The new digital storytelling~creating narratives with new media 2011

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THE NEW DIGITAL STORYTELLING This page intentionally left blank THE NEW DIGITAL STORYTELLING Creating Narratives with New Media Bryan Alexander Copyright 2011 by Bryan Alexander All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publisher Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Alexander, Bryan, 1967The new digital storytelling: creating narratives with new media / Bryan Alexander p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-0-313-38749-4 (hardcopy: alk paper)—ISBN 978-0-313-38750-0 (ebook) Interactive multimedia Digital storytelling Storytelling—Data processing I Title QA76.76.I59A42 2011 006.7—dc22 2010050948 ISBN: 978-0-313-38749-4 EISBN: 978-0-313-38750-0 15 14 13 12 11 This book is also available on the World Wide Web as an eBook Visit www.abc-clio.com for details Praeger An Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC ABC-CLIO, LLC 130 Cremona Drive, P.O Box 1911 Santa Barbara, California 93116-1911 This book is printed on acid-free paper Manufactured in the United States of America To my children, Gwynneth and Owain, for their love of stories, the stories they have created, and the ones they’ll go on to tell And to my wife, Ceredwyn, for the story of our love That’s the best tale I know Our tendency to see and explain the world in common narratives is so deeply ingrained that we often don’t notice it—even when we’ve written the words ourselves In the Conceptual Age, however, we must awaken to the power of narrative —Daniel Pink Make ’em cry, make ’em laugh, make ’em wait —attributed to Willkie Collins Contents Acknowledgments ix Introduction xi Part I Storytelling: A Tale of Two Generations 1 Storytelling for the Twenty-First Century The First Wave of Digital Storytelling 17 The Next Wave of Digital Storytelling Platforms 29 Part II New Platforms for Tales and Telling 45 Web 2.0 Storytelling 47 Social Media Storytelling 77 Gaming: Storytelling on a Small Scale 91 Gaming: Storytelling on a Large Scale 109 Part III Combinatorial Storytelling; or, The Dawn of New Narrative Forms 123 No Story Is a Single Thing; or, The Networked Book 125 Mobile Devices: The Birth of New Designs for Small Screens 139 10 Chaotic Fictions; or, Alternate Reality Games 151 11 Augmented Reality: Telling Stories on the Worldboard 163 viii Contents Part IV Building Your Story 175 12 Story Flow: Practical Lessons on Brainstorming, Planning, and Development 177 13 Communities, Resources, and Challenges 201 14 Digital Storytelling in Education 213 15 Coda: Toward the Next Wave of Digital Storytelling 223 Notes 233 Bibliography 261 Index 269 Acknowledgments For stories and ideas: Bret Boessen, Thomas Burkdall, Annette S L Evans, Steven Kaye, Gail Matthews-DeNatale, Peter Naegele, Ruben Puentedura, Geoff Scranton, Mike Sellers, Ed Webb, and Middlebury College folk Jason Mittell and Hector Vila, the latter for inviting the CDS to teach a workshop and encouraging me to attend; this book owes much to that dual invitation Tobin Siebers for getting me to think about the uses of nonfiction stories The superb Twitter and Facebook hordes: pfanderson, rivenhomewood, KathrynTomasek, j_breitenbucher, and all Blog commentators Andy Havens, Steve Kaye, D’Arcy Norman, H Pierce, and more Infocult is in your debt For teaching inspiration: my two genius co-teachers Bret Olsen and Doug Reilly For every kind of collaboration, from coauthoring to teaching, inspiration to scheming: my wise and playful teachers Barbara Ganley and Alan Levine For all kinds of support and tolerance over many years: my NITLE colleagues And especially the many NITLE workshop participants, in all their energy, creativity, and generosity For helping me through the process of writing the book: Raymond Yee Howard Rheingold, for endless inspiration and guidance Bibliography 263 2009 Http://www.dlc.org/ndol_ci.cfm?contentid=255033&kaid=110&sub id=181 Gee, James Paul “Learning about Learning from a Video Game: Rise of Nations.” N.d Http://simworkshops.stanford.edu/05_0125/reading_docs/Rise%20of %20Nations.pdf Gee, James Paul What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning and Literacy New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003 Goodyear, Dana “I Novels: Young Women Develop a Genre for the Cellular Age.” New Yorker, December 22, 2008 Http://www.newyorker.com/ reporting/2008/12/22/081222fa_fact_goodyear Gosney, John Beyond Reality: A Guide to Alternate Reality Gaming Boston: Thomson, 2005 Greenfield, Adam Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2006 Hammersley, Ben “Audible Revolution.” Guardian, February 12, 2004 Http:// www.guardian.co.uk/media/2004/feb/12/broadcasting.digitalmedia Hayes, Christopher “Bailout Satire.” Nation, September 22, 2008 Http://www 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Digital Texts and the SecondPerson Address.” in Cybertext Yearbook 2000, Publications of the Research Centre for Contemporary Culture, ed Markku Eskelinen and Raine Koskimaa Saarijärvi: University of Jyväskylä, 2000 Http://jilltxt.net/txt/do_you _think.pdf Wallis, James “Making Games That Tell Stories.” In Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media, ed Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, 69–80 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007 Weiser, Mark “The Computer for the Twenty-First Century,” Scientific American 265, no (September 1991): 66–75 Http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/ weiser/SciAmDraft3.html Wolf, Mark, “Genre and the Video Game,” in The Medium of the Video Game, ed Mark Wolf Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001 Wortham, Jenna “Twitterers Stage Mock Martian Invasion a la ‘War of the Worlds’.” Wired, October 31, 2008 Http://www.wired.com/underwire/2008/10/ twitterers-stag/ This page intentionally left blank Index Adobe, 102, 210 adventure See exploration aggregation tools, 32–33 A.I (2001), 152 Alice and Kev (2009), 121–122 alternate reality game (ARG), 152–153, 155–161; antecedents of, 153–155 amateur press association (APA), 133–134 Amazon, 146, 147 analog media, analog storytelling, 15 ancient stories, anecdote, animations, 25 aphorism, 63–64 app See mobile-specific applications (app) Apple, 102 architectural visualization, 169 archival blogging, 54–58 archival material, 54–58, 72 Arnheim, Rudolph, 78 Assassin, 171–172 Atchley, Dana, 23–24 “Attribution Non-Commercial” license, 208 “Attribution” license, 208 Audacity (software), 190 audience, 13, 180, 196; attention of, 9–11; feedback, 86, 88, 129–131; immersion, 92–95, 117–118, 131, 170, 214, 216; placement, 86 See also engagement; immersion audio, 95, 118, 119 See also audio files; voiceover writing audio files, 77–83, 89, 190–191 See also audio augmented reality (AR), 164–166; platforms and technology of, 166–168, 172–173; storytelling potential of, 168–172 authorship, 159, 160, 28 See also digital storytelling; storytelling avatars, 102–103, 104 Beast, The, 152, 153 Bioshock, 110, 112, 115, 116, 117, 118–119, 120 blog fiction, 52–53, 56–57 blogroll, 206 blogs, 31–32, 47–54, 206, 230; architectural, 54–58; character, 58–61; networked books and, 128–129 (see also bookblogging) See also blog fiction; temporally structured archival blogging bookblogging, 128–129 boundary determination, 126 brainstorming, 193, 194–195, 197, 202 Brama Grodzka Cultural Center, 72 brevity practice, 203–204 Brownworth, Lars, 78–79 Byzantine Rulers, 78–79 Campanella, James, 80 Campbell, Gardner, 78 Campbell, Joseph, Carson, Don, 93, 94 casual gaming, 36, 96, 98, 99, 102–104; social, 101–102 See also “small” games 270 Index cell phone See mobile phone Center for Digital Storytelling, 9, 11, 24; approach, 26; curriculum, 25, 28, 40, 170, 182–183, 205; instructors, 26; Seven Principles of, 182–184; -style stories, 223, 224; workshop model, 178–190 Chain Factor, 97–98 chaotic fiction, 159–160 character blogging, 58–61 characters, 11–12, 14, 67, 87; alternative reality game (ARG), 157, 158; gaming and, 99–101, 113–114; joint-platforms and, 122 character studies, 71–72 Chondry, Mark, 50 Choose Your Own Adventure, 142–144 chronological sequence See linear sequence cinematics See cut scenes Cognitive Edge, coherence, 159, 160 collaboration, 218–219 See also alternative reality game (ARG); collaborative writing collaborative gaming See alternative reality game (ARG) collaborative writing, 64, 65, 68, 227–228 collective detective stories, 152 Contact (1997), 197–198 Comic Life, 192 commercial framework, 136 communication, 31 computer-generated imagery (CGI), 15 concept mapping, 182, 192 Connect with I, 86 console games, 35, 36, 110 constructivist learning, 218 content mastery, 218 context, 215 controller vibration, 116 conversations, 31–32, 56, 57, 61–64 See also Twitter copyright laws, 125–126 copyright problems, 188, 199–200, 228 course timeline, 220–221 Creative Commons (CC), 208 Creative Commons licensing project, 125 creative invisibility, 161 credits, 198 CREEatives, 227 cultural norms, 126 curriculum, 220 cut scenes, 95–96, 118–119 cybercultural ease, 214–215 cyberculture ludens, 33–40 data, 4, data tags, 169 design freedom, 30 dialog, 116 See also discussion diaries, 48–50 Digitales, 205 digital format, 15 digital materials, 207–209 digital memoirs, 23 digital preservation, 29 digital storytelling: consumption of, 3, 135–137, 139–149, 226; defined, 3, 28; education and, 213–222; gaming and, 38–39 (see also gaming); history of, 17–20, 23; hypertext and, 21–22; mobile devices and, 139–149; oral, 77, 78–79, 80; production of, 125–135, 143, 195, 226–228; segments of, 40–43; social media and, 77–89; spread of, 27–28; technological environment of, 29; types of, 84–89, 131 (see also genre) digital storytelling workshop, 178–190 Dionaea House (2004), 50, 74, 160 discussion, 31–32, 56, 57, 61–64 See also story circle; Twitter “Dispatches from the Hyperlocal Future” (Sterling), 49 distributed editing, 129–130 document hosting, 65 Dracula, 56–57 dramatic question, 183 dual narrative, 100 dual-track model, 96 e-books, 15, 136, 146–147 Echo Bazaar, 106, 107 economy, 183 Index editing, 129–130; video, 187–188, 189, 191–192 education, 26, 213–222, 229 elections, 14 Electronic Literature Organization, An, 22–23 elements, story, 92–102, 111–120 email stories, 20 emotional content, 183 emotional impact, 215 empowerment, 216 engagement, 6, 9–11, 13 See also immersion e-reader, 146–148 ergodic literature, 19 Esposito, Joseph, 22 exploration, 19, 102–104, 116 See also Fallout Exquisite Corpse method, 65 external links, 127 Facebook, 32, 33, 71–75 faculty, 219–222 Fallout 3, 110, 113–114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119 fan fiction, 133–135 Fanfiction.net (FFN), 134 Fantasy Amateur Press Association, 134 Farmville, 106 fiction, 52, 56–57; Facebook and, 74–75; fan, 133–135; podcasts and, 82 See also interactive fiction (IF) file transfer protocol (FTP), 30 FinalCut (software), 191 Flash (software), 102, 210 Flickr, 69, 70, 71 forking, 67 fragmented storytelling, 113 framework of discovery, 135–136 Frenay, Robert, 128 Freytag, Gustav, Freytag triangle, 5, 111 friction, 13, 100, 179 games, 13, 17, 37–39 See also gaming; large-scale games; “small” games; specific types game wikis, 115 gaming, 33–40, 133; environment, 118–119; future of, 224–225; hardware, 36; 271 mobile-specific applications (app) and, 145; resources, 209–210 See also games garden model, 67–68 Gee, Paul, 96 genre, 37–39 geographical stories, 169–171 gift of voice, 24, 183, 206 Google, 168, 192 GPS navigation, 166–167 group discussion See discussion group projects, 218–219 hardware, 36, 190 See also mobile devices; personal computer (PC) hardware reader, 167–168 Heisserer, Eric, 50–52 hero story, Hero with a Thousand Faces, The (Campbell), hidden story, 155–161 High Capacity Color Barcode, (HCCB), 167 history, 55–56; of digital storytelling, 17–20, 23; games and, 113; narrative models and, 199 (see also Rome: Total War); podcasts and, 78–80 hive mind, 206–207 hoax, 85, 154 HopBone games, 204 HTML See Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) hypermedia, 21 hypertext fiction, 19 Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), 21, 30, 210 hypertexts, 18–19 hypertext storytelling, 21–22 images, 25, 68–69, 186–187, 191 See also social images image sharing, 31 immersion, 92–95, 117–118, 131, 170, 214, 216 iMovie, 191 individual web pages, 21 information overload, 215 In Our Time, 79, 80 inspiration, 202–204, 205–211 272 Index intellectual property (IP), 86, 173, 208 See also copyright problems interactive fiction (IF), 19, 104–106 See also Choose Your Own Adventure interactive story See interactive fiction (IF) interview, 79, 80, 81, 181 intrigue, 9–11 See also mystery IOS system, 210 iPad, 148 iPhone, 227 “Iraqi Invasion: A Text Misadventure,” 105–106 iTacitus, 169 iTunes, 136 joint-platforms See platforms, jointjournalists, 12 Jumpcut, 192, 227 keitai See mobile phone Kindle, 146, 147 lack of control, 161 large-scale games, 109–122 lexia, 18, 19–20, 21, 22 LibriVox, 81, 206, 207 liminal states, 92 linear sequence, 111–112 link rot, 47 literary criticism, 125 live stories, 61–62 See also Twitter lonelygirl15 project (2006–2008), 84 Machinarium (2009), 103, 104 machinima, 121–122 Mad City Mystery, 171 Mafia Wars, 106 Marble Hornets (2009–2010), 87–88 marketing, 12–13 massively multiplayer online games, (MMOs), 35–36, 110 McCloud, Scott, 41, 100 McKee, Robert, meaning, 6, 7–8 media coverage, 223 media types, 180 MediaWiki, 66 Memory Place, The, 82 “Metacortechs game,” 156–159 metaphor, 197 microcontent, 30 micronarratives, 62–63 Million Penguins, 66, 67, 68 mimesis, 10–11 Mirror’s Edge, 117 mobile, definition, 140 mobile devices, 139–149, 165, 166, 167, 168, 193; future of, 226–227 (see also specific devices) mobile phone, 37, 139–140; mobile-specific application (app) and, 144–146; storytelling and, 140–146 See also iPhone; smartphone mobile-specific applications (app), 144–146 mobile Web sites, 145 “Momnotmom,” 25–26 monomyth, motion picture camera, movies, 15 multiple proscenia, 42–43, 115–116, 132, 136, 196, 228 multiple readable chunks See lexia Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs), 17 Murray, Janet, 43, 92, 93 music, 15 My Darklyng, (2010), 74 Myna, 190–191, 192 mystery, 13, 98, 102–104, 161, 196; games and, 119–120 See also mysterymaking mysterymaking, 9–10 myth, 8–9 mythopoeic story, 8–9, 14 narration, 25, 109–110, 151, 163, 177, 213 See also digital storytelling; storytelling narrative archaeologies, 172 narrative impulse, National Institute for Technology in Liberal Education (NITLE), 27 networked book, 127–133 networking, 126 See also platforms, jointNews from 1930, 55–56 99 Ways to Tell a Story, 202 nodes, 129–131 Index nonfiction, 12, 79 novels, 48, 71, 143 Novels in Three Lines (Fénéon), 62–63 Oblique Strategies, 202–203 Ohler, Jason, 8, 11 OhLife, 225 online communities, 222 open educational resources (OER), 219 oral traditions, 33, 42, 77, 78–79, 80 See also podcasts outbound links, 127 outmoded, 47 overload-coping mechanism, 215 pacing, 183 Patient Voices, 205 PC games, 35, 110, 117–120 Pdf sharing, 32 pedagogies, 217–222 Pepys Diary, 56, 57 personal computer (PC), 17 personal content, 23–24 personal presence, 41 phone See mobile phone Plants vs Zombies (2009), 94–95, 96, 98–99 platform affordances, 43 platforms, 31–32, 34–37, 93, 115–117, 121–122, 142; blogging, 47–61; Facebook as, 71–75; future of, 230–231; gaming, 34–37, 93, 115–117, 121–122, 142; handheld, 36–37; joint-, 74–75, 87–88, 122; mobile, 139–149; social, 101–102, 115–116; sound and, 118, 119; storytelling image, 68–71; Twitter as, 61–64; Wikis as, 64–68 See also iPad; mobile phone; smartphone Playing for Keeps (2007–2008), 81 podcasts, 77–83, 206–207 point of view, 183 political narratives, 14 Pollock, Natalie, 74–75 Polybius, 230 portable, 140 posthuman story, 64 “powers of ten” story, 198 pre-digital media, 273 presentations, 10 production tools, 190–193 See also specific tools profile, 72, 74 Project Gutenberg, 136 project management, 161 Project MU, 156–159 publication, 192 public relations, 12 Pulse (2006), 128 puzzle-solving, 104 Quick Response, Quick Read tags, 167 “Quiet Place” blog, 51 rabbit hole, 161 radio, 5, 15, 78, 93 Radio Frequency Identifier (RFID), 167–168 Radiolab, 82–83 Radio Open Source, 81–82 reality game, 97 remixing, 207 representation, 10–11 Richardson, John, 49 Rise of Nations, 96–97 Rome: Total War, 39, 110, 113, 114, 117, 119, 120 Rotterdam Market Hall AR layer, 169 round robin story, 65, 82 RSS, 32 Ruleset, 159, 160 science-fiction, 110 Second Life, 39, 210–211, 229 second-person narrative, 86, 99–101 See also “small” games segments, 40–43 self-representation, 48 sequence, 13, 111–112 See also structure serial logic, 196 serial structure, 41, 86 serious games, 38, 39, 40 Seven Principles, CDS curriculum, 182–184 She’s a Flight Risk, 48–49 Shute, David, 102 Slideshare, 71 single-character Facebook project, 72 274 Index sitcom, 84–86 “small” games, 92–107 Small Town Noir blog, 60–61 Small Worlds (2009), 102–103, 104 Smart Mobs, 128–129 smartphone, 165, 166 social architecture, 31–32 social bookmarking, 207 social browser game, 106–107 See also social gaming social framework, 41–42 social gaming, 101–102 social images, 68–71 social media, 29, 31–32; electoral campaigns and, 14; games, 33, 115–116; materials, 226; production, 115; qualities, 57–58; storytelling and, 77–89; transitory state of, 47 See also blogs; Facebook; gaming; specific types; Wikis social media journal, 48 See also blogs; Twitter social software, 31 software, 190–193 software development, 225–226 songs, 165–166 sound, 95, 118, 119 soundtrack, 183, 188 source diversity, 201 spatial problems, 199 Stacey, Sean, 159 standards, 223 Standards of Creation, The (2008), 80 story, 4, 5, 6–15; assessment, 217–219; categories, 181; commentary, 129–131; creation of, 178–190, 193–199, 214, 216; defined, 13, 110–111, 125–126, 132–133; elements of, 92–102, 111–120, 179–180, 185, 196; environment, 92, 92–95, 98; hero, 8; hidden, 155–161; of learning, 214–217; in marketing, 12–13; round robin, 65, 82; serial, 84–86; text-based game, 18–21, 105 See also digital storytelling; myth; storytelling storyboarding, 182 story circle, 179, 185–186, 187–189, 190 StoryCorps, 205 story games, interactive fiction, 19 story on rails, 111 storyteller, 12 See also digital storytelling; storytelling storytelling, 4, 5, 10–11, 12, 21; analog, 15; business and, 12–13; elements of, 196; fragmented, 113; nonfiction, 12–13 See also digital storytelling; story storytelling backlash, 223–224 storytelling resources, 205–211 Streetside Stories, 205 structure, 5–6, 8, 13 students, 214–219 subcreation, 131 superimposed visualization, 164 tablet computing, 148 Tablet PC, 148 Tag, 167, 169 teachers, 219–222 technological environment, 29 technological fluency, 214–215 technology, 102, 166–168; advancement of, 225–226, 230–231; workshop requirements and, 178, 186–187, 190–193 television, 15 “Tell a story in frames,” 69–70, 204 templates, 30, 182 temporal limit, 180 temporally structured archival blogging, 54–58 text-based game-stories, 18–21, 105 textbooks, 146 text novels, 143 theme, 6–7, 67 34 North 118 West, 169–170 “this is not a game,” 13 3-D content, 210–211 timeline, 195 timeshifting, 43 Tale of Things, 168 Tolkien, J R R., 131 transformation, 24 transmedia storytelling, 131 Twitter, 61–64, 75–76, 206 Twitter360, 171 2010 Horizon Report, The (Johnson et al.), 164 Typepad’s blog statistics, 56 Index ubiquitous computing, 140–141 Universal Product Code (UPC), 167 verbs, 196–197 video editing, 187–188, 189, 191–192 video files, 83–89 video recorders, video recording, 187 vinyl records, virtual worlds, 38–39, 40 voice-acting, 18 voiceover writing, 180–182, 184–185 voice thread, 89 Vuvox, 226 Web pages, 21, 65, 145 Web portals, 32–33 Web video, 83–89 See also YouTube Wikipedia, 65, 66, 127–128 Wikis, 64–68; game, 115 Wikitude, 164, 169 wireless, 140 word choice, 196–197 workhorses, 210–211 workshop, 178 See also digital storytelling workshop World without Oil, The (2007), 50 writing exercises, 203 Xtranormal, 192–193 Walker, Jill, 99–100 Web 2.0, 29–30; blogs and, 47–61; Facebook and, 71–75; images and, 68–71; platforms of, 31–33, 34–37; Twitter and, 61–64; Wikis and, 64–68 275 Yellow Sheet, The (2007), 81–82 Yelp, 167 YouTube, 83–84 Zytomirski, Henio, 72–73 This page intentionally left blank About the Author BRYAN ALEXANDER is the senior fellow for the National Institute for Technology in Liberal Education His primary research interests concern Web 2.0, mobile and wireless computing, digital gaming, digital writing, information literacy, project management, and interdisciplinary collaboration He maintains and contributes to a series of Web logs, including Techne, which provides environmental scanning for emergent technology and higher education and is written for a general audience He maintains the NITLE prediction market game, and is active on Twitter .. .THE NEW DIGITAL STORYTELLING This page intentionally left blank THE NEW DIGITAL STORYTELLING Creating Narratives with New Media Bryan Alexander Copyright 2011 by Bryan Alexander... and then survey the digital storytelling ancestry, the two generations of computing and narrative practice preceding our time The second part of this book surveys the current state of the digital. .. anxiety about the newer, digital tools At a different level, pairing digital storytelling with other narrative traditions brings to mind the sheer scope and persistence of storytelling in the human
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Xem thêm: The new digital storytelling~creating narratives with new media 2011 , The new digital storytelling~creating narratives with new media 2011 , Gaming: Storytelling on a Small Scale, Gaming: Storytelling on a Large Scale, No Story Is a Single Thing; or, The Networked Book, Mobile Devices: The Birth of New Designs for Small Screens, Chaotic Fictions; or, Alternate Reality Games, Augmented Reality: Telling Stories on the Worldboard, Story Flow: Practical Lessons on Brainstorming, Planning, and Development, Communities, Resources, and Challenges, Coda: Toward the Next Wave of Digital Storytelling

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