JSC composite Composition and Construction

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A contemporary of Le Corbusier and onetime employee of Frank Lloyd Wright, R.M. Schindler was architect of (amongst much else of note) the Lovell Beach House in California, acknowledged to be one of the key modernist buildings of the 1920s. This book, a reappraisal of Schindlers thought and works, presents plans, line drawings and photographs of buildings and furniture. A selection of Schindlers own writings is included, alongside articles by many scholars of the architects works that trace Schindlers career on both sides of the Atlantic, from his early days in Vienna studying under Wagner, to his later life in America, where his talents found full expression Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI A single copy of this Steel Construction Institute publication is licensed to IMPERIAL on 13/04/2008 This is an uncontrolled copy IMPERIAL COLLEGE This is an uncontrolled copy Ensure use of the most current version of this document by searching the Construction Information Service at www.tionestop.com Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI 7'7 // The Steel Construction Institute The Steel Construction Institute develops and promotes the effective use of steel in construction It is an independent, membership based organisation Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI Membership is open t o all organisations and individuals who are involved with the use of steel in construction Members include designers, steelwork contractors, suppliers, academics, local authorities, and government departments in the United Kingdom, elsewhere in Europe and in countries around the world The SCI is financed by subscriptions from its members, and by revenue from research contracts, consultancy services, publication sales and course fees The Institute's work is initiated and guided by its members through their involvement in the Council, steel sector committees and advisory groups The major benefits of corporate membership include: a specialist advisory service, free initial copies of SCI publications t o full corporate members, discounts on publications and course fees, and use of the extensive library Preferential rates for consultancy work are also offered t o members SCl's research and development activities cover many aspects of steel construction including multistorey construction, industrial buildings, light gauge steel framing systems, development of design guidance on the use of stainless steel, fire engineering, bridge and civil engineering, offshore engineering, environmental studies, and development of structural analysis systems and information technology A Membership Information Pack is available free on request from: The Membership and Development Manager, The Steel Construction Institute, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire, SL5 7QN, United Kingdom Telephone: 44 (0) 1344 623345 Fax: 44 (0)1344 622944 Email: reception@steel-sci.com + + World Wide Web site: http://www.steel-cici.org BCSA is the national organisation for the constructional steelwork industry: its Member companies undertake the design, fabrication and erection of steelwork for all forms of construction in building and civil engineering Association Members are those principal companies involved in the purchase, design or supply of components, materials, services, etc related t o the industry The Corporate Membership category is available t o clients, professional offices, education establishments, etc which support the development of national specifications, quality, fabrication and erection techniques, overall industrial efficiency and good practice The principal objectives of the Association are t o promote the use of structural steelwork; t o assist specifiers and clients; t o ensure that the capabilities and activities of the industry are widely understood and t o provide members with professional services in technical, commercial, contractual and quality assurance matters The Association's aim is t o influence the trading environment in which member companies have t o operate in order t o improve their profitability A list of current publications and membership details may be obtained from: The British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd Whitehall Court, London SW1A 2ES Telephone (0171) 8566, Fax: (0171 1634, e-mail: postroom@bcsa.org.uk Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI PUBLICATION NUMBER 21 Joints in Steel Construction Composite Connections Published by: The Steel Construction Institute Silwood Park Ascot Berks SL5 7QN Tel: Fax: 01344 623345 01344 622944 in association with: The British Constructional Steelwork Association Limited Whitehall Court, Westminster, London SW A 2ES Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI 1998 The Steel Construction Institute Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the UK Copyright Licensing Agency, or in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organisation outside the UK Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent t o the publishers, The Steel Construction Institute, at the address given on the title page Although care has been taken t o ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data and information contained herein are accurate t o the extent that they relate t o either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, The Steel Construction Institute, the authors and the reviewers assume no responsibility for any errors in or misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related t o their use Publications supplied to the Members of the Institute at a discount are not for resale by them Publication Number: SCI-P-213 ISBN 185942 085 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ii FOREWORD This publication is one in a series of books that cover a range of structural steelwork connections It provides a guide t o the design of Composite Connections in Steelwork Other books in the series are Joints in simple construction, Volumes and (shortly t o be replaced by Joints in steel construction Simple Connections), and Joints in steel construction - Moment Connections Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI This guide includes composite end plate connections suitable for use in semi-continuous braced frames Both beam-to-column and beam-to-beam details are considered Guidance on frame design procedures is also given The publication begins with a list of ‘Fundamentals’ These points should be clearly understood by anyone wishing t o design a frame incorporating composite connections This publication is produced by the SCVBCSA Connections Group, which was established in 1987 t o bring together academics, consultants and steelwork contractors t o work o n the development of authoritative design guides for structural steelwork connections iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI This publication has been prepared with guidance from the SCVBCSA Connections Group consisting of the following members: Dr Bishwanath Bose David Brown Mike Fewster Peter Gannon Dr Craig Gibbons Eddie Hole Alastair Hughes Abdul Malik Dr David Moore" Prof David Nethercot Dr Graham Owens Alan Pillinger" Alan Rathbone" John Rushton" Colin Smart Phi1 Williams University of Abertay, Dundee The Steel Construction Institute Caunton Engineering Bolton Structures Ove Arup & Partners British Steel Tubes & Pipes Arup Associates The Steel Construction Institute Building Research Establishment University of Nottingham The Steel Construction Institute (Chairman) Bison Structures CSC (UK) Ltd Peter Brett Associates British Steel Sections, Plates & Commercial Steels The British Constructional Steelwork Association L td * Editorial committee, in association with: Prof David Anderson Dr Graham Couchman Dr Mark Lawson Jim Mathys Andrew Way University of Warwick The Steel Construction Institute The Steel Construction Institute Waterman Partnership The Steel Construction Institute Valuable comments were also received from: Alasdair Beal David Cunliffe Victor Girardier Jason Hensman Dr Thomas Li John Morrison Thomason Partnership Rowen Structures Ltd The Steel Construction Institute University o f Nottingham Ove Arup & Partners Buro Happ old The book was compiled by Graham Couchman and Andrew Way Sponsorship was received from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, British Steel plc and the Steel Construction Industry Federation (SCIF) iv CONTENTS Page No ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS FOREWORD iv FUNDAMENTALS Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI INTRODUCTION I ABOUT THIS DESIGN GUIDE Ill MAJOR SYMBOLS 3 4 11 CONNECTION DESIGN 13 SCOPE BENEFITS 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 FRAME LAYOUT FRAME DESIGN METHODS CONNECTION CHARACTERISTICS EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION DESIGN PHILOSOPHY TENSION COMPONENTS 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 COMPRESSION COMPONENTS COLUMN WEB PANEL VERTICAL SHEAR COMPONENTS STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY FRAME DESIGN 3.1 3.2 3.3 INTRODUCTION ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE ”STEP BY STEP” DESIGN PROCEDURES 4.1 4.2 4.3 INTRODUCTION BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTIONS BEAM-TO-BEAM CONNECTIONS CONNECTION DETAILING 5.1 5.2 BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTIONS BEAM-TO-BEAM CONNECTIONS REFERENCES 13 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 22 23 23 23 60 65 65 66 69 APPENDIX A Worked Example 71 APPENDIX B Design Tables for Standard Composite ‘Plastic‘ Connections 83 B 8.2 B.3 INTRODUCTION CAPACITY TABLES DETAILING TABLES 83 85 98 FUNDAMENTALS Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI Designers should ensure that they have a good understanding of the following ‘Fundamentals’ before starting t o design composite connections using this guide In order t o keep design procedures simple, a number of issues (e.g connection rotation capacity) are not checked explicitly In some cases detailing limitations are given in preference t o complicated checks in order t o ensure that connection behaviour is appropriate A good understanding of these ’Fundamentals’ will help a practising engineer t o appreciate some of the background t o these requirements, without a need t o employ overly complicated checks Mechanics of composite connections Composite connections resist moment by generating a couple between their tension and compression components The mechanics are essentially the same as those for bare steel moment connections, with the slab reinforcement acting like an additional r o w of bolts in an extended end plate In order t o achieve their full potential, the reinforcing bars must be properly anchored, and be capable of accommodating significant strain before fracture It may be assumed that the lower beam flange can sustain a stress of 4py in compression when it is assumed t o act alone When part of the beam web is also assumed t o be subject t o compression, the limiting stress should be reduced t o ~ ~ Compression often extends into the beam web in composite connections as a result of high tensile forces in the reinforcement A further consequence of these high forces is that column compression stiffeners are often required Detailing Considerable care is needed when detailing composite connections t o ensure that components are subjected t o sufficient deformation t o allow them t o generate their full potential resistance, whilst at the same time ensuring that they are not over-strained t o the point of premature failure Detailing rules given in this guide ensure that the full potential resistance of bolt rows that are too near the neutral axis is not considered in the calculation of moment capacity Similarly, t o ensure that sufficient strain takes place t o yield the reinforcement, compression must be limited t o the lower half of the steel beam To prevent premature failure of the reinforcement (due t o excessive strain) adversely affecting the connection’s rotation capacity, it is also essential that reinforcing bars are not located too far from the neutral axis Detailing rules are given for t w o basic types of connection Less onerous rules, in terms of the minimum area of reinforcement required, lead t o what may be described as ‘compact’ connections Like ‘compact’ beams, these connections can develop a moment capacity that is based on a stress block model (analogous t o Mp for a beam), but have insufficient rotation capacity t o form a plastic hinge More onerous limitations are needed for ’plastic’ connections, which are capable of forming a plastic hinge Non-ductile failure modes must not govern the moment capacity of ‘plastic’ connections These include: column and beam web tension failure column web buckling or bearing failure in compression Non-ductile failure modes must be avoided either by local stiffeninghtrengthening or by modification of component choice All composite connections detailed in accordance with this guide will be ’partial strength’, i.e their moment capacity will be less than that in hogging of the beam t o which they are attached All connections detailed in accordance with this guide will be ’rigid’ in their composite state Materials The properties of the reinforcement used in a composite connection, in particular the elongation that the reinforcement can undergo before failure, are of vital importance because they have an overriding influence on the rotation capacity of the connection Designers should note the following points in relation t o reinforcement ductility: The contribution of any mesh t o the moment capacity of the connection should be ignored, as mesh may fracture before the , Composite Connections Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI connection has undergone sufficient rotation at the ultimate limit state Structural reinforcement should comprise 16 m m or m m d i a m e b s Reinforcing bars currently produced in the UK are often considerably more ductile than those specified in either BS 4449 or BS EN 10080 Detailing rules are therefore given for t w o cases; bars that just meet the code requirements (identified as bars that are capable of 5% total elongation at maximum force - see Section 4.2 Step A for exact definitions of code requirements), and bars that have twice this elongation capacity (10%) When the designer has assumed that bars can achieve 10% elongation, he must make this non-standard condition clear in the contract documents Bars with non-standard performance requirements should be identified with an X (i.e X I or X20) t o indicate that specific requirements are given in the contract documents Steelwork detailing must also ensure that adequate rotation can take place To achieve this, rotation should be primarily the result of end plate or column flange bending, rather than by elongation of the bolts or deformation of the welds, as these components generally fail in a brittle manner End plates should always be grade S275,regardless of the beam grade Frame design Recommended frame design procedures, considering both the ultimate (ULS) and serviceability (SLS) limit states, are given in this publication Beam design at the ULS assumes that plastic hinges form in the connections at the beam ends The method is therefore only applicable when 'plastic' connections are used In addition, the following limitations must be imposed t o ensure that the required beam end rotations are not excessive: a minimum required connection strength (30% relative t o the beam in sagging), a lower bound on the beam span t o depth ratio, a reduction factor on the sagging moment capacity of the composite beam Although in theory this reduction factor varies as a function of several parameters, including the beam grade and load arrangement, a value of 0.85 may be used for all cases The reduction factor is necessary t o limit the amount of plastification that takes place in the beam, and thereby substantially reduce the end rotation requirements Implications of propping the beams during construction are far reaching, and considered at some length Not only will dead load deflections clearly be affected, but there will also be an influence on the moments that are applied t o the columns, and the levels of rotation required from the connections The implications of propping can even affect the basic choice of frame layout and connection types The designer must therefore clearly communicate his requirements for propping t o all parties concerned Appendix B 6.2 CAPACITY TABLES Contents Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI M20 bolted connections End plate Tension bolt rows Page 200 x 12 86 0 x 12 88 250 x 12 90 End plate Tension bolt rows Page 0 x 15 92 0 x 15 94 x 15 96 M24 bolted connections Dimensions for detailing are shown on page 98 85 Composite Connections 1 ROW M20 8.8 BOLTS 200 x S275 END PLATE BEAMSIDE Effective reinforcement (option, number and size of bars, A, BEAM Serial Size A B C D E F G H No $16 804 mm2 351 kN No $16 1210 mm2 529 kN No $16 1610 mm2 704 kN 10 No $16 20 1o mm2 878 kN No $20 1260 mm2 551 kN No $20 1890 mm2 826 kN No $20 2510 mm2 1097 kN 10 No $20 3140 mm2 1372 kN kNm MC kNm 'A ' mm Mc kNm 'A' mm kNm 'A' mm kNm 'A' mm - kNm Mc Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI 82 74 67 457x1 52x82 t 268' 395 266' 265" 392 264' 390 - x ~ 398 89 I I mm MC 362' 398 546' 398 373' 398 518' 398 661' 398 807 395 359' 395 543' 395 371' 395 515' 395 648' 395 802 392 358" 392 540' 392 369' 392 513' 392 654' - 531 ' 390 651' - - 390 367' 390 510' 365' 387 508 ' - 390 354' 387 - 396 361' 396 545 ' 396 372' 396 517' 394 529 394 370' 386 506' 385 538 39 368' 391 511' - E+&F-t% - 388 366" 384 - 406 ' 345 - 363' - 345 333' 345 464' 384 x ~ 345 388 355' 384 352' 535 ' 387 - 388 342 321' 342 403 ' 336 342 331' 342 461 ' 340 319' 340 401 340 330' 340 459 ' -338 x ~ 338 235' 232" 334 39 - 317' 317, 337 - 333 324' - - 338 328' - - 67 342 237' 60 340 236' 54 337 x ~ 296 234' 211' 337 296 - - 286' 296 399 ' - - - 36 296 296' 296 293' 292 291' - - 289' - 57 292 209' 292 284' 202 357 292 51 289 207 ' 289 289 355 289 45 287 206' 287 - 282' 280' - - - 287 - - - - - - - 244 313 356x1 27x39 33 28 203 ' 280 202 ' - - - 305x1 65x54 244 182 244 46 241 180 241 248 246 40 244 256 244 238 254 238 252 254x1 46x43 193 151 199 - 37 191 149 179 - - - 238 179 238 244 - 244 182 237 239 239 235 244 42 241 181 224 221 225 171 231 233 - 222 37 229 238 - - - - 305x1 27x48 232 305x1 02x33 230 28 211 25 31 177 128 - - - - - x ~ 172 25 163 121 Mc kNm 398 356' 261' 'A' mm kNm Mc 387 263' 388 - Mc mm 'A' 394 359' 266' 393 67 391 264 391 356' 52 390 - 382 262" 396 267 74 60 mm 'A' 7q-V - Beam may be either grade S275 or grade S355 Beam must be grade S355 to satisfy neutral axis position requirements Beam must be grade S275 to satisfy minimum reinforcement requirements (see Table 4.1 ) Reinforcement requires a guaranteed strain at maximum load of at least 10% for 5355 beams, and possibly for S275 beams (check using Table 4.1 ) Connection capacity exceeds 0.8 M, of composite beam in hogging (see Section 3.2.1 for significance of this) 256 The value of Fr, is based on the assumption that the NA is at least 200 mm below the bolt row It should be reduced in accordance with Section 4.2 Step 1D when necessary 398 369 264 - Appendix B 1 ROW M20 8.8 BOLTS 200 x S275 END PLATE I Panel Shear Cap Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI (kN) 1000 849 725 605 1037 816 703 595 503 Compression Zone Web Tension Cornpn ‘One Cap F,, (kNI 1141 935 766 605 1432 1051 858 692 553 (kN) J J J J J J J J J 882 685 551 434 360 1384 992 744 557 436 J J J J J 459 353 322 272 245 701 512 440 360 313 J J J J 198 Tension Zone: Reinforcement oDtion A J J J J I I S275 -B C D E F G - I HI J J J J J J J S S S - J J S J J S J S S J S S J S s s s s s s s s s s S S S S S s S s - J J J J S S S s s S s s s S J J J s s s s s -s s s J J J J J J J J s S S s S _ S s J S J J J J J J J s s s s s s s s s s s s s s -s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s S S S S s x202 x177 x153 x 129 Compression Zone B J J J J J J J J J J J J J 254x254 x167 x132 x107 x89 x73 J J J J J 203x203 S S S S S x86 x71 x60 x52 x46 Tension I Reinforcement option I ( A 305x305 x198 x158 x137 x118 x97 I s355 C 356x368 S s s s S s s S J S s s s s s S J J Column Serial Size COLUMNSIDE J J J J J J J D - J J S S - s J J J J J J s S J J J J J J J J J S S J J J J J J J J S J J J S S S s s -J J J J s J S - - J s S S s S s S S S - - S S S s s S S s s S S J S S S J S S S s S s s S s s s s -s - J J J S J s S S S S I Panel I Shear Cap F J J F,, Web Compn Cap- r - S -s -S J J J E ‘One S s J S s s s s s s s s s s s S S s S S S S J J J J 1486 1217 974 788 1302 1105 944 787 J J J J J 1865 1368 1116 909 713 1350 1062 915 774 649 J J J J J 1802 1292 969 725 563 1149 892 717 566 465 J J J J J 913 666 568 464 404 598 460 415 351 316 arm - or provide tension stiffener at the appropriate bolt row level Compression Zone: J Column capacity exceeds EF = Freinf+Fr, S Provide compression stiffener 87 Composite Connections ROWS M20 8.8 BOLTS BEAM SIDE 200 x 12 S275 END PLATE I Effective reinforcement (option, number and size of bars, Areinf, Freinfl I A l B I C BEAM Serial Size I No $16 804 mm2 351 kN No $16 12 10 mm2 529 kN No $16 16 10 mm2 704 kN E F G H No $20 1260 mm2 551 kN No $20 1890 mm2 826 kN No $20 2510 mm2 1097 kN 10 No $20 3140 mm2 1372 kN 'A' mm 'A ' mm 'A' mm 'A' mm Mc kNm 'A' mm qT-pq-7- - - I I MC mm D 10 No $16 2010 mm2 878 kN kNm mm kNm mm kNm MC kNm Mc kNm 363c 384470' 384 575" 384 681 ' 384 483' 380 48o* 380 360 380466" 380 571 ' 380 576' 358' 378465 378 569' 378 674' 378 478" 101 378 92 375 357' 375 &f&y 375 566 375 570' 375 475' 563' 372 666' 372 472' 372 372459' 82 372 354' 457x191~98308 308 495 ' 308 588' 308 403' 308 415' 310' 89 305 305 492 ' 305 584 ' 305 412' 305 401' 302 490 ' 302 572 302 410' 306 ' 302 398' 82 302 74 300 300 396' 300 487 ' 300 578' 300 408' Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI 533x210~122 384 109 - 67 297 302" - 484' 297 - 297 394' 457x152~82 306 309 ' 306 402' 306 304 400' 301 397' - 494' 294 - MC kNm - 384 649' 384 813' 377 380 645' 380 807' 380 378 642' 378 791' 378 375 639' 375 BOO' - 623' - - - 361 308 560' 301 693' 308 305 556' 305 699' - 302 553' 302 695+ 300 551* - - - 297 548' - - - 297 41 ' 285 548' 531' 301 693' - 404' 295 546' - - 286 395' - - 397' - - - - 297 405' - 571 ' 306 414' 289 387* 295 482 ' 304 293 285 472 292 479 - 255 357' 440 ' 255 368' 247 618 - 67 252 271 ' 252 355' 425' 252 365' 252 - - 250 353' 233 331' - 435' 245 357' - - - - 361' - - - - - 67 304 307 305 ' 301 - 60 a 74 52 303 288 386' 287 295" 406x1 78x74 255 273 60 250 270' 54 247 268' 406x140~46 237 255 ' - 39 235 255' - 583' 304 570 ' 296 - 287 247 - - - - MC kNm Beam may be either grade S275 or grade S355 Beam must be grade S355 to satisfy neutral axis position requirements Beam must be grade S275 to satisfy minimum reinforcement requirements (see Table 4.1) ' Reinforcement requires a guaranteed strain a t maximum load of a t least 10% for S355 beams, and possibly for S275 beams (check using Table 4.1) ?56 Connection capacity exceeds 0.8Mp of composite beam in hogging (see Section 3.2.1 for significance of this) rhe value of F,, is based on the assumption that the NA is a t least 200mm below the bolt row It should be reduced in iccordance with Section 4.2 Step 1D when necessary 198 #69 88 Appendix B ROWS M20 8.8 BOLTS 200 x 12 S END PLATE - I Tr:r I ! !75 Panel Shear Cap Web Compn (kN) - (kN) Reinforcement option (kN) A B C D - E F G s355 Column Serial Size Compression Zone Licensed copy:IMPERIAL, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, 13/04/2008, Uncontrolled Copy, © SCI 1141 935 766 605 1037 81 703 595 503 1432 1051 858 692 553 - 882 685 551 434 360 1384 992 744 557 436 459 353 322 272 245 701 512 440 360 313 - - J J J J J J J J J J J J J J s s s s s s s s J J J J J J S S s S s s S s S S s s S s s s S s S - -S s s s s s s s s J S S s s J s s S s s S s s S S s s S s s S -S s s S s s - s s s s J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J 198 97 J J J J J J S S S S - J J J J J J S S S S -S J - C J J J J S J J J J s s S s s S s s S s s S S s s - J s s s s s x x x x 202 177 153 129 D E J J 254x254 J 203x203 s s s s s G F,, H (kN) J J J J J J J s s J S s s J s s S -s s J -S J J J J J J J J J J J S S J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J S S S S -S J J J J J J J S J J J J J J s s S S J S s s S S s s S s s S S -s s s s S -S S S S - S S s s J s s S s s S s s S s s S - Panel Sheai Cap (kN) (kN) 1486 1217 974 788 1302 1105 944 787 1865 1368 1116 909 713 1350 1062 91 774 649 _c s s J S s s J S S s s S S S s s s s - - - -J J J J F Web Compn Fr2 Cap J S S S J 305x305 s s s s s 'One Reinforcement option H S J s s s J s J S s s S s J s s -S s -S -S J J Tension Compression Zone 356x368 1000 849 725 605 COLUMNSIDE s s s s s s s s - J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J I I 1802 1292 969 725 563 1149 892 717 566 465 91 666 568 464 404 598 460 41 351 316 - 'ension Zone: Column satisfactory for bolt row tension values shown for the beam side 95 Recalculate moment capacity based on reduced bolt row force (1 95 kN) using dimension 'A' to derive appropriate lever arm - or provide tension stiffener at the appropriate bolt row level :ompressionZone: Column capacity exceeds I F = Frainf+Fr, Provide compression stiffener
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