Metaphor 2010, Oxford university

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M E TA P H O R This page intentionally left blank METAPHOR A Practical Introduction Second Edition zoltán kövecses Exercises written with Réka Benczes Zsuzsanna Bokor Szilvia Csábi Orsolya Lazányi Eszter Nucz 2010 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2010 by Zoltán Kưvecses Published by Oxford University Press, Inc 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kövecses, Zoltán Metaphor : a practical introduction / Zoltán Kövecses ; exercises written with Szilvia Csábi [et al.].—2nd ed p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-0-19-537494-0 (pbk.) Metaphor I Csábi, Szilvia II Title PN228.M4K68 2009 808—dc22 2009004385 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper To george & mark This page intentionally left blank Preface to the Second Edition n the past six to ten years the theory of conceptual metaphor has become the most influential and widely used theory of metaphor Some of the new developments can be found in such diverse areas of research as I the neural theory of metaphor the theory of conceptual integration metaphor in discourse the relationship between embodiment and metaphor the embeddedness of metaphor in cultural context the nature of mappings metaphor in gestures the study of multimodal metaphor metaphor identification metaphor processing the corpus linguistic study of metaphor emotion metaphors the theory of metonymy metaphor in foreign language teaching metaphor in the study of grammar and others All of these areas are now discussed in this second edition of Metaphor: A Practical Introduction, and two of them, the embodiment of emotion metaphors and metaphor in discourse, have received their own independent chapters The two new chapters are chapter 8, “Cognitive Models, Metaphors, and Embodiment,” and chapter 18, “Metaphor in Discourse.” In the last chapter of the book, by studying a single example, I have made an attempt to investigate the relationships among various strands of what is commonly called “conceptual metaphor theory.” I have also tried to update the literature throughout as fully as I could In addition, all figures have been redrawn, thus providing the reader with a viii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION more uniform, more esthetically pleasing, and more illuminating visual representation of sometimes complex ideas Last but not least, dozens of new exercises have been added to the old ones, we hope, making the book even more “user-friendly” and more fun to study from At the same time, however, several of the new additions reflect exciting, often challenging, and sometimes controversial recent research findings that, at least my hope is, give food for thought not only for interested students but also for researchers and teachers alike Preface to the First Edition: The Study of Metaphor or most of us, metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is compared with another by saying that one is the other, as in He is a lion Or, as the Encyclopaedia Britannica puts it: “metaphor [is a] figure of speech that implies comparison between two unlike entities, as distinguished from simile, an explicit comparison signalled by the words ‘like’ or ‘as’ ” [emphases in the original] For example, we would consider the word lion to be a metaphor in the sentence “Achilles was a lion in the fight.” We would probably also say that the word is used metaphorically in order to achieve some artistic and rhetorical effect, since we speak and write metaphorically to communicate eloquently, to impress others with “beautiful,” esthetically pleasing words, or to express some deep emotion Perhaps we would also add that what makes the metaphorical identification of Achilles with a lion possible is that Achilles and lions have something in common: namely, their bravery and strength Indeed, this is a widely shared view—the most common conception of metaphor, both in scholarly circles and in the popular mind (which is not to say that this is the only view of metaphor) This traditional concept can be briefly characterized by pointing out five of its most commonly accepted features First, metaphor is a property of words; it is a linguistic phenomenon The metaphorical use of lion is a characteristic of a linguistic expression (that of the word lion) Second, metaphor is used for some artistic and rhetorical purpose, such as when Shakespeare writes “all the world’s a stage.” Third, metaphor is based on a resemblance between the two entities that are compared and identified Achilles must share some features with lions in order for us to be able to use the word lion as a metaphor for Achilles Fourth, metaphor is a conscious and deliberate use of words, and you must have a special talent to be able to it and it well Only great poets or eloquent speakers, such as, say, Shakespeare and Churchill, can be its masters For instance, Aristotle makes the following statement to this effect: “The greatest F ... multimodal metaphor metaphor identification metaphor processing the corpus linguistic study of metaphor emotion metaphors the theory of metonymy metaphor in foreign language teaching metaphor in the... Conceptual Metaphors 63 The Basis of Metaphor 77 The Partial Nature of Metaphorical Mappings 91 Cognitive Models, Metaphors, and Embodiment 107 Metaphorical Entailments 121 10 The Scope of Metaphor. .. integration metaphor in discourse the relationship between embodiment and metaphor the embeddedness of metaphor in cultural context the nature of mappings metaphor in gestures the study of multimodal metaphor
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