ngữ pháp av căn bản và nâng cao từ vựng 12

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ngữ pháp tiếng anh căn bản và nâng cao cấu trúc cụm danh từ, sự hoà hợp chủ động, câu bị động các dạng, các mệnh đề: quan hệ, tường thuật, lí do, điều kiện, nhượng bộ, đảo ngữ, quy tắc dấu nhấn, từ vựng tiếng anh 12 ÔN TN.THPT NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH 2018-19 PART A – Pronouns and their Functions Các Đại Từ Chức Subject Object Possessive adj ( ) Possessive pronouns Reflexive Chính … I We You You He She It They me us you you him her it them my our your your his her its their mine ours yours yours his hers its theirs myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself themselves Chú thích Ngơi 1,số , số nhiều Ngơi số , số nhiều Ngơi số Ngôi số nhiều - Subject: Chủ ngữ - Object: Tân ngữ - Possessive adj :TTSH + N - Possessive pronoun : Đại từ SH - Reflexive : Đại từ phản than * TTSH phải có N theo sau * ĐTSH = TTSH + N nhằm tránh lặp lại N nhắc trước Xem ví dụ cụ thể bên Chức làm S, O câu I am going to the store We’ve lived here for 20 years George and I would like to leave now They invited us to the party last night I told her a story The teacher gave him a bad grade We met him at your house last night Tính từ sở hữu + N = Đại từ sở hữu The cat has injured its foot The boy broke his arm yesterday My foot is cold His is hot ( his = his foot) Your books are heavy Ours are heavy, too (ours = our books) Your teacher is the same as theirs ( theirs = their teacher ) Her bicycle is expensive Mine isn’t (mine = my bicycle) This is not my book It is hers (hers = her book) Ví dụ đại từ phản thân: + Đứng sau động từ giới từ (to,for) sau tân ngữ động từ Ex: I washed myself She served herslf in the cafeteria He sent the letter to himself + Đứng sau chủ từ sau “by” The students themselves decorated the room John washed the dishes by himself PART B – Noun – Danh Từ ,Noun Phrase – Cụm Danh Từ A/ Noun : Danh từ từ tên người, vật, vật, tượng, nơi chốn, hành động … Có nhiều loại Danh Từ : Danh từ cụ thể đếm (house, girl…) không đếm ( water, steel….) ; Danh từ riêng (Tom, New York, Ha Noi….) ; Danh từ tập hợp ( a band of musicians ) ; Danh từ trừu tượng ( beauty, youth …) ; Danh từ ghép ( newspaper, blackboard….) * Phân loại : Danh từ số ( book, car, house, class…) ; Danh từ số nhiều (books, cars, houses , classes…) * Cách thành lập Danh từ số nhiều : a/ Thêm ‘ S / ES ’ vào sau Danh từ đếm số - N_e + S table ->……… , bicycle -> ……… … - N_s, ss, sh, ch, x,z,o + ES class ->……… , potato -> …………., bush -> ……… N_fụ âm_Y  N_fụ âm_i + ES city -> ………., lady ->…………, company ->…… … - N_ng.âm_Y + S play -> …………, key ->……….…… - N_f/fe  N_V + ES half  …………, calf  ………., loaf  ……… … - Các trường hợp lại + S car  …………, book  …….…… b/ Danh Từ Bất Quy Tắc cần ghi nhớ: số – số nhiều man men woman person persons / people child tooth teeth goose foot ox oxen mouse mice louse basis bases datum data c/ Một số Danh Từ có hình thức số số nhiều : sheep, fish, means, salmon, …….những DT không đếm được, DT lương thực/thực phẩm, DT chất lỏng, DT chất khí/chỉ tượng tự nhiên, chất khống Trang English Grammar armyct1 B/ Cấu trúc cụm Danh Từ ( thông thường cột + ) 1- Thành phần đứng đầu cụm a/an/the TTSH -my,our,your,… this, that, these,those Số lượng a my these a 2-Trạng từ (adverb) 3-Tính từ (adjective) 4-Danh từ (Noun) Noun very / extremely very Examples an organ , her father, that house, these books, those houses, two cars, some students… book friend stories girl interesting beautiful * Note: Có tính từ sở hữu khơng có mạo từ /từ định /từ số lượng Ta khơng thể ghi/nói ( a my house, these my cars , some my friends,……) ta nói a house/ my house, some of my friends, these two cars , - thông thường cụm đơn giản gồm cột (thành phần đứng đầu) cột (Danh Từ) PART C – Subject & Verb Agreement – Sự Hoà Hợp Giữa Chủ Và Động Từ Quy tắc chung: Ssing.(N) + Vsing.(Vs/es) - A book (be)…… on the table - She (study)…… … in this school Splural (Ns/es) + Vpl (V) - The books (be)……… on the table - We (study)…………… in this school Một số trường hợp cần lưu ý 1/ Ssing and Ssing + Vpl - Tom and Mary (be)……… friend - Ann and John (play)………… football well Nhưng chủ từ đề cập đến vấn đề, phận vật mà khg thể tách rời riêng lẻ dùng Vs/es - Bread and Butter (be)………… his only food 2/ Khi từ làm chủ từ động từ ln ln chia số ( Vs/es ;is/was/has) Each … - Nobody (have) seen him leave the house Much - There (be) ………… no one here - Each students (have)………… to have their own view V-ing - Knowing her (have) made him what he is No Every + Some any Các Danh Từ : Bệnh tật- Diseases : measles sởi, mumps-quai bị, rickets-còi xương … Mơn học- Subjects: Physics, Economics, Politics, Chemistry khoảng cách- Distance: meter, kilometer, mile, … Thời gian-time: year, month, week, day,… Tiền tệ- Money : dollar, pound, Franc, … Trong lượng- Weight: kilo, pound, ton… Tin tức- News Danh Từ riêng- John, Mary, Ha Noi … ex: Mathematics (be)………… her favorite subject The news (make)…………… her sad Twenty-five dollars (be)……too much for the meal Two miles (be)……too much to run in one day 3/ Khi từ làm chủ từ động từ ln ln chia số nhiều (V khơng có thêm s/es) People/ Cattle/ Public/ Police/ Crowd - The police (be)……… looking for the escaped prisoners - People often (go)……… shopping on Sunday Many/ A few/ Several/ Both + Ns/es - Both of his dogs (have)………… been poisoned - A few of the boys (be) ………… very naughty - Her eyeglasses (be)………… expensive Các danh từ có dạng số nhiều Trang English Grammar armyct1 scissors, shorts,pants, jeans,trousers, eyeglasses 4/ động từ chia theo S1 S1 + pre + S2 (Pre như: in, on, of ) S1 + with along with accompanied by as well as together like + S2 -Two thirds of the clothes in the cupboard (be)……… his -One of my friends (be)………… studying in that class - The girl with her friends (be)………… in class - Mary, along with her manager and some friends, (be) going to a party tonight - Mr Robbins, accompanied by her wife and children,(be) arrivingtonight - The students as well as their teacher (be)…… at the theatre - The study of languages (be) very interesting - Serveral theories on this subject (have) been proposed 5/ động từ chia theo S2 Either/Neither S1 + + S2 + V Not only + N/ S1 but also N/ S2 + V - Either Paul or Mary (have)… …… been here - Not only Mary but also us (play)………….well 6/ động từ chia theo N : Nếu N số V chia số - Most of us (be) - She is the girl who (help) - The dogs that (be)  most   most of  + N   N+  who     which   that    –> N + Vs/es ; ngược lại Ns/es + V students me in my studying carried from Japan are mine +V  percent    of + N  Half / one  No/None of the + N There + be + N 7/ A number of + Ns/es + Vpl The number of + Ns/es + Vs/es - Sixty per cent of waste paper (be) - Half of the students in this class (come) recycled from the country - None of these students (be) Vietnamese - There (be) a book on the table - There (be) three students in my class room - A number of students (be) - The number of students (be) playing table tennis now increasing now ***8/ Các danh từ tập thể Đó danh từ bảng sau dùng để nhóm người tổ chức thực tế chúng danh từ số ít, động từ theo sau chúng ngơi thứ số Congress,family, group, committee, class Organization, team, army, club, crowd Government, jury, majority*, minority, public Tuy nhiên thành viên nhóm hoạt động riêng rẽ, động từ chia thứ số nhiều: Congress votes for the bill (Quốc hội bỏ phiếu cho dự luật, gồm tất người) Congress are discussing about the bill (Quốc hội tranh luận dự luật, tức số tán thành, số phản đối Danh từ majority dùng tuỳ theo thành phần sau để chia động từ The majority + singular verb The majority of the + plural noun + plural verb The majority believes that we are in no danger The majority of the students believe him to be innocent Trang English Grammar armyct1 PART D – TENSES Cần nhớ hình thức Đtừ từ V0 ->V1/s/es ->V2/ed ->V3/ed -> Ving Đkiện dùng kèm hình thức Khẳng định Phủ Nghi vấn Will + S + V0 ? will V0 thêm not Do/does + S + V0 ? V1/s/es do/does not + V0 Did + S + V0 ? V2/ed did not + V0 Have + S + V3/ed ? have V3/ed thêm not Has + S + V3/ed ? has V3/ed thêm not Had + S + V3/ed ? had V3/ed thêm not Is/ + S + V_ing ? is/are/am V_ing thêm not Was/ + S + V_ing ? was/were V_ing thêm not S THÌ CÁCH SỬ DỤNG Will Vo Hành động xảy tương lai V1/s/es 1- Chân lý, thực hiển nhiên 2- Thói quen, hành động xảy thường xuyên 3- Việc diễn theo quy luật tự nhiên V2/ed Hành động xảy kết thúc khứ, không liên quan đến have/has V3/ed 1- Vừa xảy just,recently,lately 2- Lặp lặp lại nhiều lần khứ (1 hành động diễn nhiều lần kể từ khứ đến several times , two times , three times , some times …) 3- Bắt đầu khứ mà kéo dài đến tại, có khả tiếp diễn đến tương lai.(since,for) 4- Đã xảy không rõ thời gian 5- Đã xảy kết thúc q/khứ kết lưu lại h/tại had V3/ed Hành động xảy trước mốc thời gian hành động khác khứ.( hành động xảy trước dùng QKHT, HĐ xảy sau dùng QKĐ) * Xem mệnh đề thời gian 1- Hành động diễn (và kéo dài ) thời điểm Hoặc hành động xảy đồng thời (while) 2- Hành động xảy tương lai gần (t/gian đặt rõ ra) 1- Hành động xảy thời điểm xác định QK 2- Hành động xảy kéo dài thời gian khứ (có ý kêu ca, phàn nàn) Hành động xảy thời điểm xác định tương lai Hành động hoàn thành trước mốc thời gian hành động khác t/ lai -Now/right now, at present, at the moment, at this time, while , when , as – , sau câu mệnh lệnh look! , listen ! , Be quiet!, Be is/are/am Ving was/were Ving Will be Ving Will have V3/ed Trạng Từ cần ghi nhớ - tomorrow, next + time, in/by 2025, someday, in the future, soon, tonight * every/a/each + time –day/week/month/year Ex- every day,each week, once/twice a week, - always, often, usually, sometimes, today, nowadays, constantly, occasionally, seldom, rarely, hardly, - yesterday, Last / ago , In/by 1999 , from 1230 to 2009, this morning … - When I was a boy/ a child/ years * for + (sốlg) + time (ex: for two minutes/ days/ weeks/ months/ years ) *since S+V2/ed /1999 / last…/ yesterday (sau since V2/ed trạng từ nó, bỏ ago) - recently /lately, until now/up to now/up to the present - just , ever , never , already have …V3/ed) - so far , yet , before (cuối câu) - once lần, twice lần, several times vài lần - It’s the first/ second time + HTHT - the most/the -est + HTHT - in/over the last + time careful! , Don't make noise !, Keep silent! Hoặc sau câu hỏi where be S ? - At ….last/yesterday ex At this time last week/ yesterdday - At …………next/tomorrow Ex: At 7:00 am tomorrow/ next Sunday… - By (before) + mốc thời gian tương lai Ex: + By then, by the time *Không chia động từ sau Ving: be, see, hear, smell, seem, understand, know, feel, think, like,love, want, hate, remember, realize …, *Một số động từ thường dùng đơn/quá khứ đơn Cảm giác, nhận thức: hear, see, smell, taste Ý kiến, quan điểm: believe, consider, doubt, find, think Trạng thái tinh thần: forget, know, mean, notice, recognize, remember, understand Cảm xúc, mong muốn: dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, want, wish Đo lường: contain, cost, weigh Trang English Grammar armyct1 Trường hợp khác: seem, be, have (when it means to possess) PART E : PASSIVE VOICE A Form: S + be + V3, ed (place + by O + time) Ex: The book was written by Mark Twain ……………by + O đứng cuối câu có thời gian thời gian ln đứng cuối B How to change into the passive voice: Active: S V O Passive: S BE + V3, ed by + O thêm be /is,are,am/was,were/been/being vào trước Động từ , Động từ ln đổi thành V 3/ed Hình thức ĐT chủ Động will/ can + Vo V1/ s/ es V2/ ed V3/ ed V3/ ed V-ing V-ing Thêm “to be” trước ĐT chính, chia dạng  be  am/is/are      PASSIVE – ta có dạng bị động  will/ can    has/ have  had  am/ is/ are  was/ were + + has/ have + + had + + am/ is/ are + + was/ were + Ex: John delivers the newspapers every morning The newspapers delivered by John every morning My mother wrote that letter That letter written by my mother They will build a new school here next month A new school will built here next month He is asking me a lot of questions I am asked a lot of questions be is/are/am was/were been been being being Động từ ln đởi thành V3/ed *Notes: 1/ Nội động từ be, have, happen = occur, take place, break dơn, come arive, leave, get, fly, run, swim, khơng có hình thức bị động 2/ Cụm "by+O" bỏ khơng cần biết thực việc 3/ Khi S câu chủ động đại từ bất định, từ miêu tả chung chung (people, they) bắt buộc bỏ by + people, them, đại từ bất định some/no/any/ every + one/body/thing; all/… 3/ Đối với V giác quan: a) chứng kiến hành động bất chợt: đổi theo quy tắc bình thường Ex: Yesterday I saw him climbing over the wall ->Yesterday he was seen climbing the wall by me b) chứng kiến hành động trọn vẹn: đởi bình thường, riêng V0 -> to V Ex: I heard them sing the song "A lover's Concerto" ->They were heard to sing the song "A lover's Concerto" by me 4/ Nếu loại động từ có tân ngữ, muốn nhấn mạnh vào tân ngữ người ta đưa tân ngữ lên làm chủ ngữ thơng thường chủ ngữ hợp lý câu bị động tân ngữ gián tiếp (tức Tân Ngữ người) ex: I gave him a book -> He was given a book (by me) Nhưng đem Ovật lên phải thêm to/for trước Ongười -> A book was given to him ***5/ Nếu người vật trực tiếp gây hành động dùng by vật gián tiếp gây hành động dùng "with" ex: - The bird was shot by the hunter -The bird was shot with the gun MỘT SỐ CẤU TRÚC BỊ ĐỘNG KHÁC A Causative forms: thể truyền khiển với ĐT have, get nhờ/ bảo làm mà khơng tự làm VERBS KINDS FORMS Have S + have + Ongười + Vo + Ovật Active Get S + get + Ongười + Vto + Ovật Have S + have + Ovật + V3/ed + (by Ongười) Passive Get S + get + Ovật + V3/ed + (by Ongười) Cách nhớ: ghét (get) người tu, ăn hiếp (have) người không tu Vật ba-V3/ed ( get có tình nên to,have kg t nên kg to, hai Vật ba-V3/ed ) Trang English Grammar armyct1 Ex: I had him repair my bicycle yesterday  I had my bicycle repaired yesterday I get her to make some coffee  I get some coffee made He had his house ……… A repair B to repair C repaired D repairing She got me …………her luggage A carry B to carry C carried D carrying B Verb : need Sngười + need + V_to + NPvật/người → NPvật + need + V_ing / to be V3/ed ex: You need to your homework → Your homework needs doing/to be done Chủ từ người  to Vo ; Chủ từ vật  Ving/ to be V3/ed ( xem sau khoảng trống có NP dùng Vto ; khơng có NPvật dùng Ving/to be V3/ed ) I need ……… all my home work A doing B to C to be done D A and C This wall needs ……… blue A painting B painted C paint D to paint My brother needs … his hair A cut B cutting C to be cut D to cut I need to wash my car A My car need washing B I need my car to be washed C My car needs to be washed D My car is needed to be washed My father need ………….a doctor A visit B to visit C visiting D visited ** S needn’t + Vo + O đởi bình thường can’t/mustn’t/won’t C Verb : make khiến/bắt làm S + make + O + Vo → S + be made + V to … ex: - He made me stay outside yesterday → I was made to stay outside yesterday Có Tân khơng to Khơng Tân có to They made her …… A laught B to laught C to be laughted D laughting He was made … much exercise A B to C doing D to be done We are made …… hard by our parents A study B studying C to study D studied She made me work hard A I was made work hard B I was made to work hard C I made to be worked hard D I made to work hard D Verbs of opinion: say, think, believe, know, report ,expect… KINDS FORMS Active S1 + V (say….) + that + S2 + VS2 + O (VS2 - Động từ sau chủ từ 2) + that + S2 + VS2 + O từ that sau giữ nguyên + to V0 + O V QK, HT, TLai to have V3/ ed + O dùng V lệch HT-QK,… *nhận biết: câu gốc (câu chủ động) khơng có be V3/ed ; Câu bị động phải có be V3/ed có Cách be V3/ed với IT phía trước TO phía sau It be V3/ed …… be V3/ed to… Ex: People say that he is a famous doctor C1 It is said that he is a famous doctor Bỏ S1, từ that sau giống câu gốc C2 He is said to be a famous doctor từ C1 bỏ it,that, đem S2 lên is -> to be People believe that he drove through the town at 90 km an hour It is believed that he drove through the town at 90 km an hour drove (V2/ed) ->> to have driven He is believed to have driven through the town at 90 km an hour * note: cách (C2) Vs2 Quá khứ diễn tả thật dùng to Vo 1/ Reagan _ an actor years ago A is said to be B was said to being C was said have been D is said to have been 2/ Some film stars difficult to work with A are said be B are said to be C was said to be D is said to be 3/ They predict that a heavy storm will come in the area A A heavy storm is predicted to have come in the area B It is predicted that a heavy storm will be come in the area C A heavy storm is predicted to come in the area D A heavy storm is predicted to be come in the area Passive Trang C1: It + be V3/ ed C2: S2 + be V3/ ed English Grammar armyct1 4/ The weather is expected good tomorrow A to be B will be C is D being PART F - INFINITIVE AND GERUND – Nguyên mẫu Danh Động Từ 1/ Verbs followed by the Infinitive ( V + V-to ) Agree arrange attempt ask be going be able be willing continue decide demand determine desire expect fail help hope intend learn manage mean need offer plan prepare pretend promise propose refuse seem tend want wish would like Ex: He doesn’t want to know - We hope to see you soon 2/ Verbs With Object Followed By The Infinitive ( V + O + V-to ) ask enable encourage expect invite order request remind show how teach tell want warn wish ex: - She encouraged me to try again Ex: He advised me to leave here early 3/ Verbs followed by the Gerund ( V + V-ing ) avoid love miss deny delay quit practice enjoy dislike mind suggest postpone keep appreciate like detest spend prevent finish understand risk imagine consider - can’t stand/ can’t bear/ can’t help - It’s no use / It’s no good - V + pre + V-ing Be + ADJ + pre + V-ing give up care for be afraid of be sorry for be ashamed of be interested in be accustomed to be familiar to be good at be fond of be proud of be tired of be bored of/ fed up be looking forward to ex: - We can’t help laughing - He enjoys doing nothing be surprised at - Adj + V-to Riêng : be busy / be worth + V-ing Ex: We enjoy playing football 4/ Verbs Followed By Either The Infinitive Or The Gerund(các ĐT theo sau V-ing or V-to) VERBS MEANINGS EXAMPLES + to V (hành động chưa xảy ra/sẽ Please remember to return the book tomorrow Remember làm) We regret to inform you can’t be offered a job Forget + V-ing (hành động xảy ra) Regret I’ll never forget seeing her at the first time He stopped to eat (dừng công việc để ăn) My father stopped smoking two months ago I will try to study hard so that my parents stop + to V (cố gắng làm việc gì) worrying about me Try + V-ing (thử làm việc gì) He tried making a cake but he didn’t succeed 5/ Verbs Followed By Gerund Or The Infinitive ( động từ theo sau V -ing V-to ) allow, permit, + to Vo sau động từ có O trước có be advise, recommend + Ving sau khơng O trước khơng be có tân ngữ theo sau có be phía trước dùng to V Ngược lại dùng Ving ex: - I permit you to go out - People are not allowed to smoke here - I permit going out Stop + to V (dừng lại để làm việc khác) + V-ing (từ bỏ, dừng việc làm) VERBS OF PERCEPTION: see, hear , seem, Vo (thấy hành động từ đầu, hay chứng kiến trọn vẹn) smell, feel, +O+ notice, watch V-ing (thấy hành động lúc xảy ra, hay hành động bất chợt) Ex: We saw him leave the house She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising S + Make / let + O + Vo Ex: He made me move my car Trang English Grammar armyct1 Modal Verbs (will, can, may, must, should, had better, have to ) + Vo Ex: The children had better go to bed early PART G - REPORTED SPEECH ( Câu tường thuật ) 1/ Khái niệm : Câu tường thuật dùng để thuật lại lời nói, lời phát biểu…của (câu đặt ngoặc kép ) mà không lặp lại ngun văn (khơng dấu “ “) 2/ Hình thức câu tường thuật : có hình thức A/ Statement : lời phát biểu “ S V O “ Cách đổi: S + say / said (that) + S + V S + tell / told + O (that) + S + V ex: She said, “ I will give you my book “  She said (that) she would give me her book or  She told me (that) she would give me her book B/ Imperative : Thức mệnh lệnh b.1 - Affirmative Imperative: Thức mệnh lệnh khẳng định “ V0 ….” Cách đổi: S + told / asked + O + to V0 ex: The teacher said ,“ Hurry up, Lan”  The teacher asked Lan to hurry up b.2 – Negative Imperative: Thức mệnh lệnh phủ định “ Don’t V0 …” Cách đổi: S + told / asked + O + not to V0 ex: The doctor said to John “ Don’t stay up late”  The teacher asked John not to stay up late C/ Question : Câu hỏi – Yes/No question (câu hỏi Y/N ) – Wh/How question (câu hỏi với từ để hỏi) Cách đổi if/whether + S + V dùng cho câu hỏi Y/N S + asked + O wh_/how + S + V dùng cho câu hỏi wh_/how ex: She asked, “ Are you doing your homework now ? “  She asked me if/wether I was doing my homework then ex: The wife asked “What did you yesterday?”  The wife asked me what I had done the previous day * Các bước đổi từ câu trực tiếp sang gián tiếp – Phải đổi “ Tôi, Bạn, Trạng từ, Lùi thì/ Ving/Vto” B1- Đại từ: “Tơi: I, me, my”  Người nói “Bạn: you, your”  Người nghe “ we,us,our”  they,them,their Ngôi (he/him/his; she/her; it/its; they/them/their ) không đởi - Nếu ngoặc kép có “….,mum/,dad/,mother/,father” thêm TTSH phía trước,”…,boy/, girl” thêm the phía trước ex “Please give me some money, Mum “said he  He told his Mum… B2 - Các Trạng Từ cần phải đổi Direct Reported Direct Reported -today -tonight -now -this / these -here -that day -that night -then -that / those -there -tomorrow + next week -yesterday + last night -(three days) ago -the next day / the following day/ the day after + the next week/ … - the day before / the previous day + the night before / the previous night -(three days) before Bước : có cách – Cách1: Lùi Cách2: bỏ S trợ Động từ ,đởi ĐT thành Ving/ Vto B3- Cách 1: Lùi - Khi Động Từ dấu “ “ Quá Khứ ta phải lùi Động Từ ngoặc “ “ Quan sát bảng VD lùi Direct speech Trang Reported speech English Grammar armyct1 - V1 Tom said,”I never eat meat” - am/is/are + Ving He said, “I’m waiting for Ann - has/ have + V3/ed She said, “I’ve seen that film” - V2/ed They said, “We came by car” - He said, “I was sitting in the park at o’cock” - will/shall + V0 Judy said,”I’ll phone you” -Modal verbs + Can She said,”You can sit here” + May Claire said, “I may got to Bali again” + Must He said, “I must finish this report” - V2/ed Tom said he never ate meat - was/were + Ving He said he was waiting for Ann - had + V3/ed She said she had seen that film - had + V3/ed They said they had come by car -He said he had been sitting in the park at o’clock - would/should + V0 Judy said she would phone me -Modal verbs in the past + Could She said we could sit here + Might Claire said she might go to Bali again + Must / Had to He said he must / had to finish this report + should + shall Các mẫu câu áp dụng cho dạng S + said (that) + S + V S + told + O (that) + S + V asked + O if/whether + S + V dùng cho câu hỏi Y/N S + wondered wanted to know wh_/how + S + V dùng cho câu hỏi wh_/how - bỏ V Htại,Tlai, đảo ngữ - bỏ said to, told to, asked to - chọn had V3/ed …+….the previous…/…before cách nhớ âm i (ed/ before/ previous) - chọn would V0 …+…the next /following/…after - S + told/ asked + O + to Vo… * Chú ý: động từ tường thuật ( say, tell, ask) khơng cần lùi thì, khơng đổi trạng từ, đổi Đại từ cho phù hợp với người nói –S người nghe – O B3- Cách 2: REPORTED SPEECH with INFINITIVE (Vto) and GERUND (V_ing) bỏ chủ từ trợ Động từ, tìm động từ để đởi thành V-ing V-to lệ thuộc vào động từ ta dùng trước (xem bảng động từ bên dưới) ex: She said, “ I will give you my book tomorrow“ Bỏ S - I trợ ĐT - will  She promised to give me her book the following day Bảng : Khi sử dụng động từ phải dùng to + V0 theo sau S + V + (not) + Vto agree hope offer refuse propose promise threaten want đồng ý hy vọng đề nghị từ chối đề nghị hứa đe doạ muốn S + V + O + (not) + Vto asks advise allow beg encourage expect forbid invite yêu cầu khuyên cho phép nài nỉ khuyến khích mong đợi cấm mời order persuade request remind urge tell warn want lệnh thuyết phục yêu cầu nhắc nhở thúc giục bảo cảnh báo muốn Ex: “I will help you, Mary” said Peter Peter promised to help Mary Ex: “Look at the board, please!”, said the teacher The teacher asked the students to look at the board Bảng : Khi sử dụng động từ phải dùng V-ing (V0 + ing) theo sau S + V suggest admit deny Trang + V-ing đề nghị thừa nhận phủ nhận Nếu sử dụng Động từ bảng Động từ theo sau dạng V+ing S + V + prep + V-ing S + V + O + prep + V-ing insist on nài nỉ đòi congratulate sb on chúc mừng về… dream of mơ tưởng/muốn làm điều accuse sb of buộc tội điều think of nghĩ tới ai/điều blame sb for đở lỗi cho về… English Grammar armyct1 apologize (to sb) for xin lỗi … look forward to object to complain about mong đợi … phản đối than phiền về… thank sb for cám ơn criticize sb for praise sb for đánh giá … khen ngợi ai… prevent sb from ngăn cản khỏi… stop sb from warn (sb) against khuyến cáo đừng warn (sb) about khuyến cáo Ex: “Let’s go out for a drink,” Susan said Susan suggested going out for a drink “I’ll help you with your physics exercise,” Peter said to Susan Peter insisted on helping Susan with her physics exercise Tom said to me, “It was nice of you to help me Thank you very much.” Tom thanked me for helping him MỘT SỐ TRƯỜNG HỢP DÙNG ĐỘNG TỪ THÍCH HỢP DỰA VÀO DẤU HIỆU SAU Bỏ S trợ ĐTừ, Động từ  Vto S + should/ ‘d better + V0 “if I were you advise + O Why don’t S + V0 …… ? Let + O + V0 Can/could + S + V0 S + will/ won’t + V0 please ‘d like + Vt0 ‘d like + O + Vt0 Don’t forget/Remember + V0 Would (S) like + Vt0 Okay/ all right/ S agree offer/insit on offer promise beg +O /offer want want + O remind +O invite +O agree Động từ  Ving Sorry/ I’m sorry/ forgive aologize (to O ) for Thanks/ Thank you thank O for It’s nice/kind of S Why don’t S + V0 …… ? Let + O suggest Shall we + V0 …… ? How/what about please suggest/ insist on S + want + Vt0 dream of Congratulation/pass/get a job congratulate O on S + didn’t/no/never deny Những trường hợp không cần thay đổi câu tường thuật: “should”, “d’ better” “ought to” giữ nguyên dùng động từ “advise sb (not) to sth” - “You should practice your English every day,” said Miss Hoax  Miss Hoax said that I should practice my English every day  Miss Hoax advised me to practice my English every day If1  If2 , If2  IF3 giữ nguyên If3 luôn giữ nguyên - “If I hear anything new, I’ll let you know,” Paul said  Paul said that if he heard anything new he would let me know - “If I knew her number, I could tell you,” Peter said  Peter said if he knew / had known her number, he would tell / would have told me - “If you had came, you would have met many old friends,” Liz said  Liz said if I had come, I would have met many old friends Một số Modals :“needn’t do”, “would do”, “could do”, “might do” - “You needn’t it if you don’t want,” she said  She said that I needn’t it if I didn’t want Các dạng câu kép (có câu nói dấu ngoặc kép) : Thơng thường câu đề cho thường có câu, em gặp câu đề cho câu Đối với trường hợp em phải dùng liên từ để nối chúng lại; liên từ thường dùng : Nếu câu nguyên nhân, kết theo nghĩa mà dùng: Because/ So ex: “Don’t tell me to that I don’t like it “ => He asked me not to tell him to that because he did not like it Nếu câu khơng có liên quan nhân mà câu nói liên tiếp dùng: And added that ( nói thêm rằng) ex: “ I miss my mother I will visit her tomorrow.” => She said that she missed her mother and added that she would visit her the next day Trang 10 English Grammar armyct1 ADVERBS Gốc Trạng từ - al - ly - Một số trạng từ đặc biệt - industrial, natural, national - carefully, beautifully - good  well late  late hard  hard early  early fast  fast adj + N - Sau V thường (hoặc trước Vthường) - Trước tính từ Adv + adj - He drives carefully - He angrily denied breaking that vase - This exercise is extremely difficult STRESS dấu nhấn STRESS Từ có vần: - Thường nhấn vần đầu - Danh từ tính từ: nhấn vần đầu - Động từ: nhấn vần cuối Trọng âm rơi vào Ngoại lệ: Centigrade, committee, overseer Trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết trước Ngoại lệ: Arithmetic, heretic, appliance, reliance, defiance Trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết trước âm Ngoại lệ: Incarnate, disastrous trọng âm không rơi vào tiền tố /hậu tố (chỉ có gốc từ nhận ) tức phần thêm vào khơng có dấu trọng âm Danh từ kép, trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết đầu Tính từ kép, động từ kép, trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ hai SYLLABLES Candy, really, active, carrot Dictate, present, export, rebel Dictate, present, export, rebel EXAMPLES Cadec, divine, possess, guitar, patrol, manure - ee - eer - ese - ain - aire - ique - tion - sion - ic, - ical - ia, ial, ian - oo - oon - ette - ity, ety, metry - cy, nomy - degree, referee - engineer, pioneer - Vietnamese, Japanese - contain, remain - millionaire, questionaire - technique, unique - protection, experience, efficient - decision, allegiance - economic, scientific, political - magnesia, musician, gymnasium, familiar - necessity, ability, calorimetry, democracy, antinomy - sensitive, competitive - psychology, geography - adventurous, altitude, - considerate, mechanical, colonial - danger / dangerous / endanger - ade - esque - ience,iency, ient - iance - iar, ium - itive - logy / graphy - ous - tude - ate - al - Tiền tố: un, im, in, ir, dis, non, en, re, over, under - Hậu tố : ful, less, able, al, ous, ly, er, ize, en, ment, ness, ship, hood - happy / happiness Blackbird, greenhouse Bad-tempered, old-fashioned understand, overflow PART O - SPEAKING O.1 - WH - QUESTIONS: câu hỏi lấy thong tin với từ để hỏi INTERROGATIVE WORDS What … for? What + be + like? What + … + look like? What time / color / kind ? Which…? How…? How much / many …? How old …? How far…? How long…? How often…? Why…? Trang 27 MEANINGS EXAMPLES - What you study English for? - hỏi mục đích o To get a good job - What is the weather like? - o It’s sunny - What does he look like? - hỏi ngoại hình o He’s tall and thin with blue eyes - What time is it? - hỏi giờ, màu sắc, loại o It’s o’clock - Which you prefer, coffee or tea? - lựa chọn o Coffee - How you go to school? - / phương tiện / o By bicycle cách thức - - How many people are there in your family? o Four people - tuổi - How old are you? - I’m 18 years old - bao xa - How far is it from here to the post office? o Two kilometres - - How long does it take you to go to school? o 25 minutes - thường xuyên - How often you go shopping? o Twice a month - - Why you study English? English Grammar armyct1 Because I want to get a good job in the future - In 1993 - Where you live? o In Long Xuyen o When…? - Where…? - đâu o - When were you born? O.2 QUESTIONS & RESPONSES: câu hỏi cách trả lời câu hỏi TOPICS Giới thiệu chào hỏi Xin phép Yêu cầu Mời đề nghị QUESTIONS / EXPRESSIONS - Nice / Glad to meet you - How you do? - May I go out? - Could you bring me some water? - Would you mind helping me? - Would you like to go for a walk? - How about going to the cinema? - Let’s go to the cinema - Why don’t we go to the cinema? Lời khen - What a beautiful dress you’ve got! - How nice your house is! Lời chúc - Happy New Year! Cảm ơn - That was nice of you Thank you - Thank you for helping me Xin lỗi - I’m terribly sorry about… - I’d like to apologize for… - I’m having an English test/exam tomorrow Báo tin - Good news: win, pass, get a job, get married … o I’ve passed the final exam! - Bad news: lose, fail… o I have lost the job for two weeks RESPONSES - Nice / Glad to meet you, too - How you do? - Sure - Of course - Sure / Of course - No problem - Yes, I’d love to - That sounds great! - OK Let’s that - That’s a good idea - I’m glad you like it - Thank you for your saying so - That’s a nice compliment - It’s very kind of you to say so - The same to you - You too - It’s my pleasure (to help) - Not at all / You’re welcome - Don’t mention it / Forget it - That’s OK / alright - You don’t need to apologize - Don’t worry about it - No problem / Forget it/ It’s OK - Good luck! - Fantastic / That’s great! - Congratulations! - I’m glad to hear that - I’m sorry to hear that PART P - SOME COMMON STRUCTURES MỘT VÀI CẤU TRÚC THƯỜNG GẶP To V/ V-ing + is/ was + adj (for O) It + is/ was + adj (for O) + to V S + find + it + adj + to V Ex: Learning English is difficult It is difficult to learn English I find it difficult to learn English Mất để làm : bỏ it, đem O lên làm S, to V  Ving It takes / took + S + spend / spent O + time + to V + time + V-ing Ex: It took her fifteen minutes to clean the floor She spent fifteen minutes cleaning the floor cách biến đổi qua lại V2/ed time ago  have/has V3/ed for /since 3.1 Ex: My mother began cooking for the party an hour ago  My mother has been cooking for the party for an hour  It’s an hour since my mother cooked for the party 3.2 khơng làm khoảng  lần cuối (last) làm Trang 28 English Grammar armyct1 Ex: I haven’t seen my father for one month  It is one month since I last saw my father 3.3 Khơng làm từ  lần cuối làm Ex: I haven’t heard him since August  The last time I heard him was in August I haven’t seen him since I was a student  I last saw him when I was a student 3.4 Khơng làm trước  lần (first) làm Ex: I haven’t seen that man here before  It’s the first time I have seen that man here HOW TO PRONOUNCE “-S”, “-ES”, “-ED” Chữ Phát âm /s/ “-s” “-es” /z/ /iz/ /z/ /id/ /t/ “-ed” /d/ Khi theo sau Examples Pảng phất ghi tình khơng fai p, ph, k, gh, t, f (c ->k, gh/ph->f) trường hợp lại Sáng sớmsang shơng chở xe zìa s (s,ce,se), ss, sh,ch,x,z (ge) trường hợp lại t, d phi công chở khách shay xỉn ghê ch, p, k, sh, s, f, x ( t� , p, k, � , s, f ) trường hợp lại lamps , laughs , books , sits , months teachers , explains schools boxes , misses , quizzes , practices changes , watches , washes studies , wanted, decided stopped, kicked, laughed, missed, watched, washed, fixed loved, delivered ENGLISH 12 - UNIT1 : HOME LIFE Best saying : Men build the house and women make it home Mother works as nurse Father biologist The girl Pupil The boys => - close-knit family frankly - rush = run quickly Trang 29 - night shift once /twice a week - caring : + take the responsibility for => busy at work + make sure => join hands to build + rush = run quickly a nice house and a - not come home until late at happy home night - willing to give a hand with + his eel soup - attempt to win a place at university - > under studying pressure - share household chores - look after the boys - take out the garbage - obedient - mischievous (trick, annoy) - supportive of one another - problem come up discuss - come up = happen English Grammar armyct1 - join hand = give a hand = help - share secret with - make important decision …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 - UNIT2 : CULTURAL DIVERSITY ( diversity culture) Best saying : a happy marriage should be based on love Survey was conducted determine attitude toward love and marriage Asian American - contractual marriage = arrange marriage ( Love is supposed to follow marriage, not precede it ) - romantic marriage : fall in love physical attractiveness confiding - concern with -> maintain beauty + appearance - Partnership of equal unwise to confide in oblige to tell where reject sacrifice - conduct = carry out - old-aged parents - it’s impolite to ask question about age, marriage and income - the wedding party /ceremony/ ring/ banquet - the newly wedded couples : altar , pray, exchage …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT3 : WAYS OF SOCIALISING Best saying : To attract/get one’s attention Verbal form of communication Non-verbal form of communication -Instance = example -> obvious non-verb signals are appropriate +Wave + Raise hand + Airport : jump up and down + restaurant : catch one’s eye , nod slightly (slight nod) -> need assistance -Whistle, clap hand, point at – impolite/rude Social situation Approach = come near to Take call = phone compliment - Lời khen Trang 30 - What a beautiful dress you’ve got! - How nice your house is! (new/beautiful/nice/good/well/better/great ) English Grammar - I’m glad you like it Thank you for your saying so That’s a nice compliment It’s very kind of you to say so You must be kidding ! I…… armyct1 ENGLISH 12 - UNIT4 : SCHOOL EDUCATION SYSTEM Best saying : Schooling is compulsory for all children from the age of to 17 - school system : parallel - - + state : free fee ( without paying fee ) + independent or public : fee-paying academic year: + run from ….to… + is divided into (consist of) …terms each term + is separated by o one-week break called half term The national curriculum + is set by the government + core subject….examinations at certain stages of the school education system + my favourite subject The General Certificate of Secondary Education is often called GCSE for short How long does the primary education last ? At the age of 16 optional Xem thêm trang 49, 50 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT5: HIGHER EDUCATION Best saying : Students should make full use of the tutors and lecturers - Fill in the application form - Applicant is a person who apply for job >< application form - Take the GCSE/entrance examination - Get …………… result - Get letter of acceptance from the university - Universities send letters of … acceptance to successful candidates by post - Deal with - Feel so lonely - Graduate from - Thoroughly = completely - Entrance requirement …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT6: FUTURE JOBS Best saying : Interview preparation is stressful : Trang 31 -Find out as much as possible about the job and the vacancy - Show suitable candidate for the position - Bring certificates and letters of recommendation from teachers/ professors/ bosses/ employers - jot down qualifications and experience English Grammar armyct1 - make sure know where - dress neatly and formally In the interview - greet / say goodbye interviewer - concentrate on = focus on = pay attention to - make effort to answer questions (clear, polite and honest) - show enthusiasm /keenness - certificates are document that you receive when you have completed a course of study or training - vacancy ( available job) - résumé ( short written account of one’s education and previous jobs) - keenness ( special interest) - jot down ( note down ) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT8: LIFE IN THE FUTURE Optimist Good, better Optimistic pessimist Bad, disappointed pessimistic Terrorist Violent action terrorism Economic Little economic activity, poor, without job (jobless) depression Wipe out Destroy, removed Prepositions and articles Die of - In time for cuối cùng/kịp giơ on business + On time lúc (không sớm/muộn) famous for - at the end of thời điểm cuối ….( the book/ film/ between…… and + in the end = at last, finally, la …… - get/be married to + marry with - lend/ borrow/ send/ give/ offer/ apply for  the …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT10: ENDANGERED SPECIES Many thousands of animal species become extinct each year before biologists can identify them Endangered species Vulnerable species Primary causes Trang 32 Be threatened with In danger of extinction Become extinct The verge of extinction - habitat destruction English Grammar armyct1 Plant, animal extinction Efforts/measures Needn’t Need must mustn’t - commercial exploitation - pollution ( toxic chemicals, contaminated water ) Loss of biodiversity maintain - Save/protect - pass laws = enact laws - established wildlife habitat reserve Natural habitat = natural environment Extinction =stop existing Biodiversity = existence of animals , plants -> balanced environment Conservation = prevent st lost, wasted, damaged or destroyed Plenty of time , much time, enough ….đủ , already đã … rồi Understand, go on a diet Not… plenty of time , much time, enough ….đủ , already đã …rồi Remember, valuable, good, Forget, secrete, open lion’s cage, (Zoo notice) - feed the animal, lift – fire , take more pills Xem thên trang 117 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT11: BOOKS How it is possible to read different types of books in different ways Tasting - read few pages - dip into , read bits here and there Swallowing - good/ exciting/ interesting - hard to put down - hard to pick up again (bad book) Chewing and - read slowly and carefully digesting - Books are still a cheap way to get information and entertainment, can keep forever, read again - Books in the home are a wonderful source of knowledge and pleasure Thriller Crime, spy (spies) romantic Love affair Novel Long story, character, events Science fiction Imagined scientific discoveries Fiction book Stories, imagination Craft Knit, wood Comic Story through picture biography Person’s life written What is he like ?  He is brave, witty and very kind to other people …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT12: WATER SPORTS ( Aquatic sports) Water polo Trang 33 English Grammar armyct1 pool goal team rules 1.8 metres deep, 30 metres long, 20 metres wide metres high, 0.9 metres above the water Is marked by vertical post, a crossbar, a net Seven players, white caps, goalie – red cap Sprint = swim/run quickly advance = throw No player except the goalie can hold the ball with both hand Defensive players are not allowed to interfere with the opponent’s movements Major fouls are penalized by ….in the penalty box A player is ejected after committing five personal fouls Minor fouls Holding, punching A game Is divided into quarters ranging from five to eight minutes in length Two overtime periods opponent Defeat another person in a competition penalize Punish……who breaks the rules eject Make someone leave a game foul Action against rules Tie = draw same score Water polo Pool, ball rowing Boat, oars Wind-surfing Board, sail Scuba-diving Air tank, fins, mask, underwater snorkeling Face down, breathing, slender AAU – The Amateur Athletic Union …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT13: The 22nd Sea Games host Vietnam held The 22nd Sea Games Spirit - solidarity, co-operation for peace and development - The Vietnamese athletes competed in high spirits Participant = competitor Take part in = participate in = join - Athletes from 11 participating countries competed in… - The Vietnamese Women’s Football team successfully defended the Sea Game title - The young and energetic Vietnamese athletes performed excellently (Outstanding athletic = excellent athletic ) - A plan has been proposed for Vietnam to host the Asia Sports Games at some point in the future - Vietnam’s first place finish was not surprising …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Trang 34 English Grammar armyct1 ENGLISH 12 – UNIT14: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS UN – UNICEF – WHO – The World Health Organization WWF – NATO – The Red Cross is - to reducing the human sufferings dedicated - Give medical aid - Help victims of major disasters : floods, earthquakes, epidemics, and famines - The foundation of International Red Cross was inspired by a Swiss man called Henry Dunant - The Red Cross is aimed at providing medical aid and other help to victims of natural disasters - The Federation’s mission is to improve the lives of vulnerable people who are victims of natural disasters, poverty and health emergencies - Initiate - Appall - Appeal- Tsunami - Objective = aim - Main goals …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… go On (stop/ break/rest/tired) get In hurr Off (bomb) = explode = ring y (clock) was = delay/ postpone/ put off … Out h up Away hold (word, dictionary, directory) … Along give = arrive (never … on … Ahead look time/always late) over (read carefully) turn look put At In On For After = take care of Up (word, dictionary, directory) Over (information ) on Get Take Lie try turn Over After Dow n out on off roun d = recover from ( shock/ death of…) = resemble ( father/sister/….) = test Dark Not use, finish using Hear a noise behind Clothes/ coat/ cold ENGLISH 12 – UNIT15: WOMEN IN SOCIETY - Deep-seated cultural beliefs - Women’s natural roles : mothers, wives, be suited for childbearing, childrearing and homemaking - Widespread doubt about women’s intellectual ability - Struggle for women’s rights establish the same social, economic, and political status for women as for men - Political philosopher Trang 35 English Grammar armyct1 - Pioneer thinker advocated women should not discriminated against on the basis of their sex - Women’s status varies in different countries, women in most part of the world have gained significant legal rights explain st to sb glance at wait for invite sb to laugh at ask sb for st speak to sb throw at apply for st to sb write to sb stare at search for Listen to point at talk about st to leave sb for …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ENGLISH 12 – UNIT16: THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS ASEAN - The main goals of the Association are to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development, and to promote peace and stability through respect justice … in the region - ASEAN Vision 2020 is aimed at forging closer economic integration within region - The objective of the ASEAN Vision 2020 is to create economic integration among the member countries - GDP – gross domestic product : total value of goods…one year - ASEAN economic cooperation covers many areas : trade, investment……………… - At present, Vietnam is trying its best to accelerate the rate of economic growth - The road is bordered by shopping centres, restaurants and other commercial enterprises - Her interest is very diverse …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Tóm tắt ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… Trang 36 English Grammar armyct1 …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 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armyct1 ... table is too heavy for me to move (S1≠S2)  I don’t have enough money to buy this bicycle I don’t have money I can’t buy this bicycle - > I don’t have enough money to buy this bicycle Clauses... is my father You met him yesterday The man với him có MQhệ (the man = him) -> The man is my father You met whom yesterday (bỏ him thay whom) -> The man is my father whom you met yesterday đem... always, often, usually, sometimes, today, nowadays, constantly, occasionally, seldom, rarely, hardly, - yesterday, Last / ago , In/by 1999 , from 1230 to 2009, this morning … - When I was a boy/
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