MORPHOLOGY THE STUDY OF WORD FORMATION

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5 Each of the following columns illustrates a different morphological process Column Column a mouse/mice f récord/ recórd b dive/dove g ímport/impórt c take/took h cónvict/convíct d goose/geese i ímprint/imprínt e eat/ate j óutrage/outráge i What morphology process is at work in column 1? Column 2?  In column and column 2, it’s CONVERSION ii Describe in your own words the difference between the process exemplified in column versus that in column  In column 1, a type of conversion is ablaut, which is the replacement of a vowel with a different vowel It is used in forming new words (replace form of verb, noun) In column 2, another type is stress shift It is used in inventing a new word by shifting the place of stress, to mark the difference between related nouns and verbs iii Think of at least one more English example to add to each column  Example: Column Column knife/knives cóntest/contést man/men cóntrast/contrást sing/song cónvert/convért The following words can be either nouns or verbs a record f outline k report b journey g convict l outrage c exchange h imprint m answer d remark i reprint n import e surprise j retreat o cripple i For each word, determine whether stress placement can be used to make the distinction between noun and verb  f récord (n) / recórd (v) ímport (n) /impórt (v) cónvict (n) /convíct (v) ímprint (n) /imprínt (v) óutrage (n) /outráge (v) ii Think of two more English examples illustrating the process of stress shift to mark a category distinction  Example: prótest (n) / protést (v) récall (n) / recáll (v) The following Samoan data illustrates one of the morphological processes discussed in this chapter a [mate] ‘he dies’ [mamate] ‘they die’ b [nofo] ‘he stays’ [nonofo] ‘they stay’ c [galue] ‘he works’ [galulue] ‘they work’ d [tanu] ‘he burries’ [tatanu] ‘they bury’ e [alofa] ‘he loves’ [alolofa] ‘they love’ f [taoto] ‘he lies’ [taooto] ‘they lie’ g [atama’i] ‘he is intelligent’ [atamama’i] ‘they are intelligent’ i What morphological process is illustrated by these data?  It’s REDUPLICATIVE AFFIX ii Describe how this process works  The duplicative affix is a copy of the first consonant, vowel-sequence of the root iii If ‘he is strong’ in Samoan is malosi, how would you say ‘they are strong’ in Samoan?  It’s [malosisi’i] The following data from Agta (spoken in the Philippines) illustrates a specific type of affix a [dakal] ‘big’ [dumakal] ‘grow big, grow up’ b [darág] ‘red’ [damarág] ‘redden’ c [furáw] ‘white’ [fumaráw] ‘become white’ i What is the affix in Agta meaning ‘become X’?  [furáw] ii What type of affix is it? It’s INFIX iii Describe its placement  INFIXES are inserted within words, e.g the infix –um– in Tagalog, which shows that a verb is in the past tense: sulat (to write)  sumulat (wrote)
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