4 3 drilling fluids

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Network of Excellence in Training Drilling Fluids Technology © COPYRIGHT 2000, NExT All Rights Reserved Fluids Technology • Course Contents: – Course Objectives, – Basic Functions, – Water & oil base muds, – Formation damage, – Completion fluids, – Solids control, – Environmental concerns, – Performance testing © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Drilling Fluids Technology • Course Objectives: – At the end of this course,YOU will be able to: • List functions & properties of drilling and completion fluis, • Understand the formation damage • Describe different fluids systems, • Understand the solid control equipments • Identify the environmental impact with drilling fluids © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY • 1900 Water and Clays • Weighting Agent No control of properties Water base muds • Controlled • Polymers • Mineral Filtrate(‘50/’60’s) ( 70 ’s) oils(‘80’s) • Synthétics (‘40’s) (‘90’s) Cellulosic polymers PHPA systems Formation compatibilty Environmental © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Network of Excellence in Training Section Functions and Properties of Drilling fluid © COPYRIGHT 2000, NExT All Rights Reserved Functions & Properties • Introduction; – Drilling fluid is the lifeblood of drilling operations and defined as : • Circulating fluid, • Drilling mud – Drilling fluid technology is dominated by three factors : • Performance, • Economics, • Environmental concerns © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Functions & Properties • Technology; – Drilling fluid is a mixture of barite, clay and other chemical additives in a liquid phase, – The liquid phase may be water, diesel or synthetic oil, – A service company provide mud engineering services on rigs © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Functions & Properties • Basic functions; – The five primary drilling-fluid functions : • Cool and lubricate the bit, • Transport drilled cuttings to the surface, • Control subsurface pressures, • Deposit an impermeable wall cake, Avoid damage to productive zone, â COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Functions & Properties • Basic functions; – Deposit an impermeable wall cake : • The differential pressure will result an hydraulic invasion , • The mud or filtrate will enter into the formation , • The loss of mud into the wellbore will be expensive and damaging, • The loss of filtrate will cause formation damage, • The cake will isolate the fluids from the formations © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Functions & Properties • Basic functions; – Avoid damage to productive zone : • The fluid used to drill the production zone will have an important impact on well productivity , • Loss of production results from: - Swelling clays, - Reservoir pores blocked with solids and/or micro-emulsion droplets © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Cutting dryer ; – HG dryer • Shaher, – Mud recovery 6, • Centrifugal dryer – Retort kit analysis , • % Oil by weight, • % Water © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Land fill and disposal centers ; – Mud and formation cuttings are first treated, • To remove free liquids , • Then buried in a secure landfill – Disposal centers , • Local regulations , • Class , • Lixiviation tests © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Bioremediation process ; – Natural Hydrocarbons degradation, • Pseudominas bacterias , – Hydrocarbons are removed from cuttings , • Aerobic degradation , – Activation and development , • Oxygenation , • Humidity ( 30 % ) , Nitrogen-Phosphorous based fertilizers â COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Solidification process ; – Cementing compounds for fixation and encapsulation , • Water / hydraulic ratio , • Fly ash , • Kiln dust , • Portland cement , • Slag mix – Waste cuttings are mixed in reserve pits , • Residue allowed to dry , • Lixiviation tests ( Afnor X31-210 ) © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Solidification-Proportioning Unit ; Gravity bulk Cuttings container Water hose to hydrate slurry Hopper Screw Conveyor © COPYRIGHT 2000, Electric Motor All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Washing process ; Solids discharge Cuttings Screen Screen Basket Sump Dessilters Wash Tank Solids discharge © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Annular injection ; – A disposal method , • Pumpables waste are injected , • Surface casing , • Production casing annulus – Average injection pressure, • 500 - 1500 PSI at 2.5 bbls / min, • 4000 to 7000 barrels within a 24 hour period © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Annular injection ; – Cuttings and small particles are slurried with mud or water before they can be injected , – Drill cuttings will be broken up due to the large particles size, • To avoid plugging quickly the receiving formation – This practise should be managed so that the wastes not enter underground sources of water, • Ability to the threat of corrosion of casings © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Annular injection ; Shale shakers High pressure Injection pump Cuttings Mud pits Cuttings slurry Transfer pump Drilled Well © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Thermal Desorption ; – Indirect Termal desorption , • No emissions concerns , • 99 % removal efficiency , • Full recovery of diesel,synthetic and low toxicity mineral oil base , • Total compliance and liability removal – Internationnally accepted standart , • < % or 1OOOO ppm TPH, • < 15 mg / l TPH in leachate © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Thermal Desorption process ; – Drilling fluids drop through rotary airlocks , • Chamber always under negative pressure , • Indirectly heated using 1/2 “ alloy steel , • Extraction chamber with burners – Thermal Phase Separation (TPS) extraction chamber • Fire box, • Vapors , • Exhaust Gas Stack © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Thermal Desorption process ; Gases recirculated to Burners Flue gas Extraction chamber Vapors Quench Solids rewetting Liquid Clean solids Water Gas Oil Condensor Oil Discharge water © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Waste treatments • Mobile units ; – TPS - PS , • 50 - 100 kg / hr , – TPS - 1, • - tonnes / hr – TPS - 2, • - 10 tonnes / hr – TPS -3, • - 14 tonnes / hr, © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Drilling Fluids Technology • Now YOU should be able to: – – – – – List functions and properties of a drilling fluid Understand the formation damage, Describe the different fluids systems, Understand the solid control equipments Identify the environmental impact using drilling fluids © COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Network of Excellence in Training Fluids Technology End of Module © COPYRIGHT 2000, NExT All Rights Reserved ... Functions and Properties of Drilling fluid © COPYRIGHT 2000, NExT All Rights Reserved Functions & Properties • Introduction; – Drilling fluid is the lifeblood of drilling operations and defined... COPYRIGHT 2000, All Rights Reserved Drilling Fluids Technology • Course Objectives: – At the end of this course,YOU will be able to: • List functions & properties of drilling and completion fluis,... Drilling fluid is the lifeblood of drilling operations and defined as : • Circulating fluid, • Drilling mud – Drilling fluid technology is dominated by three factors : • Performance, • Economics, Environmental
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