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Library of Congress CataloginginPublication DataStructural steel designer’s handbook Roger L. Brockenbrough, editor,Frederick S. Merritt, editor.—3rd ed.p. cm.Includes index.ISBN 00700878221. Building, Iron and steel. 2. Steel, Structural.I. Brockenbrough, R. L. II. Merritt, Frederick S.TA684.S79 1994624.1821—dc20Library of Congress CataloginginPublication DataStructural steel designer’s handbook Roger L. Brockenbrough, editor,Frederick S. Merritt, editor.—3rd ed.p. cm.Includes index.ISBN 00700878221. Building, Iron and steel. 2. Steel, Structural.I. Brockenbrough, R. L. II. Merritt, Frederick S.TA684.S79 1994624.1821—dc20Library of Congress CataloginginPublication DataStructural steel designer’s handbook Roger L. Brockenbrough, editor,Frederick S. Merritt, editor.—3rd ed.p. cm.Includes index.ISBN 00700878221. Building, Iron and steel. 2. Steel, Structural.I. Brockenbrough, R. L. II. Merritt, Frederick S.TA684.S79 1994624.1821—dc20 STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGNER’S HANDBOOK Roger L Brockenbrough Editor R L Brockenbrough & Associates, Inc Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Frederick S Merritt Editor Late Consulting Engineer, West Palm Beach, Florida Third Edition McGRAW-HILL, INC New York San Francisco Washington, D.C Auckland Bogota´ Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Structural steel designer’s handbook / Roger L Brockenbrough, editor, Frederick S Merritt, editor.—3rd ed p cm Includes index ISBN 0-07-008782-2 Building, Iron and steel Steel, Structural I Brockenbrough, R L II Merritt, Frederick S TA684.S79 1994 624.1Ј821—dc20 93-38088 CIP Copyright ᭧ 1999, 1994, 1972 by McGraw-Hill, Inc All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher DOC / DOC 9 ISBN 0-07-008782-2 The sponsoring editor for this book was Larry S Hager, the editing supervisor was Steven Melvin, and the production supervisor was Sherri Souffrance It was set in Times Roman by Pro-Image Corporation Printed and bound by R R Donnelley & Sons Company This book is printed on acid-free paper Information contained in this work has been obtained by McGraw-Hill, Inc from sources believed to be reliable However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantees the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information This work is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought Other McGraw-Hill Book Edited by Roger L Brockenbrough Brockenbrough & Boedecker • HIGHWAY ENGINEERING HANDBOOK Other McGraw-Hill Books Edited by Frederick S Merritt Merritt • STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS Merritt & Ricketts • BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK Other McGraw-Hill Books of Interest Beall • MASONRY DESIGN AND DETAILING Breyer • DESIGN OF WOOD STRUCTURES Brown • FOUNDATION BEHAVIOR AND REPAIR Faherty & Williamson • WOOD ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK Gaylord & Gaylord • STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK Harris • NOISE CONTROL IN BUILDINGS Kubal • WATERPROOFING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Newman • STANDARD HANDBOOK OF STRUCTURAL DETAILS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Sharp • BEHAVIOR AND DESIGN OF ALUMINUM STRUCTURES Waddell & Dobrowolski • CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK CONTRIBUTORS Boring, Delbert F., P.E Senior Director, Construction Market, American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, D.C (SECTION BUILDING DESIGN CRITERIA) Brockenbrough, Roger L., P.E R L Brockenbrough & Associates, Inc., Pittsburgh, Penn- sylvania (SECTION PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL STEELS AND EFFECTS OF STEELMAKING AND FABRICATION; SECTION 10 COLD-FORMED STEEL DESIGN) Cuoco, Daniel A., P.E Principal, LZA Technology/Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers, New York, New York (SECTION FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS) Cundiff, Harry B., P.E HBC Consulting Service Corp., Atlanta, Georgia (SECTION 11 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR BRIDGES) Geschwindner, Louis F., P.E Professor of Architectural Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania (SECTION ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES) Haris, Ali A K., P.E President, Haris Enggineering, Inc., Overland Park, Kansas (SECTION DESIGN OF BUILDING MEMBERS) Hedgren, Arthur W Jr., P.E Senior Vice President, HDR Engineering, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (SECTION 14 ARCH BRIDGES) Hedefine, Alfred, P.E Former President, Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc., New York, New York (SECTION 12 BEAM AND GIRDER BRIDGES) Kane, T., P.E Cives Steel Company, Roswell, Georgia (SECTION CONNECTIONS) Kulicki, John M., P.E President and Chief Engineer, Modjeski and Masters, Inc., Harris- burg, Pennsylvania (SECTION 13 TRUSS BRIDGES) LaBoube, R A., P.E Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (SECTION BUILDING DESIGN CRITERIA) LeRoy, David H., P.E Vice President, Modjeski and Masters, Inc., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (SECTION 13 TRUSS BRIDGES) Mertz, Dennis, P.E Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Delaware, New- ark, Delaware (SECTION 11 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR BRIDGES) Nickerson, Robert L., P.E Consultant-NBE, Ltd., Hempstead, Maryland (SECTION 11 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR BRIDGES) Podolny, Walter, Jr., P.E Senior Structural Engineer Bridge Division, Office of Bridge Technology, Federal Highway Administration, U.S Department of Transportation, Washington, D C (SECTION 15 CABLE-SUSPENDED BRIDGES) Prickett, Joseph E., P.E Senior Associate, Modjeski and Masters, Inc., Harrisburg, Penn- sylvania (SECTION 13 TRUSS BRIDGES) xv xvi CONTRIBUTORS Roeder, Charles W., P.E Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (SECTION LATERAL-FORCE DESIGN) Schflaly, Thomas, Director, Fabricating & Standards, American Institute of Steel Construc- tion, Inc., Chicago, Illinois (SECTION FABRICATION AND ERECTION) Sen, Mahir, P.E Professional Associate, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey (SECTION 12 BEAM AND GIRDER BRIDGES) Swindlehurst, John, P.E Former Senior Professional Associate, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., West Trenton, New Jersey (SECTION 12 BEAM AND GIRDER BRIDGES) Thornton, William A., P.E Chief Engineer, Cives Steel Company, Roswell, Georgia (SECTION CONNECTIONS) Ziemian, Ronald D., Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Bucknell University, Lew- isburg, Pennsylvania (SECTION GENERAL STRUCTURAL THEORY) FACTORS FOR CONVERSION TO SI UNITS OF MEASUREMENT TO CONVERT FROM CUSTOMARY U.S UNIT TO METRIC UNIT MULTIPLY BY inch foot mm mm 25.4 304.8 Mass lb kg 0.45359 Mass/unit length plf kg/m 1.488 16 Mass/unit area psf kg/m2 4.882 43 Mass density pcf kg/m3 16.018 pound kip kip N N kN 4.448 22 4448.22 4.448 22 Force/unit length klf klf N/mm kN/m 14.593 14.593 Stress ksi psi MPa kPa 6.894 76 6.894 76 Bending Moment foot-kips foot-kips N-mm kN-m 355 817 1.355 817 Moment of inertia in4 mm4 416 231 Section modulus in3 mm3 16 387.064 QUANTITY Length Force xxi PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION This edition of the handbook has been updated throughout to reflect continuing changes in design trends and improvements in design specifications Criteria and examples are included for both allowable-stress design (ASD) and load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD) methods, but an increased emphasis has been placed on LRFD to reflect its growing use in practice Numerous connection designs for building construction are presented in LRFD format in conformance with specifications of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) A new article has been added on the design of hollow structural sections (HSS) by LRFD, based on a new separate HSS specification by AISC Also, because of their growing use in light commercial and residential applications, a new section has been added on the design of cold-formed steel structural members, based on the specification by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) It is applicable to both ASD and LRFD Design criteria are now presented in separate parts for highway and railway bridges to better concentrate on those subjects Information on highway bridges is based on specifications of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and information on railway bridges is based on specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA) A very detailed example of the LRFD design of a two-span composite I-girder highway bridge has been presented in Section 11 to illustrate AASHTO criteria, and also the LRFD design of a single-span composite bridge in Section 12 An example of the LRFD design of a truss member is presented in Section 13 This edition of the handbook regrettably marks the passing of Fred Merritt, who worked tirelessly on previous editions, and developed many other handbooks as well His many contributions to these works are gratefully acknowledged Finally, the reader is cautioned that independent professional judgment must be exercised when information set forth in this handbook is applied Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use Users are encouraged to use the latest edition of the referenced specifications, because they provide more complete information and are subject to frequent change Roger L Brockenbrough xvii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION This handbook has been developed to serve as a comprehensive reference source for designers of steel structures Included is information on materials, fabrication, erection, structural theory, and connections, as well as the many facets of designing structural-steel systems and members for buildings and bridges The information presented applies to a wide range of structures The handbook should be useful to consulting engineers; architects; construction contractors; fabricators and erectors; engineers employed by federal, state, and local governments; and educators It will also be a good reference for engineering technicians and detailers The material has been presented in easy-to-understand form to make it useful to professionals and those with more limited experience Numerous examples, worked out in detail, illustrate design procedures The thrust is to provide practical techniques for cost-effective design as well as explanations of underlying theory and criteria Design methods and equations from leading specifications are presented for ready reference This includes those of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and the American Railway Engineering Association (AREA) Both the traditional allowable-stress design (ASD) approach and the load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD) approach are presented Nevertheless, users of this handbook would find it helpful to have the latest edition of these specifications on hand, because they are changed annually, as well as the AISC ‘‘Steel Construction Manual,’’ ASD and LRFD Contributors to this book are leading experts in design, construction, materials, and structural theory They offer know-how and techniques gleaned from vast experience They include well-known consulting engineers, university professors, and engineers with an extensive fabrication and erection background This blend of experiences contributes to a broad, well-rounded presentation The book begins with an informative section on the types of steel, their mechanical properties, and the basic behavior of steel under different conditions Topics such as coldwork, strain-rate effects, temperature effects, fracture, and fatigue provide in-depth information Aids are presented for estimating the relative weight and material cost of steels for various types of structural members to assist in selecting the most economical grade A review of fundamental steel-making practices, including the now widely used continuouscasting method, is presented to give designers better knowledge of structural steels and alloys and how they are produced Because of their impact on total cost, a knowledge of fabrication and erection methods is a fundamental requirement for designing economical structures Accordingly, the book presents description of various shop fabrication procedures, including cutting steel components to size, punching, drilling, and welding Available erection equipment is reviewed, as well as specific methods used to erect bridges and buildings A broad treatment of structural theory follows to aid engineers in determining the forces and moments that must be accounted for in design Basic mechanics, traditional tools for xix xx PREFACE analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures, matrix methods, and other topics are discussed Structural analysis tools are also presented for various special structures, such as arches, domes, cable systems, and orthotropic plates This information is particularly useful in making preliminary designs and verifying computer models Connections have received renewed attention in current structural steel design, and improvements have been made in understanding their behavior in service and in design techniques A comprehensive section on design of structural connections presents approved methods for all of the major types, bolted and welded Information on materials for bolting and welding is included Successive sections cover design of buildings, beginning with basic design criteria and other code requirements, including minimum design dead, live, wind, seismic, and other loads A state-of-the-art summary describes current fire-resistant construction, as well as available tools that allow engineers to design for fire protection and avoid costly tests In addition, the book discusses the resistance of various types of structural steel to corrosion and describes corrosion-prevention methods A large part of the book is devoted to presentation of practical approaches to design of tension, compression, and flexural members, composite and noncomposite One section is devoted to selection of floor and roof systems for buildings This involves decisions that have major impact on the economics of building construction Alternative support systems for floors are reviewed, such as the stub-girder and staggered-truss systems Also, framing systems for short and long-span roof systems are analyzed Another section is devoted to design of framing systems for lateral forces Both traditional and newer-type bracing systems, such as eccentric bracing, are analyzed Over one-third of the handbook is dedicated to design of bridges Discussions of design criteria cover loadings, fatigue, and the various facets of member design Information is presented on use of weathering steel Also, tips are offered on how to obtain economical designs for all types of bridges In addition, numerous detailed calculations are presented for design of rolled-beam and plate-girder bridges, straight and curved, composite and noncomposite, box girders, orthotropic plates, and continuous and simple-span systems Notable examples of truss and arch designs, taken from current practice, make these sections valuable references in selecting the appropriate spatial form for each site, as well as executing the design The concluding section describes the various types of cable-supported bridges and the cable systems and fittings available In addition, design of suspension bridges and cablestayed bridges is covered in detail The authors and editors are indebted to numerous sources for the information presented Space considerations preclude listing all, but credit is given wherever feasible, especially in bibliographies throughout the book The reader is cautioned that independent professional judgment must be exercised when information set forth in this handbook is applied Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use Roger L Brockenbrough Frederick S Merritt ... 1.28 Structural Steel Shapes and Plates / 1.1 Steel- Quality Designations / 1.6 Relative Cost of Structural Steels / 1.8 Steel Sheet and Strip for Structural Applications / 1.10 Tubing for Structural. .. Cataloging-in-Publication Data Structural steel designer’s handbook / Roger L Brockenbrough, editor, Frederick S Merritt, editor.—3rd ed p cm Includes index ISBN 0-07-008782-2 Building, Iron and steel Steel, Structural. .. A588, ‘‘Specification for High-strength Low-alloy Structural Steel, ’’ are called A588 steel 1.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL SHAPES AND PLATES Steels for structural uses may be classified by chemical composition,
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Xem thêm: CẨM NANG THIẾT KẾ THÉP CẤU TRÚC, CẨM NANG THIẾT KẾ THÉP CẤU TRÚC, 2 Cutting, Shearing, and Sawing, 18 Shear, Moment, and Deformation Relationships in Beams, 35 Force Method (Method of Consistent Deflections), 3 High-Strength Bolts, Nuts, and Washers, 7 Example - LRFD for Double Angles with Axial Compression, 11 Example - LRFD for Floorbeam with Overhang, 14 Example - LRFD for Composite Beam with Concentrated Loads and End Moments, 16 Example - LRFD for Wide-Flange Column in a Multistory Rigid Frame, 18 Example - LRFD of Column Base Plate, Part 1. Application of Criteria for Cost-Effective Highway Bridge Design, 2 Example - Allowable-Stress Design of Composite, Rolled-Beam Stringer Bridge, 4 Example - Allowable-Stress Design of Composite, Plate-Girder Bridge, 5 Example - Load-Factor Design of Composite Plate-Girder Bridge, 7 Example - Allowable-Stress Design of Curved Stringer Bridge, 9 Example - Allowable-Stress Design of Deck Plate-Girder Bridge with Floorbeams, 11 Example - Allowable-Stress Design of a Through Plate-Girder Bridge, 13 Example - Allowable-Stress Design of a Composite Box-Girder Bridge, 15 Example - Design of an Orthotropic-Plate Box-Girder Bridge, 18 Example - Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Composite Plate-Girder Bridge, 6 Lateral Bracing, Portals, and Sway Frames, 13 Example - Load-Factor Design of Truss Joint, 14 Example - Service-Load Design of Truss Joint, 11 Example - Design of Tied-Arch Bridge, 13 Cable Saddles, Anchorages, and Connections

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