations; mass organizations and voluntary associations; the extension units of enterprises; and voluntary extension organizations established at community level Decree No 56 builds on this foundation and provides the regulatory framework for future development of extension system in several main directions: • Firstly, in addition to the government extension organization under MARD and the provincial DARD, the new Decree provides a basis for increasing diversification of the system as a whole, though the involvement of other ‘state’ and ‘non-state’ organizations engaged in extension, defined as: “political organizations, socio-political organizations, economic organizations, social organizations, scientific organizations, education and training organizations, professional associations as well as domestic and foreign organizations and individuals ” (Chapter III / Article 12) Funding for these other organizations may be through partial State budget support (through contracts signed with the central or local extension centers), performance contracts, and financial support from domestic and foreign sources (Chapter IV / Articles 13 & 17) • This, in turn, supports closer association and stronger linkages in the future between research, education, training and extension organizations and producers; and the increasing socialization of extension as a democratic, public and voluntary activity based on the demands of producers These are put forward in the Decree as the main principles of extension activity (Chapter I / Article 3) • Secondly, in addition to the already well-established functions of extension (in providing information and propaganda, training, technology transfer and establishing demonstration models), the new Decree places greater emphasis on the provision of various “consultancy and service” activities (Chapter II / Article 7) This is evidently in response to the need to increase the market relevance and demand-driven nature of extension for producers, to diversify the sources of funding, as well as to help clarify the respective ‘state management’ and ‘service provision’ functions of the government system However, in this respect it is stipulated that the National Extension Centers (under MARD and the Ministry of Fisheries) and the province and district extension centers and stations should still act as “non-business units” in addition to their administrative and regulatory functions (Chapter III / Articles & 10) • Thirdly, with respect to the grassroots extension organization, it is stipulated that each commune should have at least one person performing agriculture and/or fisheries extension work, and that villages should also have extension collaborators (Chapter III / Article 11) However, decisions to this effect rest with the Province People’s Committees; which suggests that in future there will continue to be diversity in how the grassroots extension network is set-up and the depth to which it reaches • It is notable, however, that the new Decree does not specifically refer to the role of voluntary farmer groups or associations, community-based organizations for natural resource management, producer or marketing organizations, cooperatives, or small- and medium-sized agricultural enterprises in conducting extension activities and as service 55 providers This could be regarded as an omission, since these types of local organization have an essential role to play in strengthening the grassroots system In this respect, Decree No 56 needs to be cross-referenced with other recent areas of legislation that cover the establishment, operations and management of these types of organization 56 Annex Guiding questions used in the fieldwork Content of the discussions with RETE Organizations at central and provincial level on the linkages between research, education, training and extension in the forest sector (sent out in advance of the meetings) Objectives of the study • A situation analysis and needs assessment incorporating an analysis of the relevance, the linkages between, and the strengths and weaknesses of current research, training and extension programs and organizations • A framework of practical recommendations for the development of a national strategy for forestry research, education, training and extension through consultations with key stakeholders on desired strategic directions for forestry in Vietnam • A contribution to the new National Forestry Strategy (FDS) for 2006 to 2020 Discussion topics 1) The current situation of RETE Organizations: • Functions and tasks; • Number of staff and students, targets towards education, training and research, infrastructure, annual budgets; • Achievements; • Main constraints 2) Strengths and weaknesses of RETE organizations relating to: • Contents and approaches in RETE; • Programs, curriculum development or research topics; • Target groups in research, education, training and extension; • Linkages between RETE Organizations; • Linkages to provinces, producers, enterprises and forestry working farmers; • Mechanisms for learning from field experience, and ways in which practical lessons, models and methods developed in the field are fed into research, training and extension programs and institutions; • Staff capacity; • Funding mechanisms and constraints in establishing linkages between research, extension and training 3) Main strengths and weaknesses of the forest sector relating to RETE during the implementation process of the National Forest Development Strategy (policies, institutional and scientific/technological aspects, socio-economic and environmental contributions, international co-operation and international integration etc.) 57 4) Priorities and recommendations of interviewed organizations: • Major priorities of the organization and of each RETE sub-sector; • Main recommendations of the organization on how to build capacity and to meet the demands of the new environment; • Main recommendations regarding policies, organizational issues, funding sources, capacity building etc to strengthen the linkages between research, education, training and extension and to strengthen efficiency of such activities with other stakeholders such as enterprises and farmers; • Recommendations for FSSP; • Need for establishing a network to integrate research, education, training and extension within the forest sector; network composition, mandate and tasks 58 Annex Terms of Reference for the Study Terms of Reference for a Study on Research, Extension, Training and Education (RETE) (Final 10.06.2004) Background The main aim of Result Area (RA 8) of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Forest Sector Support Program and Partnership (FSSP&P) is to develop and implement “an integrated system of demand-driven and appropriate research, extension, education and training” for the forestry sector The development of “detailed understanding of future research, training and extension needs in the forestry sector” (RA 8.2.1), increased “awareness among key stakeholder groups about the role of extension and research in improving the quality of reforestation and forest management” (RA 8.2.2) and “strategic plans and functioning systems for forest research, education, training and extension” (RETE) that are “reflective of the needs of all stakeholder groups” (RA 8.3.1) constitute key strategic interventions required to support the achievement of this overall aim for RA 847 The objectives related to developing improved understanding of RETE needs and awareness of its role for forest sector development (RA 8.2.1 and 8.2.2) are to be achieved through: Ö Ö Ö “Completion of a comprehensive situation analysis and needs assessment throughout the country by 2003 incorporating an analysis of the relevance of current research, education, training and extension programs and of institutional strengths and weaknesses” Preparation of “a concept paper on the future strategic orientation of forestry research, education, training and extension …” Preparation of a “strategy and plans for implementing a demand driven and integrated system within an appropriate institutional framework” The need for a comprehensive situation and needs analysis and the development of a RETE concept paper/strategy was confirmed by the 2003 Annual Review of the FSSP&P conducted in OctoberDecember 200348 The SDC/Helvetas Extension and Training Support Project (ETSP) promotes the development of Extension and Training competencies at various levels (from commune level to national level) In addition, ETSP engages actively in sector efforts to support the development of a comprehensive strategic and institutional framework for forestry related RETE in Vietnam in the context of RA of the FSSP Program Framework SDC/Helvetas have therefore decided to support the above mentioned RETE situation/needs analysis and strategy development The development of the RETE strategy will also be a contribution to the revision of mandates and agendas, funding, infrastructure, definition of competency levels for RETE staff and curriculum 47 Refer Memorandum of Agreement, Forestry Sector Support Program and Partnership, Hanoi, 12th November 2001 pp 45-46 (English version) 48 Annex 3: “Summary of Result Area Meetings”, 2003 Annual Review Mission, Forest Sector Support Program and Partnership, Final Report, December 2003, p 54 59 development needs for national, regional and provincial RETE institutions (RA 8.3.1) However, it is expected that for these various aspects, the leading role will be held by other projects or institutions (such as the ADB TA 4194-VIE Agriculture Science and Technology project under preparation) It will also contribute to the revision of the National Forestry Development Strategy which was initiated after the FSSP Steering Committee Meeting of December 11, 2003 The purpose of the present Terms of Reference (TOR) is to clarify and summarize the objectives, expected results, process and time frame of the proposed RETE situation/needs analysis and the development of a concept paper for the future strategic direction of forestry RETE in Vietnam It is anticipated that this process will lead to the formulation of a RETE strategy by the end of 2004 or early 2005, which in turn will be available as an input for the ongoing revision of the National Forestry Development Strategy (to be approved by mid 2005) Separate TOR for the development of the RETE strategy will be prepared at a later stage Users of the proposed RETE study The proposed RETE study is conducted for the following users: + the leaders of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and in particular the managers of the Forest Department (FD), Organization and Personnel Department (OPD) and Science and Technology Department (STD) + the leaders of key national, regional and provincial institutions engaged in forestry RETE + the 22 international partners of FSSP&P and in particular those involved in Result Area N° (RA 8) + the various decision makers responsible for (and partners involved in) the revision of the National Forestry Development Strategy Objectives The objectives of the RETE study are to provide: a) Provide the basis for a shared vision of future research, education, training and extension needs in the forest sector through the preparation of : + a RETE situation analysis (as of mid-2004) and + a RETE needs assessment This analysis will incorporate analysis of the relevance of current RETE programs and strengths and weaknesses of current institutional and legal frameworks, in the context of the National Forestry Development Strategy (2001-2010) b) A set of guidelines for the development of a national strategy for forestry RETE through consultations with key stakeholders on desired strategic directions for forestry RETE in Vietnam c) A practical contribution to the revision of the National Forestry Development Strategy It is expected that initial outputs of the collaborative situation analysis and needs assessment will be discussed with FSSP stakeholders though interviews with RETE partners at many levels or workshops (to be organised tentatively in October 2004) together with practical guidelines for the development of a RETE strategy Based on the results of interviews, the agreed conclusions of the workshop(s) and the FSSP Program Steering Committee Meeting in November 2004 a strategy and plans for implementing a demand driven 60 and integrated RETE system within an appropriate institutional framework will be developed by end of 2004 or early 2005 which will constitute an input for the revised version of the National Forestry Development Strategy The RETE situation/needs analysis and the development of guidelines for a RETE strategy will be conducted as collaborative processes with a view to a) ensure a high level of engagement of RETE decision-makers and stakeholders in the analysis, b) create consensus about desired strategic directions and c) generate commitment towards the planned RETE strategy + + + Expected Results a situation and needs analysis of the RETE sub-sectors is available and agreed upon by key RETE institutions and the FSSP&P (Result Area N° 8) partners based on the above mentioned information, guidelines for developing a long-term RETE strategy are available and approved by the concerned FSSP&P (RA 8) partners an action plan is prepared, leading to the formulation of a RETE strategy which will constitute an input for the revised National Forestry Development Strategy Main steps of the study Period June Week 5-9 / 07 Activity / forum Review background documentation Half-day meeting with MARD and other central agencies Week 5-9 / 07 Half-day meeting with FSSP partners Week 12-16 / 07 Week 22 or 23/ 07 (end of week) August August September Mid October Visit to Vocational Technical School & DARD Extension Centre in Lang Son Half-day meeting with Forestry Universities in Hanoi Visit to Phu Li Wood Processing School Visit to Management School No Visit to southern technical and vocational schools and DARD Extension Centers Follow-up meetings in Hanoi as required Prepare Draft Situation Analysis, Needs Assessment and Recommendations Workshop (2 days) to review and jointly work on Draft Situation Analysis, Needs Assessment and Recommendations 10 End October Final report It is expected that the total number of working days will not exceed 30 Location / participants Team FD, OPD, STD, NEC, FSIV, FIPI, Management School, Xuan Mai SNV, NTFP, Helvetas, REFAS, ADB, Tropenbos, GTZ Edwin, Diem, Bach Edwin, Diem, Bach Edwin, Diem, Bach Diem, Bach Team With MARD departments, other ministries, FSSP partners, and a selection of forestry training organizations and extension centers 61 Reports a The consultant team will document the various steps of the study as listed in the above mentioned table b In addition, after each important step, the consultant team will have a short briefing with ETSP Management (Project Director, Project Coordinator and CTA) in order to share the main findings, discuss, if necessary, any unexpected problems and agree on the next steps The Director General of the Forestry Department (or his representative), the international FSSP Chairman, the Deputy Director and the Chief Technical Advisor of the FSSP&P Coordinating Office will be invited to these ad hoc meetings c A final report, including the output of the RETE workshop will be prepared within weeks after the endorsement of the RETE Situation/Needs Analysis Report and Guidelines for a RETE Strategy The development of a RETE strategy will be decided once the final RETE report has been received and endorsed by the partners mentioned under 5b ETSP/PYS/Hanoi, 10.06.200 62 Annex Examples of traditional forest industries in transition 1) “Palm tree craftsmen fear end of an era is at hand” Source: Bao Nong Thon (Monday, July 1st 2002) For centuries, Phu Tho Province in the hilly regions of northern Viet Nam was defined by a rather unlikely symbol – the palm tree The province’s ingenious locals found a use for even the smallest part of this ubiquitous plant Palm trunks supported the province’s houses, and palm leaves provided shelter from the elements Drainage pipes, food containers, arts and crafts – you name it, the palm tree was used for them all And that’s not even including its potential as a source of food and edible oils Today, the palm tree is at the centre of a very different trend – the loss of traditional expertise in the face of technological and social change With palm prices in a state of steady decline, most locals are resorting to other crops to make ends meet As a result, a rich store of local history and knowledge is under threat Sy and Luot’s story is just one of many that illustrates the palm’s fading fortunes Some years ago, the couple left their home district of Thanh Ha in Hai Duong Province, and settled on a small farm in Tay Coc Commune, Doan Hung District With 4ha of fertile land and over 2,000 palms, their future seemed bright But times were changing By 1999, modern materials had all but replaced palm products in housing construction Sy and Luot had no choice but to abandon a livelihood that had sustained people in the area for centuries They cut down most of the palms and replaced them with litchi Now, only 100 palm trees remain Nearly every family in the area has a similar tale to tell, and as a result, the landscape of Phu Tho Province has been radically transformed With litchi fetching ten times the price of palm products, hundreds of orderly litchi farms now dominate an area once covered in dense, rich-green palm forests Yet a few families still endeavor to preserve the ways of the past in a rapidly changing world Nguyen Thi Hoa in Tieu Son is one of these determined craftswomen Her family produces much sought-after palm blinds year round Ironically, however, Hoa and her fellow artisans are forced to import palm leaves from neighboring provinces like Tuyen Quang, Yen Bai and Thai Nguyen And although the provincial government has recently stepped in to help, it seems that rising material costs and falling product prices will eventually sound the death knell for many of these traditional industries So for the people of Phu Tho Province, the palm tree is a sign of the changing times Its practical uses were once indispensable at almost every level of daily life Now, its only value seems to be symbolic, a nostalgic reminder of the way things were 2) Foreign horizons expand for Vietnamese rattan producers Source: Vietnam News (Monday, December 29th 2002) DA NANG — Two Vietnamese rattan exporters are weaving positive stories and providing good examples for other exporters ahead of the country’s possible entry to the World Trade Organization Artex Duy Thanh Ltd Co has earned US$700,000 exporting rattan products this year, its first year of operation The Da Nang city company produces rattan furniture and home wares, primarily for export to Japan and European countries The US is a potential new market for the firm Company director Le Huu Thanh said the Da Nang People’s Committee helped the business showcase its goods at handicraft fairs in Frankfurt, Germany and Seoul, the Republic of Korea, this year Thanh said most of the firms showcasing their wares found the international fairs profitable However, revenue seemed to dry up once the fairs ended "If Vietnamese 63 companies truly want to market abroad, a distributor is necessary," Thanh said But distributors could be demanding: after two of three years investigating and monitoring a company, distributors must be satisfied with the quality of goods, price stability and the ability of the firm to manufacture on a large scale before signing contracts with producers, he said Thanh also said quality and design must remain important elements Artex Duy Thanh plans to invest in its designs and equipment for a series of small workshops nationwide Thanh said of the 84 State and private companies participating in the German trade fair, only 20 exported their goods Even as more overseas consumers turned to products made of rattan, bamboo, coconut palm and sedge, obstacles still remained for the industry, said Thanh For one, the prices of raw material increase the more rattan products are manufactured Supply areas have not kept pace with demand, thereby driving up prices for the increasingly precious raw woods Labour costs can be sizeable as well Viet Nam’s trademark cheap labour demands better wages when the workforce is involved in industrial-scale manufacture For these reasons, many Vietnamese producers have been forced to turn down large contracts with US companies Rattan producers in Phu Nghia Commune in Ha Tay Province have another story to tell The 400-year-old craft has gotten a new lease on life: the commune sells its traditional rattan products over the Internet As a result, approximately 85 per cent of households earn stable incomes The average wage per person sits at VND700,000-800,000 a month Residents say they previously depended on farming and made a lot less Last year, rattan production earned the commune VND24 billion (US$1.5 million), two-thirds of its total revenue That figure is expected to reach VND26 billion this year Nguyen Viet Hong, chairman of the Phu Nghia Cooperative, said rattan export markets were expanding to new regions of Japan, France and the US in addition to its traditional eastern European markets He said his co-operative signed new foreign contracts after introducing its products on the Internet After receiving the orders, local craftsmen make the goods on demand About 50 rattan producers in the commune export their products Local workshops have set up material sources from Quang Ngai, Quang Nam, Vinh Phuc and Phu Tho provinces To optimize delivery of goods, workshops in the commune have established agencies to package and transport the products by sea, land and air ... been broadly developed from central to local levels, the capacity of extension staff has been progressively strengthened, and extension methods have been enhanced and improved30 These developments... Reference Group including representatives from the MARD Forestry Department, Organization and Personnel Department, Science and Technology Department, National Extension Center, Forest Sciences... and Personnel Department Science and Technology Department National Extension Center Forest Sciences Institute (FSIV) Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (FIPI) Management Training School
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