Ethics discovering right and wrong 7th

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Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it ✵ Ethics Discovering Right and Wrong SEVENTH EDITION Late of the United States Military Academy, West Point LOUIS P POJMAN University of Tennessee, Martin JAMES FIESER Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it ✵ Ethics Discovering Right and Wrong SEVENTH EDITION Late of the United States Military Academy, West Point LOUIS P POJMAN University of Tennessee, Martin JAMES FIESER Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it This is an electronic version of the print textbook Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, Seventh Edition Louis P Pojman and James Fieser Executive Editor: Clark Baxter Senior Sponsoring Editor: Joann Kozyrev Development Editor: Ian Lague Assistant Editor: Joshua Duncan Editorial Assistant: Marri Straton Media Editor: Kimberly Apfelbaum Marketing Manager: Mark T Haynes Marketing Coordinator: Josh Hendrick Marketing Communications Manager: Laura Localio Content Project Management: PreMediaGlobal Senior Art Director: Jennifer Wahi © 2012, 2009, 2006 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com Library of Congress Control Number: 2010942667 ISBN-13: 978-1-111-29817-3 ISBN-10: 1-111-29817-3 Print Buyer: Karen Hunt Rights Acquisition Specialist, Image: Amanda Groszko Senior Rights Acquisition Specialist, Text: Katie Huha Production Service: PreMediaGlobal Cover Designer: Kate Scheible Cover Image: Getty Images Compositor: PreMediaGlobal Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil and Japan Locate your local office at international.cengage.com/region Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com Instructors: Please visit login.cengage.com and log in to access instructor-specific resources Printed in the United States of America 15 14 13 12 11 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it ✵ About the Authors Louis P Pojman (1935–2005) was professor of Philosophy, Emeritus, at the United States Military Academy and a Life Member of Clare Hall, Cambridge University He received an M.A and a Ph.D from Union Theological Seminary/Columbia University and a D Phil from Oxford University He wrote in the areas of philosophy of religion, epistemology, ethics, and political philosophy and is the author or editor of more than 30 books and 100 articles Among these are Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong (6/e 2010), Environmental Ethics (5/e 2008), Who Are We? (2005), and Global Political Philosophy (2003) James Fieser is professor of Philosophy at the University of Tennessee at Martin He received his B.A from Berea College, and his M.A and Ph.D in philosophy from Purdue University He is author, coauthor or editor of ten text books, including Socrates to Sartre and Beyond (9/e 2011), Ethical Theory: Classical and Contemporary Readings (6/e 2010), A Historical Introduction to Philosophy (2003), and Moral Philosophy through the Ages (2001) He has edited and annotated the tenvolume Early Responses to Hume (2/e 2005) and the five-volume Scottish Common Sense Philosophy (2000) He is founder and general editor of the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Website (www.iep.utm.edu) v Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it ✵ Contents PREFACE xi What Is Ethics? Ethics and Its Subdivisions Morality as Compared with Other Normative Subjects Traits of Moral Principles Domains of Ethical Assessment Conclusion 11 For Further Reflection 12 For Further Reading 13 Ethical Relativism 14 Subjective Ethical Relativism 16 Conventional Ethical Relativism 18 Criticisms of Conventional Ethical Relativism Conclusion 27 For Further Reflection 28 For Further Reading 29 Moral Objectivism 30 Aquinas’s Objectivism and Absolutism Moderate Objectivism 38 Ethical Situationalism Conclusion 43 44 vii 32 21 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it viii CONTENTS For Further Reflection For Further Reading 45 45 Value and the Quest for the Good Intrinsic and Instrumental Value The Value of Pleasure 50 46 47 Are Values Objective or Subjective? 53 The Relation of Value to Morality 54 The Good Life 57 Conclusion 61 For Further Reflection For Further Reading 62 62 Social Contract Theory and the Motive to Be Moral Why Does Society Need Moral Rules? Why Should I Be Moral? 70 Morality, Self-Interest, and Game Theory The Motive to Always Be Moral 75 Conclusion 66 72 78 For Further Reflection 79 For Further Reading 79 Egoism, Self-Interest, and Altruism Psychological Egoism 82 Ethical Egoism 87 Arguments against Ethical Egoism Evolution and Altruism Conclusion 97 95 For Further Reflection 98 For Further Reading 81 91 99 Utilitarianism 100 Classic Utilitarianism 102 Act- and Rule-Utilitarianism 105 Criticism of Utilitarianism 109 Criticism of the Ends Justifying Immoral Means Conclusion 118 For Further Reflection For Further Reading 119 119 114 64 ... epistemology, ethics, and political philosophy and is the author or editor of more than 30 books and 100 articles Among these are Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong (6/e 2010), Environmental Ethics. .. remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, Seventh Edition Louis P Pojman and James Fieser Executive Editor: Clark Baxter... additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it xii PREFACE Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong was first published in 1990 and quickly established itself as an authoritative,
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