Thinking about landscape architecture

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Kiến trúc cảnh quan là gì? Có phải là làm vườn? Hay là nghiên cứu khoa học? Hoặc nghệ thuật kiến trúc?Bruce Sharky(Giáo sư trường ĐH Louisiana) cho rằng đó là tất cả những điều trên và nhiều câu hỏi khác nữa đều có trong cuốn sách Thinking about Landscape Architecture(Tư duy về Kiến trúc cảnh quan): Các nguyên tắc nghề nghiệp dành cho KTS thiết kế thế kỷ 21. Cuốn sách Tư duy về Kiến trúc cảnh quan cung cấp một cái nhìn toàn cảnh về các nguyên tắc, giúp các chuyên gia và những người mới trong nghề có một nền tảng về kiến trúc cảnh quan để nghiên cứu và thực hành. Với hơn 400 hình ảnh, cuốn sách Tư duy về Kiến trúc cảnh quan đã phác thảo chủ đề và tìm hiểu làm như thế nào mà từ nền tảng là thiết kế sân vườn nay kiến trúc cảnh quan đã “leapt over the garden wall”(vượt qua bước tường sân vườn) để bao quát các khu vực như thiết kế đô thị, công viên, quy hoạch cộng đồng và khu vực, phục hồi môi trường sống, thiết kế cơ sở hạ tầng xanh và bền vững,… Các chủ đề được đề cập đến trong Tư duy về Kiến trúc cảnh quan bao gồm:– Những ảnh hưởng mà các nhân tố tự nhiên và con người có được khi thiết kế cảnh quan và nguyên tắc được đặt ra như thế nào để giải quyết những thách thức này;– Ví dụ về công trình kiến ​​trúc cảnh quan hiện đại – từ quản lý nguồn nước và các thành phố đi bộ đến các dự án nổi tiếng như New York High Line hay Công viên Olympic Luân Đôn; và sự khám phá về cách mà nghệ thuật, thiết kế, khoa học, trồng trọt, và xây dựng kết hợp trong một nghề.Tư duy về Kiến trúc cảnh quan là cuốn sách hoàn hảo cho các chuyên gia cũng như những người muốn hiểu rõ hơn về nghề Kiến trúc cảnh quan hấp dẫn này. T H IN K ING ABOUT LAN DSC APE A RC H ITECTURE What is landscape architecture? Is it gardening, or science, or art? In this book, Bruce Sharky gives a complete overview of the discipline to provide those who are new to the subject with the foundations for future study and practice The many varieties of landscape architecture practice are discussed with an emphasis on the significant contributions that landscape architects have made across the world in daily practice Written by a leading scholar and practitioner, this book outlines the subject and explores how, from a basis in garden design, it “leapt over the garden wall” to encapsulate areas such as urban and park design, community and regional planning, habitat restoration, green infrastructure and sustainable design, and site engineering and implementation Coverage includes: s the effects that natural and human factors have upon design, and how the discipline is uniquely placed to address these challenges s examples of contemporary landscape architecture work––from storm-water management and walkable cities to well-known projects like the New York High Line and the London 2012 Olympic Park s exploration of how art and design, science, horticulture, and construction come together in one subject Thinking about Landscape Architecture is perfect for those wanting to better understand this fascinating subject, and those starting out as landscape architecture students Bruce Sharky is a professor at the Robert Reich School of Architecture at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, and a registered professional landscape architect His interests in landscape architecture are varied and have evolved over the years and through work in varied locations and countries He has worked professionally in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Winnipeg, as well as in state government He has lectured and taught design courses in countries as varied as China, Chile, Japan, and Israel, and was a Fulbright Scholar in Mexico and Portugal He had a private landscape practice in Anchorage, Alaska, for 15 years prior to taking on the position of director of the Robert Reich School of Landscape Architecture, Louisiana State University In 1990, Professor Sharky was honored as a Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects for his years of service and contributions to the profession “The book establishes definitions of methodology, scope of work, outlook, and design concepts for students and professionals alike It touches succinctly and clearly into the history and evolution of the profession and of the scale and typological landscapes that professionals are committed to today It also defines the amplitude and limitations of a profession difficult to define A book much needed at schools, as well as in private corporations and public institutions.” Mario Schjetnan, FASLA, Landscape Architect/Architect T H IN K ING ABOUT LAN DSC APE A RC H ITECTURE PRINCIPLES OF A DESIGN PROFESSION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY BRU C E SHA RK Y First published 2016 by Routledge Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2016 Bruce Sharky The right of Bruce Sharky to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Sharky, Bruce, author Thinking about landscape architecture : principles of a design profession for the 21st century / Bruce Sharky — First edition pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index Landscape design Landscape architecture I Title SB472.45.S53 2016 712—dc23 2015029624 ISBN: 978-1-138-84717-0 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-84718-7 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-72693-9 (ebk) Typeset in Univers by Keystroke, Station Road, Codsall, Wolverhampton To my parents Louis and Beatrice who brought me into this world and my mother Sophie who prepared me to stay This page intentionally left bank C ON TE N TS LIST OF FIGURES XI PREFACE XVII ACKNOWLEDGMENTS XIX CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION—WHAT IS A LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT? Landscape Architecture: A Design Profession for the Twenty-First Century Landscape Architecture: Science or Art? Landscape Architects Must Balance Practical with Artistic Considerations Academic Preparation The Design Studio Environment Career Opportunities Steps to Becoming a Professional Landscape Architect Notes Further Reading 8 11 14 14 CHAPTER TWO:THE LANGUAGE AND CONCEPTS OF DESIGN— PRACTICAL PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS TO BE THINKING ABOUT 17 Introduction Is Design a Verb or a Noun? When Is Dirt Soil? Landscape Architects as Stewards of the Land Design with Nature Sustainability Collaboration Scale: Another Word with More than One Meaning Agent of the Client Elaboration of Further Design Topics Circulation Where Do Design Ideas Come from? Inspiration from Nature The Age of Context Putting It All Together Cultural Differences in Design Finally, Make Room for Serendipity Notes Further Reading 17 17 18 19 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 30 30 36 36 39 42 42 43 CHAPTER THREE:THE DESIGN PROCESS AND THE LIFE OF A PROJECT 45 Introduction Design The Design Process Phase I: Schematic Design Phase II: Design Development Phase III: Construction Documents Phases IV and V: Construction Implementation 45 46 46 48 54 56 57 VII CONTENTS Phase IV: Bidding Phase V: Construction Implementation Phase VI: Post-Construction Evaluation A Real-Life Project: Design Process Notes Further Reading 57 58 60 60 64 65 CHAPTER FOUR: HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE— FROM THE GARDEN OF EDEN TO THE NEW YORK HIGH LINE AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN 65 Introduction Historical Overview of Landscape Architecture Dawn of Early Human Habitation on the Land Early Southern and Northern European Garden Design Traditions The City Beautiful and Other Idealistic Movements in Urban Planning Town and Land Planning Modernism and Contemporary Themes Sustainable Design Notes Further Reading 65 67 69 71 75 75 76 79 82 82 CHAPTER FIVE: FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN AND SPATIAL ORGANIZATION CONCEPTS 85 Introduction Non-Linear Right Brain–Left Brain Thinking Where Do Ideas for a Design Come from? The Design Concept Landscape as Narratives Landscape and Cultural Context Inspired by Historical Precedent Inspiration from Nature Architectural Inspired Landscape Space Symbolism Landscape as Art Is it Art or Inspired by a Cultural Artifact? A Garden Can Inspire Art Work of Practicality Reconstructed Watershed Landscape Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure Conclusion Notes Further Reading 85 86 86 87 88 92 92 94 96 98 100 103 103 104 107 109 110 110 110 CHAPTER SIX: GARDENS, COMMUNITIES, PARKS, AND URBAN DESIGN 111 Introduction Gardens Parks Urban Design Educational and Commercial Campuses Waterfronts Environmental Restoration Notes Further Reading 111 112 122 127 131 132 133 138 138 VIII CONTENTS CHAPTER SEVEN: DESIGNING WITH PLANTS IN MIND 139 Introduction Changing Seasons Overview of Plant Physical Characteristics by Region Quality of Light (Sunlight and Shade) and Plants Horticultural Considerations in Selecting Plants Other Factors Affecting Plant Growth and Survival Plant Selection Based on Climate and Other Ecological Factors New Challenges in Plant Selection Aesthetic Considerations Planting Design: From Plans to Reality Notes Further Reading 139 140 144 146 146 148 149 150 151 152 153 153 CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCRETE, SOIL, WOOD, AND OTHER MATERIALS 155 Introduction The Great Variety of Materials Available to the Designer Concrete Stone Brick: Another Type of Manufactured Modular Material Metal Examples of Material Selection to Create a Variety of Results Fountains and Pools Soil Having Fun with Materials Notes Further Reading 155 157 157 162 167 168 173 175 177 179 180 180 CHAPTER NINE: DESIGN REALIZATION 181 Introduction Professional Responsibility: Protecting the Health, Safety, and Welfare of the Public Design Considerations Grading and Drainage Notes Further Reading 181 185 186 187 189 189 CHAPTER TEN: GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN 191 Introduction Sustainable Design: Myth or Achievable Goal? Nature, a Model for Infrastructure Plants in Combination with Grading and the Environment Managing Storm Water The Role of Plants in a Sustainable Landscape Plants and Their Relevance to Sustainability Notes Further Reading 191 191 192 193 194 199 203 204 204 CHAPTER ELEVEN:THE FUTURE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 205 Introduction Giving Back Repurpose 205 205 206 IX THINKING ABOUT LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE borrow when to replace (borrow) the rock or soil material taken from one site to deposit for some specific purpose at another site was never actually intended? It was never intended to return borrowed woodland, wetlands, and farm landscapes used for urban development and other human development enterprises We find ourselves in the twenty-first century having to consider returning portions of these borrowed landscapes as part of larger strategies to make our cities safer (from storm-caused floods, pollution, and other undesirable impacts), reducing the impacts of global warming, and instead improving water quality and increasing biodiversity The objective of these giving back strategies is to enhance the resilience and health of environments we have altered and even erased from the Earth Rebuilding wetlands, re-establishing woodlands, converting high water-consuming urban landscapes into less demanding ones by establishing drought-tolerant landscapes are examples of the growing areas of demand for the expertise of landscape architects The process of rebuilding or giving back normally involves a great deal of catch-up as the economically driven consumption and utilization of the environment and its resources seem to leave dysfunctional landscapes at a faster pace than does the awareness of our political and governing mechanisms to mediate against the losses and resulting deleterious impacts Repurpose Repurposing is an initiative that considers the reuse of built places, structures, and facilities that no longer serve new populations and economic initiatives that have replaced an earlier demographic or economy In many cases repurposing will require retrofitting older facilities that no longer serve the needs of new users with new designs to accommodate the new uses or programming changes Retrofitting with new designs may also be necessary to address changing environmental conditions such as rising sea levels or increased threats from flooding conditions in a region Building retrofitting could include elevating structures or modifying the grounds to increase their water-holding capacity in the form of detention ponds or redirecting storm water to safer locations (such as wetlands, if they exist) Examples of facilities that may need to be retrofitted due to changing demographics include parks, commercial and industrial areas, and street landscapes Adaptive reuse is the converting of structures or spaces for new uses of derelict and even abandoned buildings, such as commercial malls and whole districts, such as warehouses and industrial sites Warehouse districts, because of their desirable close proximity to urban centers, are being converted into highly desirable and valued living and commercial space Railroad rights-of-way no longer in use are being converted to walking trails and bicycle routes Industrial zones have been converted to other purposes such as the industrial area of North London that was converted first as the venue for the London 2012 Olympics Subsequently the same Olympic site was repurposed for outdoor recreation, new housing, and commercial uses 206 THE FUTURE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Water Conservation Water is a limited resource that is essential to humans and all forms of life Demand for water continues to rise at the same time as the availability of and access to clean water and water quality are diminishing Traditional approaches to managing storm water have been to get rid of it as quickly as possible by directing surface water from roofs, paved areas, and landscaped grounds to be disposed of via costly storm-water infrastructure systems The Sustainable Sites Initiative, developed by the American Society of Landscape Architects, promotes the design of landscapes that reduce water use, improve filtration, and promote healthy rivers, lakes, and oceans The emerging water management approaches that are being designed and implemented essentially mimic natural systems Rather than getting rid of storm water as quickly as possible via gutters and sewers, smarter strategies exist to create systems that mimic nature’s capacity to efficiently manage water A sustainable approach to storm water management involves finding ways to capture storm water on site and use it for recharging groundwater, irrigation purposes, or in ornamental water features.1 Landscape architects have the necessary knowledge and experience to lead or to contribute their expertise in the design of more sustainable approaches to water management and land development They have been applying low impact water management and design principles on new development projects as well as retrofitting older streets and neighborhoods Other areas where landscape architects are being involved are in designing new developments or converting older designed landscapes, selecting plant species with low water needs, including endemic species, instead of using non-native species, including lawn grasses that require significant supplemental water for irrigation and maintenance Conserve and Rebuild Soil Soil is an important and limited resource that, like water, is essential to human and other forms of life Intensive use of agricultural soils and poor stewardship of soils associated with resource extraction activities (such as forest harvesting and mineral extraction) will over time result in the degradation, contamination, or the outright loss of soils Eventually areas where the soils have been degraded or lost will require a rebuilding strategy While landscape architects may not necessarily be trained in soil management, like agriculture agronomists, they will still have a role as part of a team of experts in the soil-rebuilding process Their involvement will be particularly needed where extensive tracks of land are targeted for renewal into native habitats as part of a larger conservation management policy For instance, depleted agricultural lands may be converted to native grassland cover, low-lying areas rebuilt into wetlands, and upland slopes reverted to forest cover The rebuilt landscape may be incorporated into parklands or areas of national conservation interest 207 THINKING ABOUT LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Landscape architects who accept as their professional responsibility the concept of stewardship of the environment will consider design and planning strategies that not exploit or abuse the soil or associated natural resources As human populations grow and the pressures to develop the land, water, and other resources become more acute, designers who think globally—that is, consider maintaining to the extent possible the Earth’s natural resources—will produce designs that are sustainable, causing less disruption and abuse of limited natural resources Specialization Landscape architects may find themselves at an advantage in developing areas of specialization as projects become more complex The anticipated increase in project complexity will require designers to have greater expertise and experience in developing strategies that mitigate between human needs and the capabilities of the environment It is anticipated that specialization within the profession will become more prevalent, just as engineers have developed specialties in geotechnical, structural, civil, and environmental engineering Right now landscape architects claim to be able to everything but as all these “everythings” become more technical and scientifically based, landscape architects must prepare academically and through targeted experience in order to be considered credible in their claims Take, for example, green roofs and walls The city of Shanghai, China, now requires that new buildings must have 30 percent of their roof area landscaped As other cities adopt similar requirements for green roofs as well as low impact water management, reducing the heat island effect and other quality of life and environment improvements, specialization will be the logical response for the profession to embrace Areas in which landscape architects have developed and will continue developing specialized expertise will include, for example, the design of sports fields/facilities, more walkable and livable communities, a sustainable approach to golf course design, water management, including LID and BMP, wetlands restoration and management, and historical and cultural conservation of heritage properties Global Practice The profession will continue the trend of being a part of the global practice of providing design services, particularly in developing and emerging regions Global practice will have the additional characteristic of involving teams of consultants with a multi-national composition This will require greater knowledge and appreciation of other cultures in order to work effectively in teams and in diverse language and cultural situations Cultural studies as part of a professional curriculum would help landscape architects in this regard Giving them the tools in cross-cultural communication through cultural literacy would prepare them to assume a more effective role in the global environment of design and planning China, for instance, has planted unsustainable landscapes along its extensive road building and new town development throughout the country As water 208 THE FUTURE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE becomes scarce, it will not be practicable to continue maintaining these landscapes as they are today The lush exotic plantings in the roadway medians and parkways will need to be replaced with more drought-tolerant plants Consider California and other parts of the American Southwest that have experienced water shortages plus a warmer climate The climatic conditions have dramatically deviated from years of adequate rainfall and cooler temperatures With the reduction of rainfall and rising temperatures, landscape architects must approach plant selection and planting methods from the perspective of making decisions under xeriscape (low water demand) conditions Older plantings may need to be replaced with droughttolerant plants and might need devising planting schemes that incorporate ground cover materials that reduce transpiration so as to conserve water and reduce irrigation requirements Multi-Disciplinary Team Approach to Design It is common today for landscape architects to work on projects with professionals from other disciplines The ramifications of a world experiencing ever greater threats from global warming, fresh water scarcity, increased demands on already over-cultivated lands, and the loss of productive landscapes from resource extraction and urbanization will require a multi-disciplinary approach to planning and design Utilizing multiple disciplines will enhance the effectiveness of work approached as a team effort More creative solutions can be expected when individuals with different sets of eyes and expertise join forces Thinking outside of the box will become the norm when diverse disciplines seek design strategies, challenging each other in the process Individuals with effective communication and people skills will be sought in the team-building process Communication skills include verbal, writing, and graphic skills Graphic skills include digital and analog capability Being well organized and having good reasoning ability are important and desirable attributes for members of a team supported by a depth of knowledge and experience Technology Where technology will take the profession is a wide-open proposition Perhaps science fiction writers have already spun stories with a central cast of space-age landscape architects and their fellow disciplines designing with hardware and software that seamlessly guide the construction of a project as the required documentation is produced This notion is nearly within our grasp today The office of the future or the future working environment will become more and more dispersed as people will no longer need to be physically located in a traditional office Landscape architects will work in an environment or range of environments that are convenient and more readily accessible, negating the necessity of daily commutes or trans- or inter-continental travel The technology of wearable computers and remote access to home appliance and utility systems can easily be adapted to selfmaintaining environments, including landscapes Irrigation systems are already operating that are self-regulated Sensors in the ground 209 THINKING ABOUT LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE “tell” the computer that controls the electrical valves to turn on the water when the soil moisture falls below a specified range Sensors also trigger another set of related controls when additional fertilizer and other elements need to be applied through the same irrigation system Genetic engineering will certainly be a part of future landscapes, allowing the designer to identify physical and growing qualities desired so that plant geneticists can produce specialized, grown-to-order plant species Any attempt at looking into the crystal ball of what to anticipate as far as future technology advances is probably futile Technological advances already have been so rapid and dramatic and will continue to bring applications that are best left up to the science fiction writers who entertain us and tantalize our imagination at this time The key descriptor of how we might anticipate working in the future is the word remote: working remotely, interacting and exchanging working files with clients and consultant team members remotely, and relying more on sensors to remotely provide data to improve our design and planning decision-making With the rapid advances of technology we will have greater capacity and ability to work globally, thus extending our professional reach to more diverse markets And, finally, looking back at the traditional areas of practice in which landscape architects have excelled, such as garden and planting design, these required great skill and knowledge associated with selecting plants in creating memorable landscapes A similar knowledge and skill set will become even more relevant to the future of the profession Landscape architects who are knowledgeable about plants and who have the skill in making well-informed plant species selections will extend their competence well beyond creating gardens for pleasure in the future The plant knowledge of landscape architects will be applied to extensive, more complex design strategies in areas such as: green, non-structural approaches for cleaning surface storm water in the creation of rain gardens and low impact water runoff detention systems; rebuilding wetlands and other damaged or reduced ecosystems; rebuilding polluted soils in brownfields or reclamation sites Those in the profession who are experienced and prepared will be involved and contribute as communities and nations seek to rebuild losses of habitat, water resources, and landscapes damaged by the excesses of narrowly focused land use and the resource development decisions of the past Landscape architects will be engaged in rebuilding and reimaging more healthy and sustainable futures by applying non-structural design solutions This is quite an exciting prospect for those thinking about becoming or preparing to be landscape architects Thinking about landscape architecture may not be a field for you but someday soon those who join the profession will be changing the world for the betterment of the lives of others 210 THE FUTURE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Note www.sustainablesites.org/benefits/water Further Reading Readings on the future of landscape architecture: Frederick R Adler and Colby J Tanner, Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Principles for the Built Environment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013 Marina Alberti, Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems, Springer Science + Business Media, New York, 2008 Jared Green, Designed for the Future: 80 Practical Ideas for a Sustainable World, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 2015 Tigran Haas, Sustainable Urbanism and Beyond: Rethinking Cities for the Future, Rizzoli International Publications, New York, 2012 S.T.A Picket, M.L Cadenasso, and B McGrath (eds.), Resilience in Ecology and Urban Design: Linking Theory and Practice for Sustainable Cities, Springer, New York, 2013 211 This page intentionally left bank I NDE X Note: page numbers in italics refer to illustrations; those followed by “n” indicate endnotes academic preparation for landscape architecture 8–9, 12, 14n7 accessibility design 185 accreditation 12 Acropolis, Greece 70 adaptive reuse 206 administrator role during construction 58 aesthetics 151 agent of the client role 26–7 agriculture 69 Ahbé Landscape Architects: bio-swales, Burbank, CA 109, 109, 134, 134, 194, 195; rain garden, Burbank 134, 134 air purification and plants 202 Albarroa, Enrique: Paseo de Santa Lucia River walk, Monterrey, Mexico 133, 133, 173, 173, 177 Albuquerque, NM: high desert water harvester (Sites Southwest) 107–8, 108; storm-water basin 31, 31; West End Skateboard Park (Morrow Reardon Wilkinson) 101–2, 102, 126 alternatives, developing 47 aluminum 170, 170 Ambasz, Emilio: San Antonio Botanical Garden, Texas 161, 161 American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) 19, 20, 66, 80, 82, 207 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 185 amphitheaters 124–5, 173, 173 Amsterdam: cast and wrought iron bridge railing 179; modular concrete units installation 168, 168; Rijksmuseum entrance garden 118, 118; rubber garden gloves in private garden 180 animal habitat 200–1 Antarctic 145–6 apprenticeships 13 Arcadia xvii, 205 architect’s scale 26 architectural inspired landscape space 96–8 Arctic regions 145–6, 147 Aristotle 151 Arizona: Mesa Contemporary Art Museum and Center (Design Workshop; Schwartz) 101, 101; Water Ranch, Gilbert (Jones & Stokes) 29, 29, 105, 105 See also Phoenix, AZ; Scottsdale, AZ Arizona State University, Polytechnic Academic Campus project (Ten Eyck) 60, 61–3, 63 art: composition and 151; as inspiration 100–4; landscape architecture as art and science 5–7, aspect 49, 64n3 Asunaro Building in the Woods, Reitaku University, Tokyo 150 Austin, TX, Whole Foods Market 119, 119, 163, 164 Australia See Canberra, Australia Babylon, Hanging Gardens of 70 Baltimore Harbor, MD 104 Bandelier National Monument, NM 31, 31, 69, 69 Beaux Arts 77 Beijing, China: Olympic Park 133, 133, 170; Summer Palace 161, 164, 164 benches 174, 174 Berners-Lee, Tim 87 best management practices (BMP) 80, 82n3, 121, 185 bidding 57–8 bid documents 56 bilateral symmetry 29, 29 Bilbao, Spain, river waterfront 133, 133 biodiversity 23 biomes 144 bio-swales 109, 109, 134, 134, 194, 194, 196 Blaise Castle, England (Repton) 73 Blanc, Patrick: vertical garden, Caixa Cultural Center and Museum, Madrid 101, 101; vertical gardens, popularization of 121–2 Blenheim Palace estate, Oxfordshire, England (Brown) 72, 73, 73 Bluebonnet Swamp parking lot, Baton Rouge, LA 197 “blue sky” 19 boards (drafting tables) 152 boardwalks 172 Bohannan-Huston 107 Boora Architects 101 borrowed landscape 117 borrow pits 205–6 Boston: Emerald Necklace (Olmsted) 2–3, 74, 80, 122–3; Fort Point master plan (Except Integrated Sustainability) 128, 129 Bougainvillea 42, 42 branding 51–2 brick 167–8, 168 Britten, Benjamin 92 Broadacre City (Wright) 75, 76 Brochstein Pavilion, Rice University, Houston 131, 132 Brooklyn Bridge Park, New York (Michael Van Valkenburgh Assoc.) 80, 80 Brown, Lancelot “Capability” 19, 103; Blenheim Palace estate, Oxfordshire 72, 73, 73 Bryant Park, New York City (Hanna-Olin, Landscape Architects) 123–4, 124 Buffalo Bayou, Houston (SWA Group) 104–5, 105, 133–4 building information modeling (BID) 45 building-integrated vegetation 121–2, 122 Burbank, CA: bio-swales (Ahbé) 109, 109, 134, 134, 194, 195; rain garden (Ahbé) 134, 134 Burnham, Daniel 75 Caixa Cultural Center and Museum, Madrid (Blanc) 101, 101 California: bio-swales, Burbank (Ahbé) 109, 109, 134, 134, 194, 195; climate conditions in 209; Donnell Residence and pool, Sonoma County (Church; Halprin) 95, 115; dry stream garden, Upland California residence (Tapp) 92; Frank’s Valley, Muir Beach 106, 106–7; Garden of Flowering Fragrance, Huntington Gardens, Pasadena 100; Getty Center, Westwood (Irwin; Spurlock Poirier) 100, 100–1; Irvine residential community (SWA Group) 137; Japanese garden, Huntington Gardens, Pasadena 120, 120–1; Lake Merritt roof garden, Oakland 122; man emerging from stone wall, Santa Barbara 179; Marin County 213 INDEX boardwalk 172; Orange County Civic Center (Peter Walker Partnership) 93, 93; rain garden, Burbank (Ahbé) 134, 134; Santa Barbara coastal mountain dry stream bed 94; Santa Monica City Hall fountain (Corner) 176, 176; Sea Ranch (Halprin) 79, 79; Tongva Park, Santa Monica (Corner) 125 See also Los Angeles; San Francisco; University of California California Plaza, Los Angeles 111, 129, 129–30 California Scenario, Costa Mesa (Noguchi) 91, 91 Calle Portugal, Madrid (West 8) 163 Canberra, Australia: national capital master plan (Griffin and Griffin) 97–8, 98; Parliament House (Roland) 98–9, 99 Capra, Fritjof 22 career paths and opportunities 9–11, 138 Central Park, New York City (Olmsted) 2, 74, 74, 80 change over time 27–8 Chapultepec Park, Mexico City (Grupo Diseño Urbano) 93, 93–4 Chayakul, Jidapa 64n2 children’s play areas 125, 125, 126 China: Beijing Olympic Park 133, 133, 170; Jin River Park, Harbin 130, 131; memory gardens and paradise references 100; Quinil National Urban Wetland Park, Harbin (Turenscape) 135–7, 136; Summer Palace steps, Beijing 161, 164, 164; unsustainable landscapes in 208–9; Xin Jin Baihetan National Wetland Park 53, 53, 55, 55 See also Hangzhou, China; Shanghai, China Chinese Academy of Art, Hangzhou, China 112, 113, 115, 115, 163, 164 Chinese landscape design 20, 39–40, 41; Garden of Flowering Fragrance, Huntington Gardens, Pasadena, CA 100 Church, Thomas 77, 78; Donnell Residence, Sonoma County, CA 95, 115 Church of Santo Domingo, Zacatecas, Mexico 164, 164–5 circulation 28–30, 29, 135 circulation diagrams 186 City Beautiful movement 3, 14n1, 75 civil engineers 188–9 214 Clark Art Institute campus, MA (Reed+Hilderbrand) 80, 81 Clément, Gilles clients 26–7, 48, 181 climate and plants 149–50, 193–4 climate change 150 Colbert, Jean-Baptiste 52 cold exposure, plants and 148 collaboration 24 color: concrete and 155, 159; plants and 139–40, 141–3, 143; seasonal changes and 141–3, 143 Colten, Craig 204n2 comfort, providing for 38–9 commercial campuses as project type 131 community gardens 113 composition 151 computer aided design (CAD) 45 conceal and reveal concept 29, 29 concrete: about 157–8; color and 155, 159; poured-in-place 159–61, 159–61, 167, 168; precast and modular units 161, 161–2, 162, 197 construction contracts 56, 57, 182 construction documents and drawings: Arizona State University, Polytechnic Academic Campus project (Ten Eyck) 62; comprehensive packages 64n8; elements of a typical package 182–4; grading plan, Northbark Dog Park, Dallas (Ten Eyck) 184; paving and materials plan (Ten Eyck) 183; as phase of design process 56–7; stamping of 189, 189n6; types of 182 construction implementation 58–60, 59 Context, notion of 36 continuity, visual and functional 38 contractors: agent role and 27; bids and construction contracts 182; concrete contractors 159; interactions with, during construction 58–9, 59; reviewing materials submitted by 57–8; soil and 178 convenience, maximizing 38 Cornell, Bridgers & Troller: Kerr Sculpture Garden, UCLA 160 Cornell, Ralph: UCLA campus walkway 25–6, 26, 167, 168 Corner, James: High Line Park, New York City 35, 35, 97, 97, 171; Santa Monica City Hall fountain 176, 176; Tongva Park, Santa Monica, CA 125 cor-ten steel 169 Costa Mesa, CA: California Scenario (Noguchi) 91, 91 Costa Rica: Ross-Guevara residential garden, Escazu (Pinto) 117, 117–18, 118; sunlight and shade 146 Council of Landscape Accreditation Boards (CLARB) 14n8 Council of Landscape Architecture Registration Board 67 courtyard gardens 114, 115 Crissy Field, San Francisco (Hargreaves Associates) 135, 136 cultural context and cultural references 92 cultural differences in design 39–41 Dali, Salvador 102–3 Danadjieva, Angela 43n12 deciduous trees 38–9, 150, 150 decomposition rates 153n1 Delft Technical University, the Netherlands 135, 135, 197 Denali National Park information kiosk, Alaska 173, 173 desert oasis 68, 71, 71–2, 72, 99 desert regions 145, 147 design: as adjective 42n2; art, science, and 6; intent and 6; as iterative 85–6; landscape spaces and 7; light-handed vs heavy-handed 51; multi-disciplinary team approach 209; naturalistic 20–2, 40, 51; planting design 152, 152; Trancik’s tenets of 37–9; as verb or noun 17–18 See also specific topics Design Development 54–5 design process See process of design design proposals 181 design realization: construction drawings 181–4, 183, 184, 189; contractor bids 181; defined 181; design proposal and approvals 181; grading and drainage 187–9; integration 187; professional responsibility and accessibility design 185–6; program and slope analysis 186–7; technical specifications 184–5 Design with Nature (McHarg) 20, 21, 78–9 Design Workshop: Mesa Contemporary Art Museum 101, 101 detention ponds 195–6, 196 Discovery Green, Houston (Hargreaves Associates) 172 INDEX Disney Concert Hall garden terrace, Los Angeles 119, 119 distinctive identity, fostering 37 Dom Pedro IV Plaza, Lisbon 165, 165 Donnell Residence and pool, Sonoma County, CA (Church; Halprin) 95, 115 drainage 188–9 Dreamworks campus, San Francisco (Halprin) 94, 163, 175, 175 due diligence 50, 185 Eames, Charles Earth, future of 205 Eckbo, Garrett 77, 77–8 educator career track 10–11, 14n6 El Escorial, Spain, parterre garden 93, 93 Emerald Necklace, Boston (Olmsted) 2–3, 74, 80, 122–3 engineer scale 26 England: Blaise Castle (Repton) 73; Blenheim Palace estate, Oxfordshire (Brown) 72, 73, 73; London 2012 Olympic Park (LDA; Hargreaves) 80, 104, 108, 108–9, 206; Stonehenge 66; Stourhead (Kent) 73, 74 Environmental Protection Act of 1970 (U.S.) 21, 78 environment and sustainability 24 See also nature; sustainability and sustainable design European Union 67 evaluation, post-construction 60–3 examinations for licensing 13 Except Integrated Sustainability: Fort Point master plan, Boston 128, 129 Farrand, Beatrix 82n1 FedEx Corporation 11 food deserts 138n1 forest openings 73 Fort Point master plan, Boston (Except Integrated Sustainability) 128, 129 foundation courses 14n7 fountains and water features: about 174–7; Dreamworks campus, San Francisco (Halprin) 94, 175, 175; Getty Villa, Los Angeles (Wemple) 175, 175; Grand Park, Los Angeles (Rios Clementi Hale Studio) 176, 176; light and 32, 32; mechanical systems of 43n13; Parc de Sceaux, Paris (Le Nôtre) 175, 176; Paseo de Santa Lucia River walk, Monterrey, Mexico (Albarroa) 177; residence fountain, Scottsdale, AZ 32; Santa Monica City Hall fountain (Corner) 176, 176; water curtain, Las Vegas 32; Xintiandi, Shanghai 176, 176 Four Seasons, The (Vivaldi) 140 fragmented ecosystems 22–3 France: Monet’s water garden, Giverny 103, 103–4; Vence doorway garden 112, 114 See also Paris Frank’s Valley, Muir Beach, CA 106, 106–7 functional continuity 38 Gabion wall, Phoenix Waterworks Park (Ten Eyck) 166, 167 Garden of Eden 68, 71, 71–2, 99, 99–100 Garden of Flowering Fragrance, Huntington Gardens, Pasadena, CA 100 gardens as project type 112–22 See also specific places and gardens geometry and nature 70 Getty Center, Westwood, CA (Irwin; Spurlock Poirier) 100, 100–1 Getty Museum, Los Angeles: tree branching patterns on courtyard walls 34 Getty Villa, Los Angeles (Wemple) 175, 175 Ginkgo tree 143 GIS (geo-spatial information software) 21 giving back strategies 205–6 globalization 39 global practice 208–9 Global Square, Soka University, Tokyo 152 Golden Street, Shanghai (SWA Group) 130, 130, 177 golf courses 34–5 goodwill 42n4 government agencies 10, 54, 181 grading plans 7–8, 56, 187–8 Granada, Spain 71 Grand Park, Los Angeles (Rios Clementi Hale Studio) 126, 127, 176, 176 graphic drawings 56 Greece 70 green infrastructure 109, 192 See also sustainability and sustainable design green roofs 122, 197, 197–8, 204n4, 208 grid lines of buildings, extension of 96 Griffin, Marion 97–8 Griffin, Walter Burley 97–8 Grupo Diseños Urbanos: Chapultepec Park, Mexico City 93, 93–4; Tezozomoc Park, Mexico City 90–1, 91 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao 133 Haag, Richard 78 habitat 200–1, 202–3 Halprin, Lawrence: Donnell Residence swimming pool, Sonoma County, CA 95, 115; Dreamworks campus, San Francisco 94, 163, 175, 175; on inspiration 30; inspiration and 103; Ira’s Fountain, Portland, OR 78, 78, 103; Levi Strauss Plaza, San Francisco 95, 95, 103, 156–7; Modernism and 78; Sea Ranch, CA 79, 79; Stern Grove Amphitheater, San Francisco 125, 173, 173 Hanging Gardens of Babylon 70 Hangzhou, China: children’s playground (Yuancheng Landscape Group) 126; Chinese Academy of Art 112, 113, 115, 115; Chinese Academy of Art entrance walk and garden (Wang) 163, 164; high-rise residential community 137; street landscape 40, 40; sunlight and shade 146; West Lake Park 143, 143 Hanna-Olin, Landscape Architects: Bryant Park, New York City 123–4, 124; Pershing Square, Los Angeles 88–9, 89 Harbin, China: Jin River Park, Harbin Institute of Technology 130, 131; Quinil National Urban Wetland Park (Turenscape) 135–7, 136 hardiness zones 147, 147–8 hardpan 149, 153n5 Hargreaves Associates: Crissy Field wetland restoration, San Francisco 135, 136; Discovery Green, Houston 172; Olympic Park, London 2012 (LDA; Hargreaves) 80, 104, 108, 108–9, 206 Haussmann, Eugène 97, 110n3 Hayarkon Park, Tel Aviv, Israel (Sarig) 89, 89–90 health, human 23 heat islands 199–200 heavy-handed design 51 Hidalgo, TX, amphitheater, 125 high desert water harvester, Albuquerque, NM (Sites Southwest) 107–8, 108 215 INDEX High Line Park, New York City (Corner) 35, 35, 97, 97, 171 historical precedent 88, 92–4 history of landscape design: City Beautiful movement 75; early human habitation on the land 69–70; garden, concept of 68; Garden of Eden or Paradise and desert oasis model 68, 71, 71–2, 72; modernism and contemporary themes 76–9, 77, 78, 79; Northern Europe and America 73–4, 74; Renaissance 72, 73; sustainable design 79–82, 80, 81; town and land planning 75–6, 76 horticultural necessities of plants 146–7 Houston: Brochstein Pavilion, Rice University 131, 132; Buffalo Bayou (SWA Group) 104–5, 105, 133–4; Discovery Green (Hargreaves Associates) 172 Houtan River Park, Shanghai (Turenscape) 124, 124, 135–7, 136 Hubbard, Elbert humidity 149 Huntington Gardens, Pasadena: Garden of Flowering Fragrance 100; Japanese garden 120, 120–1 information gathering 48–50 infrastructure systems and sustainability 24 inspiration: architectural 96–8; art 100–4; cultural context 92; historical precedents 88, 92–4; low impact development and green infrastructure 109; narratives 88–91; nature 30–2, 94–6; practicality 104–9; sources of (overview) 30–2, 86–8; symbolism 98–100; systematic approach vs 46 institutional gardens as type 118–19 intent interest, creating 38 Ira’s Fountain, Portland, OR (Halprin) 78, 78, 103 iron 168, 179 Irvine residential community, CA (SWA Group) 137 Irwin, Robert: Getty Center, Westwood, CA 100, 100 Israel: Hayarkon Park, Tel Aviv (Sarig) 89, 89–90 Italy: Tivoli Gardens 72 Japan: courtyard garden 114, 115; historical garden, Kyoto 120, 216 121; Imperial Garden, Kyoto 31, 32 See also Tokyo Japanese landscape design 20; Huntington Gardens, Pasadena 120, 120–1 Jekyll, Gertrude 18 Jin River Park, Harbin, China (Harbin Institute of Technology) 130, 131 Jodry, Jean-Franỗois Jones & Stokes: Water Ranch, Gilbert, AZ 29, 29, 105, 105 Judeo-Christian-Islamic traditions 68, 71–2 Kent, William: Stourhead 73, 74 Kerr Sculpture Garden, UCLA (Cornell, Bridgers & Troller) 160 kitchen gardens 113 Kyoto, Japan: historical garden 120, 121; Imperial Garden 31, 32 Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas– Austin 80 landscape architects: desk and tools of 45–6, 46; history of terms for 66; skill set for 4, 210; specialization 208 landscape architecture: academic preparation for 8–9, 12, 14n7; balance between practical and artistic considerations 7–8; career paths and opportunities 9–11; future of 205–10; history of, as profession 2–4, 65–7; licensing requirements and path to professional status 11–13; professional standing of 11; as science and art 5–7 Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board (LAAB) 12, 14n7 landscape architecture firms: “blue sky” and 19; globalization and 39; staff numbers 42n10; workspace in 9–10, 10 Landscape Architecture Registration Examination (LARE) 14n8 Landscape Institute 21–2 landscape technology See design realization language and cross-cultural differences 40–1 Las Vegas, NV 32 laws and regulations, due diligence on 50, 185 LDA Design: Olympic Park, London 2012 (LDA; Hargreaves) 80, 104, 108, 108–9, 206 learning by doing 86 Legorreta, Ricardo 89 L’Enfant, Pierre Charles 97 Le Nôtre, André 52; Parc de Sceaux 52, 72, 88, 88, 175, 176 Le Notre initiative 67 Levi Strauss Plaza, San Francisco (Halprin) 95, 95, 103, 156–7 licensure requirements 12–13, 67 light: glare 200; materials and 156; night vs day 35, 35; plant requirements 148; sunlight and shadow 32–4, 32–5, 146, 146; water and 32, 32 light-handed design 51 Lisbon, Portugal: Dom Pedro IV Plaza 165, 165 locus amoenus xvii, 205 London Olympic Park, 2012 (LDA; Hargreaves) 80, 104, 108, 108–9, 206 Los Angeles: California Plaza 111, 129, 129–30; Disney Concert Hall garden terrace 119, 119; Getty Museum 34; Getty Villa (Wemple) 175, 175; Grand Park (Rios Clementi Hale Studio) 126, 127, 176, 176; Pershing Square (Olin Partnership) 88–9, 89 See also University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Louisiana: Bluebonnet Swamp parking lot, Baton Rouge, LA 197; wildlife visitor center boardwalk 172 low impact design (LID) 80, 109, 121, 193, 198, 198–9 Luxembourg Gardens, Paris 72 Madrid, Spain: Calle Portugal (West 8) 163; Latin Quarter park 99, 99–100; Manzaneras Park (West 8) 126, 127, 161, 162, 165–6, 166, 196; Palacio de Deportes (Sports Palace) 102–3; Plaza Major 165, 165; Plaza Salvador Dali (Mángado Architects) 102, 102–3, 160; public space 71; Telefónica headquarters campus 96, 131, 131, 171; vertical garden, Caixa Cultural Center and Museum (Blanc) 101, 101 Mángado Architects: Plaza Salvador Dali, Madrid 102, 102–3, 160 Manzaneras Park, Madrid, Spain (West 8) 126, 127, 161, 162, 165–6, 166, 196 maps: aspect 49; GIS 21; slope 49; topographic 187, 188; USDA plant hardiness zone map 147; vegetation 49 INDEX Martha Schwartz Partners: Mesa Contemporary Art Museum 101, 101 Martino, Steve: concrete block wall with fountain 160; garden wall, Scottsdale, AZ 5, 33, 33; Phoenix Botanical Garden steel shade structure 169, 169; residential gardens, Scottsdale, AZ 31, 31–2, 116, 116–17, 117, 170, 170; woven sheet metal wall, Scottsdale, AZ 170 Marx, Roberto Burle 101 materials: about 155–7; brick 167–8, 168; concrete 155–6, 157–62, 159–62; fountains and pools 175–7, 175–7; metal 168–70, 169–71; playful use of 179, 179–80, 180; selection of 7, 173–4, 173–5; soil 177–9, 179; stone 162–7, 163–6; texture and 156; variety of 157; wood 155, 170–1, 171, 172 McHarg, Ian 20, 21, 23, 78–9 McHarg, Roberts and Todd: Woodlands Community, Texas 79 Mesa Contemporary Art Museum and Center, AZ (Design Workshop; Schwartz) 101, 101 metal 168–70, 169–71 Mexico: Church of Santo Domingo, Zacatecas 164, 164–5; Paseo de Santa Lucia River walk, Monterrey (Albarroa) 133, 133, 173, 173, 177; residence, Malinalco (Schjetnan) 156 Mexico City: Chapultepec Park (Grupo Diseño Urbano) 93, 93–4; residential street scene 42; Tezozomoc Park (Grupo Diseños Urbanos) 90–1, 91 Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates: Brooklyn Bridge Park, New York 80, 80 miniature gardens 113–14 Mission San Jose, San Antonio 165, 166 modernism 76–9, 77, 78 modular concrete units 161, 161–2, 162, 197 modular pavement 135, 135 Monet, Claude 103, 103–4 Monterrey, Mexico, Paseo de Santa Lucia River walk (Albarroa) 133, 133, 173, 173, 177 Morrow Reardon Wilkinson: West End Skateboard Park, Albuquerque 101–2, 102, 126 mortar 180 multi-disciplinary team approach 209 Musée de l’Orangerie, Tuileries Gardens, Paris 104 nails 155 narratives 88–91 National Park Service, US 122 National Trust for Public Lands 11 native plant species 31, 31–2 nature: appreciation of 19; geometry and 70; inspiration from 30–2, 94–6; as model for infrastructure 192–3; naturalistic designs 20, 40, 51 Netherlands: condominium storm-water management, Amersfoort 198, 199; Delft courtyard 114, 115; Delft Technical University 135, 135, 197; modular pavement, use of 135, 135; Nijmegen campus courtyard 114, 115; retention ponds 196; sand dunes restoration/protection 107, 107; South (Zud) Park, Rotterdam 106, 106, 172, 196; stormwater plan 80, 81 See also Amsterdam New Mexico: Bandelier National Monument 31, 31, 69, 69; Santa Fe Railroad Park (Smith) 97, 97, 126; sunlight and shade 146 See also Albuquerque, NM new towns 75, 76 New Urbanism 76 New York City: Brooklyn Bridge Park (Michael Van Valkenburgh Assoc.) 80, 80; Bryant Park (Hanna/Olin) 123–4, 124; Central Park (Olmsted) 2, 74, 74, 80; High Line Park (Corner) 35, 35, 97, 97, 171 Nixon, Richard M 78 Noguchi, Isamu: California Scenario, Costa Mesa 91, 91 nonlinearity of design 42n6, 86 Northbark Dog Park, Dallas (Ten Eyck) 184 Oakland, CA, roof garden, Lake Merritt 122 oasis metaphor 68, 71, 71–2, 72, 99 “off the board and into the ground” 152 Olin, Laurie 89, 100 Olmsted, Frederick Law: Central Park, New York City 2, 74, 74, 80; Emerald Necklace, Boston 2–3, 74, 80, 122–3; history of landscape architecture and 73–4; inspiration and 103; stewardship and 19, 20; term “landscape architecture” and 66; World’s Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1893) and 75 Olympic Parks: Beijing, China 133, 133, 170; London (LDA; Hargreaves) 80, 104, 108, 108–9, 206 Orange County Civic Center, CA (Peter Walker Partnership) 93, 93 organizing framework or structure as design tenet 37 Palacio de Deportes (Sports Palace), Madrid 102–3 Palo Verde flower petals 34, 34 Paradise gardens 68, 71, 71–2, 99, 99–100, 100 Parc André Citroën, Paris Parc Bercy, Paris 126, 127 Parc de Sceaux, Paris (Le Nôtre) 52, 72, 88, 88, 175, 176 Paris: brick-surfaced courtyard on the Viaduct 168, 168; Luxembourg Gardens 72; mixed-use neighborhood in 88, 88; Musée de l’Orangerie, Tuileries Gardens 104; Parc André Citroën 5; Parc Bercy 126, 127; Parc de Sceaux (Le Nôtre) 52, 72, 88, 88, 175, 176; Viaduct Promenade 35, 35 park movement 3–4 parks as project type 122–7 See also specific places and parks Parliament House, Canberra, Australia (Roland) 98–9, 99 Pasadena, CA: Garden of Flowering Fragrance, Huntington Gardens 100; Japanese garden, Huntington Gardens 120, 120–1 Paseo de Santa Lucia River walk, Monterrey, Mexico (Albarroa) 133, 133, 173, 173, 177 pastoral style 74 pavement, concrete 159, 159, 160 pavement, permeable 197, 197 paving and materials plan (Ten Eyck) 183 permeable surfacing 197, 197 permits 54 Pershing Square, Los Angeles (Hanna-Olin, Landscape Architects) 88–9, 89 Peter Walker Partnership: Orange County Civic Center, CA 93, 93 Phoenix, AZ: Botanical Garden steel shade structure (Martino) 169, 169; Steele Indian School Park (Ten Eyck) 103, 103, 116, 116; Waterworks Park 166, 167 217 INDEX Pinto, Ana: Ross-Guevara residential garden, Costa Rica 117, 117–18, 118 planned communities 75–6, 76 planting design 152, 152 plants and plant selection: aesthetic considerations 151; air humidity limits 149; building materials vs 139; climate and ecological factors 149–50, 193–4, 199–200; cold exposure, duration of 148; color and 139–40, 141–3, 143; in combination with grading and the environment 193–4; economic value and 201; habitat and 200–1; horticultural considerations 146–7; human history and 70; light and shadow 146, 146; native species 31, 31–2; new challenges 150–1; physical form 143; plant hardiness zones 147, 147–8; regional characteristics 144–6; remedial functions 201–3; seasonal changes and 140–4, 142; soil moisture requirements 148; soil pH and nutrients 149; soil structure and 149; sunlight, amount of 148; sustainable landscape, role in 199–203; temperature and 148; texture and soft vs stiff appearance 143–4 Plato 151 Plaza Major, Madrid 165, 165 Plaza Salvador Dali, Madrid (Mángado Architects) 102, 102–3, 160 POD (Project Oriented Design) 138n4; California Plaza lower access 129, 129–30 polar regions 145–6 Portland, OR, Ira’s Fountain (Halprin) 78, 78, 103 Portugal: Dom Pedro IV Plaza, Lisbon 165, 165; farm, Alentejo Province 178–9, 179; term “design” in 18, 42n3; University of the Algarve, Faro 131, 132 post-construction evaluation (phase VI) 60–3 poured-in-place concrete 159–61, 159–61, 167, 168 practicality as inspiration 104–9 pre-cast concrete 161–2, 162 precedence studies 92–3 preliminary designs 50–1 Presido, San Francisco 135, 136 problem solving in landscape architecture process of design: alternatives, developing 47; bidding 218 (phase IV) 57–8; construction documents (phase III) 56–7; construction implementation (phase V) 58–60; design development (phase II) 54–5; diversity and 45; inspiration and systematic approach to 46; Landscape Institute on 22; meaning of 46–7; nonlinearity of 42n6; phases (overview) 47; post-construction evaluation (phase VI) 60–3; schematic design (phase I) 48–53; tools of 45–6 professional responsibility 185–6 program analysis 52, 186 program coordination diagrams 186 Provost, Alain Pueblo settlements 69, 69 quality, emphasizing 39 Quinil National Urban Wetland Park, Harbin, China (Turenscape) 135–7, 136 rain gardens 134, 134, 194, 195 Reed+Hilderbrand: Clark Art Institute campus, MA 80, 81 regional plant characteristics 144–6 regulations, due diligence on 50, 185 reinforcing bar 170, 170 Reitaku University, Tokyo 150 Repton, Humphry 19, 73 repurposing 206 research 48–50 residential gardens, as type 113 retention ponds 195–6, 196 rhythm 151 Rice University 131, 132 right brain–left brain thinking 86 Rijksmuseum entrance garden, Amsterdam 118, 118 Rios Clementi Hale Studio: Grand Park, Los Angeles 126, 127, 176, 176 Rivera, Diego 93–4 rock See stone rock reed filters 197, 197 Roland, Peter: Parliament House, Canberra, Australia 98–9, 99 roofs, green 122, 197, 197–8, 204n4, 208 roots, structural 33, 33 Ross-Guevara residential garden, Escazu, Costa Rica (Pinto) 117, 117–18, 118 Rotterdam, the Netherlands, South (Zud) Park 106, 106, 172, 196 Royston, Robert 78 safety, providing for 39 San Antonio, TX: Mission San Jose 165, 166; San Antonio Arts & Crafts College 163; San Antonio Botanical Garden (Ambasz) 161, 161 San Antonio River 104–5 sand dunes restoration/protection, the Netherlands 107, 107 San Francisco: Crissy Field wetland restoration, the Presidio (Hargreaves Associates) 135, 136; Dreamworks campus (Halprin) 94, 163, 175, 175; Levi Strauss Plaza (Halprin) 95, 95, 103, 156–7; Stern Grove Amphitheater (Halprin) 125, 173, 173; University of California, Mission Bay campus 131, 132 Santa Barbara, California: coastal mountain dry stream bed 94; man emerging from stone wall, Santa Barbara 179 Santa Fe Railroad Park, NM (Smith) 97, 97, 126 Santa Monica, CA: City Hall fountain (Corner) 176, 176; Tongva Park (Corner) 125 Sarig, Gideon 89, 89–90 Sasaki Associates: California Plaza lower access 129, 129–30 scale: meanings of 25–6 schematic designs 48–53; Arizona State University, Polytechnic Academic Campus project (Ten Eyck) 62 Schjetnan, Mario: Chapultepec Park, Mexico City 93, 93–4; Malinalco, Mexico, residence 156; Tezozomoc Park, Mexico City 90, 91 science and art, landscape architecture as 5–7 Scottsdale, AZ: garden wall (Martino) 5, 33, 33; residence fountain 32; residential gardens (Martino) 31, 31–2, 116, 116–17, 117, 170, 170; Taliesin West (Wright) 95–6, 96, 166, 167; woven sheet metal wall (Martino) 170 screws 155 Sea Ranch, CA (Halprin) 79, 79 seasonal changes 140–4, 142 sections: in schematic design package 52 sense of place 92, 199 serendipity 42 serpentine or “S” curve walkways 29, 29, 30 shadow and sunlight 32–4, 32–5 INDEX Shanghai, China: Golden Street (SWA Group) 130, 130, 177; green roofs requirement 208; Houtan River Park (Turenscape) 124, 124, 135–7, 136; Xintiandi 176, 176; Yu Garden 40, 40, 119–20, 120 Sharky, Bruce: Trans-Alaskan Oil Pipeline restoration 137, 137 sheet metal 170, 170 Shellhorn, Ruth 78 Shinsaiwaibashi office building, Tokyo 130 shrubs: defined 18 site analysis 48–9, 49; Olmsted and 19; sustainability and 23; variations in physical factors 64n1 site design plans: in schematic design package 52 site engineering See design realization site grading plans 7–8, 56, 187–8 site plans: circulation and 29 Sites Southwest: high desert water harvester, Albuquerque, NM 107–8, 108 skill set for landscape architects 4, 210 slope analysis and maps 49, 186–7 slope failure 202 Smart Growth 76, 76 Smith, Ken 97, 97 sod roofs 122, 197, 197–8, 204n4, 208 soil: conserving and rebuilding 207–8; defined 18; as material 177–8; pH and nutrients 149; soil erosion and plants 202; stewardship of 178–9; structure of 149 soil conditions 64n1 soil moisture requirements 148 soil specifications 18 Soka University, Tokyo 152 South (Zud) Park, Rotterdam, the Netherlands 106, 106, 172, 196 spaces, landscape: definition and successful design of Spain: Bilbao river waterfront 133, 133; Granada 71; parterre garden, El Escorial 93, 93 See also Madrid, Spain spatial organization: as design tenet 37 sports parks 125–6 Spurlock Poirier: Getty Center, Westwood, CA 100 stakeholders: preliminary designs and 52; research on 48 stamping 189, 189n6 steel 168–9, 169, 180 Steele Indian School Park, Phoenix (Ten Eyck) 103, 103, 116, 116 Stern Grove Amphitheater, San Francisco (Halprin) 125, 173, 173 stewardship 19–20, 22–3, 178–9 stone 162–7, 163–6 Stonehenge, England 66 storm water See watershed and storm water design storytelling approach 88–91 Stourhead, England 73, 74 studio courses 8–9 Summer Palace, Beijing, China 161, 164, 164 sunlight See light surveyors 159 sustainability and sustainable design: defined 192; green infrastructure for storm-water management 194–8, 194–9; history of 3, 79–82, 80, 81; human abuses to landscape, history of 191; nature as model for infrastructure 192–3; plants, grading, and the environment 193–4; plants, role of 199–203; professional aspects of 23–4; stewardship and 22–3; as term and concept 82n3; value, competitive advantage, and 42n9 Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES) 80, 82, 207 SWA Group: Buffalo Bayou, Houston 104–5, 105; Golden Street, Shanghai 130, 130, 177; Irvine residential community, CA 137 symbolism 98–100 symmetry 29, 29, 96 systematic approach 21 systematic approach to design 46 Taliesin West, Scottsdale, AZ (Wright) 95–6, 96, 166, 167 Tapp, D Rodney: Upland California residence dry stream garden 92 TBG Partnership: metal railing, Lake Austin, TX 170, 171 technical specifications 56–7, 184–5 technology 209–10 Telefónica headquarters campus, Madrid 96, 131, 131, 171 temperate regions 144–5, 147 temperature 39, 43n18, 148 Ten Eyck, Landscape Architects: Arizona State University, Polytechnic Academic Campus project 60, 61–3, 63; concrete paving 160; Gabion wall, Phoenix Waterworks Park 166, 167; grading plan, Northbark Dog Park, Dallas 184; paving and materials plan 183; Steele Indian School Park, Phoenix 103, 103, 116, 116 terrain grading 7–8 Texas: amphitheater, Hidalgo 125; grading plan, Northbark Dog Park, Dallas (Ten Eyck) 184; Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas– Austin 80; metal railing, Lake Austin (TBG Partnership) 170, 171; Mission San Jose 165, 166; Whole Foods Market, Austin 119, 119, 163, 164; Woodlands Community (McHarg, Roberts and Todd) 79 See also Houston; San Antonio texture 143, 159–61, 161 Tezozomoc Park, Mexico City (Grupo Diseños Urbanos) 90–1, 91 time 27–8 Tivoli Gardens, Italy 72 Tokyo: Asunaro Building in the Woods, Reitaku University 150; Global Square, Soka University 152; Shinsaiwaibashi office building 130 Tongva Park, Santa Monica, CA (Corner) 125 tools of design 45–6, 46 topographic maps 187, 188 Trans-Alaskan Oil Pipeline restoration (Sharky) 137, 137 trees: branching shadows 34, 34; deciduous 38–9, 150, 150; live oak roots, structural 33, 33 tropical regions 144, 147, 153n1 Turenscape: Houtan River Park, Shanghai 124, 124, 135–7, 136; Quinil National Urban Wetland Park, Harbin 135–7, 136 United States Botanic Garden 80 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA): concrete walk with brick detailing (Cornell) 25–6, 26, 167, 168; Kerr Sculpture Garden (Cornell, Bridgers & Troller) 160; lineal walkway 29, 29 University of California, Mission Bay, San Francisco 131, 132 University of Texas–Austin Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center 80 University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal 131, 132 urban design 9, 127–31 219 INDEX urban heat island effects 199–200 USDA plant hardiness zone map 147 value-added features variety, creating 38 Vaux, Calvert 2, 19, 73–4 vegetation See plants and plant selection vegetation maps 49 Vence, France 112, 114 vertical gardens 101, 101, 121–2 vest pocket parks 123 Viaduct Promenade, Paris 35, 35 Viguier, Jean-Paul visual continuity 38 Vivaldi, Antonio 140 walkways: lineal, serpentine, and “conceal and reveal” 29, 29, 30; UCLA campus 25–6, 26, 29, 29, 167, 168 Wang Shu: Chinese Academy of Art entrance walk and garden, Hangzhou 163, 164 water conservation 207 water features See fountains and water features waterfront design 132–4 water quality and plants 202 Water Ranch, Gilbert, AZ (Jones & Stokes) 29, 29, 105, 105 watershed and storm-water design: Albuquerque, NM, storm water basin 31, 31; 220 bio-swales 109, 109, 134, 134, 194, 194, 196; constructed wetlands 196–7; Emerald Necklace, Boston (Olmsted) and 122–3; green infrastructure and 194; green roofs 122, 197, 197–8; high desert water harvester, Albuquerque (Sites Southwest) 107–8, 108; LID design and 198, 198–9; permeable modular and pervious paving surfaces 197, 197; rain gardens 134, 134, 194, 195; retention and detention ponds 195–6, 196; rock reed or plant filters 197, 197; storm water plan, the Netherlands 80, 81; traditional vs “new” approach 192, 192 Wemple, Emmett: Getty Villa, Los Angeles 175, 175 West 8: Calle Portugal, Madrid 163; Manzaneras Park, Madrid, Spain 126, 127, 161, 162, 165–6, 166, 196 West End Skateboard Park, Albuquerque, NM (Morrow Reardon Wilkinson) 101–2, 102, 126 Western culture 20 West Lake Park, Hangzhou, China 143, 143 Westwood, CA: Getty Center (Irwin; Spurlock Poirier) 100, 100–1 wetland habitats 202–3 wetlands, constructed 196–7 Whole Foods Market, Austin, TX 119, 119, 163, 164 wildlife corridors 201 wind and water 177 wood 155, 170–1, 171, 172 Woodlands Community, Texas (McHarg, Roberts and Todd) 79 workspace in landscape firms 9–10, 10 World’s Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1893) 75 Wright, Frank Lloyd 6; Broadacre City 75, 76; Taliesin West, Scottsdale, AZ 95–6, 96, 166, 167 xeriscaping 153n8 Xin Jin Baihetan National Wetland Park, China 53, 53, 55, 55 Xintiandi, Shanghai 176, 176 Yuancheng Landscape Group: children’s playground, Hangzhou 126 Yu Garden, Shanghai 40, 40, 119–20, 120 Zacatecas, Mexico: Church of Santo Domingo 164, 164–5 Zion, Robert 77, 78 ... representation L THINKING ABOUT LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Figure 1.1 Third-year landscape architecture students after having presented their design studio projects at a neighborhood meeting Landscape Architecture: ... ONE: INTRODUCTION—WHAT IS A LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT? Landscape Architecture: A Design Profession for the Twenty-First Century Landscape Architecture: Science or Art? Landscape Architects Must Balance... walkable communities Thinking about Landscape Architecture is intended for several audiences It was written for a general audience curious about the profession and the nature of what a landscape architect
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