Plastics materials 7ed 1999 brydson

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PLASTICS MATERIALS SEVENTH EDITION J A Brydson Former Head of the Department of Physical Sciences and Technology, Polytechnic of North London (now known as the University of North London) f E I N E M A N N OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Wobum, MA 01801-2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group First published by Iliffe Books Ltd 1966 Second edition 1969 Reprinted 1970 Third edition 1975 Reprinted with revisions 1977 Reprinted 1979 Fourth edition published by Butterworth-Heinemann 1982 Reprinted 1985 Fifth edition 1989 Reprinted 1991, 1993 Sixth edition 1995 Reprinted 1995, 1996, 1998 Seventh edition 1999 J A Brydson 1995, 1999 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W l P 9HE Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Brydson, J A (John Andrew), 1932Plastics materials - 7th ed Plastics I Title 668.4 ISBN 7506 4132 Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Brydson, J A Plastics materia1slJ.A Brydson - 7th ed p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 7506 4132 (hbk.) Plastics I Title TP1120 B7 99-30623 668.4-dc21 CIP Composition by Genesis Typesetting, Laser Quay, Rochester, Kent Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddles Lt4 Guildford and King’s Lynn Preface to the Seventh Edition I mentioned in the preface to the sixth edition that when I began preparation of the first edition of this book in the early 1960s world production of plastics materials was of the order of million tonnes per annum In the late 1990s it has been estimated at 135 million tonnes per annum! In spite of this enormous growth my prediction in the first edition that the likelihood of discovering new important general purposes polymers was remote but that new special purpose polymers would continue to be introduced has proved correct Since the last edition several new materials have been announced Many of these are based on metallocene catalyst technology Besides the more obvious materials such as metallocene-catalysed polyethylene and polypropylene these also include syndiotactic polystyrenes, ethylene-styrene copolymers and cycloolefin polymers Developments also continue with condensation polymers with several new polyester-type materials of interest for bottle-blowing and/or degradable plastics New phenolic-type resins have also been announced As with previous editions I have tried to explain the properties of these new materials in terms of their structure and morphology involving the principles laid down in the earlier chapters This new edition not only includes information on the newer materials but attempts to explain in modifications to Chapter the basis of metallocene polymerisation Since it is also becoming apparent that successful development with these polymers involves consideration of molecular weight distributions an appendix to Chapter has been added trying to explain in simple terms such concepts as number and molecular weight averages, molecular weight distribution and in particular concepts such as bi- and trimodal distributions which are becoming of interest As in previous editions I have tried to give some idea of the commercial importance of the materials discussed What has been difficult is to continue to indicate major suppliers since there have been many mergers and transfers of manufacturing rights There has also been considerable growth in manufacturing capacity in the Pacific Rim area and in Latin America However this has tended to coincide with the considerable economic turmoil in these areas particularly during the period of preparation for this edition For this reason most of the xvii xviii Preface to the Seventh Edition figures on production and consumption is based on 1997 data as this was felt to be more representative than later, hopefully temporary, distortions In a book which has in effect been written over a period of nearly 40 years the author would request tolerance by the reader for some inconsistencies In particular I am mindful about references In the earlier editions these were dominated by seminal references to fundamental papers on the discovery of new materials, often by individuals, or classic papers that laid down the foundations relating properties to structure In more recent editions I have added few new individual references since most announcements of new materials are the result of work by large teams and made by companies For this reason I have directed the reader to reviews, particularly those by Rapra and those found in Kunstoffe for which translations in English are available I am also aware that some of the graphs from early editions not show data in SI units Since in many cases the diagram is there to emphasise a relationship rather than to give absolute values and because changing data provided by other authors is something not to be undertaken lightly I would again request tolerance by the reader J A B Brent Eleigh Suffolk, 1999 Preface to the First Edition There are at the present time many thousands of grades of commercial plastics materials offered for sale throughout the world Only rarely are the properties of any two of these grades identical, for although the number of chemically distinct species (e.g polyethylenes, polystyrenes) is limited, there are many variations within each group Such variations can arise through differences in molecular structure, differences in physical form, the presence of impurities and also in the nature and amount of additives which may have been incorporated into the base polymer One of the aims of this book is to show how the many different materials arise, to discuss their properties and to show how these properties can to a large extent be explained by consideration of the composition of a plastics material and in particular the molecular structure of the base polymer employed After a brief historical review in Chapter the following five chapters provide a short summary of the general methods of preparation of plastics materials and follow on by showing how properties are related to chemical structure These particular chapters are largely qualitative in nature and are aimed not so much at the theoretical physical chemist but rather at the polymer technologist and the organic chemist who will require this knowledge in the practice of polymer and compound formulation Subsequent chapters deal with individual classes of plastics In each case a review is given of the preparation, structure and properties of the material In order to prevent the book from becoming too large I have omitted detailed discussion of processing techniques Instead, with each major class of material an indication is given of the main processing characteristics The applications of the various materials are considered in the light of the merits and the demerits of the material The title of the book requires that a definition of plastics materials be given This is however very difficult For the purpose of this book I eventually used as a working definition ‘Those materials which are considered to be plastics materials by common acceptance’ Not a positive definition but one which is probably less capable of being criticised than any other definition I have seen Perhaps a rather more useful definition but one which requires clarification is xix xx Preface to the First Edition ‘Plastics materials are processable compositions based on macromolecules’ In most cases (certainly with all synthetic materials) the macromolecules are polymers, large molecules made by the joining together of many smaller ones Such a definition does however include rubbers, surface coatings, fibres and glasses and these, largely for historical reasons, are not generally regarded as plastics While we may arbitrarily exclude the above four classes of material the borderlines remain undefined How should we classify the flexible polyurethane foams-as rubbers or as plastics? What about nylon tennis racquet filament?or polyethylene dip coatings? Without being tied by definition I have for convenience included such materials in this book but have given only brief mention to coatings, fibres and glasses generally The rubbers I have treated as rather a special case considering them as plastics materials that show reversible high elasticity For this reason I have briefly reviewed the range of elastomeric materials commercially available I hope that this book will prove to be of value to technical staff who are involved in the development and use of plastics materials and who wish to obtain a broader picture of those products than they could normally obtain in their everyday work Problems that are encountered in technical work can generally be classified into three groups; problems which have already been solved elsewhere, problems whose solutions are suggested by a knowledge of the way in which similar problems have been tackled elsewhere and finally completely novel problems In practice most industrial problems fall into the first two categories so that the technologist who has a good background knowledge to his subject and who knows where to look for details of original work has an enhanced value to industry It is hoped that in a small way the text of this book will help to provide some of the background knowledge required and that the references, particularly to more detailed monographs, given at the end of each chapter will provide signposts along the pathways of the ever thickening jungle of technical literature 1965 J A B Acknowledgements for the Seventh Edition As I have said in previous editions the information provided in this volume is a distillation of the work of very many scientists, technologists, engineers, economists and journalists without which this book could not have existed Over the years with the different editions I have received help from very many companies concerned with the production of plastics materials and from very many individuals For this edition I should specifically like to thank Susan Davey, Academic Information Services Manager of the University of North London, Rebecca Dolbey and Ray Gill of Rapra Technology Ltd, Peter Lewis of the Open University, Simon Robinson of European Plastics News, Christopher Sutcliffe of Crystal Polymers Ltd and Graham Bonner of BP Chemicals Once again I should acknowledge that I have drawn heavily from the journals European Plastics News, Kunstoffe, Modern Plastics International and Plastics and Rubber Weekly for data on production and consumption statistics My thanks also go to the publishers Butterworth-Heinemann and particularly Rebecca Hammersley for their tolerance and help Once again 1must also express my thanks to Wendy, my wife, who has had to tolerate me writing, at intervals, editions of this book for much of our married life xxi Abbreviations for Plastics and Rubbers Many abbreviations for plastics materials are in common use Some of these have now been incorporated into national and international standards, including: IS0 1043 (1978) Plastics-Symbols BS 3502 Common Names and Abbreviations for Plastics and Rubbers Part Principal commercial plastics (1978) (The 1978 revision was carried out in accordance with IS 1043 although the latter also deals with compounding ingredients.) ASTM D 1600-83 Abbreviations of terms relating to plastics DIN 7728 Part (1978) Symbols for terms relating to homopolymers, copolymers and polymer compounds Part (1980) Symbols for reinforced plastics In Table 1, drawn up by the author, of abbreviations in common use those in bold type are in the main schedule of BS 3502 In this list the names given for the materials are the commonly used scientijic names This situation is further complicated by the adoption of a nomenclature by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry for systematic names and a yet further nomenclature by the Association for Science Education which is widely used in British schools but not in industry Some examples of these are given in Table Because many rubbery materials have been referred to in this book, Tables and list abbreviations for these materials xxiii xxiv Abbreviations for Plastics and Rubbers Table Common abbreviations for plastics Abbreviation Material Common name ABS Acry lonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer Acrylonitrile-styrene and chlorinated polyethylene Acrylonitrile-styrene and ethylenepropylene rubber Acrylonitrile-styrene and acrylic rubber Cellulose acetate Cellulose acetate-butyrate Cellulose acetate-propionate Cellulose nitrate Cellulose propionate Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Cellulose triacetate Casein ABS ACS AES ASA CA CAB CAP CN CP CPVC CTA CS DMC PA1 PBTP, PBT, PTMT PC PETP, PET PCT Ethylene-acrylic acid Ethylene-ethyl acrylate Epoxide resin Tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymer Ethylene-vinyl acetate Ethylene-vinyl alcohol Tetrafluoroethylenehexafluoropropylene copolymer Thermoplastic material reinforced, commonly with fibre Glass-fibre reinforced plastic based on a thermosetting resin High-density polyethylene High-impact polystyrene Low-density polyethylene Linear low-density polyethylene Methacrylate-butadiene styrene Medium-density polyethylene Melamine-formaldehy de Polyamide Polyamideimide Polybutylene terephthalate Polycarbonate Polyethylene terephthalate Poly- PCTFE PE PEBA PEEK terephthalate) Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polyethylene Polyether block amide Polyether ether ketone EAA EEA EP ETFE EVAC EVOH, EVAL, EVOL FEP FRP, FRTP GRP HDPE HIPS LDPE LLDPE MBS MDPE MF PA Acetate CAB, butyrate CAP Celluloid CP, propionate Triacetate Casein Dough moulding compound (usually polyester) EPOXY EVA Melamine Nylon (some types) Polyester Polycarbonate Polyester ( 1,4-cyclohexylenediaminemethylene Polythene Abbreviations for Plastics and Rubbers xxv Table Continued Abbreviation Material Common name PEEKK PEG PEI PEK PES PETP, PET PF PFA Polyether ether ketone ketone Polyethylene glycol Polyetherimide Polyether ketone Polyether sulphone Polyethylene terephthalate Phenol-formaldehyde Polyester Phenolic PI PIB PMMA, PMM PMMI POM PP PPG PPO PPO PPS PS PS, PSU PTFE PUR PVA PVA PVA PVAC PVB PVC PVDC PVDF PVF PVF PVP P4MP1 RF SAN SI SMA SMC TPS UF UP UPVC VLDPE XPS Tetrafluoroethylene-pertluoroalkyl (usually propyl) vinyl ether copolymers Polyimide Polyisobutylene Polymethyl methacrylate Polyrnethylmethacrylimide Polyacetal, polyoxymethylene, polyformaldehyde Polypropylene Polypropylene glycol Polyphenylene oxide Polypropylene oxide Polypropylene sulphide Polystyrene Polysulphone Polytetrafluoroethy lene Polyurethane Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Polyvinyl acetal Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl butyral Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylidene chloride Polyvinylidene fluoride Polyvinyl fluoride Polyvinyl formal Polyvinyl pynolidone Poly-4-methyl pentene- Resorcinol-formaldehyde Styrene-acrylonitrile Polysiloxane Styrene-maleic anhydride Acrylic Acetal Propylene, polyprop Styrene PTFE Polyurethane, urethane PVA PVC, vinyl SAN Silicone Sheet moulding compound (usually polyester) Toughened polystyrene Urea-formaldehyde Unsaturated polyester Unplasticised PVC Very low density polyethylene Expanded polystyrene Urea Polyester 906 Index Flow properties-continued elastic effects in polymer melts, 171-3 in injection mould, 170-1 terminology, 164-6 Flow temperature, 44, 626 Fluidised-bed techniques, 237, 349, 550, 572 Fluon, 364 Fluorel 11, 382 Fluorine-containing polymers, 363-84 ethylene copolymers, 374-5 fluorine-containing rubbers, 379-83 hexafluoroisobutylenevinylidenefluoride copolymers, 379 polychlorotrifluoroethylene copolymers, 374-5 polytetrafluoroethylene, 364-73 poly(viny1 fluoride), 376 poly(viny1idene fluoride), 376-7 tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymers, 374 tetrafluoroethy lene-hexafluoropropylene copolymers, 373 Fluoro compounds, 797 Fluoroelastomers, 380-82 Fluoroprene, 379 Fluororubbers, 363, 379 Fluorosilicones, 833 Foams flexible, 791-800 rigid and semi-rigid, 800-804 urea-formaldehyde resins, 678-9 Footwear, 14 Foraflon, 376 Formaldehyde, , 10, 20, 97, 857-8 polymerisation, 533-6 preparation, 532 Formica, 688 Formolisation, 857-9 Fomvar, 392 Forticel, 628 Fortron, 593 Fracture initiation stress, 57 Free energy change, 84 Free energy equation, 94 Free radicals, 239, 283 addition polymerisation, 25-34, 36 Freeze-line distance, 235-6 FriedelLCrafts agents, 34, 475, 663 Friedel-Crafts and related polymers, 635, 662-6 Fringed crystallite theory, 50 Fringed micelle theory, 50 Frozen-in stress, 202, 204, 574 Fumaric acid, 698 Functionality, 38, 177 Fungicides, 496 Furane plastics, Furan resins, 810-13 applications, 812-3 preparation of intermediates, 810-11 properties of cured resins, 812 resinification, 81 I -I Furfural, 810-13 Furfuryl alcohol, 678, 810-13 Furukawa process, 240 Gasoline, 10 Gauche form, 60 Gelatine, 28 Gel effect, 402 Gel point, 39 Gelvatol, 390 Generic Temperature Index, 187 Gilsonite, 871 Glass-clear polyamides, 509-13 Glass fibre, 189, 258, 498 Glass-like polymers, 45, 64 Glass transition temperature, 44-58, 70-71, 185, 196 amorphous polymers, 100, 104, 784 and dipole polarisation, 114-17 factors affecting, 59-64, 70, 72, 73, 88 nylons, 493 polyethylene, 62, 212 poly(ethy1ene terephthalate) (PET), 62, 114 Glassy resins, 56 Glassy state, 44 Gloss, 121, 235 Glycerol, 23 Glycidyl adducts, 754 Glycidyl ether resins, 751-61 acid hardening systems, 758-61 amine hardening systems, 753-7, 761 curing, 751-61 miscellaneous, 761-4 Glycols, 20, 127, 546-7 Graft polymers, 27, 360 Gramophone records, 867, 868, 869 Granule characteristics, 159-61 Graphite, 133 Greases, 827 Grignard method, 815, 818-20 Grilamid ELY, 527 Grilamid TR55, 511 Growth-temperature curve, 51 GR-S (Government Rubber-Styrene), 287, 425 Gutta percha, 2, 4, 7, 70, 865-6 related materials, 865-6 Halar, 375 Halon, 375 Halophosphates, 148 Hardening systems, 64-3, 753-61 Haze, 121, 133, 235, 434 Heat deflection temperature under load test (HDT test), 188 Heat distortion temperature test, 188, 524, 565 Heat stabilisers, 496, 497 Heat stability, 96 Henecke machine, 793-4, 798 Index 907 Henry’s law, 102 Herclor C, 548 Herclor H, 548 Heterogeneous nucleation, 52 Hexafluoroisobutylene-vinylidene fluoride copolymers, 379 Hexahydrophthalic anhydride, 750 Hexamethyleneadipamide, 7@7 Hexamethylenediamine, 9, 1, 48 Hexamethylenesebacamide, 70-7 Hexamethyleneterephthalamide,70-7 High-energy radiation, 76, 96-8, 99 High-frequency heating, 161 High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 7, 8, 56, 57, 426, 437-40 High-styrene resins, 289 High-temperature polymers, 841-5 1, 898 co-ordination, 850-5 cross-linked organic, 846-7 fluorine-containing, 841 -2 inorganic, 842-4 ladder, 848-50 linear with p-phenylene groups and other ring structures, 847-8 spiro, 848-50 High-vinyl polybutadienes, 291 Hipertuf, 723 Hitachi process, 240 Hivalloy, 248 HM-50, 12 Homogeneous nucleation, 50 Homopolymers, 27, 53, 63, 70, 226 Horticulture, 14 Hostaflon C2, 375 Hostaflon ET, 374 Hostaflon PFA-N, 377 Hostaflon TF, 364 Hostaflon TFB, 374 Hostaflon TFM, 378 Hostaform, 531, 535 Hostalit LP HT 5060, 361 Hostamid, I Hostatec, 404 Hot melt compositions, 353 Hot moulding process, 799 Housings, 897 H-resin, 585 Hycar 2121x38, 416 Hycar 402 I , 16 Hydrin, 548 Hydrocarbon radicals, 134-5 Hydrofluoric acid, 15 Hydrogenated nitrile rubbers, 294-5 Hydrogenated SBS triblock polymers, 294 Hydrogen bonding, 54, 60, 79-80, 85, 89, 91, 875 Hydrogen bonding theory, 132 Hydrolysis, 95, 156, 881 Hydrophilic polymers, 420 Hydroquinone, 26, 27 Hydroxethyl cellulose, 632 p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 53 Hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose, 632 Hydroxyl groups, 95 primary, 796 secondary, 796 Hydroxypropyl cellulose, 632 Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, 632 Hygroscopic behaviour, 159 Hypalon, 23, 67, 224, 241, 297 Hytrel, 55, 695, 737, 790, 879 Icdal Ti40, 16 IEC 69-2-1 Glow Wire Test, 107 IEC 695-2-2 Needle Flame Test, 107 Igamid IC, 515 lgepal CA, 226 Ignition, 104, 105 I-Gummi, 790 Impact modifiers, 134, 338-9, 496, 497 Impact strength, 45, 74-5, 216, 413-15, 567 assessment of, 192-5 Impact tests, 192-4 Impingement mixing, 804 Impurities, 127 Induction forces, 79, 85, 89 Injection moulding, 15, 49, 158, 160, 233, 373 and compression moulding, 651, 674-5 cooling rates, 174-6 flow process, 170-1, 202 PMMA, 409-10 polypropylene, 263 polystyrene, 455 PVC, 350 Inorganic resin, 258, 845 Intensity factor, 93 Interchain attraction, 59 Intermolecular forces, 70, 75, 79-81 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), 122 International Standards Organisation (ISO), 122 Interpenetrating polymer networks, 808 Intrinsically electrically conducting polymers (ICPs), 887-9 Ionic bonds, 77 Ionic cross-linking, 54, 875 Ionic polymerisation, 33-7 Ionomers, 275-6, 875 Iron dithiocarbamate, 153 IS0 306, 188 IS0 75, 188 Isocyanates, 779-82, 808 Iso-free volume, 47 ris, trans Isomerism, 70 Isophthalic acid (IPA), 699, 718 Isoprene, 20, 54 Isopropenyl, 2-oxazoline (IPO), 155 Isopropyl tri(diocty1 pyrophosphate) titanate, 131 Isotactic polypropylene, 252-9 additives, 258-9 applications, 263-5 908 Index Isotactic polypropylene-continlred processing characteristics, 260-63 properties, 252-7 Isotactic structures, 68, 249, 251 Ivoride, Ixef, 18 Izod impact strength, 454, 573, 895 Izod test, 191-4, 374, 567 Jelutong, 866 Kaladex, 724 Kalrez, 382 Kamex, 415 Kapton, 516, 518 KES PIasrics package, 894 Kel-F, 375 Kematal, 53 I Kennel, 522 Ketonex, 279 Kevlar, 14- 15 KF, 376 Kinel, 16 KKF data base, 895 Klucel, 632 Knife handles, 623 Kodar, 19 Kodar PETG, 730 Kodel, 719 Kraft papers, 653, 657, 688 Kraton G , 298 K-resins, 37 Krytox, 384 K-values, 320-21 Kynar, 376 Kynol, 666 Lac, 2, 867-9 Ladder polymers, 848-50 Laminates, 654-8, 807-8, 829-30 Lanital, 859 Latices, 2, 158, 181, 231-2, 355, 866 Lead orthosilicates, 328 Lead salicylate, 328 Lead silicate, 328 Lead stearate, 328, 337 Levapren, 273 Levapren 450, 301 Lewis acid, 210 Lexan, 557 Light energy, 98 Light magnesium carbonate, 338 Light screens, 144, 145 Light stabilisers, 496, 497 Lignin, 19 Limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, 105-6 Linear aromatic polyesters, 607-609, 730-38 Liquid crystal polyesters, 695, 734-8 Liquid crystal polymers, 53, 734 Load-bearing plastics, 897 Lopac, 416 Loss factor, 114 Lubricants, 124, 132-4, 336-7, 827 external, 133, 337 internal, 133, 337 nylon, 496, 497 poly(viny1 chloride), 336-7 Lucite, 399 Luran S, 449 Luranyl, 590 Lutamer, 887 Luvican, 472, 473 Lycra, 790 Lyotropic mesomorphism, 53 Machining operations, 158 Macroblend, 579 Macromolecules, 19 Magnesium stearate, 337 Makrolons, 557, 580 Maleic anhydride, 760 Margard, 577 Markets for plastics, 11-14 Martens test, 189, 472 Mass colouration, 149-50 Material selection, 891-8 computer-aided selection, 895-6 data sources, 893-6 economic factors affecting choice, 892-3 establishing operational requirements, 892 non-computer systems, 896 Maximum service temperature, 186-70 MBS polymers, 448-9 Mechanical properties acetal resins, 538-42 polyethylene, 17-20 Medical applications, 17 Melamine, 680-83 Melamine-formaldehyde resins, 5, 7, 669, 680-89 applications, 688-9 laminates, 687-8 melamine, G moulding powders, 683-7 resinification, 682-3 Melamine-phenolic resins, 689 Melinar, 607 Melinex, 52, 607, 695, 713, 719 Melt flow index (MFI), 210, 216, 220, 226, 254-6 Melt fracture, 172 Melting point, 40-1, 47, 70-71, 464 crystalline, 72, 84, 86 Melt processing of thermoplastics, 159-76, 223 crystallisation, 159, 175 flow properties, 159, 163-73 granule characteristics, hygroscopic behaviour, 159 orientation and shrinkage, 159, 175-6 Index 909 thermal properties affecting cooling, 159 174-5 thermal properties influencing polymer melting, 159, 163-4 thermal stability, 159, 163 Melt processing of thermosetting plastics, 176-9 Melt viscosity, 73, 222-3, 235, 564 Mercaptans, 26 Merlon T, 565 Mesomorphic materials, 53 Metal deactivators, 140, 141, 142 Metallocene catalysis, 8-9, 38, 206, 207, 248, 251, 268 ethylene-styrene copolymers, 308-309 polyethylenes (m-PE), 211, 216, 217, 227-8, 248 linear low density (m-LLDPE), 228 very low density (m-VLDPE), 228 polypropylenes, 249, 25 isotactic, 259 syndiotactic, 259, 268 polystyrenes syndiotactic, 424, 433 Metal stearates, 328 Meta-phenylenediamine, 754 Methacrylate polymers and copolymers, 62, 421-3 Methacrylato-chrome chloride treatments, 129 Methanol, 532 Methocel, 632 Methyl cellulose, 632 Methylaluminoxane (MAO), 25 1, 454 4,4’-Methylenedianiline,755 Methylene dichloride, 86 Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP), 702 Methyl methacrylate, 20, 97, 208 Methyl nadic anhydride VI, 760, 762 Methylsuccinic acid, 60, 61 Mica, 870 Mica marks, 159 Micelles, 28, 33 Microfibrillation, 56 Millable gums, 788 Mindel, 602 Modern Plastics Encyclopaedia, 896 Modifiers, 26 Molar attraction constants, 91-2 Molecular weight distribution (MWD), 40, 216-7, 243, 252 Molecular weights, 40-1, 43-4, 62-4, 73, 87, 167-74 PTFE, 179 Molecules, 40 Moltopren, 792 Molybdenum disulphide, 133, 372 Molybdenum oxide, 11 Monomers, 20, 25-8, 36 preparation, 207, 386-8, 390-91, 426-9 Moplen, 247 Mouldability index, 170 Moulding cbmpositions, 128, 709-12, 831, 872 Moulding materials, 720-22 Moulding powders, 5, 645-54, 672-5, 683-7 Moulding shrinkage, 203, 256, 262, 501, 575 Mowiol, 390 Mowital, 392 Multiblock systems, 55 MXD-6, 513 Mylar, 607, 695, 713, 719 Nafion, 384 Naphthalene, National Bureau of Standards (NBS) smoke chamber test, 109 Native asphalt, 871 Natural rubber, derivatives, 860-65 Natural tack, 284 n-Butane, 10 N-Cyclohexylmaleimide, 360- Neoflon, 373 Neoprene, 295 Newtonian liquids, 164-6, 169, 325 Ni-Kieselguhr catalysts, 863 Nitrile resins, 88, 415-17 Nitrile rubber (NBR), 88, 281, 294-5, 416, 442 Nitrogen-containing resins, 767-8 Nitrosofluoroelastomers, 382 Nomex, 514, 666 Non-Newtonian liquids, 169 Nonox WSP, 230 Norbornene, 304 Norsorex, 306 Noryl, 589-92, 894, 897 Notched impact strength, 566, 579 Notch sensitivity, 192, 194 Novolak resins, 122, 290, 639-46, 762 NR-16, 416 Nucleating agents, 496, 497, 886 Nucleation, 50-5 Nucleation-temperature curve, Number average degree of polymerisation, 30 Number average molecular weight, 32, 174, 206, 215, 236, 702 Nylon-6, 62, 478, 480, 486-94, 505 applications, 502-504, 879, 896 chemical nature, 854 in glass-filled compositions, 500 nucleating agent, 497 processing, 505 Nylon-7, 478, 487, 488 applications, 505 Nylon-9, 461, 485 applications, 505 Nylon-l1,478,480,487,488,494, 505 applications, 402-504, 784, 879, 896 chemical nature, 854 processing, 500 Nylon-12, 478, 485, 487, 505 applications, 502, 503, 879, 896 processing, 500 Nylon-46, 478, 486, 487, 489, 493, 494 auulications 502 896 processing, 500 L 910 Index Nylon-56, 488 Nylon-66, 21, 48, 49, 86, 478, 480 applications, 502-504, 879, 896 in glass-filled compositions, 500 nucleating agent, 497 polymerisation, 486 processing, 500, 501 structure and properties, 487-94, 505 tensile strength, 783 Nylon-66/610, 478 applications, 503 Nylon-66/610/6 478, 490, 507 applications, 503 Nylon-69, 478, 486, 896 Nylon-76, 487 NyIon-610,486, 487,494, 505 applications, 502, 503, 879, 896 processing, 500 Nylon-61 1, 487, 494 Nylon-612, 478, 486, 494 Nylons, 7, 9, 86, 478-9, 486-96, 502-503 applications, 502-503 general properties, 500-506 glass-filled, 497-500 glass transition temperature, 493 processing, 500-505 Nyrim, 505 527 Octo-I-ene, 17 Octoates, 328 Olefin addition method, 820 Olefins, 10, 37, 207 Oppanol, 269 Optical properties, relation to structure, 120-22 Orevac, 395 Organochlorosilanes, 820-2 Organometallic compounds, 8, 35 Organosols, 35 1, 352 Organo-tin compounds, 329 orientation, 47-9, 52, 175-6 biaxial, 49, 52, 57 monaxial, 49, 57 Orientation time, 45 Orlon, 416 Oroglas, 399 Oroglas DR, 415 2-Oxazolines, 155-9 Oxetane polymers, 549-5 Oxidation, 134, 224, 226, 881 Oxidation retarders, 135-6 Oxychlorination reaction, 13 Ozone attack, 134 Ozone effects, 288, 866 Ozone layer, 798 P13N, 522 Packaging materials, 12-13, 16, 100, 154, 395, 627 pharmaceuticals, 886 Paints, 565 Palmitates, 328 Pantalast L, 360 Paraffins, 95 Paraffin wax, 85 Parel, 548 Parkesine, 3-4, 131, 288 Parkes process, 288 Particle shape, 126-7 Particle size, 126 Partitioning, 85 Parylene C , 586 Parylene N, 586 Paste injection moulding, 354 Paste-processes, 322 Pastes, 322-4, 350-54 Pebax, 527 Penton, 549-51 Perlon U, 778, 783 Permeability, 76, 100-103, 257, 271 Peroxide cross-linking, 239, 240 Peroxide decomposers, 140, 141, 142 Peroxides, 153 Perspex, 6, 72, 399 Petrochemical industry, IO Phenol-aldehyde resins, Phenol-formaldehyde moulding powder applications, 652-4 compounding, 646-9 processing, 649-51 properties, 652 Phenol-formaldehyde mouldings, Phenolic laminates, 654-8 applications, 658-61 properties, 656-8 Phenolic resins, 5, 9, 24, 635-66 applications, 659-61 chemical aspects, 639-61 fibres, 666 foams, 659 Friedel-Crafts and related polymers, 662-6 hardening, 641 -3 manufacture, 643-5 moulding powders, 645-54 phenolic laminates, 654-8 raw materials, 635-9 resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives, 662 Phenols, , 9, 140, 143, 230, 636-8 Phenoxy resins, 606-7 Phenylene groups, 62 2-Phenylindole, 330 Phillips polymers, 214, 216 Phillips process, 8, 206, 208, 210-11, 217, 275 Phosgenation process, 560-61 Phosphates, 144 Phosphites, 140 Photochemical processes, 144 Photochemical radiation, 96-8 Photoconductivity, 15, 472 Photodegradants, 154-5, 881 Photophysical processes, 144 Photoresists, Index 911 Phthalates, 148 Phthalic acid, 23 Phthalic anhydride, 9, 759 Piezolectric properties, 376 Pigments: diene rubbers, 284 nylon, 496 polyethylene, 228, 229 polypropylene, 260, 261 PVC, 338 urea-formaldehyde moulding powders, 671, 673 Pilofilm, 853 Pitches, 871 Plascams system, 894 Plastic crystals, 53 Plasticisers, 87-9, 116, 124, 131-2, 159, 742 in moulding powders, 673 nylon, 496, 497 poly(viny1 chloride), 191, 318, 330-36 rubbers, 284 Plastics: characteristics, 15 degradable, 880-86 developments 1900-1930, 4-6 developments since 1939, 7-9 fire and, 104-109 future for, 14-17 markers for, 10-14 natural, 1-3 raw materials, 9-10 vinyl, 6-7 Plastigels, 351-3 Plastisols, 35 1-2 Plate-out, 337, 338 Plex 8535-F, 415 Plexidur, 13 Plexiglas, 397 Plexigum, 397 Pleximid, 415 Pluronic, 796 PNF rubber, 383 Pocan, 724 Polar carboxyl groups, 60 Polar groups, 62 Polarisation charge, 112 Polarity of bonds, 77-8, 85 Polar materials, I17 Polar theory, 132 Polectron 472 Polish additives, 826 Pollution, 16 Poly-IF4, 379 Poly-2F4, 379 Polyacetal (polyformaldehyde) resins, 97 Polyacetals, 20, 51, 84, 105, 163, 531-54 acetal resins, 533-46 aldehyde polymers, 546 applications, 544-6 oxetane polymers, 549-51 polyethers from glycols and alkylene oxides, 546-7 polysulphides, 55 1-4 preparation of formaldehyde, 532 Polyacetylines, 120 Poly(acrylic acid), 423 Polyacrylonitrile, 96 Polyaddition, 22 Polyalkenamers, 305-306 Polyamide-imides, 524-5 Polyamides, 9, 21, 478-5 16 additives, 496-8 applications, 502-505 aromatic, 509-16 crystalline aromatic, 513-16 elastomeric, 526-8 enhanced solubility, 505-507 general properties of nylons, 490-496 glass-clear, 509-13 glass-filled nylons, 498-500 intermediates for aliphatic polyamides, 490-96 low molecular weight, 769 polymerisation for aliphatic polyamides, 486-7 processing of nylons, 490-492 structure and properties of aliphatic polyamides, 487-90 Polyarylates, 695 Polyaryl ether ketones, 502-506 Poly-p-benzamide 53 Polybenzoxazines (PBZs), 667-7 Poly(y-benzyl-L-glutamate), 53 Poly-3,3-bischloromethyloxacyclobutane,46 Polybiends, 55-7, 74, 294 Polybut-l-ene, 268-9 atactic, 269 Polybutadiene, 35, 128, 290-91 1,2-Polybutadiene, 307-308 I ,4-Polybutadiene, 20 cis-l,4-Polybutadiene, 62, 440 Poly(buty1ene terephthalate) (PBT), 107, 695, 724-7, 897 Polycaprolactones, 741, 793 Polycarbodi-imide resins, 807-808 Polycarbonate/ABS grades, 107 Polycarbonate/polyether-imides,107 Polycarbonate-polybutylene teraphthalate alloys (PC-PBT), 579 Polycarbonate-polyethylene teraphthalate alloys (PC-PET), 579 Polycarbonates, 8, 62, 86, 114, 556-6 I alloys based on bis-phenol A polycarbonates, 578-9 applications of bis-phenol A polycarbonates, 575-8 carbonic ester polymers, 580-82 commercial grades, 564-7 ester exchange, 558-60 general properties, 568-73 phosgenation process, 560-61 polyester carbonates and block copolymers, 579-80 polymer preparation, 558-61 912 Index Polycarbonates-continued processing characteristics, 573-5 production of intermediates, 557-8 structure and properties, 561-8,897 Poly(carborane siloxanes), 834 Polychloroacrylates, 104 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene copolymers (PCTFE), 363,374-5 Polycrystallinity, 49 Poly-( 1,4)-cyclohexylenedimethylene Terephthalate-co-isophthalate), 727-8 Poly-( 1,4)-cyclohexylenedimethyleneterephthalate) (PCT), 727-8 Polycyclohexytethylene (PCHE), 275 PoIy(2.6-dibromo- 1,4-phenylene oxide), 592-3 Poly-(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) (PPO), 587-92 modified, 589-90 polyamide, 592 processing and application, 589 structure and properties, 581-9 styrenic, 590-2 Polydimethylsiloxane rubbers, modified, 832-4 Polyesteramide BAK resins, 882 Polyester carbonates, 579-80 Polyester foams, 792-3 one-shot, 792-3 Polyester-glass fibre laminates, 703-707 Polyester resins, 694-742 allyl resins, 708-709 curing systems, 702-704 diluents, 699-701 fibre-forming, 713-19 film-forming, 713-19 glass fibre laminates, 704-708 highly aromatic linear, 730-38 laminating, liquid crystal, 734-8 moulding compositions, 709-12 plasticisers 743 poly(buty1ene terephthalate), 724-1 polycaprolactones, 741 poly-( 1,4)-cyclohexylenedimethyleneterephthalate) (PCT), 728-30 poly(ethy1ene terephthalate) moulding materials, 720-22 poly(pivalolactone), 739-40 production, 701-702 raw materials, 696-701 rubbery, 742 saturated acids, 698-9 special materials, 699-701 structure and properties, 704 surface coatings, 740-43 thermoplastic elastomers, 737-9 unsaturated, 696-709 water-extended polyesters, 708 Polyesteramides, 528-9 Polyesters, 17, 114 linear aromatic, 9, 20, 55, 607-609,730-38 liquid crystal, 695,734-8 Polyetheretherketones (PEEK), 521 Polyether foams, 794-9 one-shot, 794-9 quasi-prepolymer, 794 Polyether-imides, 107 Polyetherimides, 525-6 Polyether prepolymers, 793-4 Polyethers, 546-9 elastomeric, 547-51 Polyethylene, 6-9,19,20,37,49,205-45 additives, 228-32 amorphous density, 93 applications, 241-5,896 branching, 213-15 brittle point, 221 characteristics, 241 chemical properties, 223-6 chlorinated, 67,240-1 chlorosulphonated, 301 cross-linked, 225, 230,239-41 crystallinity, 212,215,299 crystallisation, SO, 67 density, 215,220 electrical properties, 163,207,224,226,241 fillers, 228,229 flow properties, 222 glass transition temperature, 62,212 grades, 213 high-density (HDPE), 8,206-7,211,243-4, 266 high molecular weight, 212,238 light stability, 93 limitations, 241 linear low-density (LLDPE), 206-7,211, 215,216,222-3.244 film, 243 properties, 227 low-density (LDPE), 206,211, 217,243-4 low molecular weight, 206,238 mechanical properties, 218-20 melt viscosity, 72,221-3,235 molecular weight differences, 216 oxidation, 224,226 permeability, 102 polarisation, 112 polymerisation, 208-11 high-pressure, 207,208-9 interfacial, 561 making linear low-density polyethylene, 211 Phillips process, 208,210-11,217 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) process, 210,211 Ziegler processes, 208,209-10,238 preparation of monomer, 207 processing, 163,232-8 properties of LLDPE and VLDPE, 227 solvents for, 84,219 structure and properties, 212-17 thermal properties, 163,221-3,232 ultra-high molecular weight (UHMWPE), 244 Index 913 very high molecular weight (VHMWPE), 238 very low-density (VLDPE), 206-207,211, 227 viscosity, 167,222 yield strength, 73 Poly(ethy1ene naphthalate) (PEN), 723-4 Poly(ethy1ene terephthalate) (PET), 52-3,121, 156,417,695,717-18 glass transition temperature, 62,114 moulding materials, 720-22 Polyflon, 364 Polyformaldehydes, 20,34,51, 163 Polyhaloaldehydes, 546 Poly-l,6-heptadiyne, 120 Polyhydantoin resins, 609-10 Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate copolymers (PHBV), 883-6 Polyimides, 480,516-21 modified, 521-6 Polyisobutylene (PIB), 34,112,229,269-70 Polyisocyanurates, 805-808 1,4-Polyisoprene, 20,440 Polymat PC system, 895 Polymer composites, 236 Polymeric flow promoters, 134 Polymerisation: addition, 20,21,23,24,27,37 free radical, 25-34,36 initiation stage, 24-6,29-30,32,36 termination stage, 24,25,29,32,33,35 aliphatic polyamides, 486-7 anionic, 34,35,36 bulk, 27,402-404 cationic, 34 condensation, 20,21,23,24,39-40 co-ordination, 37,210 double bond, 23 emulsion, 28,33,432 formaldehyde, 533-6 ionic, 33-7 living, 37 mass, 429-30 number average degree of, 30 PCTFE, 374-5 polyethylene, 208-11 poly(methy1 methacrylate), 401 -404 polytetrafluoroethylene, 364-5 poly(viny1 acetate), 388-9 poly(viny1 chloride) (PVC), 315-17 poly(viny1 fluoride), 376 rearrangement, 22 ring-opening, 22 solution, 431 styrene-based plastics, 429-33 suspension, 248,315,404, 431-2 vinyl chloride polymers, 315-17 Polymerisation, addition, propagation or growth stage, 24,25,29 Polymerisation kinetics, 29 Polymerisation methods, 17 Polymerisation temperature, 26 Polymer polyols, 441, 796 Polymers: amorphous, 41, 45,81,85 brimoddl, 244,249 co-ordination, 850-51 cross-linked, 91,846-7 crystalline, 81,84,86 definition, 19 dispersion, 369,371 electrical conductivity, 110-17,120 electronic applications, 119-20 emulsion, 321 ethylene, 209 fluorine-containing, 84 1-2 granular, 369,370 heat-resisting, 841-51 high, 19 high-temperature, 841-51,897 inorganic, 842-6 intrinsically conductive, 886-8 ionically conductive, 886-8 ladder, 848-50 liquid crystal, 53,734 living, 36 mass, 322 MBS, 448-9 monodisperse, 36 non-polar, 77,84-6 polar, 81,85,86,89,110, 114 polydisperse, 36 solubility, 80-94 spiro, 848-50 stereoregular, 37 thermosetting acrylic, 418-19 Poly(methacrylimide), 420-21 Poly(methy1 acrylate), 423 Polymethylene, 215 Poly(methy1 methacrylate), 6,20,43,48,49, 400-413 additives, 409 applications, 413-17 copolymerisation, 413-15 depolymerisation, 96,163 dipoles, 114,116 general properties, 405-409 impact strength, 73 melt viscosity, 72 plasticised, 88 polymerisation, 401-404 preparation of monomer, 400-401 processing, 181, 409-11 solubility parameter, 9I stability, 98,163 structure and properties, 405,896 thermal degradation rate, 96-7 viscosity, 167 Poly(methy1 methacrylimides) (PMM), 415 Poly-(4-methylpent- I-ene) (P4MPI) 270-72 applications, 273 general properties, 13,84,272 processing, 273 structure and properties, 272-3 914 Index Poly(n-dodecyl methacrylate), 62 Polynorbornene, 306-307 Polyolefins, 6, 8, 95 Polyox, 547 Polyoxacyclobutane, 46 Polyoxymethylene, 20, 105 Poly(parabanic acids), 61G11 Poly(pheny1ene oxides), 586 alkyl substituted, 586-93 halogenated, 586 poly(2,6-dibromo- 1,4-phenylene oxide), 592-3 Polyphenylenes, 584-5 Poly(pheny1ene-sulphides), 107, 593-6 amorphous polyarylene sulphides, 596 Poly-p-phenyline, 120 Poly-@-phenyline sulphide), 120 Polyphthalamide plastics, 16 Poly(pivalolactone), 739-40 Polypropylene, 8, 37, 53, 247-68 additives, 260-61 applications, 243, 244, 265-7, 878-80, 896 atactic, 68, 267-8, 289 chlorinated, 268 fillers, 260 isotactic, 8, 68, 73, 249, 253-9 linear, 67 optical properties, 121 preparation of, 248-51 processing characteristics, 262-5, 273 solvents for, 84 stability, 96 structure and properties, 25 1-3, 270-71 syndiotactic, 267-8 Polypropylene adipate, 333 Polypropylene sebacate, 333 Polypyrrole, 120, 888, 889 Polysiloxane-polyetherimide copolymers, 840 Polystyrene, 6, 7, 9, 20, 43, 896 exoanded 455-60 high-impact (HIPS), 7, 8, 56, 57, 426, 437-40 impact strength, 73 melt viscosity, 72 molecular weight, 174 oriented, 460-61 processing, 163, 4.54-5 solvents for, 81 stereoregular, 4.54 structure and properties, 433-4 syndiotactic, 426, 433, 454-5 toughened (TPS), 437-40 Polystyrol, 426 Polysulphides, 21, 22, 551-2, 769-70 Polysulphones, 9, 596-602 applications, 601-602 blends, 602 general properties, 600-1 processing, 601 structure and properties, 9 0 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 7, 13, 49, 67, 72, 364-73 additives, 371-2 applications, 372-3 chemical reactivity, 95 density, 73 general properties, 367-9 molecular weight, 179 polymerisation, 364-5 preparation of monomer, 364 processing, 363, 369-71 solvents for, 84 stability, 96, 97 structure and properties, 365-7 Poly(trimethy1ene terephthalate) (P'IT), 728 Polyurethane-acrylic blends, 808 Polyurethane foam, 13, 14 Polyurethanes, 22, 54, 778-808 coatings and adhesives, 845 crystalline moulding, 783-4 fibres, 782-4 flexible foams, 791-800 polycarbodi-imide resins, 807-808 polyurethane-acrylic blends, 808 rigid and semi-rigid foams, 800-804 rubbers, 784-91 properties and applications, 788 self-skinning foams and RIM process, 803-804 thermoplastic, 783-90 Poly(viny1 acetals), 96, 391-4 poly(viny1 butyral), 393-4 poly(viny1 formal), 392-3 Poly(viny1 acetate) and derivatives, 23, 72, 386-97 ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers, 394-5 polymerisation, 388-4 poly(viny1 acetals), 391-4 poly(viny1 alcohol), 393-5 poly(viny1 cinnamate), 399-400 preparation of monomer, 386-8 properties and uses, 389 Poly(viny1 alcohol), 23, 28, 67, 69, 87, 389-91 applications, 391, 882, 897 structure and properties, 390-91 Poly(viny1 butyral), 393-4 Poly(viny1 carbazole), 12, 104, 472-4 Poly(viny1 chloride) (PVC), 6, 13, 17, 20, 54 additives, 342 applications, 355-8 chlorinated, 359-60 compounding ingredients, 325-45 copolymers, 354-5 copolymers with propylene, 360 crystalline, 359 dipoles, 114 extenders, 336 fillers, 337-8 formulations, 342-5 glass transition temperature, 56 graft polymers, 360 impact-modified, 56 Index injection moulding, 350 latices, 355 lubricants, 336-7 melt viscosity, 72 optical properties, 122 pastes, 350-54 pigments, 338 plasticised (PPVC) 73, 86-7, 100, 312, 347-9, 896 plasticisers, 18, 33G-36 polymeric impact modifiers and processing aids, 338-42 polymerisation, 315-17 processing, 181, 346-55 properties of compounds, 345-6 solvents for, 86 stabilisers, 325-30 stability, 96, 98, 163 structure, 317-25 unplasticised (UPVC), 73, 181, 349-50, 356-8 Poly(viny1 cinnamate), 395-6 Poly(viny1 ethers), 475-6 Poly(viny1 fluoride) (PVF), 376 Poly(viny1 formal), 67, 392-3 Poly(viny1idene chloride), 53, 62, 73 Poly(viny1idene fluoride) (PVDF), 12, 376-7 Poly-m-xylylene, 13-14 Poly-p-xylylene, 585 Postech, 796 Powder moulding techniques, 237 Powder processes, 237 Power factor, 110, 114, 231 Preforming, 370 Prepolymers, polyether, 794-5 Prepolymer systems, 788-91 Prevulcanisation inhibitors, 283 Primary bonds, 76,77 Printed circuit board components, 120 Processing: ABS plastics, 447-8 acetal resins, 524-3 nylons, 500-502 phenol-formaldehyde moulding powder, 649-5 polycarbonates, 573-5 poly-(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenyleneoxide) (PPO), 589 polyethylene, 163, 232-8 poly(methy1 methacrylate), 181, 409-1 poly-(4-methylpent- I-ene) (P4MPl), 273 polypropylene, 262-5, 273 polystyrene, 454-5 polysulphones, 601 polytetrafluoroethylene, 363, 369-7 poly(viny1 chloride) (PVC), 181, 346-55 urea-formaldehyde resins, 774-5 Processing aids, 284, 342 Processing techniques, 158-82 casting processes, 182 melt processing of thermoplastics, 159-76 915 melt processing of thermosetting plastics, 176-9 poly(viny1 chloride), 181, 346-55 in rubbery state, 179-82 solution processes, 181 suspension processes, 18 Processing temperatures, 161, 163, 167-8, 369, 371 Product design, 184-204 distortion, voids and frozen-in stress, 202-204 recovery from deformation, 184, 201-202 rigidity of plastics materials, 184-90 stress-strain-time behaviour, 195-201 toughness, 184, 190-95 Propiofan, 397 Propylene, 360 copolymers with N-cyclohexylmaleimide, 360-6 Propylene glycol, 696 Propylene oxide, 796 Protein plastics, 19, 860 Proton acceptors, 86, 89, 132 Proton donors, 86 Pseudo-elastic design approach, 200 Pseudoplasticity, 324 Pyre ML, 516, 518 Pyro-Chek 68 PB, 452 Pyroelectric properties, 376 Pyromellitic dianhydride IV, 760 Quacorr RP IOOA, 13 Questra, 454 Quiana, 15 Quinone, 27 Rabinowitsch equation, 165 Radel, 596 Radiation cross-linking, 239 Rafaelite, 87 Rainwear, 14 Rupru Abstracts, 894 Raschig process, 636, 637 Rate constant, 45 Rate of flow, 178 Raw materials, 9-10 Reaction injection moulding (RIM) process, 182,501-505,779, 804 Reaction rate, 29-30 Recovery from deformation, 184, 201-202 Reflectance, 12 Refractive index, 120-21, 565 Regulators, 26 Reinforced reaction injection moulding (RRIM) process, 804 Reinforcement, 126 Reinforcing fillers, 496, 497 Relative permittivity, 110, 112, 122 Relative temperature index (RTI), 186-7 Relaxation time, 236 916 Index Release agents, 826 Rennet 855 Repulsion effect, 60 Resin XP5272, 450 Resitol, 64 Resols, 641, 643-6, 661 Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives, 662 Rexene, 268 Rheopexy, 324 Rhodoviol, 390 Ribbed smoked sheet (RSS), 286 Ricinoleates, 328 Ricinoloxazolinmaleinate, 155 Rigid foams, 801-804 Rigidity of plastics materials, 184-90 assessment of maximum service temperature, 186-90 Rilsan N, 512 Ring products, 96 Ring structures, 62 Rohacell, 421 Rossi-Peakes flow test, 626, 650 Rotatjon about bonds, 59-60 Rotational casting methods, 354 Rotational energies, 59 Rotational moulding, 237-8, 244 Rubber-bridge theory, 56 Rubber hydrochloride, 863 Rubbers, 2-3 acrylate, 417-18 aliphatic olefin, 299-305 brominated butyl, 302 butadiene-acronytrile, 128 butadiene-pentadiene, 296 butyl, 34, 229, 302 cast polyurethane, 785-7 chlorinated, 302, 864-5 chloroprene, 295-6 cold, 292 constant-viscosity, 287 cyclised, 278, 863 diene, 281-96 dimethylsilicone, 832 epichlorhydrin, 548 ethylene-propylene, 8, 73, 229-30, 243, 878 fluorine-containing, 379-83 hot, 292 liquid silicone, 839-40 millable gums, 788 modified polydimethylsiloxane, 832-4 natural, 19, 52, 81, 96, 285-9, 860-65 nitrile, 88, 281, 294-5, 416, 442 polybutadiene, 290-91 polypropylene, 260 polyurethanes, 784-90 silicone, 837-8 styrene-butadiene, 127, 128, 281, 291-5, 425,438-9 synthetic, 7, 35 synthetic polyisoprene, 289-90 terpolymer, 277 thermoplastic, 9, 37 thermoplastic diene, 296-9 thermoplastic polyolefin (TPORs), 302-4, 878 thermoplastic polyurethane, 790-9 Rubber-to-metal bonding, 863-4 Rubbery cyclo-olefin (cyclo-alkene) polymers, 304-307 aliphatic polyalkenamers, 305-306 chlorine-containing copolymers, 307 polynorbomene, 306 Rubbery materials, 9, 64, 67, 127-8, 227, 874-5 Rubbery polymers, 45, 100 Rubbones, 865, 881 Rucodor, 360 Runaway reactions, 208 Rynite, 608, 694, 721 Ryton, 593 Ryurex X-15, 450 Saflex, 393 Salicylic esters, 98 SAN polymers, 416, 441, 453 Santonox, 230 Saran, 53, 466, 470 Saran-wrap, 469 Saturated hydrocarbons, 10 Schatzki crankshaft effect, 47, 539 Screw-preplasticising, 233 Sebacates, 333 Sebacic acid, 481-2 Secondary bonds, 76 Secondary valence forces, 76 Seedlac, 867, 868 Sekisui process, 240 Self-skinning foams, 804 Semiconductors, 120 Semi-rigid foams, 800-804 Setting operations, 158 Sharkskin, 216, 223, 235 Shear modulus, 198 Shear rates, 164-9, 172-3, 221 Shear strains, 198 Shear stress, 164-5, 173 Shear thinning, 324 Sheet moulding compounds, 11 Shellac, 2, 4, 9, 19, 869-70 applications, 869-70 chemical composition, 868 occurrence and preparation, 867-8 properties, 868-9 Shrinkage, 176, 233, 370 Side-chain crystallisation, 421 Silanes, 129, 130 Silicas, 338 Silicates, 338 Silicone fluids, 823-8 applications, 826-8 general properties, 829-30 preparation, 823-4 Index 917 Silicone resins, 828-32 applications, 829-32 laminates, 829-3 moulding compositions, 831 preparation, 828 properties, 828-9 Silicone rubbers, compounding, 836-37 cross-linking, 837-8 dimethylsilicone, 832 fabrication, 837-8 liquid, 839-40 modified polydimethylsiloxane, polysiloxane-polyetherimidecopolymers, 840 properties and applications, 838-9 Silicones, 72, 814-40 direct process, 818-20 Grignard method, 818 nomenclature, 815-16 olefin addition method, 820 preparation, 16- 17, 82 1-23 preparation of intermediates, 817-21 properties, 816-17, 821-23 rearrangement of organochlorosilanes, 820-2 silicone fluids, 823-8 silicone resins, 828-32 silicone rubbers, sodium condensation method, 820 Sintering, 370-71 Sioplas process, 239 Skybond, 522 Slip additives, 237 Slip agents, 228, 229, 238 Slush moulding, 354 Somol, 395 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 632 Sodium chloride, 22 Sodium condensation method, 820 Sodium naphthalene, 35 Sodium polysulphide, 22 Softening point, 188-90, 216, 413-15 Solef, 376 Solprene, 297 Solubility of polymers, 76, 80-94 extenders, 89 parameters, 81-94, 100, 341 plasticisers, 87-9 thermodynamics, 93-4 Solution processes, 181 Solvent crazing resistance, 48 Solvent recovery, 27 Solvents, 81, 84-7, 572 Soreflon, 364 Spandex fibres, 784, 791 Spanzelle, 790 Specific inductive capacity, 112 Spherulites, SO, 52, 121, 217 Spilac, 419 Spiro polymers, 848-51 Spraying techniques, 237 Stabilisers, 325-30 Staflen, 21 Sta-Flow, 360 Stamping, 179 Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) scheme, 286 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) process, 205, 210 Starch, 19 Steam moulding, 457-9 Stearic acid, 127, 128, 133 Stereoregularity, 64, 67, 69, 454 Stereospecificity, 37 Steric hindrance, 60, 251 Sticklac, 867, 868 Stilan, 403 Strain softening, 219 Stress-log time curves, 198 Stress relaxation, 198 Stress-strain curves, 198, 219 Stress-strain-time behaviour, 195-20 assessment of long-term behaviour, 198-200 creep curves, 198-200 WLF equations, 196-8 Stress-whitening, 341, 342, 360 Structural foams, 458-60 Structure and properties, 59-74 acetal resins, 533-6 aliphatic polyamides, 487-90 celluloid, 619-21 cellulose acetate, 624-6 chemical properties, 76-109 electrical properties, 110-22 epoxide resins, 772 mechanical properties, nylon-66, 487-94, 505 optical properties, 120-22 polycarbonates, 561-3 poly-(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenyleneoxide) (PPO), 587-9 polyester resins, 704 polyethylene, 212-17 poly(methy1 methacrylate), 405, 896 poly-(4-methylpent- I-ene) (P4MPI), 270-3 polypropylene, 251-3, 27@7 polystyrene, 433-4 polysulphones, 599-600 polytetrafluoroethylene, 365-7 poly(viny1 alcohol), 390-91 poly(viny1 chloride), 317-25 shellac, 868-9 silicone resins, 828-9 silicone rubbers, 838-9 silicones, 816-17, 821-3 thermal properties, 59-71 urea-formaldehyde resins, 675-7 Styramic HT, 452 Styrene, 10, 428-9 Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers, 74, 441 rubber-modified, 448-50 918 Index Styrene-based plastics, 425-62 ABS plastics, 441-7 applications, 461-3 butadiene-styrene block copolymers, 45 1-6 expanded polystyrene, 455-60 general properties, 434-7 grades available, 432-3 oriented polystyrene, 460-61 polymerisation, 429-33 preparation of monomer, 426-9 commercial preparation, 427-9 laboratory preparation, 426-7 processing of polystyrene, 454-9 properties and structure of polystyrene, 4334 stereoregular polystyrene, 4.54 styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers, 441 styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers, 450 styrene purification, 428-9 Styrene-butadiene copolymers, 63 Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), 127, 128, 282, 291-4, 425, 438-9 applications, 863 high-styrene resins, 291 Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) triblocks, 298-9 Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers, 4.50 Styron, 426 Sulphonated EPDM, 305 Sulphonation process, 636 Sulphonyl chloride, 67 Sunlight, 97 supec, 593 Surface coatings, 149, 741-3, 870 Surface crystallisation, 235-6 Surface dyeing, 149 Surface resistivity, 110, 122 Surgery, 14, 17 Surlyn, 278 Suspension processes, 181 Suspensions, 27, 158 Syndiotactic structures, 68, 251, 426, 433, 454-5 Synergism, 141-2 Synthetic polyisoprene, 289-90 Synthetic resins, 128 Synthetic rubbers, 7, 35 Tackifiers, 284 Tacticity, 68 TAF process, 459 Talc, 28 338 Targor, 248 Tecnoflon, 380, 382 Tedlar, 376 Tedur, 593 Teflex, 373 Teflon, 364, 373 Teflon AF, 378 Teflon EPE, 378 Teflon FEP, 373, 377 Teflon PFA, 377 Tefzel, 374 Teklan, 470 Telomerisation, 484 Temperature coefficient, 197 Tenal, 531 Tenite butyrate, 628 Tenite PCDT, 603 Tenite polyterephthalate, 608 Tenite propionate, 628 Tenite PTMT, 724 Tensile creep test, 200 Tensile impact tests, 192, 194 Tensile modulus, 198 Tensile strength, 127, 216 Terephthalic acid, 10 Ternary copolymers, 27 Terpolymer rubber, 277 Terpolymers, 27 Tertiary amines, 755 Tertiary butylcatechol, 27 Terylene, 52, 584, 607, 695, 713 Tetrachloromethylbenzene, 37 Tetraflon, 364 Tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymers (ETFE), 374 Tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymers, 373-4 Tetrahydrofuran, 17, 86, 100 Tetramers, 178 Tetramethylene terephthalate (4GT), 738-9 Thermal degradation, 96-7, 184, 186 Thermal expansion coefficients, 197 Thermal properties, 1.59, 161-2, 174-5 acetal resins, 538-42 polyethylene, 163, 221-3, 232 Thermal radiation, 96-8 Thermal stability, 163, 186-7 Thermodynamic law, 84 Thermodynamics, and solubility, 93-4 Thermoelastomers, 87 Thermoplastic diene rubbers, 296-9 Thermoplastic elastomers, 737-9, 874-80 applications, 878-80 costs, 878 future, 880 polyamide, 879 polyester, 879 polyolefin, 260 polyurethane, 55, 879 Thermoplastic fluoroelastomers, 383-4 Thermoplastic polyolefin rubbers (TPORs), 302-304, 878 Thermoplastics, 23-4 melt processing, 159-76 Thermosetting acrylic polymers, 418-19 Thermosetting composition, 177 Thermosetting plastics, 2, 3, 23-4, 81, 87-9 melt processing, 176-9 Thermosetting resins, Thermotropic materials, 53 Thermotropic mesomorphism, 53 Thiokol A, 552 Index Thiokol FA, 552, 553 Thiokol ST, 552, 553 Thiourea resins, 5, 691-2 Thixotropy, 324 Ticona, 244 Tipped polyols, 796 Tipping, 796 Titanium coupling agents, 131 Titanium halide, Titanium tetrachloride, 8, 34, 209 Toluene, 9, 77 Tolylene di-isocyanate (TDI), 779-82, 786, 797 Topanol CA, 230 Topas, 280 Torlon-2000, 18, 524 Torlon, 516, 524 Total flow, 178 Tough-brittle transition, 191 Toughness, 184, 190-95, 215 assessment of impact strength, 192-5 Toxicity, 27, 76, 103-104 TQ (tubular quench) process, 263 Tracking, 110, 122, 652, 687 Tradlon, 610 Transesterification process, 560 Transfer agents, 31 Transfer moulding, 120, 6.51 trans form, 60 trans isomer, 69 Transition point, 253 Transitions, 65 Transmittance, 121 Transparency, 121, 271, 707, 896 Triacetin, 624 Tribasic lead sulphate, 327 Triblock copolymers, 54, 55, 875 Tricel, 627 Trichlorethylene, 26 Trichloromethylbenzene, 37 Triethylenetetramine, 753 Trifunctional monomers, 42-43 Triglycidyl isocyanurate, 767 Tri-isopropylphenol phosphates, 333 Trimellitates, 333 Trimellitic anhydride V, 760 Trimers, 178 Trioxane, 22 Triphenyl phosphate, 624 Trisnonyl phenyl phosphite, 328 Tritolyl phosphate (TTP), 54, 87-9, 132, 148, 33 1, 863 Trixylyl phosphate (TXP), 148, 33 Trogamid T, 478, 509, 511, 512 Tromsdorff effect, 402 Tubular processes, 235-6 TYP~Y, 863 Udel, 596, 599, 602 UL, 746B Relative Temperature Index Test, 186, 187 UL94-5VA rating, 106 919 UL94-5VB rating, 106-7 UL94-5V rating, 594 UL94 flammability ratings, 105-8, 149, 516 UL94-V1 rating, 513 UL94-V2 rating, 573 UL94-VO rating, 573, 593 Ultem Siltem STM1500, 526, 840 Ultradur, 724 Ultraform, 53 Ultranyl, 592 Ultrapek, 604 Ultraviolet absorbers and related materials, 98, 134, 140-47, 567, 573 light screens, 144, 145 photochemical processes, 144 photophysical processes, 144 quenching agents, 144, 145 Ultraviolet attack, 134 Ultraviolet light transmission, 15 Underwriters Laboratories, 105, 149, 186, 594, 732 continuous use temperature index, 513 Unzipping reactions, 97 U-Polymer, 73 Urea, Urea-formaldehyde resins, 669-80 adhesives, 677-8 applications, 676-7, 679-80 firelighters, 679 foams, 675 moulding materials, 67 1-7 processing, 674-5 properties, 676-7 raw materials, 669 resinification theories, 670-7 Urepan, 619, 788 Urethane foams, 22 Valox, 310SE0, 107 Valox, 338, 107, 608, 724 Vamac, 277, 301 Van der Waals forces, 75 Vaporisation, 79, 90 Vectra, 579, 736 Vedril, 399 Versamids, 503 Vertifoam process, 793 Verton, 499 Vespel, 516, 518 Vestan, 719 Vestenamer, 305 Vestolit BAU, 360 Vestoran, 590 Vicat softening point (VSP), 188, 189, 415, 421, 442-3, 565 polycarbonates, 578, 579 Viclan, 466, 470 Victrex, 596, 603, 604, 606 Victrex SRP, 735 Vinnol K, 360 Vinoflex MP400, 476 920 Index Vinyl, evolution, 6-7 Vinyl acetate, 10 Vinyl chloride polymers, 6, 9, 10, 12, 20, 311-60 applications, 355-8 commercial, 320-25 compounding ingredients, 325-45 polymerisation, 15-17 preparation, 313-15 processing, 346-54 PVC compounds, 345-6 structure of poly(viny1 chloride), 317-25 Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers, 867 Vinylidene chloride, 466-70 Vinylidene chloride-vinyl acrylonitrile copolymers, 470 Vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymers, 466-70 Vinyl monomer, 24 Vinyl plastics, Vinyl silane cross-linking, 239 Vinyl thermoplastics, 466-77 coumarone-indene resins, 47 1-2 poly(viny1 carbazole), poly(viny1 ethers), 475-6 poly(viny1 pyrrolidone), 474-5 vinylidene chloride polymers and copolymers, 466-70 Vinyltrichlorsilane, 129 Viscosity, 164-9, 177, 178, 197-8 Viscous deformation, 172, 195-6 Viscous flow, 202 Viscous slippage, 198 Vistanex, 269 Viton GLT, 380 Voids, 202-204, 322 Volan, 129 Volume resistivity, 110, 122 Vulcanisation, 2, 3, 24, 153, 282, 288, 303 dynamic, 302, 880 elastomeric polyethers, 548 FKM rubbers, 380 natural rubber derivatives, 860-66 polysulphides, 553 Vulcanisation accelerators, 282 Vulcanised rubber, 81, 87-9 Vulcanite, Vulcaprene, 529, 742 Vulkollan rubbers, 784, 787, 791, 794 Vyrene, 790 Warerite, 688 Water-extended polyesters, 708 Water repellants, 826-7 Water-soluble plastics, 897 Weak links, 97 Weathering, 76, 99, 231, 371, 373, 577, 878 Weight average molecular weight, 32, 168, 216, 218, 366 Williams, Landel and Feny equation (WLF equation), 197-8 Woodflour, 647, 672, 676 Work function, 93 Wurtz-Fittig reaction, 584 Wurtz reaction 820 X4006, 526 Xenoy, 579 XR3808, 526 XR-resin, 384 Xydar, 735, 737 Xylenols, 645 Xylok resins, 663 Xylonite, 4, 621 Xyron, 590 Yield strength, 74 Zalak, 382 Zein, 860 Ziegler-Natta catalysts, 37-8, 248, 270, 273, 292, 294, 359, 585 development, 8, 289, 290, 299, 304, 305 Ziegler processes, 8, 206, 209-10, 211, 216, 238 Ziegler-type catalysts, 247, 248, 485 Zinc oxide, 127 ... Data Brydson, J A (John Andrew), 193 2Plastics materials - 7th ed Plastics I Title 668.4 ISBN 7506 4132 Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Brydson, J A Plastics materia1slJ.A Brydson. .. Abbreviations for Plastics and Rubbers The Historical Development of Plastics Materials 1.1 Natural Plastics 1.2 Parkesine and Celluloid 1.3 1900-1930 1.4 The Evolution of the Vinyl Plastics 1.5 Developments... Plastics 1.5 Developments since 1939 1.6 Raw Materials for Plastics 1.7 The Market for Plastics 1.8 The Future for Plastics 1 11 15 The Chemical Nature of Plastics 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Thermoplastic
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