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Social Psychology Baron Branscombe Thirteenth Edition ISBN 978-1-29202-144-7 781292 021447 Social Psychology Robert A Baron Nyla R Branscombe Thirteenth Edition Social Psychology Robert A Baron Nyla R Branscombe Thirteenth Edition Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk © Pearson Education Limited 2014 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners ISBN 10: 1-292-02144-6 ISBN 13: 978-1-292-02144-7 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Printed in the United States of America P E A R S O N C U S T O M L I B R A R Y Table of Contents Glossary Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 1 Social Psychology: The Science of the Social Side of Life Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe Social Cognition: How We Think About the Social World Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 43 Social Perception: Perceiving and Understanding Others Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 79 The Self: Answering the Question "Who Am I?" Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 115 Attitudes: Evaluating and Responding to the Social World Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 153 The Causes, Effects, and Cures of Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 193 Interpersonal Attraction, Close Relationships, and Love Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 233 Social Influence: Changing Others' Behavior Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 273 Prosocial Behavior: Helping Others Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 311 10 Aggression: Its Nature, Causes, and Control Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 345 11 Social Psychology: A Guide to Dealing with Adversity and Achieving a Happy Life Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 385 12 Groups and Individuals: The Consequences of Belonging Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 419 I II References Robert A Baron/Nyla R Branscombe 459 Index 505 Glossary The tendency for people to rate themselves as above the average on most positive social attributes action identification The level of interpretation we place on an action; low-level interpretations focus on the action itself, whereas higher-level interpretations focus on its ultimate goals actor-observer effect The tendency to attribute our own behavior mainly to situational causes but the behavior of others mainly to internal (dispositional) causes additive tasks Tasks for which the group product is the sum or combination of the efforts of individual members affect Our current feelings and moods affective forecasts Predictions about how we would feel about events we have not actually experienced aggression Behavior directed toward the goal of harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment anchoring and adjustment heuristic A heuristic that involves the tendency to use a number of value as a starting point to which we then make adjustments asynchronous forms of communication Unlike faceto-face communication where there is no delay, asynchronous forms such as e-mail and other forms of text messaging give people a period of time during which they can think about their response before responding attachment style The degree of security experienced in interpersonal relationships Differential styles initially develop in the interactions between infant and caregiver when the infant acquires basic attitudes about self-worth and interpersonal trust attitude Evaluation of various aspects of the social world attitude similarity The extent to which two individuals share the same attitudes attitude-to-behavior process model A model of how attitudes guide behavior that emphasizes the influence of attitudes and stored knowledge of what is appropriate in a given situation on an individual’s definition of the present situation This definition, in turn, influences overt behavior attribution The process through which we seek to identify the causes of others’ behavior and so gain knowledge of their stable traits and dispositions autobiographical memory Concerned with memory of the ourselves in the past, sometimes over the life course as a whole autokinetic phenomenon The apparent movement of a single, stationary source of light in a dark room Often used to study the emergence of social norms and social influence above average effect This occurs when, after extensive experience with a task or type of information, we reach the stage where we can perform the task or process the information in a seemingly effortless, automatic, and nonconscious manner availability heuristic A strategy for making judgments on the basis of how easily specific kinds of information can be brought to mind balance theory The formulations of Heider and of Newcomb that specify the relationships among (1) an individual’s liking for another person, (2) his or her attitude about a given topic, and (3) the other person’s attitude about the same topic Balance (liking plus agreement) results in a positive emotional state Imbalance (liking plus disagreement) results in a negative state and a desire to restore balance Nonbalance (disliking plus either agreement or disagreement) leads to indifference bargaining (negotiation) A process in which opposing sides exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions, either directly or through representatives body language Cues provided by the position, posture, and movement of others’ bodies or body parts bona fide pipeline A technique that uses priming to measure implicit racial attitudes brainstorming A process in which people meet as a group to generate new ideas freely bullying A pattern of behavior in which one individual is chosen as the target of repeated aggression by one or more others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (the bullies) catharsis hypothesis The view that providing angry people with an opportunity to express their aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways will reduce their tendencies to engage in more harmful forms of aggression central route to persuasion Attitude change resulting from systematic processing of information presented in persuasive messages classical conditioning A basic form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, acquires the capacity to evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulus In a sense, one stimulus becomes a signal for the presentation or occurrence of the other close friendship A relationship in which two people spend a great deal of time together, interact in a variety of situations, and provide mutual emotional support cognitive dissonance An internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior automatic processing From Glossary of Social Psychology, Thirteenth Edition Robert A Baron, Nyla R Branscombe Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc All rights reserved Glossary The extent to which we are attracted to a social group and want to belong to it cohesiveness All forces (factors) that cause group members to remain in the group collective guilt The emotion that can be experienced when we are confronted with the harmful actions done by our ingroup against an outgroup It is most likely to be experienced when the harmful actions are seen as illegitimate collectivism Groups in which the norm is to maintain harmony among group members, even if doing so might entail some personal costs common ingroup identity model A theory suggesting that to the extent individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced common-bond groups Groups that tend to involve face-toface interaction and in which the individual members are bonded to each other common-identity groups Face-to-face interaction is often absent, and the members are linked together via the category as a whole rather than each other communal approach In the context of long-term relationships, a principle suggesting that each partner should try to meet the other’s needs, and not seek to balance the benefits that each receives from the relationship companionate love Love that is based on friendship, mutual attraction, shared interests, respect, and concern for one another’s welfare compliance A form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another conditioned stimulus The stimulus that comes to stand for or signal a prior unconditioned stimulus conditions of uncertainty Where the “correct” answer is difficult to know or would take a great deal of effort to determine conflict A process in which individuals or groups perceive that others have taken or will soon take actions incompatible with their own interests conformity A type of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behavior to adhere to existing social norms consensus The extent to which other people react to some stimulus or even in the same manner as the person we are considering consistency The extent to which an individual responds to a given stimulus or situation in the same way on different occasions (i.e., across time) consummate love In Sternberg’s triangular model of love, a complete and ideal love that combines intimacy, passion, and decision (commitment) contact hypothesis The view that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice between them cooperation Behavior in which group members work together to attain shared goals cohesiveness A method of research in which a scientist systematically observes two or more variables to determine whether changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other correspondence bias (fundamental attribution error) The tendency to explain others’ actions as stemming from dispositions even in the presence of clear situational causes correspondent inference A theory describing how we use others’ behavior as a basis for inferring their stable dispositions counterfactual thinking The tendency to imagine other outcomes in a situation than the ones that actually occurred (“What might have been”) cultures of honor Cultures in which there are strong norms indicating that aggression is an appropriate response to insults to one’s honor cyberbullying Bullying (repeated assaults against specific target persons) occurring in chatrooms and other Internet locations deadline technique A technique for increasing compliance in which target people are told that they have only limited time to take advantage of some offer or to obtain some item debriefing Procedures at the conclusion of a research session in which participants are given full information about the nature of the research and the hypothesis or hypotheses under investigation deception A technique whereby researchers withhold information about the purposes or procedures of a study from people participating in it decision making Processes involved in combining and integrating available information to choose one out of several possible courses of action decision/commitment In Sternberg’s triangular model of love, these are the cognitive processes involved in deciding that you love another person and are committed to maintain the relationship defensive helping Help given to members of outgroups to reduce the threat they pose to the status or distinctiveness of one’s own ingroup deindividuation A psychological state characterized by reduced self-awareness brought on by external conditions, such as being an anonymous member of a large crowd dependent variable The variable that is measured in an experiment descriptive norms Norms simply indicating what most people in a given situation diffusion of responsibility A principle suggesting that the greater the number of witnesses to an emergency the less likely victims are to receive help This is because each bystander assumes that someone else will it discrimination Differential (usually negative) behaviors directed toward members of different social groups dismissing attachment style A style characterized by high self-esteem and low interpersonal trust This is a conflicted correlational method Glossary and somewhat insecure style in which the individual feels that he or she deserves a close relationship but is frustrated because of mistrust of potential partners The result is the tendency to reject the other person at some point in the relationship to avoid being the one who is rejected distinctiveness The extent to which an individual responds in the same manner to different stimuli or events distraction conflict theory A theory suggesting that social facilitation stems from the conflict produced when individuals attempt, simultaneously, to pay attention to the other people present and to the task being performed distributive justice (fairness) Refers to individuals’ judgments about whether they are receiving a fair share of available rewards—a share proportionate to their contributions to the group or any social relationship door-in-the-face technique A procedure for gaining compliance in which requesters begin with a large request and then, when this is refused, retreat to a smaller one (the one they actually desired all along) downward social comparison A comparison of the self to another who does less well than or is inferior to us drive theories (of aggression) Theories suggesting that aggression stems from external conditions that arouse the motive to harm or injure others The most famous of these is the frustration-aggression hypothesis ego-depletion The lowered capacity to exert subsequent self-control following earlier efforts to exert self-control Performance decrements are typically observed when people’s ego strength has been depleted by prior efforts at self-control ego-depletion When our capacity to self-regulate has been reduced because of prior expenditures of limited resources elaboration-likelihood model (ELM) A theory suggesting that persuasion can occur in either of two distinct ways, differing in the amount of cognitive effort or elaboration the message receives empathic joy hypothesis The view that helpers respond to the needs of a victim because they want to accomplish something, and doing so is rewarding in and of itself empathy Emotional reactions that are focused on or oriented toward other people and include feelings of compassion, sympathy, and concern empathy-altruism hypothesis The suggestion that some prosocial acts are motivated solely by the desire to help someone in need entitativity The extent to which a group is perceived as being a coherent entity essence Typically some biologically based feature that is used to distinguish one group and another; frequently can serve as justification for the differential treatment of those groups evaluation apprehension Concern over being evaluated by others Such concern can increase arousal and so contribute to social facilitation effects A new branch of psychology that seeks to investigate the potential role of genetic factors in various aspects of human behavior excitation transfer theory A theory suggesting that arousal produced in one situation can persist and intensify emotional reactions occurring in later situations experimentation (experimental method) A method of research in which one or more factors (the independent variables) are systematically changed to determine whether such variations affect one or more other factors (dependent variables) explicit attitudes Consciously accessible attitudes that are controllable and easy to report fear appeals Attempting to change people’s behaviors by use of a message that induces fear fearful-avoidant attachment style A style characterized by low self-esteem and low interpersonal trust This is the most insecure and least adaptive attachment style feeling rules Expectations about the appropriate emotions to display or express foot-in-the-door technique A procedure for gaining compliance in which requesters begin with a small request and then, when this is granted, escalate to a larger one (the one they actually desired all along) forewarning Advance knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion Forewarning often increases resistance to the persuasion that follows frustration-aggression hypothesis The suggestion that frustration is a very powerful determinant of aggression fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias) The tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional cues on others’ behavior gender stereotypes Stereotypes concerning the traits possessed by females and males and that distinguish the two genders from each other general aggression model (GAM) A modern theory of aggression suggesting that aggression is triggered by a wide range of input variables that influence arousal, affective stages, and cognitions glass ceiling Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified females from advancing to toplevel positions glass cliff When women and minorities are seen as better leaders because of their ability to manage crises They are more likely to be selected as leader when the situation contains more risk glass cliff effect Choosing women for leadership positions that are risky, precarious, or when the outcome is more likely to result in failure group A collection of people who are perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit to some degree group polarization The tendency of group members to shift toward a more extreme position than initially held by those individuals as a result of group discussion evolutionary psychology Glossary The tendency of the members of highly cohesive groups to assume that their decisions can’t be wrong, that all members must support the group’s decisions strongly, and that information contrary to it should be ignored habit Repeatedly performing a specific behavior so responses become relatively automatic whenever that situation is encountered heuristic processing Processing of information in a peruasive message that involves the use of simple rules of thumb or mental shortcuts heuristics Simple rules for making complex decisions or drawing inferences in a rapid manner and seemingly effortless manner hooliganism Negative stereotype about how people behave in crowds at sporting events, especially applied to incidents involving England’s soccer fans hostile aggression Aggression in which the prime objective is inflicting some kind of harm on the victim hypocrisy Publicly advocating some attitudes or behavior and then acting in a way that is inconsistent with these attitudes or behavior hypothesis An as yet unverified prediction concerning some aspect of social behavior or social thought ideology The philosophical and political values that govern a group illusion of truth effect The mere repetition of information creates a sense of familiarity and more positive attitudes implementation plan A plan for how to implement our intentions to carry out some action implicit associations Links between group membership and trait associations or evaluations that the perceiver may be unaware of They can be activated automatically based on the group membership of a target implicit attitudes Unconscious associations between objects and evaluative responses implicit personality theories Beliefs about what traits or characteristics tend to go together implicit self-esteem Feelings about the self of which we are not consciously aware impression formation The process through which we form impressions of others impression management (self-presentation) Efforts by individuals to produce favorable first impressions on others incidental feelings Those feelings induced separately or before a target is encountered; as a result, those feelings are irrelevant to the group being judged but can still affect judgments of the target independent variable The variable that is systematically changed (i.e., varied) in an experiment individualism Groups where the norm is to stand out and be different from others; individual variability is expected and disagreement among members is tolerated information overload Instances in which our ability to process information is exceeded groupthink Social influence based on the desire to be correct (i.e., to possess accurate perceptions of the social world) informed consent A procedure in which research participants are provided with as much information as possible about a research project before deciding whether to participate in it ingratiation When we try to make others like us by conveying that we like them; praising others to flatter them injunctive norms Norms specifying what ought to be done; what is approved or disapproved behavior in a given situation instrumental aggression Aggression in which the primary goal is not to harm the victim but rather attainment of some other goal—for example, access to valued resources instrumental conditioning A basic form of learning in which responses that lead to positive ourcomes or which permit avoidance of negative outcomes are strengthened intergroup comparisons Judgments that result from comparisons between our group and another group interpersonal trust An attitudinal dimension underlying attachment styles that involves the belief that other people are generally trustworthy, dependable, and reliable as opposed to the belief that others are generally untrustworthy, undependable, and unreliable This is the most successful and most desirable attachment style intimacy In Sternberg’s triangular model of love, the closeness felt by two people—the extent to which they are bonded intragroup comparisons Judgments that result from comparisons between individuals who are members of the same group introspection To privately contemplate “who we are.” It is a method for attempting to gain self knowledge introspection illusion Our belief that social influence plays a smaller role in shaping our own actions than it does in shaping the actions of others job satisfaction Attitudes individuals hold concerning their jobs kin selection theory A theory suggesting that a key goal for all organisms—including human beings—is getting our genes into the next generation; one way in which individuals can reach this goal is by helping others who share their genes less-leads-to-more effect The fact that offering individuals small rewards for engaging in counterattitudinal behavior often produces more dissonance, and so more attitude change, than offering them larger rewards lineup A procedure in which witnesses to a crime are shown several people, one or more of whom may be suspects in a case, and asked to identify those that they recognize as the person who committed the crime linguistic style Aspects of speech apart from the meaning of the words employed loneliness The unpleasant emotional and cognitive state based on desiring close relationships but being unable to attain them love A combination of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors that often play a crucial role in intimate relationships informational social influence Glossary A technique for gaining compliance in which an offer or deal is changed to make it less attractive to the target person after this person has accepted it magical thinking Thinking involving assumptions that don’t hold up to rational scrutiny—for example, the belief that things that resemble one another share fundamental properties matching hypotheses The idea that although we would prefer to obtain extremely attractive romantic partners, we generally focus on obtaining ones whose physical beauty is about the same as our own mediating varible A variable that is affected by an independent variable and then influences a dependent variable Mediating variables help explain why or how specific variables influence social behavior or thought in certain ways mere exposure By having seen before, but not necessarily remembering having done so, attitudes toward an object can be formed metaphor A linguistic device that relates or draws a comparison between one abstract concept and another dissimilar concept meta-stereotypes Beliefs about how one’s group is viewed by another group; these are often negative microexpressions Fleeting facial expressions lasting only a few tenths of a second minimal groups When we are categorized into different groups based on some “minimal” criteria we tend to favor others who are categorized in the same group as ourselves compared to those categorized as members of a different group modern racism More subtle beliefs than blatant feelings of superiority It consists primarily of thinking minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they deserve and a denial that discrimination affects their outcomes mood congruence effects The fact that we are more likely to store or remember positive information when in a positive mood and negative information when in a negative mood mood dependent memory The fact that what we remember while in a given mood may be determined, in part, by what we learned when previously in that mood moral disengagement No longer seeing sanctioning as necessary for perpetrating harm that has been legitimized multicultural perspective A focus on understanding the cultural and ethnic factors that influence social behavior need for affiliation The basic motive to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships negative interdependence A situation where if one person obtains a desired outcome, others cannot obtain it negative-state relief model The proposal that prosocial behavior is motivated by the bystander’s desire to reduce his or her own uncomfortable negative emotions or feelings noncommon effects Effects produced by a particular cause that could not be produced by any other apparent cause nonverbal communication Communication between individuals that does not involve the content of spoken low-ball procedure language It relies instead on an unspoken language of facial expressions, eye contact, and body language normative focus theory A theory suggesting that norms will influence behavior only to the extent that they are focal for the people involved at the time the behavior occurs normative social influence Social influence based on the desire to be liked or accepted by other people norms Rules or expectations within a group concerning how its members should (or should not) behave obedience A form of social influence in which one person simply orders one or more others to perform some action(s) objectification of females Regarding them as mere bodies that exist for the pleasure of others objective scales Those with measurement units that are tied to external reality so that they mean the same thing regardless of category membership (e.g., dollars earned, feet and inches, chosen or rejected) observational learning A basic form of learning in which individuals acquire new forms of behavior as a result of observing others optimistic bias Our predisposition to expect things to turn out well overall optimum level of well-being theory A theory suggesting that for any specfic task, there is an optimum level of subjective well-being Up to this point, performance increases, but beyond it, performance on the task declines overconfidence accuracy The tendency to have more confidence in the accuracy of our own judgments than is reasonable passion In Sternberg’s triangular model of love, the sexual motives and sexual excitement associated with a couple’s relationship passionate love An intense and often unrealistic emotional response to another person When this emotion is experienced, it is usually perceived as an indication of true love, but to outside observers it appears to be infatuation peripheral route to persuasion Attitude change that occurs in response to peripheral persuasion cues, which is often based on information concerning the expertise or status of would-be persuaders perseverance effect The tendency for beliefs and schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory information personal happiness Refers to subjective well-being, which involves global life satisfaction, satisfaction with specific life domains, frequent positive feelings, and relatively few negative feelings personal-versus-social identity continuum At the personal level, the self is thought of as a unique individual, whereas at the social identity level, the self is seen as a member of a group persuasion Efforts to change others’ attitudes through the use of various kinds of messages www.downloadslide.net References Zajonc, R B., Heingartner, A., & Herman, E M (1969) Social enhancement and impairment of performance in the cockroach Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 83–92 Zaslow, J (2010, May 5) Surviving the age of humiliation Wall Street Journal, pp D1, D3 Zebrowitz, L A., Collins, M A., & Dutta, R (1998) The relationship between appearance and personality across the life span Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 736–749 Zebrowitz, L A., Kikuchi, M., & Fellous, J M (2007) Are effects of emotion expression on trait Impressions mediated by babyfaceness?: Evidence from connectionist modeling Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 648–662 Zebrowitz, L A., Kikuchi, M., & Fellous, J M (in press) Facial resemblance toe: Group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Zhang, F., & Parmely, M (2011) What youre best friend sees that I don’t see: Comparing female close friends and casual acquaintances on the perception of emotional facial expressions of varying intensities Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 38–39 Zhang, S., Schmader, T., & Forbes, C (2009) The effects of gender stereotypes on women’s career choice: Opening the glass door In M Barreto, M K Ryan, & M T Schmitt (Eds.), The glass ceiling in the 21st century (pp 125–150) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Zhong, C-B., Bohns, V K., & Gino, F (2010) Good lamps are the best police: Darkness increase dishonesty and selfinterested behavior Psychological Science, 21, 311–314 Zhu, F., & Zhang, X (2010) Impact of online consumer reviews on sales: The moderating role of product and consumer characteristics Journal of Marketing, 74, 133–148 504 Zillmann, D (1979) Hostility and aggression Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Zillmann, D (1983) Transfer of excitation in emotional behavior In J T Cacioppo & R E Petty (Eds.), Social psychophysiology: A sourcebook (pp 215–240) New York: Guilford Press Zillmann, D (1988) Cognition–excitation interdependencies in aggressive behavior Aggressive Behavior, 14, 51–64 Zillmann, D (1994) Cognition–excitation interdependencies in the escalation of anger and angry aggression In M Potegal & J F Knutson (Eds.), The dynamics of aggression Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Zillmann, D., Baron, R A., & Tamborini, R (1981) The social costs of smoking: Effects of tobacco smoke on hostile behavior Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 11, 548–561 Zimbardo, P G (2007) The Lucifer effect: How good people turn evil New York: Random House Zimbardo, P.G (1970) The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos In W.J Arnold & D Levine (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol 17, pp 237–307) Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press Zuckerman, M., & O’Loughlin, R E (2006) Self-enhancement by social comparison: A prospective analysis Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 751–760 Zywica, J., & Danowski, J (2005) The faces of facebookers: Investigating social enhancement and social compensation hypotheses; predicting Facebook and offline popularity from sociability and self-esteem, and mapping the meanings of popularity with semantic networks Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 14, 1–34 www.downloadslide.net Index Page references followed by "f" indicate illustrated figures or photographs; followed by "t" indicates a table A Abilities, 63, 123, 142-144, 361, 436-437 Abnormal, 460-461, 466-467, 470, 474, 480, 487, 494, 501 abortion, 23, 183 above average effect, 1, 143, 151 Abu Ghraib, 223-224, 286, 305, 356 Abu Ghraib Prison, 223, 286, 305, 356 Abuse, 139, 347, 354, 356, 367, 374, 376, 408, 465 Academic achievement, 467 Academic performance, 465 Accessibility, 167, 170, 499-501 and attitude, 170 Accidents, 47, 49-50, 188, 334, 405 Accommodation, 484 Accuracy, 14, 22, 25, 35, 39, 47, 63, 70, 108-109, 112, 114, 117, 119-120, 252, 284, 315-317, 320, 326, 335, 342, 459-460, 467, 476, 491, 497-498, 501 Achievement, 65, 387, 416, 462, 467, 476, 502 motivation for, 502 understanding, 476 Acquisition, 426, 428, 461 Actions, 2, 4, 6-8, 13, 15-16, 18-19, 21, 23-25, 39, 45-47, 54-55, 62-63, 69-70, 73-74, 76, 81-82, 94-95, 97-101, 113, 125, 128-129, 134, 156-157, 167, 173, 185-188, 201, 207-208, 213-214, 216, 219, 221-224, 230, 268, 277-280, 283-285, 295, 301, 317-320, 322, 327-330, 333-334, 340-341, 354-359, 364-369, 377-378, 390, 396-398, 403, 410, 421, 428, 439-441, 444-445, 455-456, 459, 465, 483, 500 Actor-observer effect, 1, 101, 106, 114, 492 Actual self, 124 Adaptation, 471, 479 hedonic, 471 additive tasks, 1, 438, 457 Adjustment, 1, 45, 51-53, 73, 76-77, 101, 261, 315-316, 405, 476, 480, 498, 500 Adolescence, 256, 331, 390, 460, 475, 478, 492, 494 decision making in, 494 identity, 460, 475, 478, 492, 494 Adolescents, 121, 257, 316, 476, 479, 485, 495, 499-500 aggression in, 499 bullying, 316 depression in, 464 Adult attachment style, 476, 487 Adulthood, 140, 369, 391, 467, 482, 489 falling in love, 369 Adults, 137, 142, 210, 223, 226, 257-258, 262, 304, 323, 332, 358, 360, 464, 468-469, 478-479, 501 Advertising, 161-162, 164, 170, 175, 180, 401, 484 subliminal, 161-162 Affect, 1, 6, 21-22, 31, 33-34, 36, 41, 45, 47-48, 51, 57-59, 69-75, 77, 105, 119, 126-128, 130-131, 134, 145-146, 151, 155-156, 159, 164, 166-171, 173-174, 177, 181, 200, 205, 223, 239-242, 248, 250, 255-256, 262, 270, 283, 289, 320, 363-364, 376, 404-405, 414-418, 424-425, 427-429, 435-436, 460, 462-464, 473, 478-481, 485-488, 492-493 attraction and, 486 Affective forecasting, 72, 472 affiliation, 235, 237-239, 241, 244, 248, 270-271, 296, 423, 469, 477, 483, 489, 493-494, 503 similarity and, 235, 248, 469, 493 social comparison and, 483 Affiliation motive, 244 Affiliation needs, 237-238 affirmative action, 28, 163, 200-201, 207, 465, 485 Afghanistan, 45, 433 Africa, 45, 360 African, 26, 71, 131, 146-149, 157-159, 198, 200, 208, 214, 225, 229, 245, 337, 408-409, 449, 497, 503 African Americans, 146-147, 149, 157-159, 198, 214, 225, 229, 497 cancer in, 159 African-Americans, 497 Age, 19-20, 26, 30, 53, 63, 83, 117, 126, 129, 140, 142, 168, 200, 230, 255, 263, 267, 278, 302, 348, 376, 410-411, 417-418, 504 and health, 411 and identity, 117 and personality, 504 and self-esteem, 504 and sexuality, 263 concepts of, 140 poverty and, 411 Aggression, 1-4, 12-13, 18, 23, 32-34, 39, 55, 86, 139, 150, 313, 340-341, 343, 345-383, 390, 459-464, 466-467, 474-480, 484-485, 487, 492, 497, 499, 501, 504 and biology, 13 and sex, 466, 499 and violence, 348, 358, 494 arousal and, 3, 356, 459, 480 empathy and, 23, 462, 475 frustration-aggression hypothesis, 3, 350-354, 363, 382-383, 463 in adolescence, 492 intergroup, 2, 4, 459, 461, 464, 471, 475, 477, 479-480, 485, 487, 492, 494, 501 low self-esteem and, 3, peers, 369, 390 personality traits and, 480 roots of violence, 347, 349 self-esteem and, 2-3, 6, 341 situational determinants, 347, 370 stereotypes and, 464, 471 television and, 480 temperature and, 370, 372, 459, 461 testosterone, 487 Thanatos, 349 video games and, 466 violence in the media, 33, 359 violent video games and, 466 workplace, 376, 497 Aggressiveness, 108, 360-361, 366-367, 486 Aging, 256, 478-479, 483, 491 study of, 483 subjective, 478, 491 successful, 256 Agreeableness, 105, 108, 253-254, 260, 398, 487 AIDS, 110, 164, 188, 467 Alcohol, 52, 73-74, 134, 161, 166-168, 173, 187, 215, 219, 246, 323, 347-348, 370, 372-373, 383, 462, 466, 475, 477, 485-486 perception of, 168, 246 use of, 173 alcohol consumption, 166, 215, 373 Alcohol use, 166 Alcoholism, 479 Algebra, 324 Algorithms, 204 Allport, Gordon, 213 Altruism, 313, 315, 317-320, 342-343, 460, 462-463, 466, 468, 493, 496 bystander intervention, 493 empathy-altruism hypothesis, 3, 315, 320, 342-343, 462-463 reciprocal, 319, 468 reciprocal altruism, 319 Altruistic behavior, 332, 494 Ambiguity, 70, 281, 489 Ambivalent sexism, 468 American Psychiatric Association, 393, 459 American Psychological Association, 263, 339, 459, 468, 470, 472, 474, 477, 483, 486, 490, 493-495, 504 members, 339 Americans, 45-46, 48-49, 92-93, 102, 125, 130-131, 144, 146-147, 149-150, 157-159, 195-201, 211, 214, 221-223, 225, 227-229, 261, 349, 400, 421, 444, 446, 449, 472, 497 Amygdala, 58, 490 Anagrams, 60 Anchoring, 1, 45, 51-53, 76-77, 101, 473 Anchoring and adjustment heuristic, 1, 51-52, 77 Anchoring effects, 52 Anger, 12, 71, 83-85, 100, 213-215, 231, 291, 352, 354-356, 360, 363-364, 370, 372, 379-382, 421, 441, 445-446, 459-461, 478, 486-488, 504 dilemma of, 460 facial expressions, 83-84, 352, 504 managing, 484 myths, 466 road rage, 85 Animals, 261, 332, 391, 437-438 Annoyance, 17, 181, 355-356 Anonymity, 334-335, 456, 492, 502 antifat attitudes, 469 Antisocial behavior, 485, 490 Anxiety, 23, 147-149, 151, 226, 230-231, 238-239, 262, 268, 280, 291, 323, 389-390, 396-397, 405, 417, 422, 429, 431-432, 448-449, 456, 461, 464, 472, 487, 490, 501 Anxious attachment, 23 Apparent movement, 1, 281 Appraisal, 352, 361, 473, 484 performance, 473 Apprentice, 159 Apprentice, The, 159 Arguments, 144, 156, 162-163, 168-169, 178-179, 181, 183-184, 190, 451, 453, 457, 501 definition, 453 Arizona, 26, 158 Aromatherapy, 14 Aronson, E., 460, 497 Aronson, J., 460, 493, 497 Arousal, 70-71, 85, 170, 261-262, 347, 351-352, 355-357, 361-363, 381-383, 423, 436-438, 456, 459-461, 464-465, 480, 492 and aggression, 347, 355-356, 381, 459, 464 two-factor theory of emotion, 71 Art, 70, 146, 155, 174, 274, 413 Asia, 26-27, 48, 102 Asian Americans, 211, 214, 444, 446 Asians, 49, 53, 97-98, 148, 223 Assessment, 123, 142, 464, 499 of personality, 464, 499 Assimilation, 463 associated effect of emotions, 239 assumed similarity, 393-394, 467 atomic submarines, 175 Atrocities, 227, 285-286, 305, 309, 313 Attachment, 1-4, 23, 238-239, 256-257, 260, 262, 268, 270-271, 333, 390, 393, 395-397, 417, 465, 467-469, 471, 476, 482, 485-488, 495, 499, 501-502 between siblings, 260, 270 differences in, 238, 268, 465, 467, 476, 486-487, 491, 499, 501-502 fathers, 256-257 first, 4, 23, 239, 256, 260, 262, 270-271, 393, 395-396, 467-468, 502 theory of, 3, 465, 468, 471, 502 threats and, 239 to friends, 499 to romantic partners, 268 Attachment styles, 4, 238, 256-257, 260, 270, 393, 397, 485, 491, 495 505 www.downloadslide.net dismissing avoidant, 238 fearful-avoidant, 257, 393 in intimate relationships, Attachment theory, 469, 487 Attention, 6-8, 17, 21-22, 27, 39-40, 45, 54, 57, 60, 76, 82, 89-91, 95, 101, 103, 107, 113, 128, 170-171, 176, 181-182, 189-190, 213, 243, 279, 288, 299, 323, 342, 388-389, 464, 468, 480, 492-493 Attitude, 1, 4-7, 136-137, 141, 155-156, 159-161, 163-173, 175-178, 181-191, 201, 213, 223, 231, 240, 247, 250, 252, 256, 435, 464, 468-469, 472-473, 483-484, 486, 489-491, 496, 498-499, 501-502 origins of, 201, 489, 499 Attitude accessibility, 167 Attitude change, 1, 4-6, 155, 160, 169, 175-178, 181, 183-184, 186, 189-191, 486, 489-491, 502 Attitude object, 167, 169-170, 173, 189 attitude-behavior consistency, 166-167, 169, 496 attitude-behavior link, 189 attitude-discrepant behavior, 186, 189, 191 Attitudes, 1-8, 17, 21, 23-25, 28-29, 36-37, 39, 41, 45-46, 56-57, 71, 117, 125, 136-137, 153-179, 181-191, 213-215, 221-223, 225-226, 229-231, 240-241, 249-252, 254, 256-259, 270, 276, 288, 308, 327, 351-352, 379, 393-394, 408, 423, 433, 459-460, 465, 469-470, 472-474, 477, 479, 481, 483, 485, 489-491, 494-499, 501-503 accessibility, 167, 170, 499, 501 accessibility of, 170, 499, 501 affective component, 71, 201 and intentions, 173, 447 behavior and, 1, 4, 17, 21, 23, 25, 160, 172-173, 188, 256, 459-460, 465, 479, 485, 489-490, 494-495, 498, 502-503 change in, 39, 163, 188, 205, 276 classical conditioning of, 8, 161-162 correctness, 155, 168-171, 293, 489-490 discrimination and, 230, 490 explicit versus implicit, 157 functions of, 473, 479, 494 implicit egotism and, 490 importance of, 17, 155, 168, 254, 256-257, 259, 469, 472, 483, 503 measuring, 23-24, 136, 222, 465, 469, 477, 501 perceived behavioral control, 172 persuasion, 1, 5-7, 155, 160, 169, 174-179, 181-185, 189-191, 241, 276, 465, 472-474, 479, 485, 490-491, 495, 499, 501-502 subjective norms, 8, 172-173 Attitudes and attitude change, 489 attitude-to-behavior process model, 1, 173, 189, 191 Attraction, 2, 6, 11, 19-20, 36, 233-271, 290, 294, 308, 326, 393, 463, 466-469, 472-473, 482-483, 489-490, 495-496, 498 close relationships, 233-271 impressions of, 19, 247 love and, 236, 256-257, 262-263, 266, 271, 466 marriage, 6, 19, 235-236, 255, 262-263, 393, 467-468, 472, 486 reciprocal liking, 235, 253 romance, 20, 246, 261, 263, 266, 268-269, 271, 393 romantic attraction, 266, 271, 467 similarity, 6, 235-236, 241, 248-252, 254, 259-260, 266, 270-271, 308, 326, 463, 466-469, 472, 482, 490, 495-496, 498 theories of, 468 Attractiveness, 20, 97, 108, 110, 123, 175, 181, 235, 243-248, 251-254, 263, 266-268, 270-271, 289, 299, 350, 388, 408-410, 418, 443, 469, 471, 474, 476-477, 480-482, 484, 486, 490-493, 499, 501-503 Attribution, 1-3, 81-82, 91, 94, 96-101, 103-104, 106, 113-114, 145, 148, 228-229, 366, 444, 462, 472, 476, 481-483, 487-489, 501-502 action identification and, 98, 483 biases, 100, 476, 481-482, 487, 502 causes of behavior, 96-97, 106, 113, 481-482 dispositional, 1, 3, 98-99, 101, 106, 113, 462, 482 faulty, 444 fundamental attribution error, 2-3, 99-101, 114, 366, 489 of harm, 145 situational, 1-2, 99-101, 106, 113-114, 229, 366, 472 506 Attribution process, 98, 481 correspondence bias, 98 Attribution theory, 81, 103-104, 462, 476, 482 Attributional style, 479 Attributions, 24, 48, 71, 95-98, 100-105, 145-146, 148, 151, 195, 228-231, 396-397, 446, 460, 462, 465, 480-481, 489, 502 consensus, 96-97 consistency, 96-97 distinctiveness, 96-97 fundamental, 100-101, 228, 489 internal, 71, 96-97, 100-102, 104, 145, 228, 396 self-serving biases, 487 Audience, 56, 123, 160-161, 163, 175, 181, 189, 348, 435-438, 452-453, 456, 479, 498 Australia, 304, 360, 452 authority, 186, 275, 285-286, 296, 303-307, 309, 376, 427, 466, 487, 501 expertise and, 307 influence of, 466 obedience to, 275, 303, 306, 487 Authority figures, 306-307, 309 Autobiographical memories, 473 Autobiographical memory, 1, 133, 150-151, 493 autokinetic phenomenon, 1, 275, 281, 309 Automatic processes, 47 automatic social behavior, 45, 58, 467 Automaticity, 461 Autonomous motivation, 339, 502 Autonomy, 318, 324, 360-361 Availability heuristic, 1, 49-52, 77, 493-494 Avoidant attachment style, 3, 238, 257, 271, 467 Avoidant style, 257 Awareness, 2, 15, 59-60, 62, 76, 137, 161-162, 165, 171, 189, 210, 231, 298, 334, 421, 426, 439, 456, 464 B Baby, 256 Baby talk, 256 Balance, 1-2, 11, 36, 124, 252, 254, 266, 270-271, 288, 397-399, 417, 442-443, 453 Balance theory, 1, 252, 254, 270-271 Bandura, A., 461, 467 bargaining (negotiation), 1, 445, 457 Basic emotions, 83, 93, 113 BBC Prison Experiment, 456 BBC prison study, 286-287, 492 Behavior, 1-8, 11, 13-21, 23-36, 39-41, 48, 55-59, 62, 67, 70-71, 73, 76-77, 81-83, 85-86, 92-97, 99-103, 105-106, 110-114, 119-121, 124-129, 131, 135, 144, 162, 164-174, 176-177, 181, 185-191, 204-205, 211-213, 215, 218, 221-223, 225, 227-230, 240, 243, 247, 250, 256, 258-259, 268, 273-274, 276-309, 311-343, 348-355, 358-360, 363-364, 366-370, 377-379, 381-383, 390-391, 393, 398, 402-403, 408-410, 418, 423-428, 431, 435-436, 439-441, 443-444, 447-448, 453, 456, 459-465, 467-487, 489-504 and self-concept, 477 attitude and, 168, 173, 187, 483, 501 attitude-consistent, 168 attitude-discrepant, 186, 189, 191 attribution theory and, 482 confirming, 148, 328, 364 counter-attitudinal, 484 discrimination as, 213, 215 dissonance and, 155, 186, 476, 478 infant, 1, 256, 332, 465, 481, 499 moral, 5, 111, 167, 171, 223, 229, 250, 283, 306, 330, 398, 460-463, 472-473, 486-487, 493 prison study, 285-287, 295, 304, 308, 427, 492 prosocial, 3, 5-6, 311-343, 360, 363, 369, 379, 382, 440, 460, 462-463, 467-468, 471-472, 476-477, 479, 485, 490, 500, 502 psychological health and, 21 self-regulation of, 495 sexual, 5, 26, 86, 129, 148, 204-205, 212, 222, 230, 289, 324, 363-364, 408-410, 459, 471-472, 474, 480, 484-485, 494-495, 497 social influence on, 279 social psychology and, 11, 23, 25, 503 strength of, 31, 35, 48, 55, 102, 155, 167, 169, 174, 189, 303, 472 Type A, 352, 367, 370, 382-383, 462-463, 497 units of, 250 Behavior inconsistency, 166 Behavioral intentions, 8, 172 Beliefs, 4-5, 7, 11, 16, 21, 34, 46, 56, 63, 68-69, 97-101, 109-110, 142, 144, 155-157, 180-181, 183, 187-188, 197, 201, 204, 212, 229-230, 250, 254, 256, 270, 278, 308, 351-352, 362-363, 381, 395, 397-398, 435, 448-449, 456-457, 477-479, 491, 498, 502 about self, 256 in God, 98 prejudicial, 197, 230, 478 Bell, A., 485 Belonging needs, 430 Benevolent sexism, 204 Bereavement, 434 Bias, 2-3, 5, 7, 14-15, 20, 22, 40, 63-64, 66, 69, 77, 98-106, 113-114, 124, 212, 226, 228, 231, 352, 357-358, 361, 406-407, 409, 447, 461-462, 464, 471, 474-476, 480, 488, 490-491, 495-496, 498 actor-observer, 101, 106, 114 anchoring, 77, 101 availability, 77 cognitive bias, 357 correspondence, 2-3, 98-101, 104-106, 113-114, 476, 496 gender, 3, 100-101, 106, 113, 202, 212, 231, 409, 464, 471, 474, 476, 480 implicit, 40, 114, 231, 471, 474-476, 480, 496 negativity, 102, 475, 488 optimistic, 5, 63-64, 66, 69, 77, 498 outgroup, 2, 219, 226, 228, 231, 483 overconfidence, 5, 63-64, 69, 77 representativeness, 77, 496 self-serving, 7, 102-103, 106, 114 situation-specific, 66 social desirability, 106, 113 test, 14, 66, 99, 228, 357-358, 361, 409, 474, 496 Bias blind spot, 491 biased instructions, 407 Biases, 15, 100, 117, 143-144, 150, 215, 449, 460, 473, 476, 481-482, 485, 487, 502 cognitive, 460, 473, 476, 485, 502 fairness, 449 Big Five, 260, 495 Binge eating, 469 Biological evolution, 17 Biological factors, 17, 20, 347, 349-350 impact of, 17 Biology, 13, 262, 461, 475, 489 of love, 13, 262 of memory, 461 Birth, 109-110, 255, 479, 489 Blaming the victim, 476 Blind spot, 491 Blindness, 222, 489 Blogs, 155 Blood, 135, 316, 355, 404-405, 459, 489 blood pressure, 355, 405, 459, 478-479 Body, 1, 22, 26-27, 56-57, 69-70, 82-83, 85-87, 91-93, 97, 107, 109, 111, 113-114, 150, 197, 200, 247, 252, 256, 327, 372, 399-400, 414-415, 450, 498 Body language, 1, 5, 82, 85, 93, 113-114 Body odor, 87 body piercings, 133, 150 Body posture, 92 Body types, 26-27 Body weight, 197, 200, 372, 498 bona fide pipeline, 1, 222-223, 225, 231 Bonding, 262, 266, 271 Botox, 88-90, 470 Boys, 217-218, 221, 227, 246, 347, 375, 464 Brain, 11, 23-25, 27, 40, 58, 62, 71, 74-77, 157, 185, 238-239, 242, 262, 362, 444, 462, 467, 469, 480, 500, 502 amygdala, 58 and emotion, 58, 75, 469, 500, 502 behavior and, 11, 23, 25, 27, 40, 480, 502 coloring, 157 cooperative, 444, 500 development, 27, 40, 467, 488 experiments on, 469, 500 neurons, 24 regions of, 58, 62, 75-76, 185 scanning, 74-75 self, 23, 62, 76, 157, 185, 238, 462, 467, 469, 480, 488, 500, 502 www.downloadslide.net sex differences in, 467 Brainstorming, 1, 452-453, 457, 471 Breaking up, 235, 265 Breast cancer, 494 Bullies, 1, 347, 374-375, 377, 383, 496 Bullying, 1-2, 139, 222, 316, 347-348, 374-377, 383, 480, 488-489, 492 Burnout, 428 Bystander effect, 313, 322, 325, 469, 475 diffusion of responsibility, 325 Bystanders, 6, 313, 320-326, 342, 477 C Caffeine, 178-179, 181, 189, 486 Cancer, 159-160, 188 breast, 494 cervical, 159-160 cervical cancer, 159-160 Capital punishment, 377 Career, 62, 117, 244, 266, 416, 504 Careers, 203, 212, 247, 255, 278, 482 gender discrimination, 203 Castro, Fidel, 99 Categories, 48, 85, 102, 110, 131, 142, 145, 210-211, 219, 245, 319, 454, 496 Categorization, 142, 215, 218-219, 498, 500 Catharsis, 1, 347, 379-381, 383, 466, 474 catharsis hypothesis, 1, 379-381, 383, 474 causal attribution, 96-97, 106, 113 Causal factors, 48, 96 types of, 96 Causality, 11, 34, 97, 106, 113, 316, 487 Cause and effect, 496 Ceiling effect, 230 Cell, The, 49 Cells, 157, 404 stem, 157 Central route, 1, 177-178, 181, 191 Central route to persuasion, 1, 177-178, 181, 191 Central traits, 107, 112, 114 Cervical cancer, 159-160 Challenge, 20, 129, 138, 141, 195, 210 Change, 1-7, 11, 13, 18, 21-22, 25-26, 28, 39, 49, 52-53, 56, 68, 96-98, 127, 132, 141, 149-150, 155-157, 160, 162-164, 168-169, 174-178, 181-191, 197-202, 212-213, 221, 226-227, 229-231, 256, 276-277, 281, 283, 286-288, 295, 297, 365, 414-415, 422, 425-426, 432-436, 442-444, 446, 450-451, 456, 464-465, 475, 478-480, 485-486, 489-493, 497, 499, 502-503 Child abuse, 367, 408 Child development, 499 Child rearing, 365 Child temperament, 468 Childhood, 28, 155, 225, 256, 258-260, 270, 331, 390, 401, 494, 499 childhood friendships, 258 Children, 56, 109, 130, 142, 147-148, 162, 225, 230, 255-258, 262, 267-268, 298, 304, 323, 331-333, 348, 358-360, 364, 368-369, 374-377, 383, 390, 392-393, 400-401, 407, 440, 465-468, 481-482, 485, 494-496, 500 media violence, 358-359 temperament, 468, 482 Chimpanzees, 484 China, 49 Chinese, 49, 102, 130-131, 165-166, 484-485 Chinese Americans, 102, 131 Chronic illnesses, 97 Church of England, 434 Cialdini, Robert, 295 Civil Rights Act, 204 Civil unions, 195-196, 494 Claims, 45, 123, 170-171, 301 two, 45, 170-171, 301 Classical conditioning, 1, 137, 155, 160-162, 165, 189, 191, 240, 489 and advertising, 161 attitudes, 1, 137, 155, 160-162, 165, 189, 191, 240, 489 learning in, 1, 160, 162 Classroom, 6, 54, 162, 212, 241-242, 466, 488 Clinton, Hillary, 207, 454-455 close relationships, 4, 233-271, 389, 411, 487-488 Closure, 265 Coactors, 502 cockroaches, 436-437 Cognition, 7, 11, 17, 20-21, 40, 43-77, 98, 186-187, 251, 352, 378, 382, 408, 417, 460, 464, 468-477, 480-483, 499, 503-504 affect and, 45, 69, 71, 74-75, 77, 464, 475, 480 and aging, 483 and creativity, 70 and socioeconomic status, 408 decision making and, 62, 71, 75, 464, 480 need for, 382, 477 reasoning and, 492 Cognitive bias, 357 Cognitive deficits, 146, 485 Cognitive dissonance, 1, 155, 160, 185-187, 189-191, 433, 478 Cognitive dissonance theory, 186, 433 Cognitive factors, 19, 65, 73, 335 Cognitive load, 54, 77, 437 Cognitive misers, 210 Cognitive perspective, 437, 479 Cognitive processes, 2, 17, 20, 40, 75, 155, 174, 177, 181-182, 189, 218, 263, 283, 362, 382, 463, 479, 502 automatic, 174, 177, 502 underlying persuasion, 155, 177 Cognitive resources, 48, 178, 379, 381, 383 Cognitive self-regulation, 459 Cognitive stimulation, 453 Cognitive theory, 178, 461 Cognitive therapy, 391 Cohort, 489 Coincidence, 466 collective guilt, 2, 223, 225, 227-228, 230-231, 465, 487, 503 collective identity, 6, 287, 432, 435, 457, 496 Collective self, 499 Collectivist cultures, 92-93 Collectivistic cultures, 502 College, 28, 50, 72, 123, 126, 128, 131, 138, 145, 162, 219, 224, 261, 288, 298, 316-317, 321, 347-348, 423, 451, 473, 480 College students, 72, 123, 126, 128, 138, 219, 224, 240, 261, 288, 298, 316, 321, 451, 473, 480 Color, 131, 157, 185, 189, 222, 246-247, 380, 477, 489 Color blindness, 222, 489 Colors, 61, 131 Commitment, 2, 14, 134, 236, 262-263, 266, 269, 271, 275, 281, 296-297, 299, 302, 308, 423, 430, 432-433, 439-440, 451, 456, 466-468, 475, 480 in marriage, 468 tactics based on, 275, 296-297, 299 common-bond groups, 2, 424, 431, 457, 491 common-identity groups, 2, 424, 431, 456-457 Communication, 1, 5, 81-83, 86-87, 93, 104-106, 113-114, 121, 256, 421, 441-442, 446, 457, 464, 467, 478-479, 481, 490, 494-495, 498-499, 501, 504 body language, 1, 5, 82, 93, 113-114 of emotion, 106, 114, 499, 504 Communist Party, 175 Community, 195-196, 204, 334, 412, 423, 429-430, 464, 474, 498 Comorbidity, 464 Companionate love, 2, 262-263, 266, 271 comparison, 7-8, 29, 51, 56, 69, 77, 117, 119, 121, 128-130, 140-145, 148-151, 164-165, 189, 191, 208, 211, 223-224, 252-254, 270-271, 280, 292, 413, 450, 452, 471-474, 476-477, 479-480, 482-483, 488-489, 503-504 of performance, 144, 151, 504 Comparisons, 4, 128, 134-135, 141-145, 150-151, 208, 448, 473, 486, 490, 503 behavioral, 145, 208 Competence, 7, 63, 69, 102, 108, 201-202, 208, 212, 230, 360-361, 363, 381-382, 468-469, 472, 491 Competition, 155, 183, 215, 217-218, 221, 225, 231, 258, 268-269, 299, 350, 362, 372, 378, 443, 468, 473-474, 488, 496 Competition for resources, 217 competitive altruism, 313, 317-318, 320, 342 complementarity, 249-250, 254, 270, 482, 486, 490, 493, 499 Compliance, 2-3, 5-6, 8, 155, 186, 189, 191, 275-277, 295-300, 303, 308-309, 468, 474-475, 477, 484 door-in-the-face technique, 3, 298-299, 309, 468, 477 factors affecting, 275 foot-in-the-door technique, 3, 297-298, 309, 475 lowball technique, 297 composite faces, 245-246 Computer games, 205 Computer-mediated communication, 81, 104, 441, 446, 473, 495 Computers, 39, 62, 275 Concept, 5, 7, 21-22, 56-58, 76, 123, 128-129, 131, 147, 251, 256, 262, 381, 429, 432, 456, 468, 485, 490, 498, 500 Conception, 263 Concepts, 34, 57, 136, 151, 196, 467 concrete, 57 Conclusion, 2, 15, 32, 37, 84, 94, 97, 103, 249, 264, 269, 287, 293, 313, 340, 396, 398, 415 condescension, 355 Conditioning, 1, 4, 137, 155, 160-162, 165, 189, 191, 240, 483, 489, 496, 498 classical, 1, 137, 155, 160-162, 165, 189, 191, 240, 489 instrumental, 4, 155, 162, 165, 189, 191 Condom use, 172, 459 Condoms, 188 Conflict, 2-3, 8, 45-46, 129, 217-218, 221, 224, 227, 231, 239, 255, 257, 424, 429, 437-438, 440-446, 448, 456-457, 470, 476, 480, 491 and friendships, 255, 491 ethnic, 444, 446, 461 task, 6, 218, 421, 437-438, 440-441, 444-445, 456, 462, 470, 488 views of, 218, 438 Conflicts, 183, 265, 395, 421, 443-446, 475 bargaining, 445-446 social dilemmas, 443-444, 446 theory, 475 Conformity, 2, 275-291, 293-295, 303, 308-309, 427, 440, 461-462, 464-465, 469, 475-477, 483, 488, 491 informational social influence, 284, 309 majority influence, 480 minority influence, 275, 293, 488 nonconformity, 289-291, 294, 308 normative, 283-284, 294, 308-309 normative social influence, 284, 309 obedience to authority, 275, 303 peer, 461, 476 social influence and, 488 status and, 293, 464, 491 to social norms, 288 Confounding of variables, 34, 36, 41 Confounding variable, 34 Congruence, 5, 70-71, 75, 77 Conscientiousness, 30, 105, 108, 503 Consciousness, 6, 54-55 Consensual validation, 252 Consensus, 2, 96-97, 99, 106, 113-114, 157, 168-169, 421, 450, 482, 496 Consistency, 2, 96-97, 106, 113-114, 127, 166-167, 169, 180-181, 275, 296-297, 299, 308, 467, 469, 495-496 and consequences, 469 attitude-behavior, 166-167, 169, 496 of behavior, 96-97, 106, 113, 127, 169 Conspicuous consumption, 497 Constraint, 500 Constraints, 101, 108, 169, 171, 189 Construction, 34, 133, 288, 438, 488, 494 Consummate love, 2, 263, 271 Contact, 2, 5-7, 11-12, 39, 77, 82-87, 91-93, 105, 110, 155, 160, 164, 197, 211, 218, 226-227, 230-231, 236-237, 239-242, 248, 252, 256, 268-271, 391, 405, 473, 475, 487, 498, 500-501, 503 Context, 2, 13, 22, 28-29, 39, 70, 86, 89-90, 100-101, 117, 128-131, 135, 142-144, 149, 162, 168-169, 211, 214, 250, 257, 264, 269-271, 299, 322, 370, 382-383, 397, 448, 454-456, 467-468, 474, 477-478, 484-485, 492-493 thought and, 13, 39, 70 Contingency, 502 Continuity, 425, 461, 467, 478, 480 Control, 56, 58, 65, 68, 73-74, 82, 87, 91, 97, 117, 119, 121, 134-135, 144, 147, 149-151, 169, 172-174, 180, 184, 217, 229, 261, 280, 297-298, 307, 334, 345-383, 396, 399, 461-463, 469, 485-487, 489, 491-492, 498-499, 501 of emotions, 239, 261, 461, 499 perceived, 3, 135, 172-174, 180, 217, 261, 351, 507 www.downloadslide.net 354, 364, 378, 380, 463, 473, 475, 477, 489, 491-492, 498 Control groups, 334 Controlled motivation, 339 Controlled processing, 45, 47, 58, 62, 76 cooperation, 2, 8, 218, 226, 268, 357, 421, 424, 441-444, 446, 457, 475, 488, 500 beneficial effects of, 226 in groups, 421, 424, 441, 446, 500 Coping, 7, 191, 387-388, 399, 404-405, 415, 484, 492, 494 social support, 7, 404-405 sources of, 387 Coping with stress, 7, 404-405 Correctness, 155, 168-171, 293, 462, 489-490 Correlation, 11, 29-31, 36 explaining, 36 negative, 30 positive, 30 Correlational method, 2, 30-32, 36, 41 Correlational research, 31 Correlational study, 126 Correlations, 30, 36, 41, 108, 404 Correspondence bias, 2-3, 98-101, 104-106, 113-114, 476 correspondent inference, 2, 94, 106, 113-114 Cortex, 58, 75 prefrontal, 58 Cortisol, 404, 428, 491 Counterarguments, 168-169, 182 Counterattitudinal behavior, 4, 186 Counterfactual thinking, 2, 45, 66-67, 69, 77, 487, 494, 503 Countering, 195, 225, 375 couples, 22, 30, 33, 111, 195, 248-249, 251, 263, 267, 269, 300, 393-398, 466-467 courtship, 15, 263, 459 Creative problem solving, 473 Creativity, 50-51, 70, 77, 452-453, 461, 475, 488 mood and, 70 Crime, 4, 51, 313-314, 321, 347, 371, 378, 400, 406-408, 459-460, 470, 496, 503 causes of, 347 Crimes, 46, 199, 222, 275, 360, 371-372, 378, 407-408 criminal justice systems, 378 Crisis, 203, 206, 212, 230, 421-422, 454-455, 457, 465 Cronkite, Walter, 99-100 Cross-cultural studies, 493 Crowding, 372 Crowds, 4, 240, 421, 435, 439-440, 456 Cues, 1, 3, 5, 81-82, 84-85, 87, 89-93, 99, 104-105, 113, 177-179, 181, 189, 245, 247, 296, 326, 352, 437, 446, 462, 464, 470, 497 nonverbal, 5, 81-82, 84-85, 87, 89-93, 104, 113, 296 reading, 84, 99 Cultural beliefs, 97 Cultural differences, 20, 26-27, 40, 53, 81, 84, 92, 105, 250, 496 Cultural evolution, 489 Cultural factors, 26-27, 40, 93, 102, 113, 268, 347-348, 363-365 in attachment, 256 Cultural influences, 16, 262 Culture, 14, 27, 40, 54, 84-85, 93, 105, 113, 122, 124, 148, 159, 255, 261-262, 429-430, 460-461, 463-464, 467-469, 474, 489, 494 and adolescence, 494 and bias, 474 and happiness, 261, 460 and love, 255, 261-262 and reasoning, 464 and the self, 477 collectivist, 93, 429 context, 363, 460, 467-468, 474, 489 differences, 27, 40, 84, 105, 122, 124, 148, 460, 463-464, 467, 494 gender roles, 113 individualist, 429 individualistic, 93, 429 levels of, 122 morality and, 469 norms and, 469 of honor, 363, 468-469 organizational, 464, 477, 494 reinforcement and, 461 research and, 467, 477 508 self and, 463, 467, 477 Culture of honor, 468-469 Cultures of honor, 2, 347, 363-365, 382-383 Cyberbullying, 2, 347, 376, 383, 481 cyberspace, 298, 376, 486 D Darley, John, 321 Data, 24, 28-29, 32-34, 49, 52, 60, 84, 87, 98, 100, 103, 126, 143, 184, 199-200, 207, 214-216, 219, 228, 247-248, 251-252, 267, 289, 298, 305, 321, 331, 407, 412, 462 raw, 490 raw data, 490 Dating, 17-19, 39, 110-112, 247, 251, 290, 299-302, 309, 393, 460, 491, 503 Death, 8, 49-50, 67-68, 72-73, 85, 89-90, 117, 124, 216, 221, 236, 303, 323, 333, 349, 403-404, 414, 440, 476, 503 attitudes toward, 8, 117, 221, 394, 503 fear of, 68, 323 violent, 440, 476, 489 Deaths, 49, 68, 72-73, 440 Debriefing, 2, 37-38, 41 of research participants, 38 Decay, 176, 484 deception, 2, 36-38, 41, 81, 89-93, 113, 470, 473-474, 482, 486, 489, 492-493, 495-496, 498 cues, 81, 89-93, 113, 470 in psychological research, 493 lie detection and, 473 research, 2, 36-38, 41, 81, 89-90, 92-93, 470, 473-474, 482, 492-493, 495-496, 498 Decision making, 2, 62, 71, 74-75, 157, 159-160, 406, 421-422, 424, 449, 451, 457, 473, 475, 480-481, 484-485, 488, 493-494, 500-501 availability heuristic, 493-494 by groups, 421, 449 complex, 62, 75, 422 creativity, 475, 488 group decision making, 421-422, 449, 451, 481, 494 heuristics, 62, 71, 481 potential sources of error in, 62 prosocial behavior, 500 Decision process, 324 Decision-making groups, 450-452, 465, 483 Decisions, 4, 8, 15, 47-48, 50-53, 60, 62-63, 71, 76, 144, 180, 215, 223, 241, 270, 284, 291, 324-325, 342, 395, 408-410, 421-422, 449-453, 455, 457, 490-491, 499, 502 four steps, 324 individual, 4, 48, 53, 71, 76, 159, 180, 270, 409, 421-422, 499 Defense, 183, 190, 305, 347, 406, 463, 472, 477 dehumanization, 224, 476 Denial, 5, 222 Denmark, 400 Dependent variable, 2, 5, 31, 33-34, 41 Depression, 103, 106, 114, 145, 354, 389-390, 399, 405, 414, 417, 460, 469, 492 and loneliness, 389-390, 460 chronic, 405, 469 clinical, 463 Deprivation, 411, 501 human, 411 Depth, 47, 160 desegregation, 499 Desensitization, 362-363, 382, 462, 475, 483 desensitization to violence, 362, 462 destructive obedience, 275, 304-307, 309, 470, 482 Developed countries, 337 Developing countries, 337 Development, 19, 27, 40, 135, 241, 244, 333, 350, 412, 454, 463-464, 467-468, 472, 487-489, 493, 495, 499, 501 adult, 19, 487 biological, 40, 333, 350 brain, 27, 40, 467, 488 sexual, 472, 495 Developmental psychology, 465, 468 Diana, Princess, 440 Diet, 134, 402-404, 406, 418 cortisol, 404 Diffusion of responsibility, 2, 321, 323, 325, 342-343, 470 Direct aggression, 355, 369 Direct experience, 169, 211, 225, 351 Direct observations, 25 Direct strategies, 187 Disabilities, 97 Discipline, 13, 247, 489 Discrimination, 2, 5, 7, 95, 140-141, 151, 162, 193-231, 432, 459, 470-471, 473-474, 476, 478, 480-481, 486, 488, 490, 494, 498 creation of, 217 group membership and, 151, 215, 221 interpersonal, 2, 7, 162, 197, 459, 473-474, 476, 478, 481, 486, 494, 498 racial, 197-201, 208, 222-223, 225-231, 463, 465, 470-471, 473, 498 racism and, 223, 230, 459, 490, 494 Disease, 48, 50, 161, 188, 399-400, 404-405, 476, 503 Diseases, 50, 188 disgust, 83, 100, 213-214, 221, 231, 493 Disidentification, 147 disliking, 1, 15, 25, 92, 143, 235, 237, 239-242, 247-248, 252-253 Dismissing attachment, 2, 257, 271 dismissing avoidant attachment style, 238, 467 Disorders, 139, 459 psychological, 459 Displaced aggression, 466 Disposition, 237, 247, 481 dispositional causes, 98, 101, 126 Dispositional factors, 106, 113, 250, 393 Dispositionism, 489 dissimilarity, 15, 250-254, 270-271, 292, 439, 487, 496, 498 Dissociation, 459-460, 477, 492 Dissonance, 1, 4, 155, 160, 185-191, 433, 471, 475-476, 478, 484, 496-497 Dissonance reduction, 187-188, 484, 496 Dissonance theory, 186-187, 433 distinctiveness, 2-3, 96-97, 99, 106, 113-114, 123, 149, 196, 430, 448, 456, 491, 503 Distress, 73, 88, 204, 214, 317, 331, 333, 357-358, 434-435, 456, 475, 487, 499 Distribution, 372, 464 Distributions, 447 Diversity, 11, 26, 163, 225-226, 468, 497 cultural, 26 family, 11 Divorce, 30, 255, 257, 389, 392, 394, 403 Domestic violence, 350, 501 Dominance, 86, 250, 267, 472, 482, 495 and attraction, 250, 472, 495 Dominant responses, 436-438, 456, 469 door-in-the face, 298 Door-in-the-face technique, 3, 298-299, 309, 468, 477 Downward social comparison, 3, 141, 144, 151 Downward social comparisons, 143, 150 Dream, 440 Dreams, 11, 94, 252, 301 Dress codes, 276 Drive, 29, 167, 172, 188, 284-285, 339, 347, 350-351, 353-354, 366, 382-383, 436-438, 474 sex, 188, 347, 474 drive theories of aggression, 350-351, 354 Drive theory, 436-438 drive theory of social facilitation, 436-438 Drives, 261, 286, 350-351, 353, 382, 459, 495 Drug abuse, 139 Drugs, 23, 82, 88, 415 Dual-process model, 491 E Early childhood, 258, 331 Eating, 139, 400-402, 404, 406, 413, 418, 437, 469, 479 obesity, 400-401, 418 Eating disorders, 139 Echo, 276 economic theory, 74 Education, 9, 26, 98, 109, 140, 200, 255, 261, 267, 416, 473 health, 140, 261, 416 Ego, 135, 150-151, 155, 184-185, 190-191, 265, 367, 381, 477, 502 ego depletion, 477 Egocentrism, 483 Egoism, 462 Ekman, Paul, 91 Elaboration likelihood, 178, 468, 474, 490 Elaboration likelihood model, 178, 468, 490 Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, 490 elaboration-likelihood model (ELM), 3, 177, 191 www.downloadslide.net Elderly, 59, 202, 210, 247, 314, 356, 405 e-mail, 1, 104-106, 114, 122, 159, 265, 269, 271, 275, 301, 376, 389, 441-442, 483 emotions, 275 Emblems, 85 Embryonic stem cells, 157 Emergencies, 37, 313, 315, 320, 324, 330, 332, 340, 470, 483 helping in, 37, 313, 315, 320, 324, 330 reactions to, 37 Emergency situations, 37, 313, 322, 333 response to, 333 Emotion, 2, 11, 21, 27, 39-40, 58, 71, 74-75, 77, 83, 87-88, 91-92, 100, 106, 114, 167, 198, 214-215, 223, 239-241, 261-262, 266, 270-271, 291-292, 330, 334, 355-356, 362, 411, 428, 448, 459-464, 467, 469-474, 486-489, 492-493, 495-496, 498-504 basic, 11, 27, 39-40, 58, 83, 87-88, 91, 239-241, 261-262, 291-292, 355, 415, 470, 488, 495, 498-499 contagion of, 469 elements of, 262 face of, 5, 489 facial feedback hypothesis, 88 happiness as, 415 knowledge of, 21, 39, 503 language of, 5, 487 nonverbal communication, 83, 87, 114 perceiving, 83, 87-88, 91-92, 100, 106, 114, 198, 459, 478, 482, 503 sources of, 40, 87, 106, 411 emotional arousal, 85, 261, 356, 459 Emotional infidelity, 364-365, 382 Emotional involvement, 259 Emotional loneliness, 463 Emotional state, 1, 64, 171, 239, 252, 262, 331, 494 Emotions, 3-5, 17, 20-21, 23-24, 33, 39, 45, 50, 58, 64, 69, 71-75, 77, 81-85, 88, 91-93, 100-101, 137, 148, 155-156, 170-171, 184, 213-214, 219-220, 231, 235-240, 261, 291-292, 308, 315, 317, 324-325, 327, 330, 343, 355-357, 396, 410, 415-416, 428-431, 448-449, 473-475, 482, 498-500, 502-503 appeals, 3, 503 arousal from, 356 in facial expressions, 83, 88 mere exposure effect, 503 social judgments, 50, 467 subjective well-being, 5, 410, 416, 471, 503 subjective well-being and, 503 two-factor theory of, 71 Empathic concern, 315-317, 320, 325-326, 342, 479, 497 empathic joy hypothesis, 3, 317-318, 320, 342-343 Empathy, 23-24, 75, 313, 315-320, 326, 331-335, 338, 340, 342-343, 363, 382, 393, 428, 460, 462-463, 475, 479, 482, 496-497, 499 Empathy-altruism hypothesis, 3, 315, 320, 342-343, 462-463 Empirical evidence, 248 Employees, 61, 105, 111-112, 114, 206, 253-254, 278, 313, 374-375, 428, 448 hiring, 206 Employment, 140, 197, 204, 428, 502 Employment settings, 428 Empty love, 263 Encoding, 45, 54, 57, 76, 487 in long-term memory, 54 entitativity, 3, 425, 431, 434, 456-457, 484, 496, 503 Entrapment, 481 Entrepreneurship, 337, 462 Environment, 17, 57, 62, 117-118, 122, 140, 180, 441, 462, 473-474, 480 gender and, 473 shared, 441, 462 Environmental factors, 20, 40, 400 Equality, 23, 198-201, 203, 226, 230, 339 Equity, 447 Equity rule, 447 Error, 2-3, 14-15, 45, 62, 66, 98-102, 114, 303, 366 measurement, 489 Errors, 15, 25, 28, 47-48, 50, 62-63, 69, 73, 77, 103, 105-106, 114, 303-304, 306, 407, 416, 444, 447, 467, 495, 501 fundamental attribution, 114 essences, 213 Ethical considerations, 36, 41, 371, 496 Ethical issues, 28, 37 informed consent, 37 Ethics, 38 Ethnic conflict, 461 Ethnicity, 26, 230, 499 and therapy, 26 stereotyping and, 230 Europe, 27, 52, 226, 360, 439 European Union, 169 Evaluation, 1, 3, 6-7, 52-53, 136, 142-143, 145, 148, 151, 156, 208, 215, 373, 437-438, 456-457, 467, 469-472, 482, 486, 491, 494, 499 of self, 136, 482, 486, 491, 494, 499 Evaluation apprehension, 3, 148, 437-438, 456-457 Evidence, 14-15, 25, 30, 34-37, 45, 49, 56, 58, 60-62, 69-71, 74-76, 83-84, 86-87, 89-90, 92-93, 97, 99-103, 105, 107, 111-114, 119, 122, 126, 138-139, 144, 155-156, 158, 161, 168-169, 176, 183-184, 188, 202-203, 209-210, 223, 225, 227, 229-231, 243, 245, 247-252, 268-271, 290-293, 297, 328, 330, 354-356, 359-360, 364-367, 370-371, 396-398, 408-410, 413-418, 439-440, 444, 450, 455, 471-472, 483-484, 492-493, 497, 501, 504 Evolution, 17-18, 268, 353, 466, 474-475, 482, 489 cultural evolution, 489 Evolutionary psychologists, 426 Evolutionary psychology, 3, 17, 41, 459, 466, 474, 483, 489, 499 Evolved psychological mechanisms, 17 Exceptions, 84, 250, 258 Exchange process, 123 excitation transfer theory, 3, 356-357, 383, 465 Exercise, 172, 356, 374, 379, 400-402, 415, 461 Exhibitionism, 139 Existential self, 500 Expectancy-value theory, 495 Expectations, 3, 5, 54, 56, 61, 109, 123, 142, 144, 150, 208-209, 255, 278, 284-285, 362-363, 391, 396-398, 428, 466, 473, 491, 502 influence, 3, 5, 54, 56, 171, 201, 278, 284-285, 466, 473, 491, 502 Experience, 1, 13-14, 19, 24-25, 30, 39, 53-58, 61-63, 66-67, 69, 71-72, 75-76, 81, 86, 88-90, 92, 103, 112, 118-119, 128-129, 131-132, 134, 136-137, 139-140, 142, 147-149, 157, 159, 162, 167-171, 180-181, 189-190, 211, 225, 229, 241, 250, 260-262, 264, 291-292, 295, 301, 308, 330-332, 334, 342-343, 351-352, 357-358, 364-365, 382, 399, 413-415, 430-432, 435, 454-456, 470, 479 Experiment, 2, 4, 31-34, 37-38, 53, 61, 72, 92, 126, 161, 175, 186, 239-240, 287, 298, 303-305, 321-322, 326, 357, 436-437, 442, 456, 466, 495, 502 control, 239, 298, 357, 466 Experimental conditions, 6, 33, 41, 59 Experimental method, 11, 31-33, 36, 41 dependent variables, 3, 31, 36, 41 Experimental psychology, 459, 466, 488 Experimental research, 490 power of, 490 Experimental studies, 476 experimentation, 3, 31-34, 36, 41, 466, 497 Experiments, 6, 31, 33, 89-90, 205-206, 214, 219-220, 240, 242-243, 250, 279, 304-305, 334, 356, 358, 370, 372, 437, 469, 500, 502 control conditions, 334 experimental conditions, 6, 33 independent variables, 31 Expert, 91, 141, 175, 182, 347 Expertise, 5, 160, 175, 177, 181, 307, 449 Explicit attitudes, 3, 157, 159, 191 Explicit rules, 428 Exposure, 5-6, 17, 25, 32-33, 108, 146, 149, 151, 155-156, 160-162, 164-165, 172, 177, 182-183, 185, 189-191, 204-206, 216, 223-224, 241-243, 248, 270-271, 313, 316, 326-327, 329-330, 352, 357-359, 361-363, 371-372, 379-380, 382, 399, 443-444, 452-453, 460, 462, 498, 502-503 exposure effect, 6, 242-243, 248, 270-271, 478, 484, 503 External validity, 33, 36, 41 Extinction, 503 Extraversion, 30, 86, 105, 108, 253-254, 260, 369 Extreme stress, 305 Extroversion, 459 extroverts, 122 Eye, 5, 7, 82-85, 87, 91-93, 110, 113, 341, 447, 473, 482, 495 Eye contact and gaze, 473 Eyewitness identification, 491 Eyewitness memory, 474 Eyewitnesses, 491 F Face perception, 487, 499 Facebook, 11, 29-31, 110, 117-119, 121-122, 124, 149, 172, 179-180, 316, 473, 487, 495, 504 Faces, 24, 59, 83-84, 87-90, 92, 100, 108, 223, 228-229, 237, 242, 245-246, 421, 469, 477-478, 483, 493, 504 face-to-face contacts, 105, 316 Facial appearance, 366 Facial expressions, 5, 24, 81-84, 87-88, 91-93, 104, 113, 256, 352, 467, 504 Facial feedback, 81, 88-90, 93, 111, 113 Facial feedback hypothesis, 81, 88-90, 93, 111, 113 facial types, 245 Failure, 133, 136-137, 139, 144, 187, 203, 212, 230, 322, 387, 390, 394, 452, 454-455, 457, 476, 480, 501 Families, 109, 162, 256, 337, 400, 425 Family, 11, 30, 89-90, 92, 110, 127, 160, 162, 196, 219, 235-236, 249, 255-258, 260, 267, 270, 278, 325, 365, 377, 391-393, 400, 402-403, 405-406, 410-412, 415, 417-418, 423, 487, 500 friends and, 30, 110, 162, 278, 347, 389, 402, 412, 417-418 happiness of, 392-393 same-sex, 196 systems, 400 Family relationships, 255-256, 260, 270, 392, 411 Family values, 196 Fat, 247, 401, 403, 418 body, 247 Fatal attractions, 474, 490 Father, 99-100, 155-156, 302 Fathers, 100, 256-257 Fatuous love, 263 favoritism, 162, 219, 258, 448-449 Fear, 3, 50, 68, 83, 100, 123, 146, 148, 151, 176-177, 181, 191, 196, 203, 213-215, 221-222, 238, 257, 323, 364, 400, 432, 437, 449, 470 Fear-arousing communications, 470, 480 Fearful-avoidant attachment, 3, 257, 271 fearful-avoidant attachment style, 3, 257, 271 Feedback, 63, 73, 81, 88-90, 93, 110-111, 113, 136-137, 143, 168, 229, 290, 317, 329, 334, 370, 383, 398, 402-403, 439-440, 471-472, 488, 494-496, 498 Feedforward, 500 Feelings, 1, 3-5, 13, 16-17, 20-21, 23-25, 28, 45, 50, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 81-86, 88-91, 93, 100, 125, 144, 156-157, 161-162, 166, 170-171, 187-188, 195-196, 201, 212-213, 215-216, 221-223, 231, 235-241, 243-244, 250, 257-258, 264-265, 269-270, 276, 279, 289, 291-292, 295, 308, 315-318, 320, 327-331, 333-336, 338-340, 354-356, 360-361, 389-390, 393-399, 410, 412, 417-418, 431-432, 448-449, 460, 471, 479, 498 Females, 3, 5, 100, 164, 201-202, 204-205, 208, 212, 230-231, 246-247, 250, 264, 266-268, 271, 293, 305, 350, 368-370, 479-480, 495 Festinger, Leon, 155 Fidelity, 501 Field experiment, 326, 466 Field experiments, 469 Field study, 474, 476, 497, 502 First impressions, 4, 19, 25, 81-82, 86, 93, 106-109, 112-114, 464, 467-468, 477 Fish, 338 Fitness, 404, 465-466 Flattery, 111, 253, 296, 501 Flexibility, 294 foot-in-the-door, 275, 297-299, 306-309, 470, 475 Foot-in-the-door technique, 3, 297-298, 306-307, 309, 475 Forced compliance, 189, 191, 474 forewarning, 155, 176, 182, 185, 190-191, 463, 503 Forgetting, 144, 224-225, 231, 485 motivated, 224-225, 231 motivated forgetting, 224-225, 231 Forming impressions, 107, 460 Framing, 57, 177, 199-200, 227-228, 230, 460, 469 509 www.downloadslide.net Fraternal twins, 390, 415 Frequency, 28, 48-50, 85, 120-121, 130, 139, 242, 349, 371, 377, 402, 486 Freud, Sigmund, 349 Friendliness, 82, 85, 223 Friends, 11, 20, 30, 84, 92, 95, 109-110, 117-119, 121-122, 162, 170, 172, 180, 222, 226, 235-236, 248, 253-254, 256, 259-260, 268-269, 271, 280, 284-285, 291, 323, 325, 341, 351, 353, 365, 389, 414-415, 417-418, 441, 459, 499-501, 504 Internet and, 347, 441 Friendship, 1-2, 88, 248, 258-263, 266, 271, 275, 296, 393, 423-424, 476, 485-486, 495 and similarity, 266, 271 behaviors in, 486 self-disclosure and, 486 Friendship Groups, 423-424 Friendships, 21, 121, 218, 226, 230-231, 235, 242, 255-260, 270, 316, 388, 448, 473, 491, 503 Frontal lobe, 471 Frowning, 24, 88 Frustration-aggression hypothesis, 3, 350-354, 363, 382-383, 463 Fulfillment, 252, 392 Fundamental attribution, 2-3, 99-101, 114, 366, 489 Funeral, 428 future, 6, 15, 19, 22-23, 37, 45, 57, 59, 63-65, 67, 69, 94-95, 98-99, 127, 132-135, 145, 149, 159-160, 168-170, 175, 187-188, 200, 216, 226, 266-269, 271, 319-320, 329, 342, 357-358, 370, 389, 394, 430-431, 456, 475-476, 480-481, 495, 500, 503 predictions about, 63-65, 69 G Galton, 248, 475 Galton, Francis, 248 Gays and lesbians, 146, 195-197 Gender, 26, 86, 100-101, 106, 113, 128-132, 135, 140-143, 145, 147, 149-150, 158, 164-165, 197, 200-204, 206-207, 211-213, 222, 230-231, 247, 259, 289-290, 292-295, 308, 333, 347, 363-366, 368-370, 373, 408-409, 417-418, 425, 460, 463-464, 468, 470-474, 476-480, 492-494, 497, 499, 501-502, 504 aggression, 86, 150, 347, 350, 363-366, 368-370, 373, 375, 382-383, 460, 463-464, 471, 474, 476-480, 492, 497, 499, 501, 504 and friends, 259 and leadership, 468, 474 and mate selection, 478 and moral reasoning, 493 college, 128, 131, 145, 204, 212, 222, 259, 347, 368, 473, 480 conformity, 289-290, 293-295, 308, 464, 476-477, 480 development and, 499, 501 differences, 26, 130-131, 135, 140, 147, 149, 165, 197, 200, 247, 259, 267-268, 292-293, 295, 308, 350, 368-370, 375, 382-383, 408, 460, 463-464, 472-473, 476-478, 486, 492-494, 499, 501-502, 504 differences in aggression, 350, 368-370, 383, 463 differences in self-esteem, 140 discrimination based on, 230 schema, 212 self-perception, 128, 131, 142, 494 sexuality, 502 stereotyping, 197, 200-204, 206-207, 211-213, 222, 230-231, 463-464, 470-471, 473-474, 476, 497 video games, 203-204, 212, 363, 382, 460, 466, 476-477 Gender differences, 26, 130, 135, 149, 267-268, 295, 308, 350, 368-370, 375, 383, 460, 463, 466, 502 education and, 26 Gender differences in, 130, 135, 149, 295, 308, 350, 368-370, 383, 460, 463, 466, 476, 502 Gender discrimination, 140, 202-203, 494 Gender gap, 158 Gender issues, 474 Gender relations, 197 Gender roles, 106, 113, 293, 382, 471-472 socialization of, 471 Gender stereotyping, 197, 202-203, 213, 470, 474 General aggression model, 347, 351-353, 357, 361, 383, 466 510 general aggression model (GAM), 3, 351-352, 361, 383 Generalization, 226, 484 Generalizations, 15 Genes, 4, 18, 313, 319-320, 342, 349-350, 390-391 Genetic factors, 3, 17, 19-20, 40, 349-350, 382, 390, 399-400, 403, 415, 417-418 in loneliness, 390 of social behavior, 19-20, 40, 390 Genetic influences, 268 Genetics, 237 genocide, 218, 305, 348, 476 Genovese, Kitty, 321-324 Germany, 51, 195, 304, 332, 400 Gestalt psychologists, 107 Gestalt psychology, 107 Girls, 140, 204-205, 212, 246, 347, 375, 464, 490 Glass ceiling, 3, 202-203, 206, 212, 230-231, 468, 497, 504 Goal setting, 479 Goals, 1-2, 8, 20, 38, 64-65, 81-82, 89-90, 94, 98, 124, 134-135, 218, 221, 225, 227, 231, 276, 278, 301-302, 309, 341, 351, 367, 393, 395, 399, 402-403, 406, 411-412, 415-418, 421, 423-425, 432-433, 435, 441-442, 445-447, 455-457 and values, 351, 435 motives and, 81 Golf, 253 Grammar, 105 Grand Theft Auto, 360 Grandparents, 155, 255-257 Graphs, 199 Great person theory, 454 great person theory of leadership, 454 Grief, 487 Group, 1-8, 13-14, 16, 23-26, 33-34, 39, 46, 48, 53, 55-56, 58-59, 71-72, 76, 83, 88, 102, 108-110, 117, 126-133, 135, 137, 140-151, 158-159, 161-168, 171, 187, 189, 195-203, 206-208, 210-231, 239, 245, 253-254, 264, 289-290, 298, 308, 318-319, 321-323, 325, 332-335, 338-339, 343, 374, 402, 411, 421-436, 438-457, 459-461, 463-466, 468-489, 491-501, 503-504 experimental, 3, 6, 33, 59, 229, 321, 459-461, 466, 468-474, 476, 479-488, 491-497, 499-501, 503 Group behavior, 218 Group conflict, 464 Group decision making, 421-422, 449, 451, 481, 494 Group dynamics, 468, 474, 497, 499 Group identity, 7, 128, 130, 135, 143, 148, 196, 211, 216, 430, 440, 488 stereotypes, 7, 211 Group influence, 275, 277, 426 Group polarization, 3, 450, 453, 457, 492 Group processes, 464, 466, 487-488, 491-492, 494, 496 Groups, 2-8, 11-12, 16, 21, 23-25, 28, 31-33, 46, 48-49, 56, 59, 65-66, 76, 85, 88-90, 108, 126-130, 133, 140, 142-143, 147-149, 151, 158, 163-165, 191, 195, 197-202, 208, 210-219, 221-228, 230-231, 253-254, 281-283, 286-288, 290, 303, 319, 325-326, 332-334, 342-343, 349, 367, 374-375, 389-392, 419-457, 469, 476-479, 483-485, 491, 493-494, 496, 498, 500-503 coordination, 421, 423, 441 decision making, 2, 62, 421-422, 424, 449, 451, 457, 473, 484-485, 488, 493-494, 500-501 decision making by, 421, 449 effects of others, 253, 437 joining, 195, 225, 415, 421-423, 431-433, 435, 456 norms in, 283, 439 performance of, 430, 435 social roles, 140, 287, 427, 456 Groupthink, 4, 451, 453, 457, 480-481, 499 characteristics, factors in, 499 Growth, 57, 117, 144, 349, 364 Growth spurt, 57 Guilt, 2, 195, 213-214, 221, 223, 225, 227-228, 230-231, 300, 406, 410, 418, 465, 485, 503 gun control, 169 H Hair, 18, 30, 133, 288, 355, 365 Handshake, 86, 247 handshakes, 86 Happiness, 11, 21-22, 28-29, 64, 70, 83-84, 88, 125-126, 138-139, 149-150, 237, 260-261, 263, 265, 291, 319, 387-388, 392-393, 395, 398, 410-418, 428-429, 460, 465, 471, 476, 483, 485, 487, 499, 502-503 children and, 260 determinants of, 428 factors that influence, 5, 387, 411 forecasting, 476 forecasting of, 476 helping others, 319 marital, 22, 487, 499 money and, 413, 465 Hassles Scale, 404 Hate crimes, 199, 222 Headphones, 438 Health, 18, 21, 28, 53-54, 61, 63, 103, 140, 144, 150, 159, 176-177, 189, 210, 243, 247, 261, 268-269, 341, 387-390, 399-400, 402-406, 411, 416-418, 460, 462, 478-480, 490, 493-494, 498-499, 503 and older adults, 414, 478-479 and weight, 400 lifestyles, 404, 406, 418 loneliness and, 387-388, 476 mental, 53-54, 103, 144, 150, 189, 462, 476, 498 mind and, 479, 499 optimism and, 417-418, 479, 498 prevention, 494 race and, 210, 480, 490 Health care, 28 Health psychology, 460, 469, 488, 498, 503 Hearing, 159, 162, 164, 183, 280, 292, 380, 407, 451 Heart, 14-15, 50, 100, 161, 188, 286, 301, 355, 400, 470, 475, 479, 499 disease, 50, 161, 188, 400 Heart attacks, 358 Heart disease, 50, 188, 400 Hedonic treadmill, 471 Helpfulness, 321, 326 Helping behavior, 320, 326, 333, 338, 340, 342-343, 459, 469, 479, 484, 495-496 Helping others, 4, 18, 302, 311-343, 379, 466, 474 Hemingway, Ernest, 11 Heroism, 286, 325, 333, 342, 463 Heuristics, 4, 45, 47-48, 52-53, 61-62, 70-71, 76-77, 178, 460, 476, 481, 490 anchoring and adjustment, 45, 52-53, 76-77 association, 460, 490 for decision making, 71 optimistic bias, 77 representation, 490 representative, 47-48 value, 52-53, 76 High school, 136, 144, 162, 226, 347, 423, 441, 486, 500 Higher education, 140 hijackers, 322-323 Hindus, 224 Hispanic, 26, 245 History, 17, 135, 155, 205, 218, 227, 248, 270, 292-294, 324, 362, 422, 425, 480 of psychology, 17, 480 Hitler, Adolf, 454 homicides, 264 Homosexuals, 211 Honesty, 124, 259 Honor cultures, 2, 363 hooliganism, 4, 439-440, 456-457 Hormones, 463 Hospitals, 328 Hostile aggression, 4, 367, 383 Hostile sexism, 204 Hostility, 8, 59, 85, 139, 201, 203, 212, 227, 258, 357-358, 360, 367, 379-380, 390, 447-448, 477, 504 Human development, 493 Human papilloma virus, 159-160 Human sexual behavior, 459 Human sexuality, 495, 502 Humor, 18-19, 254, 258, 467 Hunger, 237 Hypertension, 459 hypocrisy, 4, 188-189, 191 Hypotheses, 2, 5, 35, 37, 121-122, 147, 496, 498, 504 formulating, 35 testing, 35, 498 www.downloadslide.net Hypothesis, 1-4, 6, 30, 37, 41, 81, 85, 88-90, 93, 113, 121-122, 203, 226-227, 230-231, 248-249, 251-252, 315, 320, 342-343, 350-354, 379-383, 460, 462-463, 496, 501-502 forming, 460 I ideal partners, 254 Ideal self, 124 Identical twins, 390, 415 Identification, 1, 98, 114, 133, 164-165, 168, 206, 216, 225, 287, 427-429, 461, 464-465, 468, 470, 478-480, 483, 488-489, 491-493, 498-499, 501 Identity, 2, 5-7, 26, 117, 128-135, 142-143, 145-151, 156, 165, 169, 207, 211, 216-221, 226, 230-231, 268, 295, 300, 355, 369, 376, 392, 424-425, 429-432, 434-435, 439-440, 459-461, 463, 465, 473-475, 478-480, 485, 488, 491-492, 496-500, 503 diffusion, diffusion of, formation, 156, 485, 496, 503 ideology, 4, 433, 435, 457, 469, 476, 502 Illinois, 158 Illness, 50, 67, 82, 138, 414, 498 Illusion, 4, 144, 162, 191, 279-280, 309, 417, 497-498 autokinetic, 309 Illusions, 144-145, 150, 393, 397-399, 417, 474, 488, 498 marital happiness, 398 romantic, 393, 474 Images, 49, 59, 68, 72-73, 135, 160, 176, 196, 204-205, 223-224, 246, 288, 362, 369, 394, 453, 489 Imagination, 443, 465 Imitation, 461 Immediate context, 168 Immune system, 23, 404-406, 418 brain and, 23 Implementation intentions, 476, 502 implementation plan, 4, 172, 191 Implicit Association Test, 157, 165, 460, 474, 477 Implicit Association Test (IAT), 474 Implicit attitudes, 4, 157-159, 191, 215, 379, 394, 477 Implicit egotism, 490 implicit (nonconscious) processes, 11, 25, 27, 40 implicit personality theories, 4, 81, 109, 114 Implicit rules, 428, 456 Implicit stereotypes, 228 Implicit theories, 490, 501 Impression formation, 4, 81-82, 103, 106-107, 112, 114, 495 attraction, 495 first impressions, 4, 81-82, 106-107, 112, 114 Impression management, 4, 81-82, 106, 110-112, 114, 296, 391, 464, 488, 495, 497, 502 ingratiation, 4, 110, 296 impression management (self-presentation), 82, 112, 114 Incidence, 229, 317, 368, 414 incidental feelings, 4, 215, 231 incidental similarity, 296, 466 Inclusive fitness, 466 Independent variable, 4-6, 31-34, 41, 250, 370 India, 45, 140, 224, 412 Indirect aggression, 369, 464 Indirect strategies, 191 Individual differences, 155, 183, 185, 237-238, 280, 331, 352-353, 370, 382, 465-466, 477-478, 487, 492-493, 499, 501 Individualism, 4, 130, 429, 456-457 induced compliance, 155, 186, 484 Industriousness, 267 Infancy, 332, 487 Infants, 237, 242-243, 256-257, 332, 482 perception, 242 social competence, 482 Infatuation, 5, 261, 263 inferences, 4, 16-17, 47-48, 57, 94-95, 106, 119, 125, 127, 210, 481 making, 4, 47-48, 127, 210, 481 Information, 1-2, 4-8, 13-15, 20, 24-25, 27-31, 34, 36-38, 41, 45-48, 50-51, 53-58, 60-63, 67, 69-72, 74-77, 81-82, 84-88, 91-94, 96, 102-106, 108-110, 112-114, 118-121, 123-124, 137, 141-142, 144, 149, 156, 159-162, 166, 170-171, 173, 177-183, 190, 201, 203, 206-207, 219, 223, 229-230, 237, 247-248, 256, 260, 269, 279, 291, 301, 323, 347, 383, 401-403, 416, 418, 447-449, 451-453, 468, 475-476, 479-480, 483-485, 494-497, 499-501 overload, 4, 45, 48, 53, 61-62, 76-77 processing, 1, 4, 7-8, 24-25, 45-48, 54, 58, 60-62, 67, 71-72, 74-77, 162, 173, 177-179, 181, 201, 480, 494, 501 sources of, 20, 45, 62, 81-82, 87, 104, 106, 113, 237, 403, 418 Information processing, 72, 468, 487 model, 468, 487 informational social influence, 4, 284, 309 Informed consent, 4, 37-38, 41 ingratiation, 4, 110, 123-124, 149, 151, 275, 296, 476, 481, 501 In-group, 427, 473, 478, 485 Ingroup, 2, 6-7, 128-129, 135, 142, 146, 150, 175, 208, 213-216, 218-221, 223-227, 229-231, 313, 319-321, 426, 430-431, 448-449, 452-453, 456-457, 471, 475-476, 483, 492, 503 Ingroup bias, 464 identification, 464 Ingroups, 218 Inheritance, 17-18 Injunctive norms, 4, 283-284, 309 Injuries, 323 Insecure attachment, 257, 390, 399, 417 Insight, 126-127, 172, 221, 351, 422, 491 instant messaging, 122 Instinct, 349-350 death, 349 Institutional review board, 38 Insurance, 53, 61, 63, 67-69, 210, 500 Integration, 481, 488, 501 Intellectual ability, 250 Intelligence, 18, 73, 105, 123, 131, 137, 148, 243, 247, 253-254, 267, 464 distribution of, 464 measures of, 148 measuring, 464 verbal, 464 Intentional activity, 415 Intentional forgetting, 485 Interactionism, 487, 492 interchannel discrepancies, 91 Interdependent self, 130 intergroup comparisons, 4, 128, 135, 151 Intergroup contact, 487, 490, 500 Internal motives, 340, 343 Internal-external dimension, 96 Internalization, 469 Internet, 2, 20, 28-29, 32, 39, 61, 81, 104, 106, 114, 117-119, 121-122, 124, 156, 177, 179-180, 198-199, 265, 269, 271, 298-302, 336-337, 361, 376, 401-403, 418, 425, 441-442, 459, 467, 481, 500 adolescents, 121, 500 dating services, 300-301 information from, 61, 180 Internet dating, 299-302, 309 Internships, 134 Interpersonal attraction, 233-271, 326, 463, 466-467, 469, 482, 486, 489, 498 attachment styles, 238, 256-257, 260, 270 companionate love, 262-263, 266, 271 consummate love, 263, 271 intimate relationships, 261, 469 long-term relationships, 236, 255, 257, 268 love, 233-271, 463, 466 loving and, 261 proximity and, 235, 241, 260, 270 interpersonal comparison, 142 Interpersonal relations, 479, 482 Interpersonal theory, 473 Interpretations, 1, 71, 77, 97-98, 173, 352, 380, 501 Interventions, 81, 103, 381, 415 indicated, 381 Interviews, 70, 92, 111, 461, 497 job interviews, 70, 111, 461, 497 Intimacy, 2, 4, 259, 261, 263, 271, 390, 473, 483, 495 goals, Intimate relationships, 4, 261, 365, 382, 469, 474-475, 490 intragroup comparisons, 4, 128, 151 Intrinsic motivation, 493 Introspection, 4, 117, 125, 127, 149, 151, 279, 491 about reasons, 125 Ions, 462 Iowa, 158 IQ, 56 Iraq, 72, 223, 286, 305 Abu Ghraib prison, 223, 286, 305 Isolates, 61 Isolation, 11-12, 16, 92, 387, 389, 391-392 J Japan, 170-171, 279, 400, 485 Japanese, 92-93, 144, 259 Jefferson, Thomas, 268 Jews, 227, 303, 305, 333, 476 Job, 4, 11, 15, 50, 63-65, 67, 70, 89-90, 95, 98, 102, 108, 111, 125, 207, 277, 299, 328, 339, 414-415, 418, 454-455, 461-462, 468, 474, 497, 502 analysis, 70, 111, 474, 497, 502 Job satisfaction, 4, 414-415, 418, 468 Job stress, 468 Jordan, Michael, 161, 209 Journal of Adolescence, 475, 478 Judgment, 45, 47-50, 57-58, 141, 168, 246, 252, 279-280, 406, 447, 460-461, 463-464, 468, 470, 476, 480-481, 493-494, 503 self-efficacy, 461, 494 Judgments, 1, 3-6, 25, 45, 47-48, 50-54, 57-58, 62-63, 67, 69-70, 76-77, 100, 108, 124, 127-128, 130, 142, 171, 208-209, 215, 245, 279-280, 293-294, 308, 409-410, 418, 447-448, 463, 467, 476, 478, 500, 502 Juries, 243, 388, 408-410, 418 deliberations, 409-410, 418 K Kin selection, 4, 313, 319, 343 kin selection theory, 4, 313, 319, 343 Kinship selection theory, 320 Knowledge, 1, 11, 13, 19, 21-22, 27, 31, 35-36, 39, 56-57, 69, 71, 77, 81-82, 94-95, 103, 123-125, 127, 155-158, 173, 178, 182, 185, 190, 226, 236, 254, 317, 342, 352, 362, 395-396, 399, 432, 435, 467-468, 499, 501, 503 and attitudes, 21, 39, 352, 499 aspects of, 1, 3-4, 11, 19, 21, 27, 35-36, 39, 69, 119, 149, 156, 324-325, 410, 435, 456 primed, 56-57, 352 Knowledge through systematic intervention, 11, 31 Ku Klux Klan, 219 L Labor, 140-141, 150, 202, 472, 500 Language, 1, 81-82, 85, 93, 113-114, 135, 197, 200, 208, 217, 291, 473-474, 487-488, 499 early communication, 499 emergence of, gender stereotyping and, 474 processes and, 487-488 rules of, 85 Language comprehension, 473 Latinos, 147, 223 Law, 68, 130, 134, 204, 303, 347, 406, 433, 443, 495, 497, 499 Leaders, 3, 202-203, 288, 430, 454-455, 457, 465-466, 472, 496 stereotypes of, 496 Leadership, 202-203, 205-207, 212, 230, 323, 421, 453-455, 468, 472-474, 476-479, 483, 493, 503 at work, 473-474 in organizations, 461, 478, 503 transactional, 421 Learning, 1, 4-5, 7-8, 19, 72-73, 105, 155, 160, 162, 164-165, 189, 191, 213, 225, 228, 258, 295, 303, 332, 351, 353, 357, 390, 428-430, 433, 436, 463, 472, 481-482 active, 472 by observing, 164, 351 incidental, 4, 231, 482 observational, 5, 155, 164-165, 189, 191 observational learning, 5, 155, 164-165, 189, 191 prepared, 73 Learning perspective, 347, 351 legal decisions, 52, 410 Leniency effect, 491 Lesbians, 146, 195-197 less-leads-to-more effect, 4, 186, 189, 191 511 www.downloadslide.net Leveling, 501 Lewin, Kurt, 103 Lewis, M., 465 Lexicon, 495 Lie detection, 473 Lie to Me, 160 Life expectancy, 389 Life span, 504 Life stress, 403, 465 Life transitions, 423 Lifespan, 117, 140, 368 Lifestyle, 412 Lifestyles, 404, 406, 418, 463 Light, 1, 7, 16, 22, 31, 73, 124, 146, 169, 236, 256, 281, 290, 412, 444, 464, 483 visible, 16, 408 likeability, 108, 175, 202 Lincoln, Abraham, 454 Lineups, 388, 407, 410, 418, 491 linguistic style, 4, 91, 114 Links, 4, 109, 215, 221, 275, 403, 471, 483 Listening, 120, 177, 183, 330, 380 Littering, 468 Logic, 58, 137 Logical thought, 74-75 Loneliness, 4, 387-391, 393, 399, 417-418, 460-461, 463, 471, 476, 478-481, 483, 492-493, 495 Longevity, 53, 414, 426, 503 Longitudinal studies, 360 Longitudinal study, 122, 328, 398, 459, 467, 483, 485, 489, 502 Long-term consequences, 159 Long-term memory, 54 Lorenz, Konrad, 349 Loss, 11, 66, 72, 135, 140, 198, 200-201, 230, 402-403, 434-435, 465, 472, 480, 503 Loudness, 362 Louisiana, 158, 205 Love, 2, 4-5, 8, 11-15, 22, 57, 71, 95, 225, 233-271, 300-301, 364, 367-369, 393-395, 397-398, 405, 460-461, 463, 465-466, 476, 487-488, 493, 495, 497, 503 companionate, 2, 262-263, 266, 271 consummate, 2, 263, 271 empty, 263 fatuous, 263 ingredients of, 262 passionate, 5, 261-263, 266, 271, 478 sustaining, 497 triangular model of, 2, 4-5, 8, 263, 266, 271 triangular theory of, 497 unrequited, 8, 262, 271, 465 Loving relationships, 395 Lowball procedure, 297, 299, 308 Lowball technique, 297 Lymphocytes, 404 M Magazines, 73, 131, 278, 400 Major depression, 464 Males, 3, 30, 160-161, 164, 201, 203-205, 208, 212, 216, 230, 247, 250, 266, 271, 293, 303, 305, 349-350, 368-370, 379, 454, 495 Management, 4, 8, 67-69, 77, 81-82, 106, 110-112, 114, 144, 202-203, 208, 296, 391, 421, 464, 473, 477-479, 484, 493-497, 500, 502 Mapping, 504 Marijuana, 156-158, 162, 251, 472 Marriage, 6, 15, 19, 21, 63, 195-197, 210, 235-236, 255, 262-263, 392-393, 433, 467-468, 472, 474, 486-488 attachment style and, 487 marital satisfaction, 487 marital status, 197, 488 roles in, 472 satisfaction in, 488 Mass media, 50, 204, 348, 358, 479 Matching hypothesis, 251-252, 254, 270-271 Mate selection, 243, 269, 271, 466, 478 Mathematics, 491 Mating, 268, 350, 466, 487 Mating preferences, 487 Matrix, 184 Mean, 15, 20, 23-24, 30, 37, 45-47, 58, 68, 86, 95, 144, 157, 166, 202, 208-209, 219, 225, 245, 255, 278, 292, 341, 442, 450, 467, 477, 479 Meanings, 8, 85-86, 198, 208, 225, 394, 504 Measurement, 5, 28, 117, 136, 173, 208, 477, 486, 489, 491 512 Measurements, 88 Media, 33, 50, 62, 92, 167, 182, 204, 241, 304, 313-314, 316, 321, 357-363, 382, 400, 460, 471, 479, 481, 486, 500 electronic, 241, 347, 483 violence in, 33, 316, 358-360, 362-363 Media violence, 347, 357-359, 361-363, 382, 460, 483 mediating variables, 5, 11, 34, 36, 41 Mediator, 265, 462 Medical marijuana, 158 Medicine, 23, 465, 469, 482 MEG, 245 memories, 16-17, 70, 117, 224, 258, 473, 485 autobiographical, 473 Memory, 1, 5-6, 21, 49-50, 52-57, 60, 70-71, 75-77, 133, 150-151, 161, 183, 223-224, 373, 461-462, 464-466, 472, 474, 480, 485-486, 493, 495-496 attention and, 54 explicit, 150 eyewitness, 474 eyewitness memory, 474 field, 21, 466, 474, 476, 495 illusions, 150, 474 implicit, 1, 150-151, 223, 474, 476, 480, 486, 496 knowledge, 1, 21, 56-57, 71, 77, 461, 476 recall, 49-50, 55, 70, 183, 224, 495 recognition and, 464 structural, 476, 480 men, 26, 59, 86-87, 100-101, 106, 114, 117, 119, 128, 130-131, 133, 139-143, 147-150, 158, 164-165, 201-207, 212, 214, 216, 219, 226, 229-230, 245-247, 251-252, 263, 266-269, 271, 289-290, 292-294, 305, 333, 353, 355, 364-365, 369-370, 372-373, 382-383, 426, 460-463, 485-487, 498, 501 friendship in, 486 Menopause, 319 Menstrual cycle, 82, 87, 93, 113 Mental disorders, 459 Mental health, 103, 462, 476, 498 Mental representation, 8, 106, 277 mental shortcuts, 4, 45, 75, 177, 179, 181, 189 Mental states, 119 mere exposure, 5, 161-162, 165, 189, 191, 248, 270, 464, 478, 484, 503 Metaphor, 5, 45, 56-57, 77, 483 Methods, 13-14, 20, 25, 28, 30, 33, 35-36, 40, 58, 119, 127, 149-150, 176, 187, 189, 223, 370-371, 432, 441, 461, 464 microexpressions, 5, 91, 114 Military, 132, 146, 224-225, 303, 305-306, 433, 469 minimal groups, 5, 214, 231 Minimization, 469 Minorities, 3, 5, 199-200, 222, 293-295, 308, 455, 485 racial equality, 200 Minority influence, 275, 293, 485, 488 Mirror neurons, 24 Misattribution, 494 Mistrust, 3, 25, 92, 111, 257, 390, 441 Model, 1-5, 92, 102, 134, 142, 145-146, 149, 151, 159-160, 169, 173, 177-178, 181, 191, 226, 230-231, 263, 294, 305, 317, 320, 326, 342-343, 347, 351-353, 357, 359, 429, 460, 463-464, 466-468, 473-474, 477-478, 481, 485-487, 490-493, 499-502 elaboration likelihood, 178, 468, 474, 490 Modeling, 326, 489, 504 Modern racism, 5, 195, 222, 225, 228, 231, 486 Monkeys, 405 Monogamous, 255, 262, 480 Monogamy, 262 Mood, 5, 21, 23, 69-71, 73, 75, 77, 82, 112, 138, 150, 170-171, 215, 240, 291-292, 313, 317, 330, 353, 461-462, 468-470, 472, 474, 490, 493-495, 502 congruence effects, 5, 70-71, 75, 77 mood dependent memory, 5, 70-71, 75, 77, 472 Mood-congruence effects, 77 Moods, 1, 21, 25, 47, 58, 67, 69-71, 73-75, 77, 82-83, 85, 110-112, 114, 138, 170, 238-239, 241, 291-292, 330, 355, 396, 410, 415, 462 menstrual cycle, 82 Moral development, 472 Moral dilemma, 220 Moral reasoning, 493 Moral standards, 306 Morality, 469-470, 502 autonomous, 502 Morning person, 251 Mortality salience, 477, 483, 503 Mothers, 140, 256-257, 326, 468 Motivated forgetting, 224-225, 231 Motivation, 7, 65, 73, 122, 128, 134, 144, 178, 237, 241, 270, 284, 291, 339-341, 343, 350-351, 416-417, 439, 459, 461-463, 471, 473, 485-486, 493, 499, 501-502, 504 achievement, 65, 416, 462, 502 achievement motivation, 502 and job performance, 462 controlled, 339-340, 491 for prosocial behavior, 315, 339, 502 of employees, 206 Motives, 71, 81, 94-98, 103, 106, 113, 215, 237, 263, 283, 287, 289-291, 294, 307-309, 320, 338-343, 358, 362-363, 374-375, 382, 451, 467-468, 470, 477, 497 hunger, 237 pure, 375 Motor skills, 472 Movement, 1, 85, 143, 198, 281, 287 of eye, 85 Movies, 11, 54, 261-262, 267, 278, 351, 355, 358, 362, 475 Muscle, 88 Music, 120, 206, 240, 262, 356, 360, 425 Mutual trust, 92 Mutuality, 485 N Narcissism, 139, 367-370, 381, 383, 393, 461, 466-467, 499 Narcissistic personality, 500 National Geographic, 484 Native Americans, 214 Need for affiliation, 5, 237-238, 241, 248, 270-271 Need to belong, 463, 467 Negative affect, 71, 73, 239, 241, 250, 252, 270, 352, 390, 414, 463 health and, 414 Negative attitude change, 6, 181 Negative correlation, 30 Negative stereotypes, 151, 201 negativity bias, 488 Neglect, 125, 149 Nervous system, 25 Neural basis, 24, 493 Neural processes, 239 Neuroimaging, 502 Neurons, 24 Neuroscience, 11, 23-24, 27, 40, 58, 74-75, 77, 362, 462, 488, 499 behavior, 11, 23-24, 27, 40, 58, 77, 462, 499 Neuroscience perspective, 362, 488 New England Journal of Medicine, 465 New Hampshire, 158 New Mexico, 26, 158 New Psychology, 478 Newborns, 237 Nodding, 110 Noise, 277, 367, 438, 499 noncommon effects, 5, 95, 106, 113-114 Nonverbal behavior, 148, 499 Nonverbal communication, 5, 81-83, 86-87, 93, 113-114 impression formation and, 81 Nonverbal cues, 81-82, 84, 87, 89-93, 104, 113, 296 normative focus theory, 5, 283, 309 normative social influence, 5, 284, 309 social norms, 309 Norms, 1-2, 4-5, 7-8, 97, 136, 141, 162, 166, 171-174, 213, 221, 226, 275-278, 281-288, 308-309, 335, 348, 382, 425-431, 435, 439-440, 445-446, 451, 456-457, 459, 468-469, 473, 479-481, 492-493, 499 descriptive, 2, 283, 294, 308-309 injunctive, 4, 283-284, 294, 308-309 North Carolina, 158 Nursing homes, 256 O Obama, Barack, 146, 155-156, 200-201, 433, 454-455 Obama, Michelle, 401 Obedience, 5, 275-277, 285, 287, 303-307, 309, 470, 478, 482, 487 Obedience to authority, 275, 303, 306, 487 Obesity, 387-388, 399-401, 403, 418, 501 www.downloadslide.net diet, 403, 418 observable characteristics, 235, 243, 248, 270 Observation, 8, 11, 24, 28, 36, 40-41, 366, 368 Observational learning, 5, 155, 164-165, 189, 191 attention, 189 Observer effect, 1, 101, 106, 114, 492 OCEAN, 133, 330-331 Old age, 63, 140, 267, 489 Olweus, D., 489 only children, 109, 482 Open-mindedness, 14, 36 Openness to experience, 30, 86, 260 Opinion polls, 157, 196 Optical illusion, 280 Optimism, 62-65, 69, 77, 117, 134, 143-145, 150, 376, 417-418, 460, 479, 483, 498, 500 Optimists, 64, 121-122, 363, 486 Ordinary People, 62, 304 Organization, 105, 163, 205-206, 212, 278, 401, 422-423, 426, 430, 434, 448, 454-455, 479, 495 Organizational justice, 462 Organizational psychology, 470 Orientation, 14, 26-27, 129, 147-148, 197, 200, 210, 222, 230, 260, 432, 445, 470, 489, 495 other persons, 6-7, 21, 24, 98, 100, 436, 441 Outgroup, 2, 6, 129, 135, 175, 208, 213-216, 218-219, 221, 223, 225-231, 430, 452-453, 457, 465, 483 Out-group, 501 Outgroups, 2, 215-216, 218-219, 221, 225, 230-231, 313, 319-320, 342, 489 Out-groups, 8, 208 Ovulation, 87, 246, 487 P P300 activity, 362 Pain, 22, 32, 71, 75, 156, 259, 303, 320, 332-333, 391-392, 414, 461, 471 management, 391, 461 sense of, 156 Palin, Sarah, 159 paralinguistic cues, 87 Parental influence, 225 Parenting, 134, 468, 470 Parents, 61-62, 92, 121, 130, 137, 159-160, 162, 225, 230, 255-256, 258, 260, 262, 266, 269-271, 284-285, 303, 313, 375-376, 482, 500 single, 285 Passion, 2, 5, 261, 263, 271, 299, 466 Passionate love, 5, 261-263, 266, 271, 478 scale, 262 Passionate Love Scale, 262 peace agreements, 445 Peace Corps, 333 Peer, 23, 133, 135, 162, 229, 316, 423, 461, 476, 482, 485, 489 groups, 23, 133, 423, 461, 476, 485 Peer groups, 133 Peer influences, 162 Peer relations, 461, 476 peers, 143-144, 163, 222, 230, 258, 260, 316, 369, 399, 417, 482 influence of, 399, 491 Perceived behavioral control, 172 Perception, 26, 46, 79-114, 117, 123, 128, 131, 133, 142, 149, 157, 165, 168, 173, 189, 224, 242, 373, 391, 404, 417, 464-465, 469-471, 480-481, 484-485, 493-495, 498-499, 501, 503-504 distance, 7, 128, 142, 149, 476 illusions, 417, 498 laws of, 493 of color, 494 of time, 107-108, 391, 469 olfactory, 87, 487 pain, 391, 471 proximity in, 242 similarity in, 494-495, 498, 501 social perception, 26, 79-114, 373, 391, 471 Peripheral route, 5, 177-178, 181, 191 Peripheral route to persuasion, 5, 177, 181, 191 peripheral traits, 81, 106 Permeability, 483 Perseverance, 5, 56-57, 77 perseverance effect, 5, 56-57, 77 Person, 1-8, 14, 16-19, 21, 25, 32-33, 37, 50-51, 58-59, 66, 68, 70-72, 74-75, 81, 83-87, 91-92, 94-101, 103, 105-107, 109-110, 117-118, 120-125, 129-130, 136, 142-143, 150, 156, 161, 164, 166-168, 173-175, 179-180, 182, 186-188, 190, 208, 210-213, 227-228, 239-248, 250-254, 256-259, 261-266, 270-271, 277, 279-280, 291, 295-303, 305-307, 309, 316-317, 320-322, 328-333, 341, 351-358, 362-363, 371, 373-374, 376, 393-394, 399, 405, 407, 417, 432, 437-440, 452, 454-455, 498, 501 described, 16, 58, 71, 84, 91, 96, 103, 109, 167, 187, 228, 264, 300-301, 317, 320-321, 330, 355, 367, 405, 445 Person perception, 462, 481, 494, 498, 501 personal factors, 331 personal influence, 481 Personality, 4, 16, 27, 30-31, 81, 93, 95-96, 105, 108-110, 114, 250, 257, 259-260, 290-291, 334, 339, 347-348, 357, 366, 370, 382, 393-394, 455, 459-504 healthy, 459, 469, 498 personal concerns, 469 self-presentation and, 474 situational effects on, 479 social cognitive theory, 461 structure of, 461, 464, 493, 495, 501 studies of, 461, 479 traits, 16, 81, 95-96, 100, 105, 108-110, 114, 290-291, 348, 370, 382, 455, 459, 468, 475, 486, 500 traits in, 100 Type B, 8, 370, 382, 462 types, 27, 95-96, 105, 469, 473, 475, 484, 495 Personality assessment, 499 Personality differences, 473 personality dispositions, 393 Personality psychology, 499 Personality signatures, 481 Personality tests, 31 Personality theories, 4, 81, 109, 114 Personality traits, 8, 96, 290-291, 366, 370, 382, 468, 475, 495 personal-versus-social identity continuum, 5, 128, 149, 151 Perspective, 18, 24, 26-27, 40-41, 99, 101, 123-124, 126-127, 142, 149, 151, 183, 185, 206, 211, 214, 217, 237, 266-268, 270, 315-317, 319, 331-332, 347, 351, 362, 364-366, 377-378, 397, 399, 437-438, 461-462, 464-465, 467-469, 482, 484, 488-490, 496-498, 500-501, 503 Perspectives, 127, 142, 145, 195, 197, 215, 254, 270, 347-349, 378, 445, 464-466, 469-472, 474-476, 478, 480-481, 489-490, 499 evolutionary perspective, 254, 270, 349, 378 Persuasion, 1, 5-7, 20, 155, 160, 169, 174-185, 189-191, 241, 276, 301, 463, 465-466, 468, 471-475, 478-480, 484-486, 490-491, 495, 499, 501-502 central route to, 1, 177-178, 181, 191 cognitive processes underlying, 155, 177 credibility and, 175 elaboration likelihood model, 178, 468, 490 elaboration likelihood model of, 490 fear appeals, 3, 176-177, 181, 189, 191 friendly, 176 intentions, 174, 180, 189, 502 messages and, 466 peripheral route to, 5, 177, 181, 191 routes to, 178, 490, 502 source of, 1, 175, 241, 473, 491 techniques, 183, 276, 301 trustworthiness and, 175 Persuasive messages, 1, 177-179, 181, 183, 185, 189 resisting, 181, 183 Pessimists, 64, 121-122, 486 pets, 332, 405, 459 Phobia, 479 Phrases, 85, 243, 370 Physical appearance, 36, 110, 201, 236, 243, 248, 408, 488 Physical attraction, 263 Physical attractiveness, 6, 20, 123, 235, 243-245, 247-248, 251-254, 263, 266, 268, 270-271, 410, 469, 471, 481-482, 486, 490, 493, 502 Physical beauty, 5, 95, 235, 241, 243, 251 Physical fitness, 404, 465 Physical health, 140, 144, 150, 253, 403, 469 Physiology, 466, 479 of eating, 479 of stress, 479 Placebo, 70, 178, 373 planned behavior theory, 191 planning fallacy, 6, 15, 64-66, 69, 77, 416 Play, 16-17, 19, 21, 24-26, 32-34, 36, 41, 54, 65, 71, 73, 82, 88-90, 93, 119, 131, 151, 168, 174, 181-182, 212, 216, 226, 236-237, 239, 241, 253, 255-257, 260-261, 266-271, 282, 286, 291-292, 303-305, 315-316, 328, 335, 347, 349-351, 359-366, 374-377, 380, 382-383, 390-393, 400-401, 415-416, 426, 437, 444-447, 454-455, 485 fighting, 349 Pluralistic ignorance, 6, 166, 171, 189, 191, 323, 343, 487 Polarization, 3, 450-451, 453, 457, 480, 492 Police lineups, 388, 407 politeness, 58-59, 105 Political beliefs, 11, 278 political candidates, 28, 240 political views, 288 politicized collective identity, 6, 432, 435, 457, 496 popular culture, 14 Popularity, 124, 133, 180, 206, 244, 254, 270, 341, 360-361, 461, 504 rejection and, 133, 461 Population, 18, 26, 28-29, 45-46, 48, 76, 155, 157, 247, 372, 400, 426, 503 Positive correlations, 404 positive illusions, 144-145, 150, 393, 397-399, 417, 474, 488, 498 Positive psychology, 475, 495 positive reactions, 86, 89-90, 92, 111, 317, 319-320, 338-340, 342-343 possible selves, 6, 134-135, 150-151, 465, 472, 486 Poverty, 372, 411, 502 Power, 1, 6, 52, 65-66, 138, 155, 168, 184, 199, 227, 229, 241, 275-276, 287-289, 294, 303, 306-308, 374-375, 432, 475, 477-478, 494, 499-500, 502-503 Practice, 28, 33, 53, 73, 88, 133, 135, 216, 222-223, 225, 228, 277, 436, 452, 473-474, 488 Pravda, 175 Prefontal cortex, 75 Prejudice, 2, 6-7, 11, 16, 19, 23, 34-35, 119, 140, 145-146, 148, 162, 193-231, 314, 319, 408-410, 432, 448-449, 459-461, 464, 469-473, 476-478, 480, 484-488, 490-491, 496-497, 503 against women, 461, 472 and stereotypes, 387, 408-409, 477, 486 challenging, 387 contact hypothesis, 2, 226, 230-231 discrimination, 2, 7, 140, 162, 193-231, 432, 459, 470-471, 473, 476, 478, 480, 486, 488, 490 envy, 213-214, 231 in legal proceedings, 408-410, 418 legitimization of, 200 level of, 6, 34, 119, 196, 213, 418, 503 modern racism, 195, 222, 225, 228, 231, 486 norms of, 226 out-groups, 208 reduction of, 230 self as target of, 117, 145 sexism, 204, 223, 476, 486 social cognition, 7, 408, 464, 472-473, 476-477, 480, 503 social identity theory, 7, 145, 218-219, 221, 231 targets of, 140, 197, 207, 210, 213 Premise, 47, 156 Preoccupied attachment, 6, 257, 271 preoccupied attachment style, 6, 257, 271 Pressure, 23, 185-186, 222, 275, 279-283, 286, 288-290, 293-294, 300, 308, 355, 405, 407, 451, 459, 470, 475, 478-479, 487 sound, 451 Prevalence, 279, 464 Prevention, 164, 347, 349, 368, 377, 492, 494 Priming, 1, 6, 45, 55-59, 77, 223, 225, 329, 382, 467, 499 Princeton University, 459, 493 Principles of Psychology, 480 Prison study, 285-287, 295, 304, 308, 427, 492 Problem solving, 71, 74, 473 Problems, 17, 37, 49, 60, 88, 103, 106, 114, 157, 265, 280, 316, 334, 387, 393-394, 396-397, 399, 401, 403, 406, 415, 441, 460, 462, 474, 484, 488 513 www.downloadslide.net Processing, 1, 4, 7-8, 24-25, 45-48, 54, 58-62, 66-67, 71-72, 74-77, 162, 173, 177-179, 181, 189, 191, 201, 464, 466, 468-470, 480, 482-487, 492, 494, 501 Processing capacity, 48, 67, 177-178 pro-choice, 183 Projection, 244, 494, 501 pro-life, 183 Promotions, 200, 414, 485 property crimes, 371-372 Propinquity, 464, 466, 495 proportion of similarity, 6, 250, 271 Prosocial behavior, 5-6, 311-343, 360, 363, 369, 382, 460, 462-463, 468, 471, 476-477, 490, 500, 502 in emergencies, 313, 315, 320, 324, 340 motives, 313, 315, 320, 338-343, 363, 382 motives underlying, 340 volunteering, 333, 336, 340, 500 Prosocial behaviors, 476 Prototype, 48, 53, 77, 223, 460, 473 Proximity, 6, 235, 241-242, 248, 258, 260, 266, 270-271, 477 Psychiatry, 464 Psychological Bulletin, 459-461, 463-464, 466, 470-474, 476-477, 482-483, 485-488, 490-493, 496, 498, 503 Psychological constructs, 460 Psychological factors, 439 Psychological health, 21, 261, 269 Psychological inquiry, 460, 471, 500 Psychological perspectives, 481 psychological presence, 301-302 Psychological research, 20, 26, 28, 34-37, 41, 58, 107, 124-125, 255, 285, 307, 309, 349, 496 skepticism, 36 Psychological tests, 286 Psychologists, 11, 13-32, 34, 36-38, 40-41, 47, 54-55, 60, 65, 88, 94, 97, 99-100, 106-107, 109-110, 136, 140-141, 155-157, 159, 163, 167, 177, 181-182, 185-186, 201, 222, 230-231, 236-238, 245-247, 253-256, 260-263, 285-288, 290-291, 299-300, 308, 318, 320-321, 348-351, 353-354, 358, 366-367, 380-382, 391-392, 401, 409-412, 418, 424, 426-427, 430-432, 438, 441-443, 447, 450 counseling, 26, 30 developmental, 256 engineering, 391 school, 11, 97, 136, 226, 381, 391, 395, 401, 432, 438, 441 science of, 13-32, 34, 36-38, 40-41 types of, 15, 47, 55, 136, 201, 222, 225, 230, 263, 308, 358, 424 Psychology, 3, 9-41, 43, 64, 66, 86, 103, 107, 118, 125-126, 157, 229, 249, 279, 281, 285, 293, 321, 358-359, 385-418, 454, 459-504 applications of, 103 applied, 14, 19, 103, 107, 387, 459, 461-462, 464-466, 469-471, 474, 478-482, 485-486, 488-489, 491-492, 495-497, 499-504 clinical, 463, 480-481, 495, 501-502 consumer, 28, 301, 468, 475, 482, 484, 498, 500, 504 experimental, 11, 31-33, 36, 38, 41, 107, 229, 321, 459-462, 464, 466-474, 476, 479-488, 490-497, 499-503 field of, 13, 17, 24, 107 intuitive, 460, 476, 481, 484, 493 military, 469 overview of, 13, 27, 39, 276, 387, 404, 410 psychological research, 20, 26, 28, 34-37, 41, 107, 125, 285, 349, 493, 496 racial, 1, 16, 26, 34-35, 157, 229, 409, 461, 463-465, 470-473, 491, 495-499 research in, 3, 13, 17, 24-25, 28, 30-31, 33, 36-37, 39, 118, 403, 413, 466-467, 481, 490 research methods in, 461 scientific method, 15, 20, 35, 40 women in, 23, 476, 500 Psychopathology, 144 Psychotherapy, 463, 479, 492 Puberty, 140, 267 Public schools, 222 Punishers, 498 Punishment, 6, 89-90, 285-286, 303, 347, 364, 377-378, 381, 383, 467, 470 514 consistency of, 467 Q Quasi-experiments, 469 Questionnaires, 260, 323, 395 R Race, 131-132, 142, 145, 147, 198-200, 209-211, 222-223, 227, 249, 322, 388, 408-410, 418, 461-463, 478, 480, 490, 499, 504 dissonance, 478 equality, 198-200 segregation, 200, 499 racial attitudes, 1, 157, 222-223, 225, 229, 465, 473, 496-497, 499 Racial differences, 200 Racial discrimination, 208, 225, 463, 498 Racial group differences, 199 Racial prejudice, 34-35, 223, 225-226, 470, 472 Racial profiling, 449 Racism, 5, 195, 198, 222-223, 225, 227-228, 230-231, 322, 459, 471, 473, 486, 490, 494, 498 modern, 5, 195, 222, 225, 228, 231, 486, 498 Random assignment, 6, 33, 36, 41 of participants, 6, 33, 36, 41 Random assignment of participants to conditions, 36, 41 Random selection, 146 Rape, 66, 204, 357, 371-372, 465-466, 478, 488 Rational thought, 68, 156 reactance, 6, 155, 181, 185, 190-191, 465 Reading, 13, 20, 23, 39, 72-73, 84, 99, 159-160, 170, 285, 299, 313, 380, 413, 469, 478 Realistic conflict theory, 6, 217, 231 Reality, 13, 22, 53, 65, 69, 76, 144, 159, 164-165, 189, 208, 252, 260, 263, 284, 303-304, 316, 394, 462, 479 Reality TV, 159 Reasoning, 45-46, 49, 56, 58, 75, 98-100, 289, 293, 321, 334, 349-350, 357, 409, 436, 448, 464-465, 484, 492-493 ability, 465 abstract, 56, 99, 361 good, 45, 58, 98-99, 279, 334, 448, 484 heuristic, 45-46, 49, 464, 493 Recategorization, 6, 195, 217, 226-227, 230-231, 475 Reciprocal altruism, 319 Reciprocity, 24, 253, 275, 296, 298-299, 308, 390, 397 Recognition, 26, 195, 226, 242, 318, 401, 425, 460, 464, 493 process, 493 Recollection, 485 Recovery, 414, 483 Recycling, 468 Reference groups, 6, 164, 191 Reflective, 75, 226, 426, 444 Regulatory fit, 494 Reinforcement, 461 vicarious reinforcement, 461 Relapse, 476 Relationships, 1-2, 4-8, 11, 17-18, 21-23, 27, 29, 31, 40-41, 57, 92-94, 107, 120, 122, 136, 162, 196, 233-271, 277, 300-302, 309, 334, 357, 374, 382, 387-399, 411-412, 414-417, 449, 454, 462-464, 466-471, 473-476, 478-480, 482-488, 493, 495-496, 499, 501 breaking up, 235, 265 building, 21-22, 251-252, 268, 316, 334, 387, 391, 395-397 close, 1, 4, 23, 120, 233-271, 302, 334, 389-390, 394, 397, 411, 415, 417, 470, 487-488 conflict in, 480, 488 dyadic, 486 heterosexual, 196, 262, 454 Relative deprivation, 501 Relaxation, 70, 170 Reliability, 482 Religious beliefs, 97, 157, 165 religious orientation, 26 Remembering, 5, 15, 54, 57, 65, 76, 109, 162 Repeated contact, 6, 241 repeated exposure, 6, 212, 241-243, 248, 270-271, 327, 352, 361-362, 498 to media violence, 361-362 Replication, 305, 307, 309, 477, 485 Representations, 137, 195, 203-204, 224, 277, 301-302, 309, 316, 471 Representative heuristic, 46, 48-49 Representative samples, 202 Representativeness, 45-46, 48, 53, 76-77, 481, 496 Representativeness heuristic, 46, 48, 53, 76-77, 496 Reproductive success, 262, 266-267, 271 Repulsion hypothesis, 6, 251, 271, 493, 496 Research, 2-4, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17-41, 50-52, 54, 57-60, 62-64, 66-69, 71-72, 74-75, 77, 81-90, 92-93, 96-104, 106-112, 114, 118-120, 122-125, 127-128, 130-133, 137, 139-141, 146-148, 151, 157-159, 162, 166-168, 170, 172, 175-178, 184-187, 189-190, 198, 200-201, 209, 211, 213-214, 216, 218-221, 223-224, 226-230, 236-242, 247-249, 251-257, 259-261, 263-266, 268-269, 271, 277-294, 296-297, 299, 301-303, 305-309, 315-319, 321, 323, 332-333, 339, 341, 348-351, 353-363, 365-369, 371-372, 374-376, 387-389, 395-400, 402-403, 405-418, 422-423, 432, 434, 439, 443-444, 447-455, 459, 461-462, 464-468, 472-475, 477-482, 488, 490, 492-493, 495-498, 500-501, 503 correlational, 2, 30-32, 36, 41, 248, 367 correlational method, 2, 30-32, 36, 41 critically evaluating, 453 cross-cultural, 130, 216, 492-493, 501 deception in, 37, 89-90, 473, 482 hypotheses and, 147 longitudinal, 122, 140, 328, 359-360, 393, 398, 414, 459, 482, 485, 490 on memory, 71, 466, 472 psychotherapy, 479, 492 sex, 112, 120, 147, 164, 195, 252, 261, 365, 395, 459, 466-467, 472-475, 481-482, 490, 493, 496, 501 techniques for, 75, 110, 195, 230, 296, 299, 348-349, 378, 388, 409 Research design, 402 Research methods, 461, 464 Research participants, 4, 6, 33, 37-38, 99, 101, 240, 254, 259, 296 Resilience, 497-498 Resistance, 6-7, 144, 155, 169, 181-185, 190, 206, 287-288, 293, 464-466, 484, 491-492, 495, 502 to persuasion, 6-7, 155, 169, 181-185, 190, 465-466, 484, 502 Response, 1-2, 5, 7-8, 24, 26, 49, 55, 57, 71-72, 75, 92, 100, 125, 135, 150, 157-158, 160, 177, 180, 182-184, 213-215, 222-223, 231, 261, 266, 295, 323-324, 354, 356, 363, 379, 382, 438, 441-442, 462, 469-470, 475, 482-483, 500 conditioned, 2, 160 Responsiveness, 323, 483 Restylane, 88-90 Retention, 364, 466, 481, 496 Retirement, 63 Retrieval, 45, 49-51, 53-54, 57, 70, 76, 467, 493-494, 499-500 ease of, 49-51, 53, 493-494, 499 Retrieval cue, 70 Reward, 134, 162-163, 487 Rewards, 3-4, 6, 8, 75, 155, 162-165, 186, 189-190, 219, 324, 351, 369, 393, 415, 422, 442, 447-448, 486, 495 Ridicule, 432 risk averse, 198, 200, 230-231 Risky shift, 450 Road rage, 85 Roles, 6, 85, 106, 113, 119, 140, 202, 213, 231, 255, 266-267, 285-287, 375, 377, 382-383, 392, 425-428, 431, 471-472, 474, 482, 499 Stanford Prison Study, 285-287 Romance, 20, 94, 246, 261, 263, 266, 268-269, 271, 299, 302, 309, 387, 393 course of, 393 Romantic attraction, 266, 271, 467 Romantic relationships, 17, 22, 235, 243, 255, 257, 260, 264-265, 268-269, 271, 392-394, 414, 474, 484 Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, 136 S Sadness, 83-84, 100, 214-215, 261, 291, 333, 354, 475 Safety, 37-38, 50, 169, 265, 313, 320-322, 358, 467, 501 Same-sex marriage, 195-197, 433 www.downloadslide.net Sample, 32, 61, 109, 125-126, 146, 225, 297, 405, 414, 427, 464, 486, 493, 502 Samples, 140, 202, 297, 426, 464 Sampling, 28-29 sanctions for noncooperation, 443-444, 446 Sarcasm, 442 Scent, 81, 87, 93, 113, 487 Scent of a Woman, 487 Schadenfreude, 291 Schema, 45, 47, 54-56, 58-59, 109, 212, 246 Schemas, 5-6, 45, 47, 53-59, 62, 71, 75-77, 109, 210, 246, 301-302, 327, 352 in social cognition, 45, 47, 62 School, 11, 56, 61-62, 97, 102, 132, 134, 136, 139, 142, 144, 147, 162, 226, 257-258, 319, 333, 336, 359, 374-376, 381, 390-391, 395, 400-401, 423, 489, 500 School choice, 61-62 Schooling, 134 Schools, 20, 61, 200, 222, 303, 316, 319, 328, 368, 376-377, 381, 383, 431 Science, 9-10, 12-41, 293, 359, 459-477, 479-480, 482-489, 491-495, 497-504 Scientific American, 461, 463 Scientific method, 15, 20, 35, 40 Scientific methods, 20 Scientific skepticism, 36 Scripts, 352, 362, 501 Second Life, 204 Secure attachment, 6, 257, 271, 333, 395 Secure attachment style, 6, 257, 271, 333, 395 selective avoidance, 7, 155, 182, 185, 190-191 selective exposure, 182, 190 Self, 1-8, 21-23, 26, 30-31, 49-51, 56-57, 61-62, 76, 81-82, 94, 100, 102-104, 106, 109-112, 114, 115-151, 157, 177, 183-185, 187, 189-191, 201, 207, 209, 211, 215-216, 218-221, 223, 231, 238, 244, 253, 256-261, 264, 278-279, 296, 298, 313, 328-329, 339, 343, 355, 357, 377-379, 381, 389-390, 425, 427-429, 439-440, 456, 459, 461-478, 482-483, 485-504 phenomenal, 494 positive illusions about, 150, 474 Self, the, 150 Self-affirmation, 7, 187, 189, 383, 486 Self-concept, 7, 21-22, 123, 128-129, 131, 147, 251, 381, 429, 432, 456, 463, 498, 500 social comparison theory, Self-control, 7, 94, 117, 134-135, 150-151, 184, 379, 403, 463, 466, 475, 486, 492, 501 Self-deception, 498 Self-descriptions, 128-130 Self-determination theory, 493 Self-doubt, 139, 488 Self-efficacy, 144, 261, 328-329, 461, 494 Self-enhancement, 110-112, 114, 432, 492, 495, 504 Self-esteem, 2-4, 6-8, 94, 117, 119, 122, 136-143, 150-151, 207, 215-216, 219, 221, 231, 238, 244, 256-257, 260-261, 264, 269-271, 341, 368, 377, 381, 395, 432, 469-471, 476-477, 486, 488, 498-499, 504 and race, 504 appearance and, 504 contributors to, 482 desire for, 271, 395, 463 global, 140 jealousy and, 264, 470 threats to, 6, 216, 264, 271, 381 Self-evaluations, 143, 187 self-failure, 133 Self-help books, 125 self-image, 30, 121, 141, 143, 223, 231, 357, 368, 381, 493 self-inferences, 127 Self-insight, 127 self-inspection, 125 self-knowledge, 81, 119, 124-125, 149, 432, 435, 456, 503 Self-monitoring, 482 Self-persuasion, 485 Self-presentation, 30-31, 82, 110-112, 114, 117-119, 123, 136, 149, 278, 461-462, 473-474, 499-500 self-promotion, 7, 123-124, 151, 296 Self-reflection, 128 Self-report data, 478 Self-serving attributions, 465 Self-serving bias, 7, 102-103, 106, 114 Self-serving biases, 117, 143-144, 150, 487 Self-transcendence, 492 self-verification perspective, 7, 123, 151 Semantic networks, 504 Sendler, Irena, 333 seniority, 426, 431 Sensations, 107 Sensitivity, 32-33, 237, 259, 368, 396, 473, 479, 486, 490 Sentences, 51-52, 58, 91, 100, 378, 408, 473 meaning, 91, 473 Separation, 259, 392, 430, 465 September 11, 2001, 216, 322 Sequential lineups, 407 Set, 13-14, 28-29, 51, 55, 61, 92, 107, 117, 158, 207, 217-218, 224, 227, 285-287, 298, 302, 357-358, 394-395, 415, 426, 454 Set point, 415 Sex, 112, 120, 147, 164, 188, 195-197, 235, 246, 252, 261-262, 267, 365, 395, 433, 459, 463-464, 466-467, 471-476, 481-484, 486, 490, 493-494, 496, 499, 501-502 attitude formation, 164, 496, 502 passionate love and, 478 sexual orientation, 147, 197 Sex differences, 147, 464, 466-467, 472, 478, 486, 490, 499 Sexism, 204, 223, 468, 476, 486, 498 benevolent, 204 hostile, 204 subtle, 223 Sexting, 347-348 Sexual activity, 261 Sexual attractiveness, 480 Sexual behavior, 459 Sexual harassment, 204-205, 212, 409-410, 471, 485 Sexual infidelity, 364-365, 382 Sexual orientation, 26, 129, 147-148, 197, 200, 222, 230, 495 Sexual selection, 484 Sexuality, 263, 495, 502 Shakespeare, William, 119 Shaping, 4, 89-90, 161, 173-174, 189, 279, 471 Shared experiences, 258, 467, 494, 501 Shared goals, 2, 421, 424, 441-442, 446, 457 Shepard, Matthew, 222 Sherif, Muzafer, 281 Shyness, 389-390, 461, 495 sibling relationships, 258 Sibling rivalry, 258 Siblings, 255, 258, 260, 270, 390, 472, 482 Sight, 14-15, 243, 262-263, 461 Significant others, 225, 495 Similarity, 1, 6-7, 22, 48, 68-69, 142, 235-236, 241, 248-252, 254, 259-260, 266, 270-271, 284, 292, 296, 308, 313, 325-326, 393-395, 405, 463, 466-469, 471-472, 487, 490, 493-496, 498, 501 interpersonal style, 493 similarity-dissimilarity effect, 7, 250-251, 271 Simultaneous lineups, 407 single people, 195, 209-211 singlism, 7, 209-210, 213, 231 Situation, 1-6, 12, 17, 24, 32, 45, 54, 61, 70-71, 84, 89-91, 96, 98-101, 129, 148, 155-156, 166-167, 172-174, 177, 180, 182-183, 185-186, 189, 202, 205, 246, 258, 276-277, 281-283, 288-294, 305, 308, 315, 317, 320-325, 340-343, 351-357, 361, 367, 382-383, 416, 437-439, 442-446, 455-456, 487, 497, 501 physical environment, 17 Situational attribution, 229 Situational attributions, 229-231 situations, 1, 7-8, 13, 17, 19-21, 33-34, 36-37, 40-41, 48, 51-52, 54, 58, 63-64, 66-69, 71, 77, 82-83, 95-97, 99, 104-105, 110, 129, 145, 148-149, 160, 172-174, 185, 189-191, 210, 226, 239, 258-260, 270-271, 277-278, 280-281, 283-286, 288-290, 305-309, 313, 320-322, 330, 333, 335, 356-357, 363, 366-368, 388, 411, 442-443, 445-448, 455, 457, 494 Size, 72, 140, 208, 283, 294, 308, 368-369, 400-401, 425, 438, 471, 473, 476 judgments, 208, 294, 308, 471, 476 Skepticism, 14, 36 Skin, 18, 243, 341, 362 Slaves, 363 Sleep, 170, 467 Smell, 17, 23, 372, 462 Smith, D., 465 Smoking, 28, 150, 176, 276, 476, 504 quitting, 134, 188 Sociability, 495, 504 Social, 1-8, 9-41, 43-77, 79-114, 115, 117-119, 121-125, 128-133, 135-136, 139-147, 149-151, 153-191, 195-201, 203, 210-211, 217-219, 221-223, 225-231, 235-239, 241, 243-249, 251-256, 258-262, 264-267, 270-271, 273-309, 313-316, 318-322, 325-326, 332-334, 336-343, 353-354, 357-360, 366-367, 369-370, 372-373, 376, 378-382, 385-418, 421, 423-424, 426-428, 430-448, 450-454, 459-504 congruence, 5, 70-71, 75, 77 Social adjustment, 315-316 Social approval, 289 Social behavior, 4-5, 11, 13-21, 23, 25-31, 33-36, 39-41, 58, 67, 70, 82, 102-103, 113, 160, 243, 320, 340-341, 343, 351, 366-367, 390, 459-461, 463, 467-469, 471-473, 475, 478-481, 485-486, 490, 492-495, 498-499, 503 altruism as, 468 altruistic, 494 bystander, 5, 469, 475, 493 group norms and, 459, 499 Social capital, 7, 122-123, 151, 412, 473 Social categorization, 218-219, 498 social change, 157, 199-200, 227, 287, 432-433, 435, 456, 497, 503 Social cognition, 7, 17, 20-21, 40, 43-77, 251, 378, 408, 464, 468, 472-477, 480-483, 499, 503 attribution, 472, 476, 481-483 interpersonal attraction, 251, 482 judgment, 45, 47-50, 57-58, 464, 468, 476, 480-481, 503 schemas, 45, 47, 53-59, 62, 71, 75-77 stereotypes, 7, 59, 75, 408, 464, 472, 477, 503 Social cognitive neuroscience, 462 Social cognitive perspective, 479 Social comparison, 7-8, 117, 119, 141-142, 144-145, 150-151, 164-165, 189, 191, 223, 239, 252-254, 270-271, 292, 413, 450, 452, 471, 474, 476-477, 483, 503-504 social comparison theory, 7, 141-142, 145, 151, 252-254, 270-271, 476 downward social comparison, 141, 151 upward social comparison, 141, 151 Social comparisons, 141-145, 150, 448, 486, 490, 503 Social compensation, 121-122, 502, 504 Social compensation hypothesis, 122 Social competence, 482 Social death, 117 Social development, 493 social dilemmas, 7, 443-444, 446, 457, 488, 500 social diversity, 11, 26 Social exchange, 397, 459 Social identities, 129-132, 135 Social identity, 5, 7, 117, 128-129, 131, 133, 142-143, 145-147, 149-151, 196, 218-219, 221, 231, 392, 434, 459, 471, 473-474, 478-479, 483, 485, 494, 497-500 conflict among, 129 visual indicators of, 133 Social influence, 1-2, 4-5, 7-8, 195, 229-230, 273-309, 325, 401, 406-407, 410, 418, 462, 469, 472, 488, 499 compliance, 2, 5, 8, 275-277, 295-300, 303, 308-309, 475 informational, 4, 284, 294, 308-309 obedience, 5, 275-277, 285, 287, 303-307, 309 power of, 287, 307 symbolic social influence, 8, 275, 277, 301-302, 309 task performance, 462 Social interaction, 85, 235, 248, 463, 477, 482-483, 499 Social justice, 453, 481, 498, 500 Social learning perspective, 347, 351 Social learning view, 7, 225, 231 social models, 351 Social neuroscience, 11, 23-24, 27, 40, 58, 74-75, 77, 362 Social norms, 1-2, 7, 97, 173, 276-278, 281, 283, 285, 287-288, 294, 308-309, 401, 492-493 approach, 2, 287, 469, 492 515 www.downloadslide.net Social perception, 26, 79-114, 373, 391, 471 Social psychological perspective, 496, 498 Social psychologist, 28, 30-31, 35, 117, 287, 295, 305 Social psychologists, 11, 13-32, 34, 36-38, 40-41, 47, 54-55, 60, 65, 94, 97, 99-100, 106-107, 109-110, 136, 140-141, 155-157, 159, 163, 167, 177, 181-182, 185-186, 201, 222, 230-231, 236-238, 245-247, 253-256, 285-288, 290-291, 299-300, 305, 308, 318, 320-321, 348-351, 353-354, 358, 380-382, 391-392, 401, 410-412, 418, 424, 426-427, 430-432, 438, 441-443, 447, 450 Social psychology, 9-41, 43, 66, 103, 107, 118, 157, 229, 249, 254, 279, 281, 285, 293, 321, 358-359, 385-418, 454, 459-504 and group membership, 486 social influence, 229, 273, 276, 279, 281, 285, 293, 301, 387, 401, 406-407, 410, 418, 469, 472, 488, 499 Social Readjustment Rating Scale, 479 Social referencing, 496 Social relationships, 22, 238, 256, 258, 391, 414, 416, 478-479 Social self, 135, 143, 463-464, 500 Social situations, 13, 20-21, 33, 40, 66, 96, 391 Social status, 293, 318 high, 318 Social support, 7, 156, 260, 271, 334, 389, 404-406, 414, 418, 483, 495, 498-499 costs of, 498 siblings, 260 well-being, 404, 414, 418, 465, 498 Socialization, 333, 428, 471, 477, 488 Sociobiology, 469 Socioeconomic status, 26-27, 408, 486, 491 Sociometry, 495 solidarity, 430, 456, 484 Somalia, 45 Sound, 31, 35, 81, 123, 252, 301, 321, 451 Sounds, 120, 256, 262, 362, 391, 395 Source, 1, 24, 27, 51-52, 56-57, 59-60, 66, 81, 84, 86-88, 93-94, 98, 100, 103, 108, 113, 119-120, 122, 126, 132, 143, 159, 162, 175, 178, 180, 184, 189, 199-201, 203, 209, 214-220, 228-229, 247, 254-255, 263-264, 270, 281, 289-291, 304-305, 326-327, 331, 338-339, 389-391, 411-412, 415, 417-418, 429-431, 448-449, 452, 462, 491 trustworthy, 94 Source monitoring, 475 South Africa, 195, 360 Spears, R., 478, 480, 491 Specific factor, 95 Specification, 501 Speech, 4, 45, 56, 91, 146, 182, 366, 435-437 speed dating, 18-19 spontaneous behavioral reactions, 155, 173 Sport psychology, 501 sports figures, 175 Spousal abuse, 367 Stability, 108, 287, 393, 472, 482, 490, 493, 495 versus change, 493 Stability versus change, 493 Standard of living, 411, 417-418 Stanford prison experiment, 287 Stanford prison study, 285-287, 304 Star Trek, 15 Statistics, 202, 264, 364, 378, 399, 466, 500 predictions, 394 Status, 2, 5, 7, 26-27, 45, 52-53, 61, 76, 109, 134, 140, 177, 196-198, 200, 206-207, 210, 287, 293, 318-320, 339-342, 350, 355, 374, 408, 422, 425-427, 431-433, 435, 448-449, 456-457, 459, 467, 471, 473-474, 480, 486, 491-492, 494, 496, 498 Stem cells, 157 embryonic, 157 Stereotype threat, 7, 117, 146-149, 151, 460, 464, 476, 484, 486, 490-491, 494, 496-497 Stereotypes, 7, 59, 75, 151, 195, 197, 201-204, 208-213, 228-231, 243, 247, 289-290, 293, 406, 408-409, 448-449, 457, 462, 464, 471-472, 477-479, 485-486, 496-498, 502-504 Stereotyping, 7, 148, 193-231, 461, 463-464, 470-471, 473-474, 476, 482, 484, 489-490, 497, 503 Sternberg, R., 497 triangular theory, 497 Stigma, 149, 401, 465, 469, 483, 491 516 stigmatized identity, 146 Stimuli, 3, 48, 55-57, 70, 75-76, 87, 96, 107, 141, 157, 161-162, 165, 189, 223, 352, 394, 437, 453, 460 informative, 141 Stimulus, 1-2, 6, 56, 96, 157, 160-161, 171, 191, 223, 240, 242-243, 421, 496 conditioned stimulus, 2, 160, 191 neutral, 1, 6, 160-161, 223, 240, 242 Storage, 70 Stress, 48, 123, 239, 257, 263, 269, 305, 387-389, 399, 403-406, 418, 428, 459, 468-470, 476-479, 482, 484, 493, 498 coping with, 7, 387-388, 404-405 extreme, 305, 418 friends, 269, 389, 405-406, 418, 459 job, 418, 468 mortality, 239, 405, 477 psychological responses to, 498 responses, 428, 459, 465, 468-469, 477-479, 484, 498 vulnerability to, 470 Stressful life events, 403 Stressors, 469 chronic, 469 students, 28-29, 37, 49-50, 53, 56, 60-61, 63-64, 72, 92-93, 123, 126, 130-132, 136, 138, 147, 163-169, 183-184, 199, 205, 212, 219-222, 224, 229, 240-242, 249, 253, 259-261, 288-289, 297-298, 316, 321-323, 336, 348, 367-368, 374-376, 389, 409, 433, 486, 488-489, 500 Studying, 28-29, 31, 37, 39, 122, 134, 218, 222, 304, 435, 461 Subconscious processes, 393 Subjective norms, 8, 172-173 subjective scales, 7, 208-209, 231 subliminal conditioning, 8, 137, 161-162, 165, 189, 191, 483 Substance use, 495 Suicide, 222, 257, 375, 405 superordinate goals, 8, 218, 221, 227, 231, 445-446 Surgery, 23, 161, 414, 483 Surprise, 60, 83, 88, 171, 204, 239, 340, 466, 492 Survey, 8, 28-29, 36, 40-41, 131-132, 195, 199, 262, 336, 411, 464 Surveys, 28-29, 195, 198, 261, 358, 411 Survival, 17, 262, 392-393, 423, 431, 451, 486 Symbols, 72, 217 Symptoms, 45, 148, 404, 414 systematic observation, 8, 11, 28, 36, 40-41 systematic processing, 1, 8, 177-178, 181, 189, 191, 468, 482, 485 versus heuristic processing, 177 T Talented, 143 Task conflict, 444 Task difficulty, 7, 102 Task performance, 416-417, 421, 435, 439, 462, 470, 492 Taste, 32, 52-53, 68 qualities, 53 Taylor, S., 460, 474-475, 498 Teamwork, 481 teasing, 8, 354-355, 363, 382-383, 390, 467 Teens, 122 Television, 33, 117, 164, 174, 182, 256, 298, 316, 351, 358-360, 362, 400, 466, 475, 490 and attitude change, 475, 490 violence on, 466, 490 Television viewing, 182 Temperament, 96, 468, 482 dimensions, 96 terror management, 8, 67-69, 77, 477 Terror Management Theory, 477 Terrorism, 348-349 Test scores, 61, 146 Testosterone, 87, 487 Tests, 30-31, 35, 249, 284, 286, 460, 478 group, 460, 478 personality, 30-31, 460, 478 Tetris, 328, 361 text messaging, 1, 265, 441-442 Theories, 3-4, 34-36, 41, 81, 94, 109, 114, 125, 127, 172-173, 177, 179, 181, 211, 293, 350-354, 382-383, 459, 467-468, 472, 484, 490, 501 Theory, 1-8, 11, 28, 34-36, 71, 74, 94-97, 99, 103-104, 106, 113, 123, 128, 141-143, 145, 151, 186-187, 191, 198, 200, 217-219, 226, 244, 252-254, 270-271, 283, 319-320, 342-343, 349, 351-352, 354, 356-357, 360, 366, 433, 436-438, 454, 459, 461-462, 465, 467-469, 471-477, 479-482, 484, 486-489, 493-498, 500, 502-503 stage, 1, 217, 436, 471 Theory of causal attribution, 97, 106, 113 Theory of planned behavior, 8, 172, 189, 191, 459, 489 Therapy, 26, 73, 104, 391, 459 family, 391 men and, 26 Thinking, 2, 5, 13-15, 45-46, 48-49, 51, 55, 57, 60, 62, 64, 66-69, 71, 77, 125, 127-132, 134-135, 138, 142, 150, 169, 179, 183-184, 222, 238, 322, 336, 379-380, 391, 415-418, 443, 461, 471-472, 474, 483-484, 490, 492, 500, 503 concepts, 57 convergent, 503 thinking about, 14-15, 46, 48, 60, 67-69, 98, 125, 127-129, 150, 169, 179, 302, 322, 336, 379-380, 417-418, 431, 443, 461, 492 Thought, 4-5, 8, 11-17, 19-21, 23-27, 30-31, 33-36, 39-41, 45-48, 52, 54-60, 62-63, 65-71, 74-77, 81-82, 93, 98, 102-103, 113, 126, 128, 131, 141, 145, 159, 161-162, 167-168, 171-175, 177-179, 182, 189, 197, 201, 208, 236, 288-289, 301-302, 305-306, 316, 321-322, 377, 418, 437, 441-442, 444, 459, 461, 471-472, 490, 499, 503 concepts, 34, 57 counterfactual thinking, 45, 66-67, 69, 77, 503 critical, 13, 62-63, 322, 444, 465 judgments, 4-5, 25, 45, 47-48, 52, 54, 57-58, 62-63, 67, 69-70, 76-77, 128, 168, 171, 288-289, 410, 418, 463, 471-472 Threats, 6, 181, 216, 239, 264, 266, 271, 288, 319, 355, 364-365, 369, 381-383, 404, 462, 497-498 to self-esteem, 216, 264 Threshold, 8, 162, 366, 370, 373, 382 Time, 1-2, 11, 14-15, 17-19, 21-23, 25, 29, 31, 47-48, 50, 52-55, 57, 60, 63-66, 68-70, 73, 77, 87, 91, 94, 96-97, 99-100, 102-103, 106-108, 110, 117-120, 125-126, 128-134, 136, 140, 143, 160-161, 166, 169-174, 178-179, 182, 185, 197, 203, 219, 235-237, 239-244, 246-248, 254-255, 257-260, 262-263, 271, 278-280, 285-290, 306-308, 316, 323-324, 327-328, 330-331, 334-336, 338, 388-389, 393-399, 413-414, 416-417, 421-422, 425, 432-433, 441-444, 456, 465-466, 482, 489-490, 499-500, 502 Time-series analysis, 469 Tobacco industry, 167 tokenism, 8, 198, 206-208, 212, 230-231, 470, 485, 492 Tolerance, 204-205, 212, 429, 471 Tooth decay, 176 Touch, 28, 86, 459 Training, 51-52, 135, 137, 150, 225, 228-231, 379, 482, 489, 497 Trait aggression, 499 Traits, 1, 7-8, 16, 48, 81-82, 85, 94-96, 99-100, 102-110, 112-114, 126-128, 130, 141, 143, 149, 201-202, 209, 211, 228-229, 244, 270, 286, 288-291, 348, 366-367, 370, 427, 457, 468, 480, 486, 495, 500 central traits, 107, 112, 114 transactional justice, 8, 421, 447, 449, 457 Transformation, 26, 472 Transition, 364, 466 Transitions, 423, 484 Treatment, 1, 33-34, 49, 104, 117, 132, 135, 140-141, 145, 157, 200, 205, 207-208, 221, 224, 230, 347-348, 354, 368, 377-378, 383, 432, 475, 492 access to, 200 evolution of, 475 triangular model of love, 2, 4-5, 8, 263, 266, 271 Triangular theory of love, 497 trivialization, 187, 189, 191, 496 True self, 122, 461 Twins, 390, 414-415, 498 identical twins, 390, 415 Twitter, 11, 159, 179-180, 235-236, 316 Two-factor theory, 71 Type A behavior pattern, 352, 367, 370, 382-383, 463 www.downloadslide.net Type B behavior, 8, 367, 370, 382-383 Type B behavior pattern, 8, 367, 370, 383 U Ultimatum Game, 103, 493 unconditioned stimulus, 2, 8, 160-161, 191, 496 Unconscious, 4, 60, 127, 157, 304, 326, 409 Understanding others, 79-114 United Airlines Flight, 322 United Kingdom, 400 United States, 19, 26, 34, 38, 45, 47, 57, 86, 150, 165, 198-200, 202, 204, 206, 216, 219, 255, 278-279, 293-294, 300-301, 364, 388, 399-401, 425, 451, 500 independence, 294 Universals, 494 unpriming of schemas, 56 Unrequited love, 8, 262, 271, 465 Unresponsive bystander, 483 Upward social comparison, 8, 141, 151 Upward social comparisons, 141, 144-145, 150 us-versus-them effect, 218 V Vaccination, 160, 488 Valence, 239, 394, 496 Validity, 33, 36, 41, 47, 109, 121, 158, 171, 250, 371, 501 content, 33 in naturalistic observation, 36 of research, 36, 41, 109 Variable, 2, 4-6, 29-34, 36, 41, 250, 370, 426, 462, 469, 477, 489, 496 independent, 4-6, 31-34, 36, 41, 250, 370 Variables, 2-3, 5, 11, 16-17, 29-32, 34, 36, 41, 105, 248, 282, 351-353, 399-400, 409, 467, 477 confounding, 34, 36, 41, 477 confounding of, 34, 36, 41 in experimentation, 32, 34 Variations, 3, 18, 31, 83, 474, 477, 485, 489 Vegetables, 262, 400 Venting, 380, 466 Venting anger, 466 Verbal aggression, 390 Verbs, 131 vested interests, 155, 167-168 Vicarious reinforcement, 461 Victims, 2, 72, 195, 197, 204, 209-210, 224, 275-276, 298, 300-301, 305-306, 316, 320-322, 324-325, 333, 358, 364, 368, 374-378, 381, 383, 480, 486, 496 crisis, 421 dehumanization of, 224 of rape, 204 Violence, 11-12, 15, 33, 215, 218, 224, 314, 316, 347-350, 352, 357-364, 372, 377, 382, 460-462, 468-469, 474-475, 478, 490-494, 501 in video games, 33, 362, 491 on television, 362 social psychology of, 490, 494 youth, 460, 475 Vision, 442, 472, 478 Voice, 81, 104, 398, 441-442, 447, 462, 482 465, 467, 470-479, 490-494, 496-498, 500-504 and control, 350, 355, 364-365, 369-370, 372-373, 382-383, 462-463 and mathematics, 491 career choice, 504 Woods, Tiger, 161 Words, 11, 17-18, 21, 23-25, 47-48, 52, 54-55, 66-67, 69-70, 73, 82-83, 87-92, 94-95, 99-102, 104, 107-108, 111, 132, 134, 138, 158, 160, 163, 167, 177, 184-185, 187, 208, 213, 215, 228, 235-236, 244, 253-254, 263-267, 277, 281-283, 286, 294-297, 299, 301-303, 317, 319, 332, 348, 357-358, 362-363, 372-374, 379-381, 393-397, 408-410 Work, 2, 6-7, 11, 15, 29, 34, 37, 51-52, 63-64, 66, 73, 77, 91, 103-104, 106-107, 110-111, 120, 131, 134, 137-138, 140-141, 147, 150, 161, 169-170, 176-178, 203, 208, 246-247, 250-253, 255, 264, 266, 286, 295-302, 392, 396, 403, 414-416, 423-425, 437-442, 452-453, 456, 473-475, 483, 488 choice of, 266, 403, 494 pervasiveness of, 494 willingness to, 221, 227, 336, 456 Work settings, 375 Work teams, 424 Working women, 202 Workplace, 197, 202-203, 205, 212, 376, 426, 469, 481, 488, 497 discrimination in, 202, 205 violence, 469, 481 World, 1, 4, 11, 14-15, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26, 28-29, 31, 34, 39, 43-77, 83-84, 94-96, 98, 103-105, 107, 117-119, 121-122, 130-133, 138, 153-191, 202-205, 217, 219, 231, 237, 246, 254-256, 265, 270, 279, 283-284, 294, 307, 322-323, 336-337, 347-348, 354, 363-364, 376-377, 392, 401, 406-407, 417-418, 441-442, 446, 471-473, 497-498, 503 Worry, 177, 430, 437 Wrinkles, 88 Wyoming, 158, 222 Y Young adulthood, 489 Young adults, 137, 262 Young people, 121, 133, 166, 266, 471 YouTube, 235 Z Zimbardo, Philip, 285 W Walster, E., 501 Weight, 36, 50-51, 57, 60-61, 101, 135, 159, 197, 200, 210, 243, 248, 266, 270, 284, 387, 399-404, 498 portion sizes, 403, 418 Weight Watchers, 402 Weight-loss programs, 402 Well-being, 21, 38, 141, 145-146, 148, 151, 201, 206, 237, 315-316, 318, 333, 339, 391, 403-404, 410, 412-414, 416-418, 456, 471-472, 475, 480-481, 489, 491-494, 498, 502-503 White Americans, 198-201, 223, 228 Who Am I?, 115-151 Widows, 268 Wigand, Jeffrey, 167 Withdrawal, 364, 444 Women, 18-19, 23, 26-27, 86-87, 100-101, 106, 113, 117, 119, 128, 130, 133, 140-143, 147-150, 158-161, 164-165, 177, 200-207, 212-213, 216, 219, 230-231, 245-248, 252, 263-264, 266-271, 289-290, 305, 333, 350, 355, 369-370, 372-373, 426, 454-455, 460-463, 517 www.downloadslide.net 518 ... rights reserved Social Psychology The Science of the Social Side of Life Fancy/Alamy 10 CHAPTER OUTLINE Social Psychology: An Overview Social Psychology Is Scientific in Nature “L Social Psychology. .. phones Social Social Psychology Seeks to Understand the Causes of Social Behavior and Thought The Search for Basic Principles in a Changing Social World Social Psychology: Summing Up Social Psychology: ... Robert A Baron/ Nyla R Branscombe 1 Social Psychology: The Science of the Social Side of Life Robert A Baron/ Nyla R Branscombe Social Cognition: How We Think About the Social World Robert A Baron/ Nyla
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Xem thêm: Social psychology 13e baron , Social psychology 13e baron , Social Psychology: The Science of the Social Side of Life, Social Cognition: How We Think About the Social World, Social Perception: Perceiving and Understanding Others, The Self: Answering the Question "Who Am I?", Attitudes: Evaluating and Responding to the Social World, The Causes, Effects, and Cures of Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination, Interpersonal Attraction, Close Relationships, and Love, Aggression: Its Nature, Causes, and Control, Social Psychology: A Guide to Dealing with Adversity and Achieving a Happy Life, Groups and Individuals: The Consequences of Belonging

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